The Doctrine of Nîdâh
1. Pronounciation and spelling: nîdâh (ה ָ ̣נ ) [pronounced nid-DAWH]
2. KJV renderings: separation, flowers, filthiness, menstruous, removed, unclean, removed woman, uncleanness
3. BDB rendering: impurity (BDB #622)
4. Strong's renderings: properly rejection; by implication impurity (Strong's #5079)
5. Verbal cognate: nâdach (ח ַד ָנ ) [pronounced naw-DAHKH] means to drive away, to banish, to expell (Deut. 30:4 II Sam. 14:13–14 Job 6:13 Jer. 49:5). Another possible verbal cognate is nâdad (ד ַד ָנ ) [pronounced naw-DAD], which means retreat, flee, depart, stray, wander, flutter
6. Passages: Lev. 12:2, 5 15:19–20, 24–26 (6 times), 33 18:19 20:21 Num. 19:9, 13, 20–21 31:23 II Chron. 29:5 Ezra 9:11 Lam. 1:17 Ezek. 7:19–20 18:6 22:10 36:17 Zech. 13:1
7. Examination of the passages There will be a lot of overlap in these references):
a. Possibly associated with menstruation in Lev. 12:2, but that is more by implication than direct statement (this could be translated at the day of her separation of her sickness of her being unclean. The same is true for many of these passages. Ezek. 18:6 22:10 36:17 (it could be translated impurity as well in these passages).
b. Definitely associated with menstruation in Lev. 15:19, 25–26, 33
c. Definitely NOT association with menstruation in Num. 19:9, 13, 20–21 31:23 (in these passages it is often translated the water of impurity where this water washes away impurity or uncleaness) II Chron. 29:5 (translated filth, filthiness and what is to be removed is not specified; however, it is the result of their forefathers doing evil in the sight of Yahweh) Ezra 9:11 Lam. 1:17 Ezek. 7:19–20 Zech. 13:1
d. Definitely associated with uncleanness in Lev. 12:2, 5 15:19–20 24–26, 33 18:19 Num. 19:9, 13, 20–21 31:23 II Chron. 29:5 Ezra 9:11 Ezek. 22:10 36:17
e. Associated with sickness in Lev. 12:2 15:33
f. Things were either cleansed with fire or with the water of impurity (Num. 31:23)
g. Israel is called a land of impurity with the impuritites of the peoples of the lands in Ezra 9:11 and Jerusalem is called unclean (or, impure) in Lam. 1:!7
h. In a national catastrophe, the gold of the Israelits is an impure thing. (Ezek. 7:19); what was made out of the gold became ornaments of pride; therefore, Yahweh would make those things impure to the Jews (Ezek. 7:20).
8. Other related words with which nîdâh is found:
a. Nîdâh is only associated with menstruation in Leviticus and a couple of the passages in Ezekiel. Therefore, in the corrrect context, it could at best be looked upon as a euphemism for a woman who is menstruating.
b. It always connotes that which is unclean or impure, if only by implication.
10. Conclusion: this nîdâh should be translated impurity