Genesis 1

 

Genesis 1:1–31

God Restores the Earth and Creates Man


These studies are designed for believers in Jesus Christ only. If you have exercised faith in Christ, then you are in the right place. If you have not, then you need to heed the words of our Lord, Who said, “For God so loved the world that He gave His only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son, so that every [one] believing [or, trusting] in Him shall not perish, but shall be have eternal life! For God did not send His Son into the world so that He should judge the world, but so that the world shall be saved through Him. The one believing [or, trusting] in Him is not judged, but the one not believing has already been judged, because he has not believed in the Name of the only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son of God.” (John 3:16–18). “I am the Way and the Truth and the Life! No one comes to the Father except through [or, by means of] Me!” (John 14:6).


Every study of the Word of God ought to be preceded by a naming of your sins to God. This restores you to fellowship with God (1John 1:8–10). If there are people around, you would name these sins silently. If there is no one around, then it does not matter if you name them silently or whether you speak aloud.


This is a collection of the weekly lessons of Genesis (HTML) (PDF) interspersed with the complete word-by-word exegesis of this chapter from the Hebrew with some information from Genesis (HTML) (PDF) thrown in. Furthermore, the examination of this chapter has been expanded with additional commentary as well. However, much of this material was thrown together without careful editing. Therefore, from time to time, there will be concepts and exegetical material which will be repeated, because there was no overall editing done once all of this material was combined. At some point in the future, I need to go back and edit this material and consider other source material as well. Links to the word-by-word, verse-by-verse studies of Genesis (HTML) (PDF).

 

One more thing: it is not necessary that you read the grey Hebrew exegesis tables. They are set apart from the rest of the study so that you can easily skip over them. However, if you ever doubt a translation of a phrase or a verse, these translation tables will tell you exactly where that translation came from.


This should be the most extensive examination of Gen. 1 available, where you will be able to see every word of the original text.


Outline of Chapter 1:

 

Introduction

 

         vv.     1–2           Original Creation

         vv.     3–5           Day One: God Makes Light and Differentiates Between Light and Darkness

         vv.     6–8           Day Two: God Makes the Atmosphere to Separate the Waters

         vv.     9–13         Day Three: God Separates Land from Water and Produces Vegetation

         vv.    14–19         Day Four: God Creates the Sun, Moon and Stars

         vv.    20–23         Day Five: God Creates the Animals of the Sea and the Animals of the Air

         vv.    24–31         Day Six: God Creates the Land Animals and Man

 

Addendum


Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines:

 

         v.       1              Ancient Creation Myths

         v.       1              The Creation Verbs of Genesis

         v.       1              The Order of Creation

         v.       2              Why Gen. 1:2a is Translated But the earth became a wasteland and empty...

         v.       2              God and Light and Darkness

         v.       2              The Angelic Conflict

         v.       2              The Judgement of Satan

         v.       2              Genesis Creation Theories

         v.       3              The Trinity in Genesis 1:1–3

         v.       3              How Light Illustrates the Trinity

         v.       3              Light on Day One/the Sun on Day Four

         v.       4              The Doctrine of Light

         v.       5              Two Different Views of Day One

         v.       5              How Long is a Day?

         v.      13              Evolution, Creationism and Devine Design

         v.      13              Some of the Arguments Against Evolution

         v.      14              A New Theory of Creation and Restoration

         v.      14              Creation Theories

         v.      14              The Sun Theories

         v.      15              How the Sun is Analogous to God

         v.      18              What is God Teaching the Angels?

         v.      20              Genesis 1:20d Text from the Greek Septuagint

         v.      26              We are the Shadow Image of God

         v.      26              Heritage Bible Footnote on “Our Image”

         v.      26              The Trinity in the Old Testament (the Abbreviated Version)

         v.      27              The Creation of Man

         v.      27              Man, the Shadow Image of God 

 

         Addendum          Josephus’ History of this Time

         Addendum          Edersheim Summarizes Genesis 1

         Addendum          A Summary of Creation and the Days of Restoration

         Addendum          A Complete Translation of Genesis 1

         Addendum          God and His Creation


Chapter Outline

 

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines

Forward

Doctrines Covered and Alluded to

Chapters of the Bible Alluded To

Psalms Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Other Chapters of the Bible Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Definition of Terms

Introduction

Text

Addendum

www.kukis.org

 

Exegetical Studies in Genesis


Doctrines Covered

Doctrines Alluded To

 

The Trinity in the Old Testament

 

 

 

 

 

 


Chapters of the Bible Alluded To

 

 

 

 


Psalms Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Psalm 8

 

Psalm 104

Psalm 148


Other Chapters of the Bible Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

 

 

 

 


Many who read and study this chapter are 1st or 2nd generation students of R. B. Thieme, Jr., so that much of this vocabulary is second nature. One of Bob’s contributions to theology is a fresh vocabulary along with a number of concepts which are theologically new or reworked, yet still orthodox. Therefore, if you are unfamiliar with his work, the definitions below will help you to fully understand all that is being said. Also, I have developed a few new terms and concepts which require definition as well.

In addition, there are other more traditional yet technical theological terms which will be used and therefore defined as well.

Sometimes the terms in the exegesis of this chapter are simply alluded to, without any in-depth explanation of them. Sometimes, these terms are explained in detail and illustrated. A collection of all these terms is found here: (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Definition of Terms

Client Nation

Client-Nation, is a national entity in which a certain number of spiritually mature Christians (the salt of the earth) have formed a pivot sufficient to sustain the nation and through which God specifically protects this nation so that believers can fulfill the divine mandates of evangelism, communication and custodianship of Bible doctrine, providing a haven for Jews, and sending missionaries abroad. The United States is a client-nation to God. A client nation must have freedom: Freedom to seek God, freedom to use one’s own volition and self-determination to succeed or fail, freedom from anarchy and tyranny, freedom for evangelism, freedom for believers to hear Bible teaching without government interference and, therefore, to grow spiritually, and freedom to send missionaries to other nations.

Cycles of Discipline (Stage of National Discipline)

A national entity which is a client nation to God is under both God’s protection and His discipline (much like the individual believer). As a nation moves further and further from God, God may impose disciplinary measures on that nation, which include economic disaster, illness, civil unrest, military defeat, and even invasion which may include a slavery or dispersion of the people. These cycles are found in Lev. 26. Although these warnings are designed for Israel, all client nations to God may face similar downward historical trends.

Fifth Cycle of Discipline (the 5th Stage of National Discipline)

The fifth cycle of discipline involves complete loss of personal and national sovereignty, the destruction of the family and the nation. Offerings to God are unacceptable. Nations which have undergone this destruction have experienced slavery, cannibalism, and the assimilation of its surviving citizens into other cultures.

Rebound (Restoration to fellowship with God)

In the New Testament, this is naming your sins to God, so that you are both restored to temporal fellowship with God and are then filled with the Spirit of God. In the Old Testament, naming your sins to God would result in a restoration of fellowship and, in some cases, the empowerment of the Holy Spirit once again (the Holy Spirit was not given to all Old Testament believers). See the Doctrine of Rebound (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Some of these definitions are taken from

http://www.bibledoctrinechurch.org/?subpages/GLOSSARY.shtml

http://rickhughesministries.org/content/Biblical-Terms.pdf

http://www.gbible.org/index.php?proc=d4d

http://www.wordoftruthministries.org/termsanddefs.htm

http://www.realtime.net/~wdoud/topics.html

http://www.theopedia.com/


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An Introduction to Genesis 1


I ntroduction: Gen. 1




We live in an amazing universe. It is so vast that, it is beyond our ability to grasp its hugeness. The sizes of the various stars, the variety of the planets and their atmospheres, are the stuff which grabs the imagination of a young child as well as that of an old astronomer. One of the few emails which I forwarded, I also posted on my website called the Perspective of the Universe. It is just a succession of groups of planets and nearby stars, so that we can get a feel for their relative sizes. Not only is it difficult (if not impossible) for man to have some grasp of the size of the earth, the size of Jupiter and then of the sun are even further outside our mind’s ability to perceive. But then to find that there are stars whose size dwarfs that our own sun, is completely mind-boggling.


If we go in the other direction, toward the actual molecular makeup of all that is, we come to molecules, which can be broken down into individual atoms, which are made up of just 3 things: protons, neutrons and electrons. It appears as though these might be further broken down into even smaller component parts. We could take the tiniest speck of dust from around our house and examine it and, for all intents and purposes, write a doctoral thesis on this tiny speck, examining its molecular makeup, its structure, and its origins. If we were to take any living organism within our house, choosing one which is too small to see, not only could we easily write a doctoral’s thesis on this living thing, but we would never begin to plumb the depths of the mystery of it and all of its myriad functions. Modern science does not fully understand most of the functions of the single cell.


Whether we attempt to examine that which is infinite (the universe) or that which is seemingly infinite (all that is microscopic), we inevitably find it to be complex beyond our ability to fully comprehend it; strangely beautiful; and subject to a whole host of laws, all of which interact in a manner which, in itself, is strangely beautiful. Even more amazing, all that we see is made up of 3 essential building blocks: protons, neutrons and electrons, which are too small for us to see with the most powerful of microscopes, yet virtually every person reading this believes in these three things. We all believe that everything that we see and everything that exists is made up of these 3 things, so small that even with the most powerful of microscopes, we cannot fully see or understand. We have some ideas about these building blocks of the universe—one is negatively charged, one is positively charged, and one of them has no charge—and that there are an amazing array of laws based upon these 3 things.


All of this came from somewhere, and the first couple chapters of Genesis give us a primer in the creation of the earth, the universe and man.


With regards to the title of the first book of the Bible, the name Genesis does not come from the Greek or the Hebrew of the first couple verses of the book of Genesis, but from the first verse of the first chapter of the first book of the New Testament, Matt. 1:1, which begins: The Book of the genealogy of Jesus Christ the Son of David, the son of Abraham. The first two words in that verse are Biblos geneseôs (βίβλος γενέσεως), accurately translated the Book of [the] genealogy. The Greek word Genesis (γένεσις) [pronounced GHEHN-ehs-iss] means source, origin; genealogy. Strong’s #1078. Quite obviously, the first word is from whence we get the name Bible.


We find these same two Greek words in Gen. 2:4 5:1 in the Septuagint (also known as the LXX, which is a Greek translation made of the Hebrew Old Testament a few centuries prior to the incarnation of Jesus Christ). We find the word Genesis by itself in the Greek of Gen. 6:9 10:1, 32 11:10, 27 25:19 36:1, 9 37:2.


There are all kinds of creation myths in existence, but the Genesis account is clear, concise, and lacks weirdness. It is very similar, at the first, to what science calls the "Big Bang Theory" where all the universe was created suddenly and from a single point (the theory behind the Big Bang Theory is simpler than you may realize—since the universe is expanding, going out in all directions, then, if you reverse this process, you come to a certain point from which all the universe emanated).

 

From Wikipedia: The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the earliest known periods of the universe...If the known laws of physics are extrapolated beyond where they are valid there is a singularity. Big Bang isn't considered as an explosion in space, but rather it was an explosion of space.

 

Interestingly enough, the concept of the Big Bang Theory is attributed to two theologians. Wikipedia: In his 1225 treatise De Luce (On Light), English theologian Robert Grosseteste explored the nature of matter and the cosmos. He described the birth of the Universe in an explosion and the crystallization of matter to form stars and planets in a set of nested spheres around Earth. De Luce is the first attempt to describe the heavens and Earth using a single set of physical laws.

 

It is Georges Lemaître who is known as the Father of the Big Bang. According to the Big Bang theory, the expansion of the observable universe began with the explosion of a single particle at a definite point in time. This startling idea first appeared in scientific form in 1931, in a paper by Georges Lemaître, a Belgian cosmologist and Catholic priest. The theory, accepted by nearly all astronomers today, was a radical departure from scientific orthodoxy in the 1930s. Many astronomers at the time were still uncomfortable with the idea that the universe is expanding. That the entire observable universe of galaxies began with a bang seemed preposterous...It is tempting to think that Lemaître's deeply-held religious beliefs might have led him to the notion of a beginning of time. After all, the Judeo-Christian tradition had propagated a similar idea for millennia. Yet Lemaître clearly insisted that there was neither a connection nor a conflict between his religion and his science.


In exegeting the first verse of Genesis, you will see that the Bible appears to be a proponent of this theory.


When it comes to the creation of the earth, there is a great majesty, understatement and reasonableness in the first two chapters of Genesis. In order to appreciate this, let’s first see how other ancient peoples viewed the beginning of the world. I chose two examples from the same time period:

Ancient Creation Myths

Civilization

Creation Myth

Chaldean

The “All” consisted of darkness and water, filled with monstrous creatures, and ruled by a woman, Markaya. Bel divided the darkness, and cut the woman into two halves, from which he formed the heaven and the earth. He then cut off his own head, and from the drops of blood men were formed.

Phœnician

The beginning of the All was a movement of dark air, and a dark, turbid chaos. By the union of the spirit with the All, a slime was formed, from which every seed of creation and the universe was developed; and the heavens were made in the form of an egg, from which the sun and moon, the stars and constellations, sprang up. By the heating of the earth and sea there arose winds, clouds and rain, lightning and thunder, the roaring of which wakened up sensitive beings, so that living creatures of both sexes moved in the waters and upon the earth.

These are 2 examples of the dozens which exist. There are, interestingly enough, some creation stories which are very similar to what we find in the Bible. However, there is nothing like the Bible to be found in any ancient literature from any nation or people.

Taken from Keil and Delitzsch, Commentary on the Old Testament; from e-Sword; Genesis 1 introduction.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Modern science—at least, a very vocal subset of the members of modern science—does everything possible to remove God from the creation of matter and from the creation of life. In previous centuries, scientists were able to maintain a faith in God and still be able to discover the wonders of His creation. In the past century, science has become much more antagonistic toward God, to the point of trying to develop theories apart from God, which theories go against well-established scientific principles. Let me give you an example: we all know that if you throw a grenade into a building, the result will be greater disorder than order. No scientist believes that, if we repeat this experiment enough times, an explosion will result in a better building; no scientist believes that, because all of the ingredients are there for a better building, that a grenade will bring that about. However, many godless scientists believe in the big bang theory where, somehow, in someway, the universe exploded, expanded, and the end result was an amazingly ordered universe with a myriad of natural laws, with incredible beauty throughout our universe. The believer in Jesus Christ can easily believe in the Big Bang Theory (where God created everything from a single point), and this is in line with all scientific law; but it is much harder to have faith in the big bang theory, where the universe began from some unguided explosion/expansion from a single point.


Scientist believe and can demonstrate that mutations are a detriment to any living organism (for both man and animal). They might use a figure like 99% of all mutations do not result in a better organism; however, when it comes to observed science, 100% of all mutations result in an inferior creature. Furthermore, no observable mutation (or succession of mutations) results in a brand new function or in a different species. Yet, evolutionists believe that mutation in man and animals is one of the essential building blocks of all living things that you see today. They teach that every living organism is the result of millions of mutations, which resulted in stronger, healthier, more capable organisms—just the exact opposite of what we actually observe 100% of the time.


Is it wrong for science to pursue our origins or to propose various theories? Certainly not. I have no problem with scientists who propose evolution as a possible theory of origins. However, they ought to be honest about it. When it is taught in school for the first time, there ought to be honest and genuine caveats. For instance, “Evolution is one theory that many scientists believe. In fact, it is the only theory which is seen as a reasonable alternative to the idea that God created the heavens and the earth and man.” They ought to say, “Evolutionists believe that all men and animals are the result of successive mutations occurring over millions of years, some minor and some major. However, it should be pointed out that no scientist has ever observed a mutation which improved the life of any man or any animal; a mutation which resulted in a new and different function of any sort in any man or animal; nor has science ever observed a new species of animal result from a mutation of any sort.” Simple, honest, scientific statements, made to children when they are age-appropriate. Or, “There are three basic theories of the origins of man which are generally accepted today: (1) man evolved ultimately from nonliving matter; (2) man evolved ultimately from nonliving matter as a result of the guidance of God; or (3) man did not evolve, but was created by God. Now, because it has been deemed inappropriate by most adults to teach the idea of a creative God in the classroom in a science class, that leaves us only with the first theory. I promise you that, as we study this theory, I will present to you not only the theory of evolution, but the many objections and scientific counter-arguments which have been made to it.” If words like these were found in scientific textbooks; if the strength and weaknesses of evolutionary theory were taught, side-by-side, there would be virtually no outside movement to teach Creationsm or Intelligent Design in the classroom.


I should point out, science and a belief in God (and, more specifically, a belief in Jesus Christ) are not antithetical; science and the Bible do not define two sides of some intellectual or philosophical battle. There are many modern scientists who do believe in the Genesis account of creation and do not believe in evolution. Such scientists are in at least the tens of thousands if not more. Almost all scientists of note prior to, say 1900, believed in God, and many of them believed in the Genesis account of creation.


There are basic laws of science which line up with the Genesis account and are fundamentally opposed to evolution. Much of science is based upon cause and effect. For everything that exists, it was caused in some way to come into existence. Nothing can cause itself to come into existence (water, apart from heat and pressure, cannot become ice or steam). At some point, we trace everything back to the First Cause, which is God. The book of Genesis recognizes that; some modern scientists today refuse to.


No matter what it is that we observe in this life, it has great structure, intricacy and beauty. It is subject to a series of laws, many of which we do not fully understand, but some of which we can quantify to some limited degree. Whether we see a house, a car or a watch, we recognize that someone designed and built this thing (in fact, hundreds of people were often involved) and that energy was expended in order to build it as well. These things are built to exacting specifications, and it is adhering to these specifications which make these things work. Man is also built to exacting specifications. The earth is built to exacting specifications. The design, structure and intricacy of every living organism on this planet is built to a set of exact specifications, the blueprint of which appears to be found in every part of the organism itself. If we are able to recognize that every random car that drives by had a myriad of designers and builders who built this car to some very precise specifications (all of whom used some kind of energy in the process); then how hard is it to imagine that our bodies, which are wonderfully made (Psalm 139:14), are not the result of a Designer, a Builder as well as the function of Energy as well? In the Bible, this is God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit.


The evolutionist believes that the most complex things on this earth just sort of happened; in fact, they pretty much just caused themselves to occur. However, the person who believes in the creation account of Genesis believes in cause and effect and that things which are made require a Designer, a Builder and Energy—concepts which are completely in line with scientific thought. Just as importantly, these 3 functions or rolls closely mirror the Trinity in the creation and restoration of the earth and all that is in it.


Several times in the Bible, we are told to look to God’s creation in order to recognize God. The heavens [continuously] proclaim the glory of God and their expanse [the ever expanding universe] declares the work of His hands (Psalm 19:1). For since the creation of the world, His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly observed, being understood through that which has been made, so that they [unbelievers] are without excuse (Rom. 1:20). And God has initiated the process by which we are formed today: For You formed my internal organs; You knitted me together in my mother's womb. I praise You, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made. Wonderful are Your works; my soul knows it very well (Psalm 139:13–14). There is nothing superstitious or unscientific about recognizing that we just did not happen; that man is not just the result of an almost infinite series of random events which had no design or originating cause. It is intellectually reasonable to recognize that our very being and existence is based upon the most fundamental scientific principles. If anything, it is superstitious, unscientific and closed-minded to think that there was no First Cause, that we just evolved without a Designer, and that millions of years combined with a fantastic succession of mutations explains who and what we are. It is just as foolish as to imagine our very life (which equals energy) just happened. Any man who is not a fool, recognizes that his thinking is more than just electrical impulses and chemicals sloshing around in our skulls.


In our lives, in the 20th and 21st centuries, there have been amazing advances in science, revealing a complexity of life and of our universe far greater than man could have ever imagined. And yet, it seems like a greater percentage of scientists today are willing to believe that all of this sort of happened. Science is all about observation and repeating what we have observed; and yet nothing of the origins of the universe and of life can be observed and then repeated—and yet many choose to believe it just happened.


The first chapter of Genesis begins with the creation of the heavens and the earth (v. 1), the lapse of the earth into an icy darkness (v. 2a) followed by the restoration of the earth (vv. 2b–26).


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Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Original Creation


Slavishly literal:

 

Moderately literal:

In beginnings, created Elohim the [two] heavens and the earth.

Genesis

1:1

In a beginning, Elohim had created the heavens and the earth.

In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth.


Here is how others have translated this verse:

 

Ancient texts:                       Note: I compare the Hebrew text to English translations of the Latin, Syriac and Greek texts, using the Douay-Rheims translation; George Lamsa’s translation, and Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton’s translation as revised and edited by Paul W. Esposito, respectively. I often update these texts with non-substantive changes (e.g., you for thou, etc.). I often use the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible instead of Brenton’s translation, because it updates the English text.

 

The Septuagint was the earliest known translation of a book (circa 200 b.c.). Since this translation was made before the textual criticism had been developed into a science and because different books appear to be translated by different men, the Greek translation can sometimes be very uneven.

 

When there are serious disparities between my translation and Brenton’s (or the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible), I look at the Greek text of the Septuagint (the LXX) to see if a substantive difference actually exists (and I reflect these changes in the English rendering of the Greek text). I use the Greek LXX with Strong’s numbers and morphology available for e-sword. The only problem with this resource (which is a problem for similar resources) is, there is no way to further explore Greek verbs which are not found in the New Testament. Although I usually quote the Complete Apostles’ Bible here, I have begun to make changes in the translation when their translation conflicts with the Greek and note what those changes are.

 

The Masoretic text is the Hebrew text with all of the vowels (vowel points) inserted (the original Hebrew text lacked vowels). We take the Masoretic text to be the text closest to the original. However, differences between the Masoretic text and the Greek, Latin and Syriac are worth noting and, once in a great while, represent a more accurate text possessed by those other ancient translators.

 

In general, the Latin text is an outstanding translation from the Hebrew text into Latin and very trustworthy (I say this as a non-Catholic). Unfortunately, I do not read Latin—apart from some very obvious words—so I am dependent upon the English translation of the Latin (principally, the Douay-Rheims translation).

 

Underlined words indicate differences in the text.

 

Bracketed portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls are words, letters and phrases lost in the scroll due to various types of damage. Underlined words or phrases are those in the Dead Sea Scrolls but not in the Masoretic text.

 

The Targum of Onkelos is actually the Pentateuchal Targumim, which are The Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan Ben Uzziel. On the Pentateuch With The Fragments of the Jerusalem Targum From the Chaldee by J. W. Etheridge, M.A. Take from http://targum.info/targumic-texts/pentateuchal-targumim/ and first published in 1862.

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        In beginnings, created Elohim the [two] heavens and the earth.

Targum of Onkelos                BERASHITH.

At the beginning (min avella) the Lord created the heavens and the earth. [JERUSALEM TARGUM. In wisdom (be-hukema) the Lord created.]

Latin Vulgate                          In the beginning God created heaven, and earth.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    GOD created the heavens and the earth in the very beginning.

Septuagint (Greek)                In the beginning God made the heaven and the earth.

 

Significant differences: 


Limited Vocabulary Translations:



Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           World's creation in seven days

When God began to create [Or In the beginning, God created] the heavens and the earth-.

Good News Bible (TEV)         In the beginning, when God created the universe,...

The Message                         First this: God created the Heavens and Earth--all you see, all you don't see.

New Berkeley Version           In the beginning God CREATED the heavens and the earth. Attempts at dating the beginning are not promising. Estimates of a very old age for the earth and the universe are acceptable to many devout Bible students. Cf. Heb. 11:3 (Greek aionas — eon-old worlds).

New Century Version             In the beginning God created the sky and the earth.

New Life Bible                        In the beginning God made from nothing the heavens and the earth.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          In the beginning, The God created the skies and the lands.

Ancient Roots Translinear      First, God created the heaven and the land.

Christian Community Bible     In the beginning, when God began to create the heavens and the earth,.

God’s Word                         In the beginning God created heaven and earth.

New American Bible              The Story of Creation.

In the beginning, when God created the heavens and the earth [Gn 2:1, 4; 2 Mc 7:28; Ps 8:4; 33:6; 89:12; 90:2; Wis 11:17; Sir 16:24; Jer 10:12; Acts 14:15; Col 1:16-17; Heb 1:2-3; 3:4; 11:3; Rev 4:11.]-... [1:1-2:3] This section, from the Priestly source, functions as an introduction, as ancient stories of the origin of the world (cosmogonies) often did. It introduces the primordial story (2:4-11:26), the stories of the ancestors (11:27-50:26), and indeed the whole Pentateuch. The chapter highlights the goodness of creation and the divine desire that human beings share in that goodness. God brings an orderly universe out of primordial chaos merely by uttering a word. In the literary structure of six days, the creation events in the first three days are related to those in the second three.

1.light (day)/darkness (night)=4.sun/moon

2.arrangement of water=5.fish + birds from waters

3.a) dry land=6.a) animals

b) vegetationb) human beings: male/female

The seventh day, on which God rests, the climax of the account, falls outside the

six-day structure.

Until modern times the first line was always translated, "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth." Several comparable ancient cosmogonies, discovered in recent times, have a "when.then" construction, confirming the translation "when.then" here as well. "When" introduces the pre-creation state and "then" introduces the creative act affecting that state. The traditional translation, "In the beginning," does not reflect the Hebrew syntax of the clause.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             At the first God made the heaven and the earth.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 By Periods [Literally “By Headships.” It is curious that all translators from the Septuagint have rendered this word into the singular, although it is plural in the Hebrew. So I rendered it accurately.—F.F.] God created that which produced the Solar Systems; then that which produced the Earth.

HCSB                                     In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               When God began to create heaven and earth—... Others “In the beginning God created.”

NET Bible®                             The Creation of the World

In the beginning [The translation assumes that the form translated "beginning" is in the absolute state rather than the construct ("in the beginning of," or "when God created"). In other words, the clause in v. 1 is a main clause, v. 2 has three clauses that are descriptive and supply background information, and v. 3 begins the narrative sequence proper. The referent of the word "beginning" has to be defined from the context since there is no beginning or ending with God.] [In the beginning. The verse refers to the beginning of the world as we know it; it affirms that it is entirely the product of the creation of God. But there are two ways that this verse can be interpreted: (1) It may be taken to refer to the original act of creation with the rest of the events on the days of creation completing it. This would mean that the disjunctive clauses of v. 2 break the sequence of the creative work of the first day. (2) It may be taken as a summary statement of what the chapter will record, that is, vv. 3-31 are about God's creating the world as we know it. If the first view is adopted, then we have a reference here to original creation; if the second view is taken, then Genesis itself does not account for the original creation of matter. To follow this view does not deny that the Bible teaches that God created everything out of nothing (cf. John 1:3) - it simply says that Genesis is not making that affirmation. This second view presupposes the existence of pre-existent matter, when God said, "Let there be light." The first view includes the description of the primordial state as part of the events of day one. The following narrative strongly favors the second view, for the "heavens/sky" did not exist prior to the second day of creation (see v. 8) and "earth/dry land" did not exist, at least as we know it, prior to the third day of creation (see v. 10).] God [God. This frequently used Hebrew name for God (אֱלֹהִים, 'elohim) is a plural form. When it refers to the one true God, the singular verb is normally used, as here. The plural form indicates majesty; the name stresses God's sovereignty and incomparability — he is the "God of gods."] created [The English verb "create" captures well the meaning of the Hebrew term in this context. The verb בָּרָא (bara') always describes the divine activity of fashioning something new, fresh, and perfect. The verb does not necessarily describe creation out of nothing (see, for example, Gen. 1:27, where it refers to the creation of man); it often stresses forming anew, reforming, renewing (see Psalm 51:10; Isa. 43:15; Isa. 65:17).] the heavens and the earth [Or "the entire universe"; or "the sky and the dry land." This phrase is often interpreted as a merism, referring to the entire ordered universe, including the heavens and the earth and everything in them. The "heavens and the earth" were completed in seven days (see Gen. 2:1) and are characterized by fixed laws (see Jer. 33:25). "Heavens" refers specifically to the sky, created on the second day (see Gen. 1:8), while "earth" refers specifically to the dry land, created on the third day (see Gen. 1:10). Both are distinct from the sea/seas (see Gen. 1:10 and Ex. 20:11).]. When it comes to making an actual material change to the text, the NET Bible® is pretty good about indicating this. Since most of these corrections will be clear in the more literal translations below and within the Hebrew exegesis itself, I will not continue to list every NET Bible® footnote.


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                IN THE beginning God (prepared, formed, fashioned, and) created the heavens and the earth.

Concordant Literal Version    Created by the Elohim were the heavens and the earth.

Context Group Version          In the beginning God created the skies { or heavens } and the land { or earth }.

English Standard Version      In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth.

exeGeses companion Bible   In the beginning

Elohim creates the heavens and the earth...

Heritage Bible                        First [Genesis, the name of the first book of the Bible, reshiyth, meaning First.] God created [created, bara, means to bring into existence by cutting it out, as a tailor cuts out a garment. Therefore, everything in the material world was not created from nothing, but God used words to cut matter out of the spiritual reality in Himself. Bara occurs 57 times in the Bible, and every place would make good sense if we translated it cut out (or down, etc.). Gen 1:1 would be just as accurate if we translated it, First God cut out the heavens and the earth...God cut the material, psychological (soulical, animal, and human), and the human spirits out of the spiritual reality within Himself. It is used at three strategic places in Genesis 1. In v. 1 God created matter, then made various parts of the universe from that matter. In v. 21 God created soul life, and made various types of living creatures from that soul life. In v. 27 God created spirit life in Adam (and separated Eve from Adam), and from those two all humans have been made, with a spirit in the likeness of God, with a soul in common with animals, and with a body in common with the earth. In all the other verses the word made is used, Hebrew, asah. It means to make from existing materials. God created all things by His Spirit from within Himself by means of words. His words are spirit and life, John 6:63. They were the force by which spiritual reality was projected from inside of God into material reality. His words were the tools by which He cut out and created and made all things. We do not “create” anything in the ultimate meaning of that word, but we call things that are not in our lives from God’s treasures, as though they] the heavens [heavens, shamayim, is always plural, meaning: 1. The atmosphere around the earth. 2. The heavenly space where the other planets and stars are. 3. The third heaven where God’s throne is. 2 Cor 12:2. Psa 68:33; 148:4. God’s dwelling place is in all three, 1 Kng 8:30, although all the heavens cannot contain Him, 1 Kng 8:27.] and the earth [The earth, erets, is the only place in the universe where plant, animal, and human life have ever existed, or will ever exist until the New Heaven and New Earth. No other heavenly body has the proper conditions to sustain earthly life. See Psalm 115:16. Rev 21-22. God made it that way.].

New RSV                               In the beginning when God created [Or when God began to create or In the beginning God created] the heavens and the earth,...

Syndein/Thieme                     In the beginning which was not a beginning {eternity past}, Elohiym/Godhead created out of nothing {bara'} the heavens {1st -earth to space; 2nd space to heaven; 3rd heaven itself} and the planet earth. {Note: Elohiym is the Hebrew word meaning Gods. It refers to the Godhead - the Father, Son and Holy Spirit.}.

Young's Updated LT              In the beginning of God's preparing the heavens and the earth.

 

The gist of this verse: 


With every verse, I will have several greyish tables of the Hebrew words which are found between The gist of this verse and the explanation of each portion of a verse. This was the result of a suggestion that a long-time friend made to me. He was reading through some of my exegetical studies, and he complained of there being Hebrew all over the place. I understand how this works—you are reading and/or studying something, and then you come to something that makes your eyes glaze over, and your mind blanks out. These Hebrew words are therefore boxed up are set up in this way so that you can skip over them without reading what is in the box. Your eyes should go immediately to the Translation. After reading the translation and whatever explanation is given, you may come across something which seems unlikely or problematic, to your own way of thinking, then you can go back and look at the actual Hebrew words and double-check them either by going on line or checking whatever Hebrew reference books you may have. I primarily work from Gesenius and Brown-Driver-Briggs; however, on occasion, I will deviate from their wisdom if I do an entire study on one word and the resultant meanings are somewhat different. If the number of meanings given by these two sources can be reduced, then I attempt to do so.

 

In these tables which follow, every single word in the Hebrew will be listed in the order that it occurs, along with all of the grammatical information that is needed (which comes from John Joseph Owens’ Analytical Key to the Old Testament, with some corrections provided when I catch them). Some of the grammatical information which is found, particularly that which is in one full-width cell, comes from Hebrew Grammar for Dummies (HTML) (PDF), which is a compilation of basic grammar which has come from several Hebrew grammar books.

 

All definitions of verbs are given according to their stem and, in some cases, morphology. On occasion, plural meanings for a noun will be given separately from the singular meanings, where there is an actual distinction to be made.

 

The 3 translations given are based upon the greyish Hebrew tables.


Genesis 1:1a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

rêʾshîyth (רֵאשִית) [pronounced ray-SHEETH]

first fruit, firstling, first of one’s kind, first, chief; a beginning, a former state; former times

feminine plural noun

Strong’s #7225 BDB #912

Inexplicably, Owen (upon whom I depend to parse my verbs for me) lists this as a feminine singular construct, which makes little sense because (1) this is a plural noun (always found in the plural form) and (2) there is no noun for this to affix itself to as a construct.

This does not have a singular form. There is an aleph thrown in there, but without a corresponding vowel. Gesenius says that aleph was not there originally.


Translation: In a beginning,... Although the Hebrew noun here is found in the plural, it is not necessarily translated as a plural, as it is never found in a singular form. A very common word in the Hebrew is face, which is always found in the plural in the Hebrew, but nearly always translated as a singular. However, it would be legitimate to translate these first words as At the first...


Two times in the Bible we have the phrase "In the beginning;" here and in John 1:1 in the New Testament. John gives us the first cause, Jesus Christ, the actual beginning. In the beginning was the Word and the Word was with God and the Word was God...and the Word became flesh and dwelt among us... (John 1:1, 12a). Gen. 1:1 may or may not have been the very first thing created by God, but both verses reach further back into antiquity than we can imagine. We have various scientific instruments which give us the age of the earth as anywhere from five billion to eighteen billion years old. This is time which goes beyond our comprehension and the disagreement is not very trivial.


Genesis 1:1b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

bârâʾ (בָּרָא) [pronounced baw-RAWH]

to create; to create something from energy [or from the immaterial]; to create that which is immaterial; to produce; to shape, to fashion

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #1254 BDB #135

Gesenius adds the following Qal meanings: to cut, to carve out; to form by cutting; to create, to be born, to bear [or sire]; to eat, to feed, to grow fat. The meanings above are used with God as the subject and what He is creating, producing or fashioning could be heaven and earth, individual man, women; Israel; new conditions and circumstances; miracles; transformations.

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun

Strong's #430 BDB #43


Translation: ...Elohim had created... In the Hebrew, God is the word ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM, which has a variety of meanings. It can stand for judges or rulers as divine representatives, for pagan gods or goddesses, for superhuman beings, for angels, and for God. The Hebrew has a singular, dual and plural for nouns. Elohim is plural (this is because of the im ending).There is at least one "Christian" cult which teaches that there are only two members in the Godhead, God the Son and God the Father. In that case, the name for "God" here should be in the dual (two) rather than in the plural (three or more). Other cults, including Judaism, presume that this is plural in all cases but when referring to God and then it is singular. The accompanying verb is in the masculine singular. However, for "Christian" cults, this ignores John 1:1,12a and for all cults with that viewpoint, it ignores the "Let us make man in our own image, after our likeness..." (Gen. 1:26a) (make in that verse is in the plural). The point which I am making here is simple. In the Hebrew, we begin the Bible with God in the plural, not the singular or the dual. In other words, the Bible begins by teaching the trinity. God is three in personality—God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit—but God is one in purpose, hence the verb in this verse is in the singular (as the verbs will be throughout most of Genesis 1). As has been said, the seeds for all the major doctrines of the Bible are found right here in Genesis and right from the beginning we have the Trinity.


Elohim (God) is in the plural here; the Hebrew word is Elohim; the –im ending indicates a plural noun. God is One in essence but 3 in person. We find this to be the case from the very first verse of the Bible. All 3 members of the Trinity will be involved in the restoration of the earth; we may reasonably assume that all 3 members of the Trinity were involved in the original creation of the heavens and the earth. We will find allusions to the Trinity even in this first chapter of Genesis. The Holy Spirit will be mentioned in v. 2 (the Spirit of God hovered over the earth) and that creation was accomplished by more than one Person is found in both the plural noun Elohim and in Gen. 1:26a, where God [Elohim] said, “Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness.” Furthermore, the analogy which I have presented—the Designer, the Builder and Energy—perfectly describe the function of the members of the Trinity in the creation and restoration of the earth, as well as the creation of animals and man. God the Father planned it, God the Son executed it, and God the Holy Spirit provided the energy by which creation and restoration came to pass. We find the exact same functions of the Trinity applied to our salvation, accomplished on the cross.


The verb here is in the perfect tense. The perfect tense sees the action of the verb as a completed state or as a punctiliar action. The imperfect tense looks at the action of the verb in progress or as a process. However, what we find here is the creation of the universe seen as an instantaneous event. Scientific theory might call this the Big Bang Theory. However, what will become apparent, if we take this chapter of the Bible literally, is that God did not create the entire universe at this point, but only the heavens and the earth, minus all of the heavenly bodies.


The Big Bang Theory was first postulated by a Belgium priest/astronomer, which theory was based upon the first chapter of Genesis. John N. Clayton writes: "We have tried over and over again to point out to readers that the big bang theory is not at odds with the Bible nor with the concept of God as Creator."


As we get into this chapter, it may seem strange that God is certain capable of creating everything instantly. So, that would lead us to the question, if God creates everything instantly in this verse, why does there appear to be a process of time in the verses which follow? There are two answers for this: (1) when God creates the heavens and the earth, He also creates time; (2) when God restores the earth, he has an audience. Therefore, He acts in steps rather than instantaneously. God does this, it is observed; God does the next thing, it is observed. God is not constrained by His lack of power; God willingly constrains His power for His audience. Throughout this process, God speaks. Now, to whom do you think God is speaking? Why speak unless there is someone to hear? Why broadcast what you are going to do unless there is someone to hear what you have promised to do, and then see you do it.


There are several verbs association with Gen. 1–2, and this is often presented as creating something out of nothing.


The first two words of Gen. 1:1 could be reasonably rendered in the beginning, at the beginning, or at the first. We do not find this combination of preposition and feminine noun except in Jer. 28:1 49:34. Hosea 9:10.


God, although a plural noun in the Hebrew, always takes a singular verb.


Notice that this has begun without naming a human author, without claiming divine inspiration, without the kind of beginning which man would have affixed. We do not know who wrote the original draft of this document, whether it was Adam or Moses. Genesis was possibly finalized by Moses, who possibly wrote all of Genesis by examining previous historical documents in his possession. It is my opinion that several different authors wrote the book of Genesis, each one beginning where the previous one left off. We will examine that in the future.


It is also possible that this portion of the Word of God was dictated at some point in time. After all, no man was alive when these events took place. God allows throughout the Bible the style of the human author to shine through. However, this chapter of the Bible, along with the next dozen or so, go beyond style and contain a beauty and a grace and a flow found nowhere else in the Bible.


The verb precedes "God" in this verse. It is the Hebrew word bârâʾ (בָּרָא) [pronounced baw-RAWH], and it means to shape, to fashion, to create to carve, to engrave, to bring into existence and to create out of nothing. The Qal stem is only used with God as the subject. It refers to the creation of anything new: Gen. 1:1 (the heavens and the earth), 1:21 (water animals), 1:27 (man), Ex. 34:10 (miracles), Num. 16:30 (a specific miracle), Person singular. 51:10 (a clean heart in a man who has sinned), Isa. 4:5 (a cloud/smoke by day and a flaming fire by night for guidance), 41:20 (a desert wilderness is transformed), 43:1(Jacob), 65:17,18 (a new heavens and a new earth and a new Jerusalem), Jer. 31:22 (right man/right woman), and Ezek. 28:13,15 (Satan, in his innocent state).


Bârâʿ is in the Qal perfect, third masculine singular (as mentioned before, it is used with the plural form Elohim. The Qal is the basic form of all Hebrew verbs and the perfect tense is not necessarily completed action (although this context indicates that it is) but if observes the action as a whole without reference to duration or completeness. This creative act is viewed as a whole and if there were any steps or graduations of creation, they are not noted or examined.


There are 4 Hebrew verbs associated with the creation of all things which are found throughout the Genesis account of creation.

The Creation Verbs of Genesis

Hebrew Word

Meaning

Location

bârâʾ (בָּרָא) [pronounced baw-RAW]. Strong’s #1254.

to create (always with God as subject); to shape, to fashion; possibly to create out of nothing

Gen. 1:1 (heavens and earth) 1:21 (sea creatures and animals which fly) 1:27 (man) 2:3-4 (heavens and earth) 5:1-2 (man) 6:7 (man)

ʿâsâh (עָשָׂה) [pronounced ģaw-SAW]. Strong’s #6213.

to make [produce], possibly to make out of existing material; to do, to work; to act, to effect; to prepare; to make (an offering); to attend to, put in order; to observe, celebrate; to acquire (property); to appoint, ordain, institute; to bring about; to use; to spend, pass

Gen. 1:7 (atmosphere) 1:16 (sun and moon) 1:25 (land animals) 1:26 (man) 1:31 (all) 2:2-4 (all, heavens and earth) 2:18 (woman specifically)

bânâh (בָּנָה) [pronounced baw-NAW]. Strong’s #1129.

to build, rebuild; to build a house (i.e., establish a family); to make

Gen. 2:22 (the woman being built, made of Adam’s rib)

yâtsar (יָצַר) [pronounced yaw-TSAHR]. Strong’s #3335.

to form, fashion [by God or man]; to form [by God in creation, in original creation]; of individuals at conception; of Israel as a people; to frame, pre-ordain, plan (figuratively of divine) purpose of a situation)

Gen. 2:7-8 (man being formed of the dust of the ground) Gen. 2:19 (land animals)

You will note that each verb has its own very specific meaning and is carefully applied throughout the first two chapters of Genesis.

Isa. 45:18 has 3 of these verbs in it: For so says Jehovah, Creator [bârâ = to create] of the heavens—He is God, forming [yâtsar = to form, to fashion] the earth and making [ʿâsâh = to make, to produce] it; He establishes it, not creating [bârâ = to create] it empty, but forming [yâtsar = to form, to fashion] it to be lived in— “I am Jehovah, and there is none else.”


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Genesis 1:1c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

shâmayîm (שָמַיִם) [pronounced shaw-MAH-yim]

heaven, heavens, skies; the visible heavens, as in as abode of the stars or as the visible universe, the sky, atmosphere, etc.; Heaven (as the abode of God)

masculine dual noun with the definite article

Strong’s #8064 BDB #1029


Translation: ...the heavens... The Hebrew does not have the same sentence structure that we do. Usually the verb is found first, then the subject of the verb and then the direct object of the verb follows (or indirect object). However, the subject can be anywhere in a sentence for emphasis. If I wanted to emphasize God, I may put His name at the beginning of this verse or before the verb. If I want to emphasize the direct object, then I may place God at the end of this sentence. Therefore, we have to be able to identify which is the subject and which is the direct object. The Hebrew uses a word which we generally do not translate and that word indicates that what follows is the direct object.


The noun heavens is always found as a dual noun, meaning there are two heavens. This bothered me at first, but actually, this will refer to (1) the abode of God and (2) the heavens above. The atmosphere of the earth will be created later on in this chapter.


Gen 1:1 In a beginning God created the [two] heavens and the earth. The first verb which we find suggests that the heavens and the earth were created out of nothing (more accurately, created out of energy). One of the fantastic aspects to this first verse of the Bible is, the creation of the universe from nothing (again, more accurately, created from energy).

 

Mark Rooker, writing in Bibliotheca Sacra, Oct-Dec 1992, speaks to this: “It is the first great achievement of the Bible to present a divine creation from nothing in contrast to evolution or formation from a material already in existence. Israel’s religious genius expresses this idea with monumental brevity. In all other creation epics the world originates from a primeval matter, which existed before. No other religion or philosophy dared to take this absolute first step. Through it, God is not simply the architect, but the absolute Creator of the universe. No sentence could be better fitted for the opening Book of Books. Only an all pervading conviction of God’s absolute power could have produced it.”


Heavens is not a plural noun but a dual noun. Where the throne room of God is, is considered the 3rd heaven (Psalm 11:4 14:2 2Cor. 12:2 Heb. 8:1 1Peter 3:22) and outer space is often called the heavens (Gen. 1:14–15). The earth does not have an atmosphere designed for man yet (as of Gen. 1:1), which is sometimes known the heavens (Gen. 1:8 7:11) or as heaven (James 5:18). The word heaven, in the Old Testament, is typically found as a dual noun (I do not know of an instance, offhand, where it is not found in the dual). The two heavens spoken of here would be space and the location of the throne room of God.


There are many unanswered or only partially answered questions. Obviously, God put all of this into motion, but nothing put God into motion. This is not so much an unanswered question as something which is difficult to grasp. Furthermore, we do not have God’s motivation. However, we do have clues. Man is a creative being and we, being made in the image of God, may reasonably assume that God is also a creative being. Therefore, it is His nature to create.


In this first verse, we will deal with the creation of the heavens and the earth. The verb used here, which means to create, is not found again until God creates animal life and man.


Genesis 1:1d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: ...and the earth. At this time, God created the earth. Now, as science has developed, we know more and more about planets and we know that we cannot inhabit any planet or moon without great modifying the immediate environment around us. However, as science fiction has developed, we seem to think there are space aliens all over the place. However, insofar as we know, the only life that we are aware of is here on earth.


So, essentially we have this great expanse where God is and the earth, which was designed to be occupied.


It is my theory that the earth was first formed to be occupied and that the first life on this planet were angels. We know nothing about how their bodies were composed, but I would not be surprised if they were originally much like ours. When angels appear to men in the Old Testament, most of the time they are indistinguishable from mankind (see, for instance, Gen. 18–19).


Gen 1:1 In a beginning God created the [two] heavens and the earth.


What is left out of the Genesis account of creation is the creation of angelic beings. Satan, created originally as the angel Lucifer, will show up, seemingly out of nowhere, in Gen. 3. That angels are not created in Gen. 1, and barely alluded to in Gen. 1:3 (you’ll see how when we get there), suggests that, at some point in time, prior to man being created, angels had been created. For this reason, many theologians believe that there was an entire creation which predated man which consisted of the angels, which appear to have lived on the earth. These ideas are pieced together by threadbare Scripture. The Bible clearly teaches that there is more to this world and this universe than just man and God. Angels are spoken of again and again throughout Scripture. There are references to angels speaking to God about us and our actions (Job 1–2) as well as references to our being observed by angels (Heb. 12:1 1Peter 1:12). Satan, as a serpent, will insert himself into human history in Gen. 3. That Satan would spend time on earth suggests that he has some sort of tie to this land. God created the earth to be inhabited (Isa. 45:18), so that it is not a great jump in logic to think that angels may have inhabited this earth before us. It is unclear whether they were subjected to the same sorts of physical laws as we are subjected (some angels now are clearly not so bound).


The Bible does give us a clear order of creation: God exists eternally, then He created the heavens and earth, then angels, and then man.

The Order of Creation

1.      God exists eternally, outside of time. Before the mountains were brought forth, or ever You had formed the earth and the world, from everlasting to everlasting You are God (Psalm 90:2). In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God (John 1:1–2). The Word, of course, is Jesus Christ (John 1:14).

2.      God created the heavens and the earth. Gen 1:1 In a beginning, God created the [two] heavens and the earth.

3.      God created angelic beings: Praise him, all His angels; praise him, all His armies! Let them praise the name of the LORD!  For He commanded and they were created (Psalm 148:2, 5).

4.      The angels were at hand to observe the restoration of the earth, but man was not. In Job 38:4–11, God is speaking to Job. These questions are not made to Job, per se, but to all mankind. “Where were you when I laid the foundation of the earth? Tell me, if you have understanding. Who determined its measurements--surely you know! Or who stretched the line upon it? On what were its bases sunk, or Who laid its cornerstone, when the morning stars [angels] sang together and all the sons of God [angels] shouted for joy? Or who shut in the sea with doors when it burst out from the womb, when I made clouds its garment and thick darkness its swaddling band, and prescribed limits for it and set bars and doors, and said, 'Thus far shall you come, and no farther, and here shall your proud waves be stayed'?” Angels cannot be shouting for joy as they watch God restore the earth unless they already have been created and are able to watch what He does.

5.      The heavens and earth were created first, and all things after that. For by Him [Jesus Christ] all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities--all things were created through Him and for Him (Col. 1:16). In order to create all things in heaven and on earth, there must be a heaven and an earth to begin with.

6.      Then man was created and given dominion over the earth: Then God said, "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. And let them have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the heavens and over the livestock and over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth." (Gen. 1:26). When I look at Your heavens, the work of Your fingers, the moon and the stars, which You have set in place, what is man that You are mindful of him, and the son of man that You care for him? Yet you have made him a little lower than the heavenly beings and crowned him with glory and honor. You have given him dominion over the works of Your hands; You have put all things under his feet (Psalm 8:3–6). Now it was not to angels that God subjected the world to come, of which we are speaking. It has been testified somewhere, "What is man, that You are mindful of him, or the son of man, that You care for him? You made him for a little while lower than the angels; You have crowned him with glory and honor, putting everything in subjection under his feet." Now in putting everything in subjection to him, He left nothing outside his control. At present, we do not yet see everything in subjection to him (Heb. 2:5–8; Psalm 8:4–6). In order for God to make man a little lower than the angels, angels have to first exist.

7.      Because the angels were created sometime between Gen. 1:1 (the creation of the heavens and earth) and Gen. 1:26 (the creation of man), and because angels are not mentioned specifically in Gen. 1, we must reasonably place them between Gen. 1:1 and 1:2.

There is a lot which is explained theologically by the existence of angels. Our very existence and the reason for our being may be predicated upon the existence of angels.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Gen 1:1 In a beginning God created the [two] heavens and the earth.


Nothing here is said about stars, planets or the sun. If original creation consists of the two heavens and the earth, let me suggest that there was earth, some sort of an atmosphere on earth, and there were the vast heavens, the “location” of God (although God is omnipresent). The atmosphere of the earth is finite; heaven is infinite.


We do not know anything about the earth itself, although we may reasonably assume that this is the earth that we are standing on today. The changes which God makes to the earth will be described in this first chapter of Genesis, from v. 3 and forward. There is even the posibility that the earth was stationary at this time.


Angels appear to be able to have access to all of this; both to God and to the heavens and earth. It is reasonable that the earth was where angels resided prior to human history. However, for these angels, there was access to and interaction with God.


——————————


And the earth was desolate and empty and [extreme] darkness upon faces of an ocean depth and a Spirit of Elohim was hovering over faces of the water.

Genesis

1:2

And the earth [or, land] had become] desolate and a waste and [there was] [extreme] darkness upon the surface of the depths and the Spirit of Elohim was hovering [moving, brooding] over the surface of the waters.

And the earth had become desolated and waste and there was extreme darkness upon the surface of the ocean depths. And the Spirit of God was moving over the surface of the water.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the earth was vacancy and desolation, solitary of the sons of men, and void of every animal; and darkness was upon the face of the abyss, and the Spirit of mercies from before the Lord breathed upon the face of the waters. [JERUSALEM TARGUM. And the earth was vacancy and desolation, and solitary of the sons of men, and void of every animal; and the Spirit of mercies from before the Lord breathed upon the face of the waters.]

Latin Vulgate                          And the earth was void and empty, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God moved over the waters.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And the earth was desolate and empty and [extreme] darkness upon faces of an ocean depth and a Spirit of Elohim was hovering over faces of the water.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the water.

Septuagint (Greek)                But the earth was unsightly and unfurnished, and darkness was over the deep, and the Spirit of God moved over the water.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           —the earth was without shape or form, it was dark over the deep sea, and God's wind swept over the waters—...

Contemporary English V.       The earth was barren, with no form of life; it was under a roaring ocean covered with darkness. But the Spirit of God was moving over the water.

Easy English                          The earth had no shape and it was empty. Everything was dark, and God's Spirit moved gently over the waters.

Easy-to-Read Version            ...the earth was completely empty; nothing was on the earth. Darkness covered the ocean, and God’s Spirit moved over [The Hebrew word means "to fly over" or "to swoop down," like a bird flying over its nest to protect its babies.] the water.

Good News Bible (TEV)         ...the earth was formless and desolate. The raging ocean that covered everything was engulfed in total darkness, and the Spirit of God was moving over the water.

The Message                         Earth was a soup of nothingness, a bottomless emptiness, an inky blackness. God's Spirit brooded like a bird above the watery abyss.

New Berkeley Version           The earth was formless and empty, and darkness lay upon the face of the deep, and the Spirit of God was moving over the surface of the waters. The Spirit’s moving over the deep suggests His life-giving forces at work in the processes of creation. We do well to read also John 1:1–5 concerning the earth’s forming and Psalm 139:14–16 regarding the human body

New Life Bible                        The earth was an empty waste and darkness was over the deep waters. And the Spirit of God was moving over the top of the waters.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          However, the land was unsightly and unfinished, darkness covered its abysses, and God's Breath moved over its waters.

Ancient Roots Translinear      The land was a chaotic abyss, with darkness over the face of the abyss. The Spirit-wind of God fluttered over the face of the waters.

Beck’s American Translation There was nothing living on the empty earth, and it was dark on the deep sea, but God’s Spirit hovered over the waters.

God’s Word                         The earth was formless and empty, and darkness covered the deep water. The Spirit of God was hovering over the water.

New American Bible              ...and the earth was without form or shape, with darkness over the abyss and a mighty wind sweeping over the waters [Jer 4:23.]-. This verse is parenthetical, describing in three phases the pre-creation state symbolized by the chaos out of which God brings order: "earth," hidden beneath the encompassing cosmic waters, could not be seen, and thus had no "form"; there was only darkness; turbulent wind swept over the waters. Commencing with the last-named elements (darkness and water), vv. 3-10 describe the rearrangement of this chaos: light is made (first day) and the water is divided into water above and water below the earth so that the earth appears and is no longer "without outline." The abyss: the primordial ocean according to the ancient Semitic cosmogony. After God's creative activity, part of this vast body forms the salt-water seas (vv. 9-10); part of it is the fresh water under the earth (Ps 33:7; Ez 31:4), which wells forth on the earth as springs and fountains (Gn 7:11; 8:2; Prv 3:20). Part of it, "the upper water" (Ps 148:4; Dn 3:60), is held up by the dome of the sky (vv. 6-7), from which rain descends on the earth (Gn 7:11; 2 Kgs 7:2, 19; Ps 104:13). A mighty wind: literally, "spirit or breath [ruah] of God"; cf. Gn 8:1.

NIRV                                      The earth didn't have any shape. And it was empty. Darkness was over the surface of the ocean. At that time, the ocean covered the earth. The Spirit of God was hovering over the waters.

New Jerusalem Bible             Now the earth was a formless void, there was darkness over the deep, with a divine wind sweeping over the waters.

Revised English Bible            The earth was a vast waste, darkness covered the deep, and the spirit of God hovered over the surface of the water.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And the earth was waste and without form; and it was dark on the face of the deep: and the Spirit of God was moving on the face of the waters.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 But the earth was unorganized and empty; and darkness covered its convulsed surface; while the breath of God rocked the surface of its waters.

HCSB                                     Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness covered the surface of the watery depths, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the surface of the waters.

JPS (Tanakh—1917)               Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               ...the earth being unformed and void, with darkness over the surface of the deep and a wind from [Others, “the spirit of.”] God sweeping over the water—...

Judaica Press Complete T.    Now the earth was astonishingly empty, and darkness was on the face of the deep, and the spirit of God was hovering over the face of the water.

NET Bible®                             Now [The disjunctive clause (conjunction + subject + verb) at the beginning of Gen. 1:2 gives background information for the following narrative, explaining the state of things when "God said..." (Gen. 1:3). Verse Gen. 1:1 is a title to the chapter, Gen. 1:2 provides information about the state of things when God spoke, and Gen. 1:3 begins the narrative per se with the typical narrative construction (vav [ו] consecutive followed by the prefixed verbal form). (This literary structure is paralleled in the second portion of the book: Gen. 2:4 provides the title or summary of what follows, Gen. 2:5–6 use disjunctive clause structures to give background information for the following narrative, and Gen. 2:7 begins the narrative with the vav [ו] consecutive attached to a prefixed verbal form.) Some translate Gen. 1:2 (i.e., Genesis 1:2a) "and the earth became," arguing that Gen. 1:1 describes the original creation of the earth, while Gen. 1:2 refers to a judgment that reduced it to a chaotic condition. Verses Gen. 1:3 (i.e., Genesis 1:2ff.) then describe the re–creation of the earth. However, the disjunctive clause at the beginning of Gen. 1:2 cannot be translated as if it were relating the next event in a sequence. If Gen. 1:2 were sequential to Gen. 1:1, the author would have used the vav [ו] consecutive followed by a prefixed verbal form and the subject.] the earth [That is, what we now call "the earth." The creation of the earth as we know it is described in Gen. 1:9–10. Prior to this the substance which became the earth (= dry land) lay dormant under the water.] was without shape and empty [Traditional translations have followed a more literal rendering of "waste and void." The words describe a condition that is without form and empty. What we now know as "the earth" was actually an unfilled mass covered by water and darkness. Later תֹהוּ (tohu) and בֹּהוּ (bohu), when used in proximity, describe a situation resulting from judgment (Isa. 34:11; Jer. 4:23). Both prophets may be picturing judgment as the reversal of creation in which God's judgment causes the world to revert to its primordial condition. This later use of the terms has led some to conclude that Gen. 1:2 presupposes the judgment of a prior world, but it is unsound method to read the later application of the imagery (in a context of judgment) back into Gen. 1:2.], and darkness [Darkness. The Hebrew word simply means "darkness," but in the Bible it has come to symbolize what opposes God, such as judgment (Ex. 10:21), death (Psalm 88:13), oppression (Isa. 9:1), the wicked (1Sam. 2:9) and in general, sin. In Isa. 45:7 it parallels "evil." It is a fitting cover for the primeval waste, but it prepares the reader for the fact that God is about to reveal himself through his works.] was over the surface of the watery deep [The Hebrew term תְּהוֹם (tehom, "deep") refers to the watery deep, the salty ocean — especially the primeval ocean that surrounds and underlies the earth (see Gen. 7:11).] [The watery deep. In the Babylonian account of creation Marduk killed the goddess Tiamat (the salty sea) and used her carcass to create heaven and earth. The form of the Hebrew word for "deep" is distinct enough from the name "Tiamat" to deny direct borrowing; however, it is possible that there is a polemical stress here. Ancient Israel does not see the ocean as a powerful deity to be destroyed in creation, only a force of nature that can be controlled by God.], but the Spirit of God [The traditional rendering "Spirit of God" is preserved here, as opposed to a translation like "wind from/breath of God" (cf. NRSV) or "mighty wind" (cf. NEB), taking the word "God" to represent the superlative. Elsewhere in the OT the phrase refers consistently to the divine spirit that empowers and energizes individuals (see Gen. 41:38; Ex. 31:3; Ex. 35:31; Num. 24:2; 1Sam. 10:10; 1Sam. 11:6; 1Sam. 19:20; 1Sam. 19:23; Eze. 11:24; 2Chron. 15:1; 2Chron. 24:20).] was moving [The Hebrew verb has been translated "hovering" or "moving" (as a bird over her young, see Deut. 32:11). The Syriac cognate term means "to brood over; to incubate." How much of that sense might be attached here is hard to say, but the verb does depict the presence of the Spirit of God moving about mysteriously over the waters, presumably preparing for the acts of creation to follow. If one reads "mighty wind" (cf. NEB) then the verse describes how the powerful wind begins to blow in preparation for the creative act described in Gen. 1:9–10. (God also used a wind to drive back the flood waters in Noah's day. See Gen. 8:1.)] over the surface [Heb "face."] of the water [The water. The text deliberately changes now from the term for the watery deep to the general word for water. The arena is now the life–giving water and not the chaotic abyss–like deep. The change may be merely stylistic, but it may also carry some significance. The deep carries with it the sense of the abyss, chaos, darkness — in short, that which is not good for life.].

The Scriptures 1998              And the earth came to be [Or the earth became.] formless and empty, and darkness was on the face of the deep. And the Spirit of Elohim was moving on the face of the waters.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                The earth was without form and an empty waste, and darkness was upon the face of the very great deep. The Spirit of God was moving (hovering, brooding) over the face of the waters.

Concordant Literal Version    Yet the earth became a chaos and vacant, and darkness was on the surface of the submerged chaos. Yet the spirit of the Elohim is vibrating over the surface of the water.

English Standard Version      The earth was without form and void, and darkness was over the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters.

exeGeses companion Bible   ...- the earth being waste and void

with darkness upon the face of the abyss:

and the Spirit of Elohim

broods on the face of the waters.

Fred Miller’s Revised KJV     And the earth was without shapeless and formless; and darkness was on the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved on the face of the waters.

Green’s Literal Translation    ...and the earth being without form and empty, and darkness on the face of the deep, and the Spirit of God moving gently on the face of the waters,...

Heritage Bible                        And the earth was lying waste and empty, and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God brooded 2 upon the face of the waters. Everything God the Father does is through God the Son, Jesus Christ, and by the power of God the Holy Spirit. Gen 1:2. John 1:3f. Heb 9:14. The Spirit brooded to push-pull everything into its form and place. Rachaph, brooded, appears Gen 1:2, Deut 32:11, and Jer 23:9.

LTHB                                     ...and the earth being without form and empty, and darkness on the face of the deep, and the Spirit of God moving gently on the face of the waters,...

NASB                                     The earth was formless and void [Or a waste and emptiness], and darkness was over the surface [Lit face of] of the deep, and the Spirit of God was moving [Or hovering] over the surface [Lit face of] of the waters.

New King James Version       The earth was without form, and void; and darkness was [Words in italic type have been added for clarity. They are not found in the original Hebrew or Aramaic.] on the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters.

New RSV                               ...the earth was a formless void and darkness covered the face of the deep, while a wind from God [Or while the spirit of God or while a mighty wind] swept over the face of the waters.

Syndein                                  {Icepack covered in Darkness - then Heat from God}

But the planet earth had become desolate and empty, and darkness was over the raging waters {how the ice pack was formed}; but the Spirit of God {God the Holy Spirit} radiated heat on the face/surface of the frozen waters.

Young’s Updated LT             The earth has existed waste and void, and darkness is on the face of the deep, and the Spirit of God fluttering on the face of the waters.

 

The gist of this verse: 


Genesis 1:2a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person feminine singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

tôhûw (תֹּהוּ) [pronounced TOE-hoo]

desolate, an empty waste, chaos, trashed, formlessness, confusion, unreality, vain, nothingness, emptiness

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #8414 BDB #1062

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

bohûw (בֹּהוּ) [pronounced BOH-hoo]

emptiness, empty, void, waste

masculine singular noun:

Strong’s #922 BDB #96


Translation: And the earth [or, land] had become was desolate and a waste... This can be interpreted in two ways, grammatically speaking. The earth was desolate and a waste place or the earth became desolate and a wasted place. The latter is the case when we have a lâmed preposition follow the verb to be, which we do not have here. In Isa. 45:18, God is about to speak, and He is first describes Himself and what He created: “For thus says Yehowah Who created the heavens, the Elohim who formed the earth and made it, who established it and did not create it a waste, who formed it to be inhabited: I am Yehowah; and there is no one else.” God did not create the world tôhûw; He did not create it desolate, empty, an empty waste, chaos, trashed, formless. Therefore, if God did not create the world in this way, it had to become desolate and empty.


Tohu means desolate or a desert. It can indicate confusion, emptiness, empty space, vanity and nothingness. It is a very negative connotation and is found in Deut. 32:10 Job 6:18 12:24 26:7 I Sam. 12:21 Isa. 34:11 41:29 44:9 45:18 49:4 59:4 Jer. 4:23. Bohu is emptiness; it is the earth under judgement according to Brown-Driver-Briggs. and they cite Jer. 4:23, which should be read in context to see that this was part of a judgement. Isa. 34:11 is the only other place in the Old Testament where this word is found. As an educated determination, I would say that we are dealing with desolate and unable to be populated.


The Hebrew word for darkness here is extreme or extraordinary darkness. The same word is found in Ex. 10:22. This word, like desolate and uninhabitable, all imply judgement. What we must do is to try to reconstruct what has occurred here. We know there is an angelic creation and that they existed prior to our creation. We also know that one third of the angelic creation chose to follow Satan, once an angel, when he fell from grace. It is likely that God provided a place for the angels to dwell as He provided a place for us to live. It is likely that when God created the heavens and the earth that this was not an imperfect creation, but a creation which corresponded with His character. Therefore, it is easy to conjecture that God originally created the earth for the angelic creation. Along with it, there were animals (dinosaurs) and vegetation (prehistoric plant life). When Satan fell and took one third of the angels with him, God judged their place of inhabitation, the earth, and packed it in ice (the ice age). This allows us to make sense out of this passage along with Isa. 45:18 and Jer. 4:23. This also allows for the age of the earth to be what it is estimated as being yet for the age of man to be young, in fact, very young, by comparison.


There is another thing to consider here. Do you think that God was incapable of making the earth the way that He wanted it to, and therefore, had to build it in stages? That is, He first started out with an earth that was desolate and a mess; and then He worked on that for awhile (6 days) to get it right? This is completely contrary to the essence of the God of the Bible. It is as if God could not get it right the first time, but He goes back and works on it some more, in order to get it right.


Now I should also give you the opposing view. This is a wâw conjunction followed by a perfect tense. If the earth became desolate and a waste after a period of time, we might expect a wâw consecutive followed by an imperfect verb. This would suggest consecutive action. However, if God does not want to discuss or consider the process at this point, then He may speak of this as something which has occurred in the past (perfect tense).


V. 1 is the creation of the heavens and the earth; in v. 2a the earth becomes a desolate wasteland. Given the essence of God and given the ability of the word to be to also mean to become, God created the heavens and the earth, and they were wonderful; but they became desolate and a waste area.


Gen 1:2a But the earth became a wasteland and empty, and darkness covered the deep water.


The first thing which I should dispense with is some very basic Hebrew grammar. They did not have punctuation as we do—for instance, they do not have periods to end a sentence. In a narrative passage, the Hebrew uses what are called wâw consecutives to tie thoughts together. We translate this word (which is actually just one letter) and, then or and so. The Hebrew also uses what is known as a wâw conjunction, which is the same Hebrew letter, but with a different vowel point (wâw consecutives precede verbs and wâw conjunctions precede nouns). This Hebrew word is generally translated and. However, in the English, these wâw conjunctions and wâw consecutives are sometimes better conveyed with a period and then beginning the new sentence with a capital letter (things which cannot be done in the Hebrew, as they do not have capital letters or symbols of punctuation). If we put in and’s everywhere that they are found, then a Hebrew narrative would sound like the world’s longest run-on sentence. In the English, it is reasonable to leave these wâw’s out and translate this verse: The earth became a wasteland and empty, and darkness covered the deep water. The Spirit of God was hovering over the water. (I have left out two wâw conjunctions in my translation).


In this case, however, the first wâw conjunction is used to connect adversative sentences or thoughts, and therefore rendered but, yet, however.


The first verb found in v. 2 is important: it is hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW], which means to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass. Strong's #1961 BDB #224. Unfortunately, both was and became are accurate translations here.


What the earth became is the onomatopoetic expression: tôhûw wâ bôhûw (וָבֹהוּ תֹּהוּ) [pronounced TOH-hoo-waw-BOH-hoo], which means a wasteland [or, formless, a place of chaos] and empty [or, a waste, a void, emptiness; and possibly unpopulated].


God did not create the earth a wasteland and empty. Isa. 45:18 reads: For thus says the LORD—Who created the heavens (He is God!), Who formed the earth and made it; He established it; He did not create [bârâʾ = to create] it a wasteland [formless, chaotic, a waste place], He formed [or fashioned, designed] it to be inhabited!— "I am the LORD, and there is no other.”


There are two ways to legitimately translate v. 2a:

And the earth was a wasteland and empty...

Or, But the earth became a wasteland and empty...

Why Gen. 1:2a is Translated

But the earth became a wasteland and empty...

       When God creates or makes something, it is pronounced good throughout this chapter of Genesis (vv. 4, 10, 12, 18).

       It is not in keeping with the God of the Bible to create something which is imperfect or needs fixing.

       The God of the Bible is perfect; therefore, it would follow that whatever He creates is perfect.

       Of those things which God makes or creates in Gen. 1, nothing is said to need improvement, except for the earth created in this verse. It is illogical to assert that here, at the very beginning, God created something which was so chaotic that He needed to repair it. God is not the Author of confusion (1Cor. 14:33). Throughout the Bible, there are examples of areas becoming desolate and wasted because of the acts of man (Isa. 34:11 Jer. 4:23–26) but there are no instances recorded in the Bible where something which God creates was messed up to begin with.

       The word darkness comes from a verb which can also mean to confuse.

       Darkness is often something which God brings upon a person or a nation because of their apostasy or sinfulness (Ex. 10:21–22 1Sam. 2:9).

       Gen. 1:2 tells us that the earth is a wasteland and empty, but Isa. 45:18 tells us that God did not create the earth to be a wasteland.

       The Greek Septuagint uses a mild adversative (the adversative δε) to translate this wâw conjunction rather than a simple kai (καί) conjunction (the common translation for a wâw conjunction). This is how we get the translation: But the earth became a wasteland and empty,... But is the common English translation for the mild adversative δε.

       The common Hebrew order is verb, subject, object (which is what we find in v. 1); v. 2 places the subject first, then the verb followed by the object (actually, the predicate nominative here). This grammatically calls attention to the fact that this is not just a normal series of events or that v. 2 is simply a part of or a continuation of v. 1.

       Finally, we have Isa. 45:18, which reads: For thus says the LORD—Who created the heavens (He is God!), Who formed the earth and made it; He established it; He did not create [bârâʾ = to create] it a wasteland [formless, chaotic, a waste place], He formed [or fashioned, designed] it to be inhabited!— "I am the LORD, and there is no other.”

The approach to Gen. 1:1–2 suggests that something occurred between vv. 1 and 2. God created the earth to be inhabited with life (originally, with angelic life). However, after a time, when a third of the angels fell, they made the earth a mess, and God covered the earth in ice, which we know as the Ice Age.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Gen 1:2a But the earth became a wasteland and empty...


We have this phrase, tôhûw wâ bôhûw (וָבֹהוּ תֹּהוּ) [pronounced TOH-hoo-waw-BOH-hoo] (a wasteland and empty) in one other place in the Bible. Jer. 4:23–28: I looked on the earth, and, lo, it was a wasteland and empty; and [I looked to] the heavens, and they had no light. I looked on the mountains, and, lo, they quaked; and all the hills were shaken. I looked, and, lo, there was no man, and all the birds of the heavens had fled. I looked, and, lo, the fruitful place was a wilderness, and all its cities were broken down before the face of Jehovah, before His fierce anger. For so Jehovah has said, “The whole land shall be desolate, yet I will not make a full end. The earth shall mourn for this, and the heavens above shall be black, because I have spoken, I have purposed, and will not change My mind nor will I turn back from it.” We have to be careful in this interpretation. The context refers to the destruction of Jerusalem during the time of Jeremiah. However, as we find often in the Old Testament, there is a parallel meaning (we will see this when we come to two descriptions of Satan in the next lesson). This suggests, just as God judged Jerusalem in 586 b.c., so He also judged the earth and the sins of the fallen angels before man’s time began.



Genesis 1:2b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

chôsheke (חֹשֶ) [pronounced KHOH-sheke]

darkness, obscurity, extraordinary [extreme] darkness; metaphorically for misery, adversity, sadness, wickedness; destruction; ignorance

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #2822 BDB #365

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

pânîym (פָּנִים) [pronounced paw-NEEM]

face, faces, countenance; presence; person; surface

masculine plural construct (plural acts like English singular)

Strong’s #6440 BDB #815

tehôwm (תְּהוֹם) [pronounced te-HOHM]

ocean depths, a surging mass of water, deep waters, a sea, a subterranean water-supply, abyss, primeval oceans, the vast depths

feminine singular noun

Strong's #8415 BDB #1062


Translation: ...and [there was] [extreme] darkness upon the surface of the depths... Not only was their darkness on the surface of the depths, but that darkness is a word metaphorically used to mean misery, adversity, sadness, destruction and wickedness. These metaphorical meanings may possibly apply here.


Gen 1:2a But the earth became a wasteland and empty, and darkness covered the deep water.


The word used for darkness here is the one found in the next several verses. After this chapter, the next time we come across this darkness, it marks God’s judgment of Egypt for not releasing the Jews from bondage. Ex. 10:21–22: And Jehovah said to Moses, Stretch out your hand toward the heavens, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, so that one may even feel the darkness. And Moses stretched forth his hand toward heaven. And there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days. We have the phrase the wicked are silenced in darkness in 1Sam. 2:9.


It is possible that David even writes of God judging the earth and the fallen angels in 2Sam. 22:8–16: And the earth shook and trembled. The foundations of the heavens moved and shook because He was angry. Smoke went up out of His nostrils, and fire out of His mouth devoured. Coals were kindled by it. He bowed the heavens also, and came down. Darkness was under His feet. He rode upon a cherub and did fly and He was seen upon the wings of the wind. He made darkness coverings around Him, dark waters, thick clouds of the skies. From the brightness before Him were coals of fire kindled. Jehovah thundered from the heavens, and the Most High uttered His voice. And He sent out arrows, and scattered them; lightning, and troubled them. And the channels of the sea appeared, the foundations of the world were uncovered, at the rebuking of Jehovah, at the blast of the breath of His nostrils. Although the context indicates that this is God dealing with the enemies of David, this is yet another example of parallel meanings found throughout the Old Testament.


In any case, darkness is often seen as a part of God’s judgment against His enemies.


Gen 1:1–2a In a beginning God created the [two] heavens and the earth. But the earth became a wasteland and empty, and darkness covered the deep water.


The most common explanation for the event which occurred between vv. 1 and 2 is as follows: God created angelic beings, a third of hem rebelled against Him, and God judged the angels which fell, the angels who occupied the earth. It is possible that, for a time, the angels were confined to the earth, as twice, Satan is said to have been cast to the earth (Isa. 14:12 Ezek. 28:17—your Bible may read ground); however, in Job 1–2, Satan clearly has access to the Courts of God as well as to the earth. In both passages where Satan is cast to the earth, the immediate context is Satan’s fall.


My hypothesis is, God confined the sinning angels to the earth and then turned the earth on its axis while the angels were on the earth, flooding the earth, freezing it solid, possibly freezing the angels in place (which did not kill them, but kept them in one place). Here are some reasons for this hypothesis: In Rev. 12:4, Satan (the dragon) drew a third of the stars (angels) and cast them to the earth. We have two passages where Satan is said to be cast to the earth. We have some angels being reserved in chains of darkness until the great judgment in Jude 6. Whereas, this is not the same set of angels, this tells us that God may restrain fallen angels in chains of darkness for a time. Darkness covering the deep water may simply refer to God withdrawing His light from the earth and confining all fallen angels to the earth.


Whether God turned the earth on its axis, or simply withdrew His light, it is clear that Satan and the fallen angels were confined to the earth, that the waters of the earth were frozen, and that, for a time, the angels which fell were held by chains of darkness.


As we will find out, much of Gen. 1 will make more sense if we see it from the perspective of being on earth as opposed to the perspective of God the Holy Spirit hovering above the earth. In fact, as we examine the restoration of the earth, what God does is going to be very logical and methodical.


I should point out that there is a slightly different view to all of this, which R. B. Thieme Jr. taught. He has taught that, while the earth was encased in ice, the Satan and the fallen angels were on trial before God, obviously not confined to the frozen earth. Bob, at this time (1971) also taught that there was some sort of salvation offered to angels. Although I would certainly never break fellowship with a believer who believed these things, I have a slightly different opinion. Our opinions of this time between vv. 1–2 in Gen. 1 are based on threadbare Scripture. What we agree upon is, there was a trial and a sentencing; and that God did not carry out this sentence against Satan and the angels who fell. This suggests (1) there was an appeal and (2) man was created to resolve Satan’s appeal. More on this topic in the next lesson.


Since we find the earth enshrouded in darkness, and that, in v. 3, God will bring light to the earth, we ought to compare light and darkness as these words are found throughout the Old and New Testaments.

God and Light and Darkness

Point of Doctrine

Scriptural Reference

God is light. The antithesis of God is darkness.

This is the message we have heard from Him [Jesus Christ] and proclaim to you, that God is light, and in Him is no darkness at all (1John 1:5).

From the very beginning, God distinguishes between light and darkness.

And God saw that the light was good. And God separated the light from the darkness (Gen. 1:4).

Darkness and light are metaphors for good and evil; in this illustration, men try to present their evil deeds as good.

Woe to those who call evil good and good evil, who put darkness for light and light for darkness, who put bitter for sweet and sweet for bitter! (Isa. 5:20).

God leads His people from darkness into light.

“And I will lead the blind in a way that they do not know, in paths that they have not known I will guide them. I will turn the darkness before them into light, the rough places into level ground. These are the things I do, and I do not forsake them.” (Isa. 42:16). Again Jesus spoke to them, saying, "I am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will not walk in darkness, but will have the light of life." (John 8:12).

Jesus Christ is the light which has come into the world. Men have hated Him because what they do is evil, and light exposes what they do.

And this is the judgment: the Light has come into the world, and people loved the darkness rather than the Light because their works were evil (John 3:19).

When Jesus first appeared to Paul, He was as a blinding light to Paul.

In going [to persecute Christians], it happened as Paul drew near to Damascus, suddenly a light from the heaven shone around him. And he fell to the earth and heard a voice saying to him, “Saul, Saul, why do you persecute Me? “ And he said, “Who are You, lord?” And the Lord said, “I am Jesus Whom you persecute.” And he was three days not seeing (Acts 9:3–5a, 9a).

Jesus Christ appeared to Paul so that Paul might lead men away from the power of Satan and to the light of God. Therefore, there is a close association between Satan and darkness.

“But rise and stand upon your feet, for I have appeared to you for this purpose, to appoint you as a servant and witness to the things in which you have seen Me and to those in which I will appear to you, delivering you from your people [Jews] and from the Gentiles--to whom I am sending you to open their eyes, so that they may turn from darkness to light and from the power of Satan to God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins and a place among those who are sanctified by faith in Me.” (Acts 26:16–18).

Salvation moves us from darkness to light.

At one time you were darkness, but now you are light in the Lord. Walk as children of light (Eph. 5:8). But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for his own possession, that you may proclaim the excellencies of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light (1Peter 2:9).

Or, the quick and dirty way to look at this: light is associated with God and truth (John 1:4–5 1John 1:7 James 1:17 Rev. 21:23–24) and dark is associated with Satan, sin and judgment (Eph. 5:11 6:12 Col. 1:13 1John 1:6 2:11). Light and dark are so contrasted throughout the Scriptures (Matt. 6:23 John 3:19 Acts 26:18 Rom. 13:12 Eph. 5:8 2Cor. 6:14 1Peter 2:9 1Thess. 5:4–5)).

That there is no light of God shining upon the earth, that the earth is enshrouded with darkness, suggests that the inhabitants of the earth went from light to darkness.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


There are two theories when it comes to the lighting and heating of the earth—one is, the sun was created when the heavens were created, and it provided energy, light and heat for an angel-inhabited earth. In some way, the sun’s light and heat were lessened or withdrawn, resulting in the earth being packed in ice. The other theory, which I am leaning toward, is that God Himself provided the light, heat and energy for the earth. We have a future precedence for this—the New Jerusalem will be lighted by the glory of God rather than by the sun and moon (Rev. 21:23). As we go further into this chapter, keep these two theories in the back of your mind.


So far, we have gone this far in the Bible:


Gen 1:1 In a beginning God created the [two] heavens and the earth.


Gen 1:2a But the earth became a wasteland and empty, and darkness covered the deep water.


I have shown logically how the Bible reveals that God first created the heavens and the earth, then He created angels, and then He created man. This order was logically documented in Scripture. The reason that I am going to cover angelic creation in this lesson is, between Gen. 1:1 and Gen. 1:2a, angels were created.


You may wonder, why in the very beginning does God go, “Boom, there it is!” and later, restores everything over a period of 6 days? Why not do another “Boom, there it is!”? When God restores the earth, there is an audience—all angelic creation, both the fallen and elect angels. In the restoration of the earth from its desolate state, there is an audience, and God reveals His great power and wisdom to this audience.


You see, angels have a beginning. Just as suddenly, one day, we realized that we were this being in the middle of the earth, and we began to pummel our mother or father with a million questions (usually this occurs between ages 3–5); the angels themselves suddenly realized they were living beings. They did not see God create them because, when they were able to see and think about what they saw, they were already created. God may have told them, “I created you” and we have no idea what the angels thought to hear this. There are millions of people on this earth who do not believe that God breathed life into them; they do not believe that God made this world to sustain them. They believe that somehow, in some way, there was all of this stuff or energy; and it exploded; and then, somehow, in some way, over millions of years, that which was not life became life; and that life went from being quite simple to very complex. Many of these people think faith in God, Whom they cannot see, is foolish; however, they believe that life coming from non-life; and then that life progressing to great complexity—things which they cannot observe—is logical and reasonable. I know people who believe that the scales on fish turned into eyes, one of the most complex creations of God. But, somehow, by their way of thinking, it just happened (and they label such ideas as settled science). They think this way because they want not to have been created by God. You see, to them, if there is a God, then there is a whole lot more going on in this world, which goes beyond, “Should I make myself a tuna fish sandwich this afternoon, or drive over to McDonald’s?” They do not mind dealing with hundreds or thousands of trivial decisions and thoughts every day; but they do not want to deal with a God and/or the reason why they actually exist.

 

Similarly, some angels, not having seen themselves created by God, may choose to believe some other origin; or choose not to have any responsibility toward God. So, when God restores the earth and makes man, He takes His time and allows all angelic creation to observe what He is doing.


I send these lessons out to a variety of people, some of whom have heard and understand the Angelic Conflict, and many of whom have no clue as to why there are angels or that there is a relationship between man and angels. For most believers, the mention of angels in the Bible seems unscientific, so they ignore the idea of angels, or they understand angels to be like they are seen on television, invisible, superhuman creatures who watch over us.


Insofar as I know, Lewis Sperry Chafer was one of the first men to present a clear and concise doctrine of the angelic conflict, which doctrine R. B. Thieme Jr. has taught for years, with some extremely important and invaluable additions.


It is important to know that angels do exist, that they have a relationship to both God and man, and that their existence prior to man is related to the creation of the heavens and earth, and the earth becoming a waste place devoid of life.


In covering the Angelic Conflict, I may introduce a few terms which you may not be familiar with.


From time immemorial, man understands that there is some reason for his existence, some purpose for his short life on this earth, and this topic is a theme found in the writings of philosophers, theologians and even playwrights and musicians. One of the most important topics in the Bible is angels and our relationship to them. Angels are not just some peripheral set of created beings; they are the key as to why we were created.

The Angelic Conflict

1.      The Bible teaches us that angels exist. Psalm 8:4,5 148:1–8 Heb. 2:6–7 2Peter 2:11

2.      In lesson #2, we covered the order of creation: the heavens and the earth, angels, the restoration of the earth, followed by the creation of man. The Bible is the source of this order.

3.      Almost every ancient and modern religion teaches something about angels. Like the creation of the earth, some religions teach some really weird things about angels whereas Christianity, if anything, is understated when it comes to angelic creation (not unlike the Biblical approach to the creation and restoration of the earth).

4.      The Bible does not have an off-handed reference to angels here or there; angels are mentioned specifically nearly 300 times in the Old and New Testaments. There are a number of additional passages where angels are spoken of as spirits, lights, cherubs, stars, demons, a cloud of witnesses, etc.

5.      Furthermore, it is made clear, even in the New Testament, that we are involved in an invisible conflict, an unseen war. For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against nations, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places (Eph:6:12).

6.      There are two groups of angels—the elect or holy angels and the fallen angels. Matt. 25:31, 41 Acts 10:22 2Peter 2:4 Rev. 14:10

7.      There are some obvious differences between man and angels: man can procreate, angels cannot (at least amongst themselves). The human race was begun with two people, both created and made directly by God and we have expanded our numbers through procreation; angels were all immediately created by God. They do not procreate; their numbers do not increase or decrease. Ezek. 28:15 Matt. 22:30 Col. 1:16

8.      Whereas, we have corporal bodies and a soul and spirit, resulting in both physical life and a metaphysical life; angels appear to be confined, most of the time, to spirit bodies or bodies of light which we cannot always see. Matt. 28:2–3 Luke 10:18 Acts 12:27 1Cor. 15:40–41 Heb. 1:7, 13–14 Rev. 18:1

9.      There are times when angels enter into human history, and in a variety of ways.

         1)      Satan either takes on the form of a serpent or indwells a serpent in Gen. 3.

         2)      Angels take on human-like bodies and are capable of procreation in conjunction with human wives (there is no opposite arrangement; that is, there are no human males copulating with female angels). Apart from this incident, angels do not marry nor are they given in marriage, which suggests that angels are all of one gender (male). Gen. 6 Matt. 22:30

         3)      Fallen angels (demons) indwelt various people during the time of Christ, having at least partial control of their bodies. Often these were many demons controlling one body. This concentrated activity of demon possession appears to have been most apparent during the incarnation of Jesus Christ (Matt. 4:24 8:16, 28 John 13:27). We do not find demonic possession as a recurrent theme in the book of Acts nor as a topic of extended discussion in any of the epistles). There are individuals whose behavior suggests demon possession—Adolph Hitler or Richard Trenton Chase, for example. However, we are not given the mandate or the mechanics to search out and heal such individuals.

         4)      Angels influence us today with their corrupt thinking, called doctrines (or, teachings) of demons. 1Tim. 4:1

10.    The most beautiful angel to come from the hand of God is Lucifer, son of the morning.

         1)      Although Satan is found first in the Bible in Gen. 3, he obviously had to exist prior to that time. He is spoken of in Isa. 14:12–17: "How you are fallen from heaven, O Day Star, son of Dawn! How you are cut down to the ground, you who laid the nations low! You said in your heart, 'I will ascend to heaven; above the stars of God [angelic creation] I will set my throne on high; I will sit on the mount of assembly in the far reaches of the north; I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will make myself like the Most High.' But you are brought down to Sheol, to the far reaches of the pit. Those who see you will stare at you and ponder over you: 'Is this the man who made the earth tremble, who shook kingdoms, who made the world like a desert and overthrew its cities, who did not let his prisoners go home?' One of the fascinating things about the Old Testament is, a passage will be speaking of one thing (here, one of the kings of Babylon) and then it will morph into speaking about something else, a parallel situation or person (in this case, Satan). What we need from this passage is, Satan’s sin, to think that he could be like the Most High (i.e., equal to God) and that He has been judged and will be brought down to Sheol.

         2)      Quite obviously, the caricature of Satan with horns, a trident, a long forked tail and red epidermis has no basis in fact (like the picture of a gentilic Jesus with the long flowing locks of brown hair). Satan is extremely attractive, charismatic and personable.

         3)      Ezek. 28 is about the King of Tyre, but it also parallels the person of Satan: “You have been in Eden, the garden of God. Every precious stone was your covering; the ruby, the topaz, and the jasper, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the turquoise, and the carbuncle, and gold; the workmanship of your tambourines and of your flutes in you. In the day you were created, they were prepared. You were the anointed cherub that covers, and I had put you in the holy heights of God, where you were. You walked up and down in the midst of the stones of fire. You were perfect in your ways from the day you were created, until iniquity was found in you. By the multitude of your trade, they filled your midst with violence, and you sinned. So I cast you defiled from the height of God, and I destroyed you, O covering cherub, from among the stones of fire. Your heart was lifted up because of your beauty; you corrupted your wisdom because of your splendor. I have cast you to the ground. I will put you before kings, that they may see you. By the host of your iniquities, by the iniquity of your trade, you have defiled your holy places. So I brought a fire from your midst and it shall devour you, and I will give you for ashes on the earth in the sight of all who see you. All who know you among the peoples shall be appalled at you. You shall be terrors, and you will not be forever.” (Ezek. 28:13–19). Here, we are told that Satan was in the garden of God and that he was created perfect until iniquity was found in him.

         4)      Satan is called an angel of light, the god of this world and the ruler of this world. John 14:30 2Cor. 4:4 11:14

         5)      God created the Lake of Fire where Satan and his angels and men who do not believe in Jesus Christ will be cast into this Lake of Fire. Jesus taught: “Then He will also say to those on His left, Go away from Me, cursed ones, into the everlasting fire having been prepared for the Devil and his angels.” (Matt. 25:41). See also Rev. 20:10–15.

         6)      Satan will be cast into everlasting fire because he has been judged. “The ruler of this world has been judged.” (John 16:11b).

         7)      His being cast into the Lake of Fire is future: And the Devil leading them astray was thrown into the Lake of Fire and Brimstone (Rev. 20:10a).

11.    Why is Satan out and about now?

         1)      From the judgement of Satan and his fallen angels to this point in time, thousands and possibly millions of years have gone by. Satan sinned, he has been judged, and he will be thrown into the Lake of Fire. Therefore, we ought to ask, why has this not occurred yet? Why has God not carried out this sentence? Why is Satan out there loose in the world?

         2)      R. B. Thieme Jr. has postulated that Satan’s sentence is now under appeal. This is based upon several Scriptures.

                  (1)     In Job 1–2, Satan and the angels are assembled before God and Satan is raising objections to the way things are. He claims that Job is dedicated to God only because of the many blessings which God has given him. Remove these blessings, Satan alleges, and Job will curse God. The book of Job is God showing Satan (and the angels who are observing) that Satan is wrong.

                  (2)     Some associate the name Satan with lawyer, prosecuting attorney, attorney. Although I was unable to find a clear indication of this in the several lexicons which I own, this seems to be a Jewish tradition.

                  (3)     Satan is said to accuse believers before God day and night. Rev. 12:20

                  (4)     The use of the words judgment and punishment in conjunction with Satan suggest a trial.

         3)      Let me suggest the basis of Satan’s appeal (the first of which is postulated by Thieme):

                  (1)     How can a loving God cast any of His creatures into a Lake of Fire?

                  (2)     Satan to God: “God, You made me this way. I am not responsible for Your creation.” God is at fault for not making a perfect creation. If Satan is imperfect, then it must mean that God is imperfect.

                  (3)     Satan’s sin is originally one of pride, was discovered by God—how can a hidden sin like this deserve eternal death? How is this overly harsh sentence just?

                  (4)     Can’t a God of love simply forgive His creatures?

                  (5)     Let’s accept the premise that Satan and the fallen angels have sinned. Why not just give Satan some little space in the universe and let him and the other fallen angels hang out there?

                  (6)     Elect angels have chosen this path simply because God rewards them for their choice.

                  (7)     Essentially, Satan’s objections call into question God’s actions in comparison to His character and essence. God has to be consistent, as He is immutable. God is righteous and just, so His judgment has to be righteous and just. God is love, so His actions should reflect His love.

                  (8)     There are inherent contradictions in God’s character (creating beings which will suffer forever in the Lake of Fire does not demonstrate love or righteousness). Therefore, the inherent defects in Satan’s character cannot be judged by Someone with inherent defects. In other words, if Satan is imperfect, then God is imperfect. God is unable to demonstrate perfect character in all respects at all times (that is the argument of Satan).

                  (9)     Right and wrong are relative concepts; there really is no such thing as absolute standards of right and wrong. The acts of Satan and those angels who fell are not inherently wrong, because there is no such thing as inherent wrong.

                  (10)   Right and wrong, good and bad, are simply arbitrary standards, set up by God.

                  (11)   God is incapable of creating creatures with free will who will not, at some point in time, disobey Him.

                  (12)   FInally, Satan, in a sense, alleges, “I could do a better job than God with this earth and with His creatures.” He said, “I will be like the Most High.” (Isa. 14:14b).

         4)      If you know much about the Bible, you know that each of these objections is addressed in the Bible in conjunction with human history being played out.

         5)      Whatever objection you have ever formed in your mind against God, God’s plan or God’s grace, God will deal with that objection in time. Furthermore, it is even possible that this was an objection of Satan’s from his appeal trial.

         6)      Whatever objections unbelievers lodge against God will also be dealt with in time. God’s answering all of Satan’s objections will simultaneously answer all of the objections of mankind throughout the ages.

12.    The time frame of all of this is important. This helps us to understand our place in this world:

         1)      God created angels.

         2)      Satan fell and took a third of the angels with him. Rev. 12:4

         3)      There was a trial of some sort.

         4)      Satan and the fallen angels were judged and sentenced. Matt. 25:41

         5)      This sentence is not carried out immediately.

         6)      The implication is, Satan lodged an appeal.

         7)      Temporarily, the habitation of the angels (the earth) is frozen, which possibly restrains the fallen angels.

         8)      The earth is restored, man is created.

         9)      Human history is played out.

         10)    Then Satan and the fallen angels are cast into the Lake of Fire. Rev. 20:10

         11)    This implies that we, lowly human beings, are somehow involved between the fall and sentencing of Satan and the carrying out of the sentence against Satan. In other words, we apparently are involved in the appeal portion of the trial of Satan and the fallen angels.

13.    This explains our place in this world. We were created inferior to angels, but we have an essence similar to angels, inasmuch as we can think, we have self-consciousness, we have a concept of right and wrong, we have a vocabulary, we have emotions, and we have volition. These are things which angels possess, and these things are a reflected image of God. Heb. 2:5–10 12:1

14.    By our creation and our lives on this earth, God reveals the nature of His character—His perfect love, justice and righteousness—in dealing with man. Psalm 145:17 Isa. 5:16 John 3:16

15.    By our creation and our life in this world, God reveals the consistency of His character through His interaction with man—man as created perfect and man as a fallen creature. God will interact with man under a number of varying conditions, including perfect environment and far less than perfect environment. These interactions, observed by angels, will reveal that God is love, righteousness, justice, and that every single thing which God does is consistent with His character. All of the objections which I suggested, will be answered in human history many time under a variety of conditions.

16.    By the function of Bible doctrine in our souls, God reveals the importance of truth, which is embodied in the Bible that we have. God reveals the importance of His creatures knowing and adhering to His Word. Prov. 8 1Cor. 2:16 Philip. 2:5 3:15 4:7

17.    God’s judgments are revealed as being holy and righteous; His character is revealed as being perfect in all respects. Our function on this earth glorifies God. John 11:4 1Cor. 10:31

18.    The simplest way for us to understand this is by our relationship to our own children. When they do wrong, we punish them, and sometimes the punishment is difficult for us and them. However, ideally speaking, before, after or during the punishment, we explain to them what they have done wrong and why it is wrong. In this way, a child develops norms and standards; he develops a conscience; and he learns how to function in this world in such a way that is both moral and right and is beneficial to him and to those around him. This allows a child to build up an entire framework of norms and standards which will carry him through his entire life. Parents who do not do this are destroying the little souls of the children God has entrusted to them.

19.    This is how God interacts with us, and helps to explain why, over and over again, believers are called His children. It explains why God disciplines us. Heb. 12:5–11

20.    Men and angels, in this process, develop an understanding and an appreciation for Who and What God is and for the wonder of their own existence.

21.    The Angelic Conflict explains a great many things to us:

         1)      Why we exist. We exist in order to resolve the Angelic Conflict and to both glorify and vindicate God. His love and mercy toward His creatures is revealed in the cross, as is His righteousness and justice. Our daily interaction with God after the cross reaffirms God’s character and essence.

         2)      Why is there sin? Sin is a result of our free will. Satan and a third of the angels chose to sin, and man chose to sin. There is the difference that we are born with a sin nature because Adam sinned; all fallen angels had to go from a sinless state to a fallen state.

         3)      Why God cannot overlook or tolerate sin. It is said that there is nothing more vicious than man’s inhumanity to man. Whether this begins as a schoolyard taunt, a mean piece of gossip exchanged, or a radical religious movement which kills people in order to make a political statement; sin causes great pain and suffering. Sin is not something which people are willing to engage in on their own. As an example, people claim that pornography is a victimless crime. However, people are kidnaped and enslaved even today in order to further the pornography (and sex-trade) industry. People are led toward drug-addiction in order to keep them involved in the sex trade. Marriages are destroyed and children’s lives are ruined because of pornography. The results of any sin can be carried out to reveal how damaging that sin can be.

         4)      Satan’s inhumanity toward man is even greater than we can imagine. We see in the book of Job how much suffering Satan inflicts upon Job, only in an attempt to make a point.

         5)      Why sin must be judged. There are few among us, when we observe man’s cruelty to his fellow man, do not desire to see justice done. Even in a movie, when we are drawn into the evil of some of the characters, it is a great release it is to see these characters receive their comeuppance at the very end of the movie. No one watches a Die Hard movie and is disappointed that Bruce Willis prevails at the end of the movie. That is the satisfying resolution to good versus evil.

         6)      Why is there suffering? Men suffer as a result of sin. This is why God will remove sin completely from our lives in the future. This is also why He will create a new heavens and a new earth, completely separate from the stain of sin.

22.    The Angelic Conflict is not a static event or series of events. Satanic strategy and Satanic attacks change from dispensation to dispensation (a dispensation is a period of time as defined from a theological perspective). Although I will personalize this, and speak of Satan’s attacks, bear in mind, that we are dealing specifically with his strategies, but that much of his strategy is executed by fallen angels, called demons (although, on occasion, Satan will personally attack some believers).

         1)      In the Age of Innocence, Satan observed the man and the woman, and not being content to leave well enough alone, interfered, causing the woman to sin by deceiving her, and the man to sin knowingly, because the woman he loved had sinned.

         2)      Satan’s strategy in the Age of the Gentiles: When God promised a Savior (first to Adam and Eve and later to other believers), Satan’s focus was on this Savior and destroying the line of the Savior. The killing of Abel was probably the first Satanic attack against the line of the Messiah (Satan possibly assumed that Abel was the One promised by God). Satan apparently knew that he had influence over Cain.

         3)      Satan’s Strategy in the Age of Israel, parts I and II: When God called Abraham, and promised to preserve his line and to make a great nation of him, Satan began to attack the line of Abraham as well as the nation Israel.

                  (1)     As an aside, I should point out that, if the Jews are removed from this earth, most of the prophecies found in the Bible become null and void; they cannot be fulfilled. Therefore, from the exodus to this very moment, Satan encourages anti-Semitism and does everything that he can to remove Jews from this earth. This is why widespread rioting by Muslims often includes attacks upon Jews specifically.

                  (2)     God made a number of promises to Israel—the Abrahamic Covenant and the Davidic Covenant, to name two—and Satan has acted not only to keep this covenants from being fulfilled, but he also acts to cast doubt upon the fulfillment of these covenants. Many Jews today wonder about their relationship to God and the promises which He made to them. In the end times, Jews are going to rediscover books like Esther and passages like Gen. 22, Psalm 89 and Isa. 53, and suddenly their eyes will be opened, and they will understand what those passages are saying to them. I believe that this is where the 144,000 evangelists will spring from during the Tribulation.

                  (3)     Satan also inspires doubt in Gentiles, with respect to God’s fulfillment of His covenants with Israel. One of the results of this is known as Covenant Theology, where all the promises which God made to Israel are reinterpreted and spiritualized, and that the church is seen (falsely) as spiritual Israel and that God’s covenants are transferred over, somehow, to Gentile believers in the Church Age. The idea is, the Jews just sinned too much, God decided that they were not His people, and He started up the church, which has been mostly a gentile organization (although Jews do believe). This is a false system of theology because it calls into questions God’s veracity, His immutability and His omniscience.

                            i        Is God really truthful? He made some very clear promises to Israel, and it is difficult to take God seriously when these promises are spiritualized.

                            ii       We are told that God does not change, but, if He just gave all his promises to Israel over to the church, which requires these promises to be spiritualized in order for them to make sense, then He is not immutable.

                            iii       How can the Jews go so far as to fall outside of God’s plan? Isn’t an omniscient God able to know this is going to happen and to make provision for it?

                            iv      At the very least, Covenant Theology ends up calling into question these 3 attributes of God. These are not tenets of Covenant Theology, but they are logical questions which arise from believing in Covenant Theology (a dispensational interpretation of history is the alternative to Covenant Theology).

                  (4)     Satan did everything that he could to destroy the nation Israel, inspiring countless attacks against them. He had a hand in splitting up Israel into two nations (the northern and southern kingdoms), and a hand in removing Israel’s sovereignty on several occasions.

                  (5)     This should help to explain not only the continual attacks of the surrounding nations against Israel, but it explains the holocaust and it explains the remarkable hatred of Islam for the Jew today.

         4)      Satan’s strategy for the Age of the Hypostatic Union: direct attacks upon Jesus Christ (and, to a lessor extent, His disciples). Here, we have one of the most amazing historical events, simply from the standpoint of strategy. Satan knew Who the Messiah was, and Satan attacked Him in every way possible. Satan did everything he could to move Jesus to the cross, to what he believed would be tremendous humiliation. Satan was able to exercise his considerable hatred toward Jesus throughout this process of Jesus being taken to the cross. However, what Satan did not seem to realize was, God would provide our salvation by means of the cross, and that the cross was His ultimate destination. Blinded by intense hatred, Satan moved Jesus toward the cross, not realizing that the cross would be the turning point in the Angelic Conflict. it is with the cross that Jesus provided all mankind salvation. Had Satan been able to figure this out, he would have done everything possible to keep Jesus from the cross.

         5)      In the Church Age, the Angelic Conflict is intensified for the individual believer. The Messiah promised by God has come, died for our sins, and been resurrected. Therefore, Satan attacks man in general and believers specifically. Satanic strategy moves on two fronts:

                  (1)     Satan tries to blind the unbeliever from the gospel and tries to keep any person from believing in Jesus Christ. Religion plays as great a role in this as does sin. 2Cor. 4:4

                  (2)     Once a person believes in Jesus Christ, Satan does everything that he can to neutralize his spiritual impact. Satan again uses religion to neutralize the spiritual impact of individual believers. This is one reason there are so many Christian cults; this is the reason the Catholic Church has become so corrupt; this is the reason so few Protestant churches concentrate on the teaching of the Bible; this is the reason that so many churches lean toward social action and even toward liberation theology—these attacks keep a believer from growing and having any sort of spiritual impact. Quite obviously, Satan continues to use sin to keep man from growing spiritually. 1Tim. 4:1

         6)      When the church is taken up (the rapture), there will be no one who believes in Jesus Christ left on the earth. There will be 7 more years of the Age of Israel to play out, called the Tribulation in the Bible. Satan will have more power at this time and he will seek to kill every person who believes in Jesus Christ. We know that, for instance, in the history of Communists nations, there will be a strong, charismatic leader who rises up to liberate his people and to offer them hope. Meanwhile, behind the scenes, he is killing every person who is against his revolution for freedom. The Beast will rise up in much the same way, adored by millions, if not billions, of people; who will, at the same time, engage in a vicious holy war against God’s elect. This will be a double-intensification of the Angelic Conflict.

         7)      The Millennium will be marked by perfect environment, the knowledge of God throughout the earth, people being born without sin natures, and Satan being locked up, so to speak. However, Satan will be let out of confinement at the end of the Millennium, and he will again be given limited power, and he will lead some men in a revolution against God—men who have enjoyed a thousand years of perfect environment. Rev. 20:2–9

         8)      General strategies in all dispensations:

                  (1)     Satan would do anything to make God a liar. So, he will continue to attack and attempt to eradicate the Jews. If there are no Jews in the end times, God cannot fulfill His plan.

                  (2)     In order to make God a liar, Satan will do anything to show even one promise of the Bible to be wrong. There is no amount of pain that Satan is not willing to inflict in order to prove any promise of the Bible wrong.

                  (3)     We all associate Satan with sin and evil, but Satan is heavily involved in good as well. Satan attempts to produce human good panaceas—which panaceas often deny the existence or importance of God. Socialism and Communism are clear examples of this, where man has tried to make men equal, which involves the eradication of religion, freedom and, in many cases, life. In this past American presidential campaign (2008), I saw many people paraded in front of us, and their sad and difficult lives revealed, and who or what would solve this? The candidate themselves who parades these people before us. He or she would be the solution to the ills of these people. The idea is, we ought to put our trust and hopes in a particular man or a particular form of government, rather than in God. If our lives are difficult, this has nothing to do with God nor does it have anything to do with us, but it is because the wrong man or the wrong party is in power in government. This is Satanic strategy and it is all about good. Fanatical environmentalism is a Satanic strategy. Clean air and clean water are good things, and that is a part of our taking control of our environment, as God told us to do. However, environmentalism has gotten completely out of control today with such things as global warming mania and the preservation of such animals as the snail darter or the spotted owl. One of the many reasons why US jobs have been shipped overseas is environmentalism, which has shut down industry and building all over the United States (e.g., the lumber industry in the northern United States). These are all strategies where Satan inspires man to try to create a perfect international kingdom here on earth.

                  (4)     Along the same lines of Satan’s involvement with good, many fanatical Islamic groups are also associated with doing good as well, e.g., feeding those who are hungry. Here, Satan is able to combine good works with religion.

                  (5)     Satan would like to establish a perfect environment on this earth, and man is constantly frustrating him. So Satan seeks to establish as much control over man’s free will as possible, to the extent of determining the amount of money man ought to be allowed to make and at what temperature he ought to set his thermostat at home. Satan would like to create a happy balanced world of people, animal life and nature. In this way, he could prove himself to be like the Most High. Satan is behind all international efforts and international control, because it is easier for him to direct and control human behavior if we are all subject to the same government.

                  (6)     Satan would like to establish equality on this earth (not equality of opportunity, which creates inequities, but actual equality).

                  (7)     Satan would like to improve who and what man is, mentally and physically, and eliminate people who are substandard.

23.    Because of Satan’s original sin, because all of his appeals will have been exhausted, God will toss him, the angels which fell and all unsaved men into the Lake of Fire at the end of the Millennium. Rev. 20:10–15

24.    Then God will create a new heavens and a new earth, as the Angelic Conflict will have been resolved. Rev. 21:1

A number of people have covered this particular topic, and their studies are available online:


http://www.gbible.org/_files/pdf/The_Angelic_Conflict_Part1.pdf


http://www.gbible.org/index.php?proc=fea&pid=2


http://www.markkwilliamson.com/angelic_conflict.htm


http://www.eccentrix.com/members/beacon/conflict.htm


http://www.ironrangebible.com/griffith/Angelic_Conflict/angelic_conflict.htm


http://www.cotsk.org/faq/MeaningOfLife.html as well as


http://www.cotsk.org/archives/specialstudies/AppealTrialOfSatan.html


http://www.versebyverse.org/doctrine/angel_con.html


http://www.answerbag.com/q_view/523978 (go down to Moosemose and his answer)

See also R. B. Thieme, Jr., Angelic Conflict; ©1971 by R. B. Thieme, Jr. and from Lewis Sperry Chafer, D.D., Litt. D., Th. D.; Systematic Theology; Kregel Publications; ©1976 Dallas Theological Seminary; Vol. 2, pp. 3–38.


Chapter Outline

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This study does not even begin to exhaust the concept of the Angelic Conflict; however, it is good to find out just what Satan and fallen angels are up to, so that we can recognize it when Satan tempts the woman in the garden, or when we see examples of it around us.


Let’s look at a more abbreviated approach to the Angelic Conflict, and see it simply as related to Satan:


What is occurring during this time is the trial of Satan and the other fallen angels. The way Satan's fall is dealt with in Scripture is never: "And the following is a description of Satan's fall...." God the Holy Spirit, instead, takes a prophecy or an historical event as it is covered in Scripture and suddenly begins speaking about Satan and prehistoric occurrences. These passages can be found in Isa. 14:12–16 Jer. 4:23–28 Ezek. 28:12b–17. Satan was tried and convicted (with all the fallen angels) and he has appealed the verdict (eternity in the lake of fire). Every issue that he has brought up is dealt with in human history, including "You made me thus!" However, this is a long study in itself and will be covered at another time. What we need to know is that:

The Judgement of Satan

                God created the heavens and created the earth to be inhabited (Gen. 1:1 Isa. 45:18)

                God created Satan and the angels (Neh. 9:6 Ezek. 28:12b–15a Col. 1:16)

                Satan fell and took one-third of the angels with him (Isa. 14:12–14 Ezek. 28:15b)

                Satan was judged (Isa. 14:15 John 16:11)

                God prepared the lake of fire for the devil and his angels (Matt. 25:41)

                Satan is not there yet; he is still at work in the world (Isa. 14:16 Matt. 4:1–11)

                Satan will be thrown into the lake of fire (Rev. 20:10)


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Genesis 1:2c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

rûwach (רוּחַ) [pronounced ROO-ahkh]

wind, breath, spirit, apparition

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #7307 BDB #924

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun

Strong's #430 BDB #43

râchaph (רָחַף) [pronounced raw-KHAHF]

 to hover over, to flutter over; to brood over; to move gently [over]; to cherish

feminine singular, Piel participle

Strong’s #7363 BDB #934

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

pânîym (פָּנִים) [pronounced paw-NEEM]

face, faces, countenance; presence

masculine plural construct (plural acts like English singular)

Strong’s #6440 BDB #815

Together, ʿâl and pânîym mean upon the face of, facing, in front of, before (as in preference to), in addition to, overlooking.

mayim (מַיִם) [pronounced mah-YIHM]

water (s)

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4325 BDB #565


Translation: ...and the Spirit of Elohim was hovering [moving, brooding] over the surface of the waters. Already, we are introduced to the Spirit of God in v. 2, and the Spirit of God moves over or hovers over the water. When looking at the functions of the Godhead, the Spirit of God is most often associated with power and energy, so the Holy Spirit here is applying this power and energy to the face of the earth.


The verb here is a Piel participle; the Piel stem indicates that the stem is intensive as compared to the Qal stem. However, when it comes to the meanings, that is already taken into account in the Hebrew exegesis above. The participle indicates continuous action or the action of the verb is seen as a process. This may have occurred over a period of time that lasted many hours or even over millions of years.


God's Spirit hovered over, cherished, brooded over the earth as an animal mother would brood over her offspring (it is used that way in Deut. 32:11). The earth is encased in ice and the Holy Spirit must warm the waters. Furthermore, none of this is a part of the first day. It is possible that v. 2 begins the first day of restoration of the earth but the rest of the restoration process all falls into a formula of "God said....God saw...God made...God called....(not always in just that order); and there was evening and morning, the nth day." However, what is clear from this and other passages is that Gen. 1:1–2 could comprise many billions of years.


The words which are used here paint two pictures for us. The verb can be used for a hen brooding over her eggs; so that God can be seen in this way hovering over the earth as a hen hovers lightly upon her eggs, to keep them warm. The second picture here is, the Spirit of God could also be translated the Breath of God; so it is as if God is blowing over the surface of the waters to warm them (as we blow air over the surface of our coffee to cool it).


What we have covered so far is: God created the heavens and the earth, along with all angelic creation. A third of the angels have sinned, apparently following their leader, Lucifer, son of the morning. Their fall affected the earth, causing it to become a vacant waste place, encased in ice (one might even hypothesize that God withdrew His light from the earth).


Gen 1:1 In a beginning God created the [two] heavens and the earth.


Gen 1:2a But the earth became a wasteland and empty, and darkness covered the deep water.


At this point, the restoration of the earth begins (the various creation theories will also be discussed in this lesson). The earth will be restored and repopulated in 6 days; vv. 2b–5 cover the first day of restoration.


Gen 1:2b And the Spirit of God was hovering over the water.


The reason that we know that the Spirit of God hovering over the earth is actually warming the waters is, the same verb used for a mother hen laying atop of her eggs warming them (Deut. 32:11). At some point in time, after Gen. 1:1 (the creation of the earth) and after v. 2a (the earth falling into a frozen chaos)—maybe millions of years later—God the Holy Spirit warmed the earth: The Spirit of God brooded [as a mother hen] over the [frozen] waters (Gen. 1:2b).


What you have observed in these first few verses of the Bible is a very precise use of language. However, even with that precision of language, one can take v. 2b in two ways: (1) the Holy Spirit enveloped the earth, holding everything in place until the restoration process was to begin. Or, (2) this describes the first step of the restoration process, which is the heating of the earth.


Ichthys.com renders these two first two verses: Before all else, God created the heavens and the earth. But the earth came to be ruined and despoiled - darkness lay upon the face of the abyss while God's Spirit brooded over the surface of its waters. This interpretation does not suggest the beginning of the restoration as of yet. The language of the Holy Spirit brooding over the earth may be reasonably understood as a hen sitting atop her eggs; she is waiting for the time that they will break forth out of the shells, exposing themselves to the light. Once the chicks come out of their shells, the mother hen remains on the scene, but she no longer fully covers her young (and, perhaps I have taken this analogy too far).


The word translated waters can refer to water in any state—as ice, liquid or vapor. Given all that happens, I am going to suggest that the earth was packed in ice—an Ice Age—which was the earth becoming tohu wa bohu (v. 2a). The ice that the earth was packed in became water and steam because of the warming effect of the energy of the Holy Spirit. A second option is, when God said, “Let there be light,” that began the actual process of restoration. In any case, the end result would have been a great deal of steam, and, for a time, the earth was very humid, the entire earth enveloped by steam.


It is also important to note that nothing is said about God creating the water in the first place; the water was a package deal with the earth and the chemical composition of the earth. When God created the heavens and the earth, He created the entire molecular structure of things, and all that was on the earth. The earth fell into a chaotic frozen state with the fall of the angels, which suggests that was a part of the judgment of the angels who sinned. If the earth is judged along with the angels, then it is only reasonable that the earth was the primary angelic habitat.


Before we take this any further, let’s look at the various theories which have developed over the years:


There are 4 basic theories when it comes to the creation account of Genesis. The first 3 are the most commonly held to.

Genesis Creation Theories

Theory

Description

Commentary

Literal 6 Day Creation

God created the heavens and the earth and then made the earth habitable by man in 6 literal days.

There are 2 big problems with this theory and they are not what you think: (1) angels are never mentioned in Genesis 1–2 and yet obviously already exist (Gen. 3); when were they created? (2) This theory also suggests that when God created the earth, did He not do a very good job at first, and therefore, had to spend a couple of days fixing what He did. Does that really make sense?

Day Age Theory

Each day of Genesis represents a long period of time—at one time, this was thought to be a 1000 years, but now, people consider each day to represent an age; perhaps millions of years.

This theory surrenders to the evolution theory. It assumes that evolution, to some degree, is true and attempts to reconcile the Bible with evolution. The biggest problem is, it views God as not being quite able to create things correctly from the get-go, but as a God Who must work with His creation and many millions of failures in order to get each stage correct. This approach contradicts the phrase found in this first chapter of Genesis: And God saw that it [whatever He had just formed or created] was good (Gen. 1:10b, 12b, 18b, 21b, 25b).


The idea that God guided evolution so that each mutation was good and worked correctly from the beginning, I have never heard put forth. Perhaps some who believe in this theory, believe that?


We may, of course, leave evolution out of this and believe that God requires a lot of time to create and make everything mentioned on each day.


Another serious problem with the Day Age Theory is, the language used in Genesis 1 seems to emphasize that we are speaking of 24 hour days. And so is evening and so is morning—day one. There are not many ways to express a 24 hour day more clearly than this in the Hebrew.

Gap Theory

The heavens and the earth were all created at some point in time, maybe millions or billions of years ago. This included the creation of the angels who lived on planet earth, which was somewhat different then than it is now. Sometime after a third of the angels sinned, God packed the earth in ice, which is His temporary and partial judgment of Satan’s rebellion. After the Ice Age, God, in 6 literal days, restores the earth to be inhabited by man and then He creates man.

As we have already seen, God did not create this world as vast waste area (Isa. 45:18). Every time He created something, it was good (Gen. 1:4, 10, 12, 18, 21, 25). That means, there were no original design flaws nor did God need to fix or tinker with His creation in order to make it work. The understanding that God creates things perfectly from the beginning is completely consistent with the God of the Bible.


God packs the earth in ice as is related to the angelic rebellion (when a third of the angels fell with Satan—Isa. 14:12–16 Rev. 12:4). From v. 2b on is the restoration of the earth, which takes 4 literal days, after which God populates the earth with animals and man on the 5th and 6th days.


This approach is completely consistent with the God of the Bible, with other texts which deal with creation, and with the text of Genesis.

Modified Gap Theory

Although the heavens, the earth and the angels were created at some point in the distant past, God then modified or restored the earth, each day representing some unspecified period of time.

This theory does not necessarily give in to the theory of evolution; it just allows for these things which God does to take longer than a 24 hour day. God is not guiding evolution, but He is simply restoring and creating things over a longer period of time. The biggest problem with this theory (which I have never heard espoused before) is, Genesis 1 appears to be speaking of 24 hour days.


The rationale behind this theory would be, the heating of the waters of the earth would have had to have taken a very long time. the 6th day has a lot of events occurring in it, which appear to require more than 24 hours.

Modified Gap Theory #2

God creates the heavens and the earth, along with the angels, and provides the light for the earth Himself. The first 3 days of restoration are of an undetermined time period, as there is no sun or stars, so there are no traditional measures of time. At day four, we move into 24-hour creative periods of time.

This unique theory occurred to me and has merit for two reasons: (1) we do not have the sun or the stars or the moon, all of which is used to mark time, until the 4th day. Therefore, a 24-hour day during restoration days 1–3 makes little sense. Now, I realize that the counter argument here is, an hour is an hour is an hour, whether it is light or dark. However, the language simply speaks of light turning dark and dark turning light. (2) We have language on Day 3 which sounds as if the plants are growing, but, in one 24-hour day, God would have to essentially make them grow as if we are watching time-lapse photography. Now, God is fully capable of this, so it is not God’s capabilities which I am questioning. It is the order of this restoration project, which may imply a time frame different than people have theorized up until this point in time.

The Gap Theory addresses several problems: (1) the idea that God was unable to produce something which worked correctly the first time, and so He needed to spend a few million years getting it to work properly, calls into question God’s power and abilities. (2) Death does not appear to be part of the pristine world into which Adam is introduced; however, a world which came about by means of evolution would have involved a great deal of death. (3) If God created all that there is in these 6 days, why does He not mention angelic creation? Various passages in the Bible indicate that there are angels and that there seems to be a history and an interaction between God and angels which predates man (Job 1–2 Isa. 14:12–16 Rev. 12:4). The Gap theory is consistent with the God of the Bible and it is consistent with the other events of history (angelic creation) presented in the Bible.

The Gap Theory teaches that God created a perfect heavens and earth sometime in prehistoric past (before man). He did not make any mistakes. During this same time period, He created angelic beings who then occupied the earth. There is death during this time period when God packs the earth in ice (after a third of the angels fell, death probably became a part of their world as well—the death of animal and plant life during their time).

We actually have a future precedent which would allow for a restoration of the earth. In the future, God will create a new heavens and a new earth, because they have been corrupted by sin (Rev. 21–22). Therefore, understanding Gen. 1 to be primarily a restoration of the earth is reasonable and completely in line with Scripture.

The idea that the earth is millions of years old is consistent with science insofar as, there are some scientific studies which make the earth out to be very old (these studies do disagree with one another, however). The idea that man is 6000 (or so) years old is consistent with human population growth studies (the idea that man is 1,000,000 years old—as evolutionists believe—is inconsistent with today’s current human population).

In my estimation, this begins the first day of restoration (called, incorrectly, the first day of creation). There are many men of God who believe otherwise who, despite that mistake in their theology, are excellent teachers of God's Word. However, paraphrasing what J. Vernon McGee would say, “There are other viewpoints held by brilliant men of God; but if you're interested in the correct viewpoint, then here it is.”

Although there are several websites where the Gap Theory is discussed, one very good one is:


http://www.ichthys.com/sr2-copy.htm


He suggests that the first two verses of Genesis be translated: Before all else, God created the heavens and the earth. But the earth came to be ruined and despoiled - darkness lay upon the face of the abyss while God's Spirit brooded over the surface of its waters.


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Either v. 2b or v. 3 begins the first day of restoration (called, incorrectly, the first day of creation). In either case, there was likely a gap of millions and even billions of years between God’s creation of the heavens and the earth (v. 1) and God’s restoration of the heavens and earth (vv. 3–31).


There are many men of God who believe otherwise who, despite that mistake in their theology, are excellent teachers of God's Word. However, paraphrasing what J. Vernon McGee would say, “There are other viewpoints held by brilliant men of God; but if you're interested in the correct viewpoint, then here it is.”


Gen 1:2b And the Spirit of God was hovering over the surface of the waters. I believe that the actual mechanics here, are as follows: the Holy Spirit hovers above the earth, as the earth spins on its axis, turning much of the ice instantly to steam. One entire revolution of the earth (24 hours) would allow the Holy Spirit to heat the entire earth. Associated with the heating of the earth is light, which is v. 3.


Bear in mind that, during this time, the fallen angels have likely been held immobile in the ice.


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Chapter Outline

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Day One: God Makes Light and Differentiates Between Light and Darkness


And so says, Elohim, “[Let there] be light;” and so is light.

Genesis

1:3

And Elohim said, “Let there be light;” and so light is.

And God said, “Let there be light;” and light comes to be.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the Lord said, Let there be light and to enlighten above; and at once there was light.

Latin Vulgate                          And God said: Be light made. And light was made.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so says, Elohim, “[Let there] be light;” and so is light.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And God said, Let there be light; and there was light.

Septuagint (Greek)                And God said, Let there be light, and there was light..

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           God said, "Let there be light." And so light appeared.

Contemporary English V.       God said, "I command light to shine!" And light started shining.

Easy-to-Read Version            Then God said, “Let there be light!” And light began to shine. Or "In the beginning, God made the heavens and the earth. While 2the earth had no special shape, and darkness covered the ocean, and God’s Spirit hovered over the water, 3God said, ’Let there be light!’" Or, "When God began to create the sky and the earth, 2while the earth was completely empty, and darkness covered the ocean, and a powerful wind blew over the water, 3God said, ’Let there be light.’"

Good News Bible (TEV)         Then God commanded, "Let there be light"---and light appeared.

The Message                         God spoke: "Light!" And light appeared.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Then The God spoke, saying, 'May there be light,' and light came to be.

God’s Word                         Then God said, "Let there be light!" So there was light.

New American Bible              Then God said: Let there be light, and there was light. 2 Cor 4:6.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 God then said, “Let there be light;’ and light came.

NET Bible®                             God said [The prefixed verb form with the vav (ו) consecutive introduces the narrative sequence. Ten times in the chapter the decree of God in creation will be so expressed. For the power of the divine word in creation, see Psalm 33:9; John 1:1–3; 1Cor. 8:6 and Col. 1:16.] [God said. By speaking, God brings the world into existence. The efficacious nature of the word of the LORD is a prominent theme in this chapter. It introduces the Law, the words and commandments from the LORD that must be obeyed. The ten decrees of God in this chapter anticipate the ten words in the Decalogue (Ex. 20:2–17).], "Let there be ["Let there be" is the short jussive form of the verb "to be"; the following expression "and there was" is the short preterite form of the same verb. As such, יְהִי (yehi) and וַיְהִי (vayehi) form a profound wordplay to express both the calling into existence and the complete fulfillment of the divine word.] light [Light. The Hebrew word simply means "light," but it is used often in scripture to convey the ideas of salvation, joy, knowledge, righteousness, and life. In this context one cannot ignore those connotations, for it is the antithesis of the darkness. The first thing God does is correct the darkness; without the light there is only chaos.]." And there was light!

The Scriptures 1998              And Elohim said, “Let light come to be,” and light came to be.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And saying is the Elohim, "Become light!" And it is becoming light.

English Standard Version      And God said, "Let there be light," and there was light.

Heritage Bible                        And God said [amar, to bring something out to the light where it can be seen. When God said something He gave revelation knowledge. He brought knowledge to light where it could be seen. Today, when He says something to you, He gives you revelation knowledge. Read and quote His words in the Bible. God will use those words to say special things to you. see Pro 6:20-24.], Light [God is light, owr, 1 John 1:5. God called forth the light of Himself to give physical light to this world.], be, and light was.

Syndein                                  {Concentrated light to Keep it stable as water}

And Elohiym/Godhead said, "Light . . . BE"; and light . . . WAS.

Young’s Updated LT             And God says, “Let light be;” and light is.

 

The gist of this verse: 


Genesis 1:3a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

When we find the wâw consecutive linking several Qal imperfects, the sense is not a continuous or prolonged action in the verbs, but a continued, chronological and/or logical action of the action of the verbs. That is, there is a continued action, but it is all of the verbs together which give us a continued action, rather than the verbs taken individually (in fact, it was from constructions like this that the wâw consecutive first was called a wâw conversative, which is an incorrect designation and function).

After working with the Hebrew for several years, I rejected the notion of a wâw conversative, which took the imperfect tense of a verb and converted it to the perfect tense. Now, there are many cases where the imperfect tense of a verb does not really view the verb as a continuous action or as a process, and this is often the case when it comes to an imperfect verb following a wâw consecutive. Therefore, I am sure this is how this theory began. However, what we are viewing is a process of actions or a continuous action spread out across several verbs. Each verb, when taken individually, may or may not represent a continuous action, but they all together represent a continuous action.

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun

Strong's #430 BDB #43


Translation: And Elohim said,... Generally speaking, the imperfect tense refers to continuous action or the action of the verb viewed as a process. However, God says two words here and it does not appear that God is saying these two words over and over. In the Hebrew when we string together some wâw consecutives with some imperfect verbs, we are viewing logical or chronological actions; and all of these actions together form a process of things which occur over a period of time (it does not have to be a lengthy period of time). More explanation is given in the Hebrew exegesis above.


One of the things that you should ask yourself is, why is God speaking? Certainly, as a believer in Jesus Christ, I believe in the Trinity—that God is One in essence, but three in personality, three in function, three in person. Several explanations could be offered. God is speaking aloud simply because that is the way God does things; or, God speaks aloud for our benefit, so that this could be recorded. However, I believe that God is speaking because He has an audience. He speaks, and angelic creatures here was He is saying.


God does not have to take 6 days in order to restore the earth. God can snap His fingers and, poof, there is a new earth. Everything that we read in this chapter could be done by God instantaneously, but, instead, He follows a process. Angels, who are observing all that God does, hear Him speak and then they watch what happens after He speaks.


Genesis 1:3b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect; apocopated voluntative

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

Apocopated means that the verb has been shortened. Generally, this means that the final hê (ה) and the vowel which precedes it are dropped. Apocopation is used when the verb functions as a jussive or when the verb is affixed to a wâw consecutive.

A jussive expresses the speaker’s desire, wish or command. We often add into the translation may or let. The jussive involves only the imperfect form of a verb and may be used in the 2nd or 3rd persons (although the latter is the most common). A strong verb is identified as a jussive by context, as it is no different than the imperfect form. A weak verb as a jussive is generally a shortened form of the imperfect.

ʾôwr (אוֹר) [pronounced ohr]

light [of the moon, of stars]; morning light, day-break, dawn; light [of life; of one’s face]; light [of prosperity, of Bible doctrine, of Jehovah]

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #216 BDB #21


Translation:...“Let there be light;”... God says two words: “Light be!” As you can see from the Hebrew above, this should be translated, “Let light be.”


So the Holy Spirit is hovering over the earth, brooding over it as a hen broods over her chicks; and God calls for there to be light.


The Trinity in Genesis 1:1–3

                V. 1 is God the Son, the revealed member of the trinity, Yahweh, Jesus Christ, the creator of the universe (Isa. 42:5 John 1:1–3 Col. 1:16).

                V. 2 is God the Holy Spirit, Who is the source of our power, yet is unseen.

                V. 3 is God the Father, Who has planned everything that we see, yet is not seen by us.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


The first act of the six day restoration, after warming the earth, was to provide light for the earth. This was light from God, not from any celestial star in the heaven, because God is light and in Him is no darkness at all (James 1:17 I John 1:5). This is a completely supernatural act as there was nothing physical, such as the sun or the stars, created to provide this light. All that would come later. The verb "was" is the same verb from Gen. 1:2, except that it is in the Qal imperfect. Vv. 3 and 4 are tied together by a Waw consecutive. This means that we are dealing with a continuous narrative in past time. In a Waw consecutive, the main verb in the previous verse should be in the perfect tense and the main verb in the next verse is in the imperfect tense. This is why we have the slight difference in tenses.


Genesis 1:3c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

ʾôwr (אוֹר) [pronounced ohr]

light [of the moon, of stars]; morning light, day-break, dawn; light [of life; of one’s face]; light [of prosperity, of Bible doctrine, of Jehovah]

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #216 BDB #21


Translation: ...and so light is. There is certainly a lot of disagreement as to what exactly this light is. Some understand this to be the sun, which, for the first time in awhile, filters its way to the surface of the oceans. Others understand this to be God’s light or light from God. From a verse which follows, we know that there is no dry land, which suggests that (1) water covered the earth and (2) this water was probably in the form of ice. The energy of the Holy Spirit combined with the light are very likely warming the earth and melting the ice.



From the standpoint of being on earth, suddenly, there was light. This is in contrast to the darkness over the deep water ([and there was] darkness on the face of the deep water). This did not mean that, during this process, there was no light anywhere above the earth. However, if a person stood on land upon the earth, this land would have been under a chunk of ice and it would have been pitch black dark. From a vantage point above the earth, there may have always been light from the sun on the earth; but from the vantage point of the earth, all would have been dark.


There is the other theory that, there was no light at all and God created (or restored) light at this point in time. The problem with this idea is, we do not have any verb here which means to make, to create. Therefore, God is not necessarily creating something here where was not here already. On the other hand, God does not necessarily need to create light since He Himself is light. The Holy Spirit brooding over the earth may have provided both light and heat. I’ll discuss these various theories in a moment.


I should first deal with chronology and Hebrew writers. You and I tend to think sequentially or chronologically. First this happened, and then this happened, and that is how we often present our perception of anything which we have seen. Therefore, when we read: Gen 1:2b–3 And the Spirit of God was hovering over the surface of the waters. Then God said, "Let there be light!" So there was light. we think in terms of God hovering over the water, heating the earth and then, once that is done, then He makes it light. God the Holy Spirit can be hovering over the earth, and then, suddenly, there is light and heat applied to the frozen earth. You will recall how I made the analogy between the Trinity and the Designer, the Builder and Energy. The Holy Spirit, being energy, may be reasonably seen as producing the heat and light which are applied to the earth.

 

The Hebrew is actually very simple and poetic here.           And so says Elohim,

“Light be.”

And so light is.


In the Hebrew, the verbs are first and the subjects are second; which is typical Hebrew. In both cases, we have the 3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect of the verb to be followed by the substantive light. The first time the verb is used, it is a jussive, which is often used for a 3rd person command. This is where we get the common translation, Let there be light.” It may be more accurately rendered, “Let light be.” After God calls for there to be light, we have 3 very short words And light is. The imperfect is either future or ongoing action; and the perfect tense is completed action. The imperfect tense is used here to indicate that light came about as a command from God, but that this light continues to be.


Interestingly enough, the verbs to create or to make are not found in vv. 2–15. This does not mean that there was no creative activity taking place; it is just not called that.


The Bible tells us that God is light and in Him is no darkness at all (1John 1:5b). When restoring the earth, the first thing which God makes apparent is light. Light is something which, to this very day, is not fully understood. Science is able to describe what light does or how it interacts with that which is in its path, but science does not fully understand what light is, even to this day.

I spoke of the Trinity and here, in v. 3, we have light. Light helps to give us an example of something which is a trinity—light is one in essence, unable to be separated, but there are 3 components to it. Light is luminiferous, calorific and actinic.

How Light Illustrates the Trinity

Property

Description

Parallel

Actinism

The actinic property of light produces photochemical effects. Actinism is neither seen nor felt, but it can produce actual chemical reactions when in contact with matter.

This illustrates God the Father, Who, although not seen nor felt, changes that which He comes into contact with.

Luminance

The luminiferous property of light is what allows us to see things. Objects reflect light which is shined upon them, and we see these objects for what they are. The luminiferous property of light is both seen and felt

This illustrates God the Son, Whom is seen and felt, and Who reveals the true nature of man.

Calorescence

The calorific property of light is its energy, which produces heat. When light is shined upon an object, that object is heated. The calorific property of light is felt but not seen.

This illustrates God the Holy Spirit, Who, because He does not glorify Himself, is felt but not seen.

Light is a package deal. You cannot physically separate the calorific property of light from its actinism. The components or properties of light can only be separated academically or theoretically. They all go together. Light is one, yet it has 3 distinguishable yet inseparable properties or components. This is God—God is one in essence, yet 3 in person. Theoretically, we can separate God into God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit.

When it comes to God’s interaction with man and with the universe, we can assign specific actions to specific members of the Trinity; for instance, in relations to creation, God the Father is the Designer; God the Son is the Builder; and God the Holy Spirit provides the energy. However, God’s essence is such that, we cannot completely separate God into 3 Gods no more than we can divide light into 3 separate entities.

Light helps us in other ways to understand God. God has various characteristics which make up His essence. God is love, righteousness, justice, eternal life, truth, omnipotence, etc. However, when God essence shines upon this or that circumstance, we may only see 2 or 3 of the components of this essence, just as, when light is reflected from a surface, we see what that surface reflects and we do not see what that surface absorbs. That is, light contains all of the colors of the rainbow, but when light is shown upon a red surface, we only see the red, as yellow and blue are absorbed by that surface. Now for the analogy: when Jesus healed in the Bible, we see God’s love, compassion and omnipotence revealed. When Jesus spoke, God’s truth and omniscience are revealed. When God flooded the earth, His omnipotence, righteousness and justice are revealed. So, each time that God’s light is shown upon this or that circumstance, what is apparent to us is a subset of His essence.

This is also important when understanding Who Jesus Christ is. When Jesus Christ speaks—since He is man, since He is God, and since He is the Hypostatic Union of man and God—not everything He says reflects the entirety of His being. When Jesus says, “I thirst” or “The Father is greater than Me,” He is speaking from His humanity. When He says, “Before Abraham, I am [i.e., I existed eternally],” He is speaking from His Deity. When He says, “I am the way, the truth and the life; no man comes to the Father but by Me,” He is speaking from His Hypostatic Union.

Understanding that each action of God does not reveal each and every characteristic of Him (at least, not apparently) and that each thing that Jesus says may refer to one of His three natures, keeps us from falling into cults and believing Christian cult doctrines. This also keeps us from saying stupid things like, “The God of the Old Testament is a mean, vengeful God, but the God of the New Testament is compassionate and caring.”


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


One of the few particular objections to the Genesis record of creation and restoration (apart from those who simply reject it out of hand) is that God says, “Let there be light” and there is light on day one, but the sun is not mentioned until day four. This also distinguishes the thinking of man from the thinking of God. Ancient man and ancient religions have always seen the sun as the great life-giver, and, for this reason, many have worshiped the sun. Today, we have a more full understanding as to the importance of the sun, the light, energy and the heat which it provides; and we know that the sun has a life span which will far outlive the earth, and that the earth and the sun are in a perfect juxtaposition with one another as well (the earth at an axis, spinning around the sun, a perfect distance from the sun, with the perfect amount of atmosphere upon the earth). Quite obviously, for this period of time, the sun is necessary to our very existence. And, if we do not believe in God, it is, quite frankly, even reasonable to worship the sun.


There are actually three theories with respect to the light here on day one and the sun on day four.

Light on Day One/the Sun on Day Four

The first theory is that the sun was a part of God creating the heavens and the earth in the first place (Gen. 1:1), and that it had always been there, and that, when the Holy Spirit warmed the surface of the earth, melting the ice which encased the earth, the light of the sun became visible upon the surface of the earth. Being able to see the sun from the earth as a distinguishable heavenly body does not occur until the 4th day. We have all been out in foggy weather or on a cloudy day, where it was light, but we could not see the sun itself. That is what this first theory suggests. The language on this day and day four allow for this interpretation, as God says, “Let light be, and light is” and on day four, God says, “Let lights be in the place of the heavens,...and so it was.” (Gen. 1:14a, 15b; more explanation will be required when we come to day four).

A second point of view—and I am admittedly torn between these two—is that the light over the earth is God; and the Holy Spirit provided the heat which melted the ice packed earth. As the ice melted, the light of God became more and more visible from the earth below, piercing further and further into the newly melted waters and humid atmosphere. In other words, the light here is God’s light, and not from a solar body. Rev. 21:23 tells us that the glory of God, and not the sun or moon, will light up the New Jerusalem. This theory would hold that the sun and moon were not created until the 4th day.

I suppose that we could actually have a third point of view where the sun is, at this time, up in the sky, not visible on the surface of the earth yet, but that God’s light is visible on the earth, and, in a few days, the sun will be visible from the earth, separate from the light of God.

If I was to lean toward any theory, it would be the third theory—that God is Light and in Him is no darkness at all—and it is His Light here which shines upon the earth and melts the frozen encasement. However, given the language of this verse and vv. 14–16, any one of these 3 theories is reasonable (I will wait until we get to Day Four before I explain in detail vv. 14–16).


Chapter Outline

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Putting these views aside for a moment, let me ask you a question: why is light of any sort necessary? God is fully capable of doing all that we find here in the light, in darkness, or in a very dim light. God does not require light in which to work. He may want to turn on the lights before man walks on planet earth, but prior to this, why is there light? Three answers: (1) God is light and in Him is no darkness, so it is His very nature to be light. (2) Light is needed so that God can reveal to angelic creation just what He is doing. Although the fallen angels have been temporarily restrained in chains of darkness, God reveals to the elect angels what He is doing (as well as to the fallen angels, who have probably been confined to the earth). (3) It is possible that the light and the heat are both from God the Holy Spirit is principally His light which heats the earth.


We do not know the exact nature of angels and how much this nature has changed over time, nor do we know the exact restrictions which God has placed upon angels throughout their history. In Gen. 6, angels are able to have physical relationships with women, and that women bear their children. In Job 1–2, we have angels speaking to God in the throne room of God. Therefore, angels have a mode of travel available to them which may be related to the composition of their bodies and physical changes which their bodies can go through.


It is possible and even reasonable that God created the universe and the earth, and either gave the angels the earth to live upon and/or, gave them full access to all the universe. In my opinion, the earth was originally made for angelic creation, and that it was packed in ice when a third of the angels fell (this done as a part of the judgment of the angels which fell, which judgment has not been brought to its fruition yet). Quite obviously, the ability of angels to live and move is not based upon the earth or upon the sun.


In any case, the light of God being shown upon planet earth—particularly if this was once an angelic habitat—would certainly get the attention of all angels. That God, from the very beginning, would make it so that His work on earth could be seen by all the angels, makes perfect sense.


In case you question whether God could or would restrict or affect the physical nature of angels, bear in mind that we will be given resurrection bodies at the resurrection, which bodies will be like the resurrection body of Christ, capable of many things which our bodies cannot do now (Jesus walked through a closed door and He ascended into heaven in His resurrection body). Adam’s body was originally designed to live forever. However, he will be subject to death when he eats the fruit in the garden, which is another dramatic physical change, as well as a very serious restriction placed upon the physical body. Therefore, it is reasonable to suppose that fallen angels have, from time to time, been restricted as to what their bodies were capable of (for instance, fallen angels being frozen upon the earth; fallen angels being allowed physical contact with man and then having that privilege revoked).


Quite obviously, you may question the existence of angels in the first place, because you have never personally seen an angel. My belief in angels comes solely from the Bible. I have never seen one before either nor have I even talked to an angel. There are a lot of things which I believe in which I have never seen with my own two eyes: Australia, Uranus, bacteria, the expanding of the universe, atoms, my own kidneys, and the souls of the people I know—I have never actually seen any of these things myself (although I have obviously seen photos of the first three), but I strongly believe that they all exist.


In any case, at least one passage suggests that the angels observed the creation and restoration of the heavens and earth. God speaking to Job, said, “Where were you [spoken not just to Job, but to mankind in general] when I laid the foundations of the earth? Tell [Me], if you have understanding. Who determined the measures of it, if you know? Or who stretched the line on it? To what were the foundations of it fastened? Or who laid its cornerstone, when the morning stars [angels] sang together, and all the sons of God [angels] shouted for joy?” (Job 38:4–8).


There is a lot which we can say about angels based upon the Bible; however, suffice it to say that the light of God shown upon the earth is, in part, for their benefit. When Satan drops in on the woman (in Gen. 3), we will examine angelic creation again—and Satan himself—in greater depth.


Twice now, in 3 short verses, angels are implied, yet not spoken of directly. They have already been created, and I would postulate that has occurred around the time the earth was created (in Job 38, the angels are apparently observing and shouting about the foundations of the earth (the physical laws associated with the earth). Secondly, God makes the earth light, which implies that He shown a light upon the earth for a reason. I have suggested that reason is, angelic creation.


Interestingly enough, in a December 2008 Harris poll survey of Americans, 80% of Americans believe in God and 71% believe in angels.


This creation of light for the earth suggests how God judged the earth and its angels—God simply removed His light. This would have plunged the world immediately into darkness and ice.


——————————


And so sees, Elohim, the light, that [it is] good. And so distinguishes, Elohim, between the light and between the [extreme] darkness.

Genesis

1:4

Then Elohim saw the light—that [it is] good. Therefore, Elohim distinguished [or, caused there to be a separation] between the light and the [extreme] darkness.

Then God behold the light, that it is good (pleasing and agreeable). God then separated the light from the darkness.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the Lord beheld the light, that it was good; and the Lord divided between the light and the darkness.

Latin Vulgate                          And God saw the light that it was good; and he divided the light from the darkness.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so sees, Elohim, the light, that [it is] good. And so distinguishes, Elohim, between the light and between the [extreme] darkness.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And God saw that the light was good; and God separated the light from the darkness.

Septuagint (Greek)                And God saw the light that it was good, and God divided between the light and the darkness.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           God saw how good the light was. God separated the light from the darkness.

Contemporary English V.       God looked at the light and saw that it was good. He separated light from darkness...

Easy-to-Read Version            God saw the light, and he knew it was good. Then God separated the light from the darkness.

Good News Bible (TEV)         God was pleased with what he saw. Then he separated the light from the darkness, ...


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          And God saw that the light was good. Then God created a division between the light and the darkness.

Ancient Roots Translinear      God saw the light was-good. God separated between the light and the darkness.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And God, looking on the light, saw that it was good: and God made a division between the light and the dark,...

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 And God gazed upon that beautiful light; and God divided the light from the darkness.

NET Bible®                             God saw [Heb "And God saw the light, that it was good." The verb "saw" in this passage carries the meaning "reflected on," "surveyed," "concluded," "noted." It is a description of reflection of the mind - it is God's opinion. ] that the light was good [The Hebrew word ???? (tov) in this context signifies whatever enhances, promotes, produces, or is conducive for life. It is the light that God considers "good," not the darkness. Whatever is conducive to life in God's creation is good, for God himself is good, and that goodness is reflected in all of his works.], so God separated [The verb "separate, divide" here explains how God used the light to dispel the darkness. It did not do away with the darkness completely, but made a separation. The light came alongside the darkness, but they are mutually exclusive - a theme that will be developed in the Gospel of John (cf. John 1:5).] [The idea of separation is critical to this chapter. God separated light from darkness, upper water from lower water, day from night, etc. The verb is important to the Law in general. In Leviticus God separates between clean and unclean, holy and profane (Lev 10:10, 11:47 and 20:24); in Exodus God separates the Holy Place from the Most Holy Place (Exod 26:33). There is a preference for the light over the darkness, just as there will be a preference for the upper waters, the rain water which is conducive to life, over the sea water.] the light from the darkness.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                And God saw that the light was good (suitable, pleasant) and He approved it; and God separated the light from the darkness.

Concordant Literal Version    And seeing is the Elohim the light, that it is good. And separating is the Elohim between the light and the darkness.

exeGeses companion Bible   And Elohim sees the light is good:

and Elohim separates

between the light and between the darkness:.

LTHB                                     And God saw the light, that it was good, and God separated between the light and darkness.

Syndein                                  And Elohiym/Godhead saw that the light . . . {was} good; then Elohiym/Godhead caused to separate between the light and between the darkness.

World English Bible                God saw the light, and saw that it was good. God divided the light from the darkness.

Young’s Updated LT             And God sees the light, that it is good, and God separates between the light and the darkness.

 

The gist of this verse: 


Genesis 1:4a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

râʾâh (רָאָה) [pronounced raw-AWH]

to see, to look, to look at, to view, to behold; to perceive, to understand, to learn, to know

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #7200 BDB #906

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun

Strong's #430 BDB #43

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʾôwr (אוֹר) [pronounced ohr]

light [of the moon, of stars]; morning light, day-break, dawn; light [of life; of one’s face]; light [of prosperity, of Bible doctrine, of Jehovah]

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #216 BDB #21


Translation: Then Elohim saw the light... This is the light which is upon the earth (I am making that assumption), and God is observing its effect upon the earth, its making the earth visible once again.


Genesis 1:4b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

ţôwb (טוֹב) [pronounced towbv]

to be good [pleasant, beautiful, delightful], to be delicious, to be cheerful [happy, joyful], to be kind, to be well, to do well, to do right

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect (or a Qal participle)

Strong’s #2895 BDB #373

Apparently, the 3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect is identical to the Qal participle and to the masculine singular adjective as well (which is Strong’s #2896 BDB #373). The masculine singular adjective means pleasant, pleasing, agreeable, good, better; approved.

Therefore, the word here may be...

ţôwb (טוֹב) [pronounced tohbv]

pleasant, pleasing, agreeable, good, better; approved

masculine feminine singular adjective which can act like a substantive

Strong’s #2896 BDB #373


Translation:...—that [it is] good. Whether this is a verb or an adjective, the conclusion that God comes to is the same; this light is pleasing, agreeable, good and divinely approved. It is the light which allows us to actually visualize what it is that we are seeing; we are seeing this thing for exactly as it is. What is seen is not necessarily good, but the light which makes it visible is good.


The light which God produced either directly (with God being the light) or indirectly (if this is the ability to perceive the light of the sun from the earth) was judged by God to be good. This means that, God’s creation of light was exactly what He wanted it to be. It satisfied God’s criteria for being exactly what it should be.


The earth, instead of it being entirely encased in ice, to the point of it being dark below the ice, now has light upon it, so that those upon the earth can see this light. The ice was melted and there was light and warmth upon the surface of the earth, which is still all water and ice. Rising from the earth would be a huge amount of steam, from all of the water being evaporated as the ice is quickly melted. Light could be seen from the surface of the earth through all of this fog, but not necessarily the exact source of the light.


On the earth, at this point in time, light could now be distinguished from darkness. The covering of ice was mostly melted, there was steam in the air as we have never seen before—the thickest fog you could imagine—but even in this thick fog, light could be distinguished from the darkness. As the earth rotates on its axis, each portion of the earth goes from darkness to light to darkness once again.


Light is an extremely important concept in Scripture. Therefore, let me pursue a few places in the Bible where we have references to light.

The Doctrine of Light

1.      When restoring the earth, the first thing which God does is provide light for the earth. This makes the earth visible to anyone on the earth (e.g., angelic life) and possibly is involved in heating the earth as well. Gen. 1:2–3

2.      As we have already seen, light can be broken down into 3 component parts, which can be separated from one another theoretically, but not in actuality: actinic light, luminiferous light and calorific light. This helps to illustrate the Trinity, wherein God is always presented as One God—He is One in essence; but He exists in 3 persons.

3.      The Bible tells us that God is light, and in Him is no darkness at all. 1John 1:5

         1)      This is because light can be used to illustrate God as One and as the Trinity.

         2)      God reveals man exactly for what man is (as light reveals the colors of an object it is shined upon.

         3)      There is no part of God which needs to be hidden; there are no hidden characteristics of God. There is nothing about God which cannot be exposed to us which could indicate that there is anything wrong with his character.

         4)      Light is absolutely necessary for our existence, just as God is.

4.      Jesus proclaims, “I am the light of the world.” John 8:12 9:5

5.      The gospel (the good news as to Who Jesus is and what He has done) is light. 2Cor. 4:4

6.      The gospel brings us out of spiritual darkness into the light. Luke 1:79 1Peter 2:9 cf. Col. 1:12-14

7.      Believers should always be aware that Satan presents himself as an angel of light. This is why all religion is of Satan. 2Cor. 11:14

8.      The glory of God will provide the light for the new Jerusalem. Rev. 21:24

There are at least two places on the internet where you can find a more complete doctrine of Light:


http://www.portlandbiblechurch.com/DoctrineFolder/DOCTRINE%20OF%20LIGHT.pdf


http://www.swordofthespiritbibleministries.com/RJSonnet/RJSonnetNOTES/RJS%20Notes%20DLi%20Doc%20of%20Light.pdf


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Genesis 1:4c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

bâdal (בָּדַל) [pronounced baw-DAHL]

to separate, [disjoin, sever]; to divide into parts; to distinguish, to make a distinction, to show a difference; to select [out from a group]; to divide into parts; to shut out

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect

Strong's #914 BDB #95

This verb will occur many times in this chapter. It is an important verb.

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun

Strong's #430 BDB #43

bêyn (בֵּין) [pronounced bane]

in the midst of, between, among; when found twice, it means between

preposition

Strong's #996 BDB #107

ʾôwr (אוֹר) [pronounced ohr]

light [of the moon, of stars]; morning light, day-break, dawn; light [of life; of one’s face]; light [of prosperity, of Bible doctrine, of Jehovah]

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #216 BDB #21

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

bêyn (בֵּין) [pronounced bane]

in the midst of, between, among; when found twice, it means between

preposition

Strong's #996 BDB #107

When this preposition is found more than once, it is most accurately rendered between (and translated only once).

chôsheke (חֹשֶ) [pronounced KHOH-sheke]

darkness, obscurity, extraordinary [extreme] darkness; metaphorically for misery, adversity, sadness, wickedness; destruction; ignorance

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #2822 BDB #365


Translation: Therefore, Elohim distinguished [or, caused there to be a separation] between the light and the [extreme] darkness. God will cause there to be a separation between the light and the dark, and we will reasonably assume that this is in relation to the earth.


God makes a distinction between the light and the darkness, which is somewhat thematic for this chapter and the entire Bible.


Ţôwb (טוֹב) [pronounced towbv] has a variety of meanings: pleasant to the, good, excellent, joyful, fruitful, lovely, etc. Primarily it stands for moral goodness as against immoral evil. In this case, God declared that the light was as He expected it to be, morally good and perfect in the function for which it was invented since it came directly from His hand.


Bâdal (בָּדַל) [pronounced baw-DAHL] means to separate, disjoin, divide, discern, to make a difference or to divide into parts. So, what exactly does this mean in this context? God has invented darkness and light.. He will distinguish them by name and He will divide them into two parts by having a period of light (daytime) and a period of darkness (nighttime). God did not make darkness at this point in time because the earth was already enshrouded in darkness, having been packed in this ice, since it had been under judgement. He did not invent light here but returned it to the earth. The angelic creation had light before Satan sinned.


When it comes to a time frame, we can certainly allow that v. 2 could have taken a great deal of time. The brooding or hovering over the waters is in the Piel participle, indicating continuous action. However, the light being brought to the earth is instantaneous. Why do we not have the sun first and then the light? This is how many ancient religions saw things; the sun as the great life-giver. However, God, not the sun, it the originator of heat and light, which He provides in vv.2 and 3. This still does not explain why before anything else in restoration, God creates light on the earth. When the angels and the earth was under judgement, it was packed with ice and enshrouded with darkness. This was the last angelic vision of the earth. God has warmed the ice pack and now brings light to the earth so that the angelic creation, both the fallen and the elect angels, can see what God is doing. This is a part of Satan's trial. Under sentencing, Satan certainly objected to several points. (1) How can a loving God cast any of His creatures into a lake of fire? (2) How can I be responsible for my actions; You created me thus? (3) Is God really righteous? (4) Is God really love? (5) Does God really understand what I am subjected to? (6) Isn't this sentence too severe for the crime committed?


Recall the Satan is a genius and certainly had objections which numbered in the thousands. Human history will answer every objection and vindicate God's judgements and righteousness. So why did God provide light first? So that the angelic creation could observe from the very beginning what would transpire on earth.


——————————


And so names, Elohim, the light “Day;” and the darkness He named “Night.” And so is evening and so is morning—day one.

Genesis

1:5

And Elohim names the light “Day” and He had called the darkness “Night.” And evening is and morning is—the first day.

And God named the light “Day” and the darkness “Night.” There was evening and there was morning—the very first day-age.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the Lord call the light Day; and He made it that the inhabiters of the world might labour by it: and the darkness called He night; and He made it that in it the creatures might have rest. And it was evening, and it was morning, the First Day. [JERUSALEM TARGUM. And it was evening, and it was morning, in the order of the work of the creation, (or of the beginning,) the First Day.]

Latin Vulgate                          And he called the light Day, and the darkness Night; and there was evening and morning one day.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so names, Elohim, the light “Day;” and the darkness He named “Night.” And so is evening and so is morning—day one.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, the first day.

Septuagint (Greek)                And God called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night, and there was evening and there was morning, the first day.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       ...and named the light "Day" and the darkness "Night." Evening came and then morning--that was the first day.

Easy English                          He named the light `day' and he named the darkness `night'. There was evening and there was morning. That was the first day.

Easy-to-Read Version            God named the light “day,” and he named the darkness “night.”.

Good News Bible (TEV)         ...and he named the light "Day" and the darkness "Night." Evening passed and morning came---that was the first day.

The Message                         God named the light Day, he named the dark Night. It was evening, it was morning-- Day One.

New Berkeley Version           The light God called Day and the darkness He called Night. There was evening and there was morning, one day.

New Living Translation           God called the light "day" and the darkness "night."

And evening passed and morning came, marking the first day.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          He called the light day and the darkness night. So came the evening and morning of the first day.

Ancient Roots Translinear      God called the light "Day", and he called the darkness "Night". Evening was and morning was; day one.

God’s Word                         God named the light day, and the darkness he named night. There was evening, then morning-the first day.

New American Bible              God called the light "day," and the darkness he called "night." Evening came, and morning followed-the first day. In ancient Israel a day was considered to begin at sunset.

 

ew Jerusalem Bible                God called light 'day', and darkness he called 'night'. Evening came and morning came: the first day.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             Naming the light, Day, and the dark, Night. And there was evening and there was morning, the first day.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 And to the light, God gave the name Day, and to the darkness, He gave the name Night. This was the close and the dawn of the first age.

NET Bible®                             God called [Heb "he called to," meaning "he named."] [God called. Seven times in this chapter naming or blessing follows some act of creation. There is clearly a point being made beyond the obvious idea of naming. In the Babylonian creation story Enuma Elish, naming is equal to creating. In the Bible the act of naming, like creating, can be an indication of sovereignty (see 2 Kgs 23:34). In this verse God is sovereign even over the darkness.] the light "day" and the darkness [Heb "and the darkness he called night." The words "he called" have not been repeated in the translation for stylistic reasons.] "night." There was evening, and there was morning [Another option is to translate, "Evening came, and then morning came." This formula closes the six days of creation. It seems to follow the Jewish order of reckoning time: from evening to morning. Day one started with the dark, continued through the creation of light, and ended with nightfall. Another alternative would be to translate, "There was night and then there was day, one day."], marking the first day. The first day. The exegetical evidence suggests the word "day" in this chapter refers to a literal twenty-four hour day. It is true that the word can refer to a longer period of time (see Isa 61:2, or the idiom in 2:4, "in the day," that is, "when"). But this chapter uses "day," "night," "morning," "evening," "years," and "seasons." Consistency would require sorting out how all these terms could be used to express ages. Also, when the Hebrew word ???? (yom) is used with a numerical adjective, it refers to a literal day. Furthermore, the commandment to keep the sabbath clearly favors this interpretation. One is to work for six days and then rest on the seventh, just as God did when he worked at creation.

The Scriptures 1998              And Elohim called the light ‘dayʼ and the darkness He called ‘night.ʼ And there came to be evening and there came to be morning, the first day.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And calling is the Elohim the light "day, and the darkness He calls "night." And coming is it to be evening and coming to be morning, day one.

A Conservative Version         And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day.

Darby Translation                  And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And there was evening, and there was morning -- the first day.

exeGeses companion Bible   ...and Elohim calls the light Day

and he calls the darkness Night:

and evening becomes and morning becomes

day first.

Heritage Bible                        And God called the light, Day, and the darkness he called, Night. And it was dusk, and it was dawn, day one. night and day, layil and yowm, and dusk and dawn, ereb and boqer, are what God used to set the clock of time into motion. We must learn how to weigh out our days so that our heart comes to God’s wisdom, Ps 90:12. Evolution, which is false, theorizes time without beginning and without end so man thinks he does not have to face God.

Modern KJV                           And God called the light, Day. And He called the darkness, Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.

 

Syndein                                  Consequently, Elohiym/Godhead called the light . . . Day, but the darkness He called . . . Night. So it became 'getting darker' {evening - rotated on its axis} and it became 'getting lighter' {dawn}.

Day one.

{Note: This means the earth was rotating, once every 24 hours.}.

Young’s Updated LT             And God calls to the light “Day,” and to the darkness He has called “Night;” and there is an evening, and there is a morning—day one.

 

The gist of this verse: 


Genesis 1:5a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

qârâʾ (קָרָא) [pronounced kaw-RAW]

to call, to proclaim, to read, to call to, to call out to, to assemble, to summon; to call, to name [when followed by a lâmed]

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #7121 BDB #894

When followed by a lâmed, as it is here, it means to give a name to.

This is a homonym; the other qârâʾ means to encounter, to befall, to meet, to assemble.

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun

Strong's #430 BDB #43

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾôwr (אוֹר) [pronounced ohr]

light [of the moon, of stars]; morning light, day-break, dawn; light [of life; of one’s face]; light [of prosperity, of Bible doctrine, of Jehovah]

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #216 BDB #21

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article); possibly immediately

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398


Translation: And Elohim names the light “Day”... The wâw consecutive followed by imperfect verbs sets up a logical order. In the previous verse, God distinguishes between the light and the darkness; in this verse, He calls the light “Day.” It is a logical and chronological progression. Observe: light; darkness—we will called the light “Day.”


Again, there is no reason to assume that God is speaking to Himself. It is logical that He is developing a complete theology through illustrations to all of the angels who are observing this—both the elect angels and the fallen angels.


Genesis 1:5b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

chôsheke (חֹשֶ) [pronounced KHOH-sheke]

darkness, obscurity, extraordinary [extreme] darkness; metaphorically for misery, adversity, sadness, wickedness; destruction; ignorance

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #2822 BDB #365

qârâʾ (קָרָא) [pronounced kaw-RAW]

to call, to proclaim, to read, to call to, to call out to, to assemble, to summon; to call, to name [when followed by a lâmed]

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #7121 BDB #894

layelâh (לַיְלָה) [pronounced LAY-law]

night; nightly, at night, in the night, during the night

masculine singular noun; this word can take on adverbial qualities; pausal form

Strong’s #3915 BDB #538


Translation: ...and He had called the darkness “Night.” Note the change in tense. Here, to call, to name is in the perfect tense. This ends the logical, chronological development. Probably, God named the darkness after He named the light. However, by throwing in this perfect tense, we end that particular logical progression. This allows us to begin anew in the next part of this verse.


From the very beginning, God developed a vocabulary—a technical vocabulary, if you will. Furthermore, scientific studies have shown that man is hard-wired for language (since we are made in God’s image, this would make sense). And, if the human brain is not exposed to language during the critical years, the brain will be unable to develop any real language skills (as we have seen in studies of wild children). Therefore, from the very beginning, God will name things and do things, and this information will be conveyed to man with language when man is created.


Let me add that God has chosen to communicate with man through language. The Bible does not tell us to put ourselves into a religious trance; it does not require us to work up some sort of an emotional fervor; and there are no formulas provided for us to have a so-called deep and non-verbal connection with God. However, God does communicate with us through His Word, the Bible. That is language. All that we understand about Who God is and what He has done and what He will do is all found in the Bible, and all of this information is communicated with language. God made certain that we have been created with verbal skills; that we can understand language and that we can develop our intellect through the use of language. And once we reach a certain point—called God-consciousness—then God often communicates with us (those who have an interest in God will be presented with the gospel, spoken to them in words, which they can then either accept or reject).


Genesis 1:5c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

ʿereb (עֶרֶב) [pronounced ĢEH-rebv]

evening, sunset

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #6153 BDB #787


Translation: And evening is... It is these verb tenses which allow us to sort everything out. Okay, now did God create the light, observe that it is good, name it, name darkness, and then there is the evening; or what?


What is reasonably the case, and I don’t know exactly how important this is, the time during which the earth was encased in thick darkness would be evening; the time when God came and lit up the earth and the Holy Spirit brooded over the earth would be day.


However, it is possible that all of these things transpire, then there is evening and then there is day. The Hebrew does not make that an impossibility.


In the Hebrew, they understand that a day is first evening and night following by morning and day. Now, the way that this is presented is, we have the day that God did all of this stuff, followed by an evening, which would be day one, the way that we understand a day to be. However, if we understand that there was this time of darkness followed by God warming the earth, along with making the earth light—that would be day one and that would be in keeping with the Jewish understanding of a day.


You can see that this would have taken place over a period of time and not over a 24 hour period of time; that is the logical conclusion. Now, I realize that this is going to put some believers off, but stay with me on this as we exegete the remainder of this chapter. We will transition to a normal 24 hour day fairly soon, and the Bible will tell us when that occurs.


Again, God can do this instantaneously—earth could go from frozen to temperate in a moment’s time, but God does this over a period of time, so that His audience can view what is happening. The earth was shrouded in thick darkness and now, God is making it light.


Genesis 1:5d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

bôqer (בֹּקֶר) [pronounced BOH-ker]

morning, daybreak, dawn; the next morning

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #1242 BDB #133


Translation: ...and morning is... Understanding that there is a logical progression here, apart from the duration of the verb, we first have an evening and then we have a morning. At the end of this verse, we will look at these two options as a chart.


Let me suggest to you that what is happening is, the earth is just there, and God begins to spin the earth on its axis. Recall, there is nothing that God created other than the heavens and the earth, so the stars and the universe can occur later. Quite obviously, the laws of physics would be stood on their head for this period of time.


Here is my picture of this—and take this with a grain of salt: God the Holy Spirit is brooding over the earth and then He begins to rotate the earth on its axis. Then there is light, while the rotation continues slowly, very slowly, as the ice is melted by the light and possibly by the Holy Spirit. Taking this view, the Holy Spirit is not just brooding over the earth but He is causing the earth to rotate, and the heat of the light rests upon the earth and the ice is melted and the earth is turned.


There are certainly other views of how all of this happened. One view—probably the one of the most predominant views—is that all of the universe and the laws of the universe have already been created, but they cannot be seen on the earth because it is packed in ice. So, this stuff that is happening to the earth occurs as per the perception of someone on earth. So, they at first cannot see the sun and stars easily, but, at some point, they will come into focus, and that will be the third day.


There is also the day-age theory that all of the days in Genesis are actually ages, and there is this tremendous amount of time for each one of them. This viewpoint, which is held mostly by people who know very little about the Bible (they may still be Christians, of course) have somewhat of a arm’s-length view of the first chapter of Genesis. They look at it as being allegorical, symbolic and often, more or less, lining up with evolution.


Genesis 1:5e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article); possibly immediately

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

ʾechâd (אֶחָד) [pronounced eh-KHAWD]

one, first, certain, only; each, every; but it can also mean a composite unity; possibly particular; anyone

numeral adjective

Strong's #259 BDB #25


Translation:...—the first day. The Jewish day typically starts at dusk, continues through the night, includes the next morning and day, and is completed with the next dusk.


Restoration began at night, so there Hebrew "day" begins at night. God warmed the earth in darkness and then provided light. We possibly could have translated the second sentence: And there had been evening and morning, one day. This, however, was not the first day of creation. This was one day. I know that the difference has eluded some. Note the end of v. 8: a second day; the end of v. 13: a third day, etc. V. 5 is not an ordinal number. V. 5 does not say the first day. Most translations catch this and the end of v. 5 is translated differently from the end of vv. 8, 13, 19, etc. What is the difference? V. 5 is not the first day; it is one day, invented by God. It is not the actually beginning. In other words, it is not the first day of creation. From that day, we will begin to number the days with ordinal, consecutive numbers. However, there was history prior to this verse. If this was the first day of creation, and if vv. 1-4 were all tied together under day one of creation, then God would have said the first day instead of one day.


I am struggling with a minor detail here; when evening and morning come to pass, is this a reference to the evening and morning just spoken of, or, have these events occurred, then evening and morning? This "one day" certainly refers back to what has already occurred (we can conclude that from examining v. 31). However, there are two ways of looking at a 24 hour day; a day as beginning with the evening and concluding with dusk or a day beginning with dawn and concluding with the end of night. The Hebrews took a full day as the latter and we look at a full day as the former. We do not know the length of time that God the Holy Spirit chose to brood over the earth. However, daybreak began with the creation of light over the earth. Night follows this day, there is daybreak, and that is one day.


The reason it is done like that can be explained by the beginning phrase in v. 1: In the beginning; that may also be translated At first... We find this word occurring elsewhere with similar meanings (e.g., chief or choice part), but we find it quite often in the phase first fruits (or, more literally, first of fruits). Insofar as we are concerned, the beginning or the first thing was the creation of the earth. We have no concept of anything occurring prior to that. We theologians often refer to that as eternity past and, as far as I have studied, I do not see any light being shed upon that beyond what we find in the first chapter of John. So what occurred in v. 1 is "the first." However, because the earth became tohu wabohu, we have a period of restoration which begins in darkness. (when God the Holy Spirit warmed the earth) and the morning when God caused light to appear. The creation portion is instantaneous. That is, God brings light upon the earth, creates, and then lets the angels examine what He has done throughout the day during the daylight.


There are two ways to view this first day:

Two Different Views of Day One

The First Evening is When It is Dark Over the Earth

The First Day begins with Light and the Holy Spirit Brooding over the Earth

The darkness; the evening; the “Night”

The earth is packed in ice and there is darkness on the face of the deep. The Holy Spirit begin to brood over the earth.

Darkness over the earth.

The earth is packed ice and there is darkness over the face of the deep.

The light; the morning; the “Day”

As the Holy Spirit begins to brood over the earth, God says, “Light be” and light came to pass.

Light over the earth.

The Holy Spirit brooding over the earth and the light are simultaneous occurrences.

That was the first evening and the first morning. Reasonably, there was a period of time more than 12 hours for at least the first evening.

This corresponds exactly with the Hebrew concept of one day; evening, night, morning, day.

An evening follows. The day above and this nighttime could be viewed as a 24 hour period of time.

This corresponds exactly with our concept of a day, which begins in the morning and goes through the night.

Now, if we take the day-age view, then we can pretty much ignore the two choices above and most of the careful exegesis of this chapter of Genesis.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines



The first approach is my understanding of these first 5 verses (more precisely, vv. 2b–5), and this would mean than an evening would follow, then there would be day, and God would do something during that day to continue restoring planet earth.


This would have been the beginning of day two, which begins in the evening. Now, recall the scenario that these verses seem to set up—God takes this earth, which is not necessarily associated with a solar system or with the laws of physics as we know them, and He begins to rotate this earth, probably slowly at first, and the Holy Spirit is over the waters, probably melting them, and God said, let there be light, and there is light. However, with all the careful notations of day and night, morning and evening, God appears to have the light on only one side of the earth. In the alternative, God is surrounding the entire earth and suddenly, there is light all about the earth. All of the earth was in darkness but now all of it is in light. This second notion makes it more difficult to get to the evening again. We do not have got turning on and off the light for each day.


Let’s put all of Day One together now:


Gen 1:2b And the Spirit of God was hovering over the water. God the Holy Spirit heats the earth as it turns on its axis.


Gen 1:3 Then God said, "Let there be light!" So there was light. God was the light over the earth as is turned on its axis.


Gen 1:4 God saw the light was good. God separated [distinguished] the light from the darkness. As the earth turned on its axis, there was a distinction between light and dark.


Gen 1:5 God named the light day, and the darkness he named night. There was evening, then morning—the first day. God develops a vocabulary later to be used with man.


This creation narrative appears to be that which is seen from the point of view of someone on the earth, and not someone in the sky looking down. We may either envision God the Son standing upon the waters on the earth and calling for these things to come to pass; or we may envision angels upon this earth observing all of the changes that the earth is gong through. There is a period of time when it is light, there is a period of time when it is dark. This sounds a lot like the rotation of the earth on its axis. The sky is filled with thick clouds, porous enough to allow light to come through, but opaque so that the sun and moon cannot yet be seen in the sky (if, indeed, they are even there at this time). Or, as has already been covered, God the Holy Spirit (and perhaps God the Son or God the Father) is hovering over the earth providing light and heat while the earth turns on its axis. The sun and moon may be seen as being created or revealed on day four.


There are a couple of technical literary points to attend to. Gen 1:5b There was evening, then morning—the first day. God did not warm the surface of the earth, make light shine upon the earth, and then there was evening and then there was morning, day one. God began this process in the dark (the warming of the surface of the earth) and He continued throughout the period when it was light, when God said, “Let light be.” My point is, the final half of v. 5 does not describe what happened next; it summarizes the time frame from vv. 2b–5a. This is very common to Hebrew writing—a summary is often presented before or after the actual narrative.


It is a normal inclination to say, “It got dark, God stopped working; it got light, and God started back to work again.” However, that is not what is being said in this text. We know this for two reasons: Jews look at each day as beginning at night and going until the evening of the next day. This is because it parallels creation, which began when the earth was enshrouded in darkness (and in ice), and then there was light—evening first and then light, one day. The Jews looked at each day in this way, because they were closely tied to the creation of the earth by their knowledge of Scripture.


The second reason we understand the final half of v. 5 to be a summary of time, because it reads: And so the evening is, and so the morning is—Day One. We do not have, then it was evening, and then it is morning, day one ends and day two begins. Nor do we have, and then it was evening, so ending day one; and then it is morning, the beginning of day two. Throughout this chapter, each creative period ends with the statement, And then it was evening and then it was morning, day ____. The simple numbering of the day always looks back to the day which has just passed.


The next issue to deal with is the concept of "a day." (1) In the Old Testament (as well as in the New), the word day can refer to a period of time less than 24 hours. Gen. 1:5,16 are clear examples where God designates the daytime portion of a 24 hour period of time as a day. (2) Day can be used for a period of time which exceeds 24 hours (Gen. 2:4 Lev. 23:27). (3) And day can be a period of 24 hours (Gen. 2:3 Ex. 20:8–11). Why do some theologians interpret this use of day as being greater than 24 hours? (1) Science has convinced many of them that the earth is quite a bit older than 10,000 years, so this will allow us to add in some extra millenniums. (2) A day is to the Lord as a thousand years, a quotation from II Pet. 3:8. (3) Some have been so brainwashed with evolution that they would like to allow time for plants and animals to evolve, yet still hold to the Genesis account. However, throughout this portion of Genesis, we have no indication that creation was anything other than instantaneous, with the exception of the Holy Spirit brooding upon the face of the waters and the creation of Eve. The very use of the word morning suggests that God, at dawn, created what He intended to create, and then allowed the angels to examine for a period of time what it was that He had done. Our Lord said, "Let there be light," and light was. However, if I were trying to designate that these were twenty-four hour days, I would have used the same construction as we see here and tie six days of restoration with six days of work, and the seventh day of rest for God to the seventh day of rest for man. Throughout the Old Testament, when a day is shorter or longer than 24hours, the context is clear. The examples given for periods of time less than or exceeding 24 hours are clear to any reader. However, if the context does not dictate that we are dealing with a period greater or less than 24 hours, then I see no reason to interpret this set of six days of restoration as being any different than six 24 hour periods of time. In no wise did God require 24 hours of time to create anything which was created and the Bible does not indicate that there was a longer process of creation with the two exceptions noted. That time gave the angels the opportunity to examine what God had done, and then time to discuss it. After all, our world is here for a purpose and the purpose is tied directly to the angelic creation which preceded us.


Furthermore, in this verse, God designates that the darkness will be called night and the light will be called day. He has set up a specific set of times or period of time and has labeled them. If we want to think that the "creative day" is thousands of years long, that means that the creative night would similarly be thousands of years long. And, if we have a "creative period of time" which exceeds a day, then why does God, immediately from the outset of restoration, classify day and night and then tells us that one night and one day have just transpired when thousands of days and nights would have transpired in such a creative period of time? If God's Word tells me or implies through exegesis that we are dealing with creative periods of time, then I have no problem with that viewpoint. But the clear teaching is that God first classifies the concept of night and day, tells us that one night and one day have just passed and that was one day. I don't think that He could be any more clear than that. Now, what we should cover in greater detail is the Doctrine of Days—not finished yet!!


Also, in approximately 360 instances of days being associated with numbers in the Bible, the sense is, nearly always, a particular day in time rather than a long duration of time (Hosea 6:2 may be the lone exception to this; examples: Gen. 27:45 30:32 34:25 40:20). Unless you have strong reasons for interpreting day X in Genesis as referring to more than a 24 hour period of time—a strong literary reason—then you do not get to impose your idea of how long it should take for God to do this or that.


In the Bible, in both the Greek and the Hebrew, the word day does not always refer to a 24-hour period of time.

How Long is a Day?

Length of Time

Examples

Less than 24 hours

In Gen. 1:16, God made the sun to rule over the day, which would be a 12 hour period of time.


Adam is warned about eating from the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil, because the day in which he eats from this tree, dying, he would die (Gen. 2:17b). Adam died spiritually the instant that he ate the fruit that Eve offered him. Satan speaks of the day in which the fruit of this tree is eaten, and this would be an instantaneous result.


God walking in the breeze of the day in the Garden of Eden would be during a 12 hour period of time (Gen. 3:8). See also Gen. 8:22. In Gen. 18:1, the heat of the day refers to a particular time of the day, which would refer to a period of several hours. The emphasis is not upon any duration of time, but more to a time-window, during which, God came to Abraham.

More than 24 hours.

Adam died physically about 930 years after eating from the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil. That means that in one verse (Gen. 2:17), we have day referring to an instant and, at the same time, to 930 years.


A passage often quoted is 2Peter 3:8, which reads: But, beloved, do not forget this one thing, that with the Lord one day is as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day. The context is patience, waiting on the Lord for His coming. God is waiting for all to come to a change of mind about Him. What this does not mean is, anytime we feel like it, we can say that this or that day in Scripture suddenly represents 1000 years. That is a complete misapplication of 2Peter 3:8.

24-hour day

Gen. 1:5: God calls the darkness night, the light day; there is an evening and there is morning, day one. You will note the first use of this word is actually a 12-hour period of time; the second is a 24-hour period of time.


The Sabbath day is always seen as a 24-hour period of time, beginning at sunset on Friday evening and continuing until sunset of Saturday evening (Gen. 2:3). It is important to recognize that the Sabbath day is first related to the 6 days of creation, which further suggests that these are all 24 hour periods of time.


When a day is numbered, we are either referring to that specific day or to that 24 hour period. Generally speaking, when a day is numbered, the emphasis is not upon the 24 hours, but upon that specific day in time.

Reference to a specific day in time

The exact time that the rain began to fall to begin the great flood of Noah is noted in Gen. 7:11. On that day, Noah and his family entered into the ark (Gen. 7:13). See also Gen. 8:4, 14 21:8 24:42 25:31, 33. The emphasis in these passages is not upon a specific period of time, but upon a particular date in time. Even though that particular date in time might be considered a 24 hour period of time, the emphasis is not upon the duration of that day, but upon its actual date. That seems to be general use when a day is numbered.

An undetermined period of time

Gen. 2:4 reads: These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created in the day that Jehovah God was making earth and heavens. This actually is the beginning of Gen. 2, and some details are given which relate to the creation of the earth, the restoration of the earth, and some things which took place. Given what follows, day here refers to a very long period of time.

If you have looked at any of these references, we find that most of the time that day is used, we are speaking not of a 24 hour duration of time but more often to a marker in time. Using the word day to refer to some lengthy duration of time does occur, but it is the rare exception and not the rule. Furthermore, such a use is often modified in some way (for instance, the Day of the Lord) and not found in conjunction with the words evening and morning, which are used in Gen. 1 to mark specific occurrences within a 24 hour day.

Although we may see ourselves as living during a period of God’s rest, during His Sabbath (see Heb. 4:3–4), that is not enough to require the creative days of Genesis to be longer than 24 hours.

http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/nab/could-god-have-created-in-six-days is a good resource for further reading on this particular topic.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


As I previously mentioned, some like to take these days in the first chapter of Genesis and speak of them as creative periods of time; so that each creative day in the Bible might stand for a million years or so. The problem is, the text speaks of one evening and one morning and classifies that as a day. This simply does not sound like 1000 days and 1000 nights or like 300 million days and 300 million nights, it sounds just like one 24-hour period of time. Suggesting that and so evening is and so morning is—day one, really means, 300 million days and 300 million nights have transpired, violates the text, and is an imposition of your preconceived notions upon the text.


Some might assert, but this is poetic language. As a matter of fact, it is poetic language. However, simply because this is poetic language does not mean that we can twist the words to mean whatever we want them to mean.


When justifying the Sabbath, we find a reference to the 6 days during which the Lord made the heavens and the earth and all that is in them. Ex. 20:8–11. Again, there is no reason in the context of that passage to see these as anything other than 24-hour days.


I have read many opinions on this matter, including one where the author suggests better ways that God could have said that these were 24-hour days. However, we do not find the verse, from evening to evening, exactly 24 hours passed, and within that exact time frame, God did thus and so. However, we do have two markers, two words which describe day turning dark (evening) and night turning light (morning). Given these two words along with the numbering of the days, the most reasonable conclusion is, we are speaking of 24-hour days. No other interpretation really makes sense.

 

Dr. James Barr (Regius Professor of Hebrew at Oxford University), who himself does not believe Genesis is true history, nonetheless admitted as far as the language of Genesis 1 is concerned that, So far as I know, there is no professor of Hebrew or Old Testament at any world-class university who does not believe that the writer(s) of Gen. 1-11 intended to convey to their readers the ideas that creation took place in a series of six days which were the same as the days of 24 hours we now experience.


In this verse, God designates that the darkness will be called night and the light will be called day. He has set up a specific set of times or period of time and has labeled them. If we want to think that the "creative day" is thousands of years long, that means that the creative night would similarly be thousands of years long. And, if we have a "creative period of time" which exceeds a day, then why does God, immediately from the outset of restoration, classify day and night and then tells us that one night and one day have just transpired when thousands of days and nights would have transpired in such a creative period of time? If God's Word tells me or implies through exegesis that we are dealing with creative periods of time, then I have no problem with that viewpoint. But the clear teaching is that God first classifies the concept of night and day, tells us that one night and one day have just passed and that was one day. I don't think that He could be any more clear than that.


I have introduced at least one theory which most have not thought about and already have a viewpoint, so they reject it. Personally, I would never break fellowship with someone who believes that these are creative periods of time, where there are many days and many nights for each creative period of time. However, I would have the following concern: if such a one attempts to stretch these verses in order to fit with his pre-conceived notions, then where else will he compromise the clear reading of Scripture?


There are things which are difficult to understand in the Bible, and I can understand how two intelligent men can come to two difference conclusions in some areas. However, there are fundamentals which can really have no other reasonable interpretation. That we are speaking of one rotation of the earth is one of those things. Whether you choose to believe it or not is another thing; but that is what faith is—it is a choice.


There are a few things I am not positive about, e.g., the source of the light on this first day (the ultimate source, of course, is God); but that we are speaking of 24-hour days here seems as if there is no doubt. Or, in the alternative, this is exactly one rotation of the earth, given some concentrated light source. Once the sun and moon are created, which are used to mark days and years (Gen. 1:14), then we are speaking of 24-hour days.


So, if God is the light, and the sun is not the light; then how does the earth experience darkness? How can there be a differentiation between light and darkness if God is the light for the world? Very likely—and this is a reasonable theory—the earth is rotating, probably around God, and God is where the sun would be. So the earth continues to rotate; one particular portion of the earth is in daylight and the other half is not. God is focusing the view of the earth on where it is day, so that the angels can see what God is doing.


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Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Day Two: God Makes the Atmosphere to Separate the Waters


And so says Elohim, “Let [there] be an atmosphere in a midst of the waters. And let [it] be separating between waters to waters.”

Genesis

1:6

Then Elohim said, “Let there be an atmosphere in the midst of the waters. Let it be separating between the waters [above] and [lit., to] the waters [below] .”

And God said, “Let there be an atmosphere between the waters. Let it distinguish between the waters above and the waters below.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the Lord said, Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters, and let it separate between the waters above and the waters beneath. [JERUSALEM. And let there be a separation between the waters above and the waters below.]

Latin Vulgate                          And God said: Let there be a firmament made amidst the waters: and let it divide the waters from the waters.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so says Elohim, “Let [there] be an atmosphere in a midst of the waters. And let [it] be separating between waters to waters.”

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.

Septuagint (Greek)                And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the water, and let it be a division between water and water, and it was so.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       God said, "I command a dome to separate the water above it from the water below it."

Easy English                          And God said, `Let there be a *dome to divide the waters into two parts.'

Easy-to-Read Version            Then God said, “Let there be air [The Hebrew word means "bowl," or "dome."] to separate the water into two parts!”

Good News Bible (TEV)         Then God commanded, "Let there be a dome to divide the water and to keep it in two separate places"---and it was done. So God made a dome, and it separated the water under it from the water above it.

The Message                         God spoke: "Sky! In the middle of the waters; separate water from water!"

New Century Version             Then God said, "Let there be something to divide the water in two."

New Life Bible                        Then God said, "Let there be an open space between the waters. Let it divide waters from waters.

New Living Translation           Then God said, "Let there be a space between the waters, to separate the waters of the heavens from the waters of the earth."


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          And God spoke, saying, 'May there be space between all the water, and a dividing of the waters and the waters,' and that's what happened.

Ancient Roots Translinear      God said, "Expanse, be amidst the waters! Be the separation between the ||waters||!"

Christian Community Bible     God said, “Let there be a firm ceiling between the waters and let it separate waters from waters.”

God’s Word                         Then God said, "Let there be a horizon in the middle of the water in order to separate the water."

New American Bible              Then God said: Let there be a dome in the middle of the waters, to separate one body of water from the other.

NIRV                                      God said, "Let there be a huge space between the waters. Let it separate water from water."

New Jerusalem Bible             God said, 'Let there be a vault through the middle of the waters to divide the waters in two.' And so it was.

Revised English Bible            God said, ‘Let there be a vault between the waters, to separate water from water.’


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And God said, Let there be a solid arch stretching over the waters, parting the waters from the waters.

HCSB                                     Then God said, "Let there be an expanse between the waters, separating water from water."

Judaica Press Complete T.    And God said, "Let there be an expanse in the midst of the water, and let it be a separation between water and water."

NET Bible®                             God said, "Let there be an expanse [The Hebrew word refers to an expanse of air pressure between the surface of the sea and the clouds, separating water below from water above. In v. 8 it is called "sky."] [An expanse. In the poetic texts the writers envision, among other things, something rather strong and shiny, no doubt influencing the traditional translation "firmament" (cf. NRSV "dome"). Job 37:18 refers to the skies poured out like a molten mirror. Dan 12:3 and Ezek 1:22 portray it as shiny. The sky or atmosphere may have seemed like a glass dome. For a detailed study of the Hebrew conception of the heavens and sky, see L. I. J. Stadelmann, The Hebrew Conception of the World (AnBib), 37-60.] in the midst of the waters and let it separate water [Heb "the waters from the waters."] from water.

NIV, ©2011                             And God said, "Let there be a vault between the waters to separate water from water."


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                And God said, Let there be a firmament [the expanse of the sky] in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters [below] from the waters [above].

Concordant Literal Version    And saying is the Elohim, "Become shall an atmosphere in the midst of the water, and coming is a separation between water and water.

English Standard V. – UK       And God said, "Let there be an expanse [Or a canopy; also verses 7, 8, 14, 15, 17, 20] in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters.".

Heritage Bible                        And God said, Firmament, be in the midst of the waters, and be to divide between waters and waters. 1:6-10 Water, light, and air are absolute essentials for earthly life. They are the elements that transform chemicals in matter into physical life in plants, animals, and humans. God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit are constantly referred to as water, light, and breath or wind. He is the One Who continuously sustains our physical, psychological [soulical], and spiritual lives, and all things, Heb 1:3.

LTHB                                     And God said, Let an expanse be in the midst of the waters, and let it be dividing between the waters and the waters.

New RSV                               And God said, `Let there be a dome in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters.'

Syndein                                  {Atmosphere was divided from water that was above atmosphere Split it up}

Then Elohiym/Godhead said, "Atmosphere . . . be in the middle of the waters. And, become a cause of the dividing between the waters and the waters {between heavenly waters and surface waters}.",

Third Millennium Bible            And God said, "Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters."

World English Bible                God said, "Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters."

Young’s Updated LT             And God says, “Let an expanse be in the midst of the waters, and let it be separating between waters and waters.”

 

The gist of this verse:          God calls for there to be an atmosphere.


Genesis 1:6a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun

Strong's #430 BDB #43

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect voluntative

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

râqîyaʿ (רָקִיעַ) [pronounced raw-KEE-aģ]

atmosphere, extended surface, expanse, the first heaven; extended surface (solid); firmament; that which is spread out like a hemisphere above the earth

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #7549 BDB #956

Although BDB speaks of the Hebrews considering this to be a solid and held up the waters above, I think the idea is, they recognized that there was some sort of reality to the atmosphere; that the atmosphere was not empty. Now, I cannot say whether or not ancient peoples believed that there was some sort of solid like thick saran wrap, above the earth, that held the waters above at bay.

The corresponding verb means to beat, to stamp, to beat out, to spread out by beating. This describes, for instance, what a goldsmith might to in order to beat gold into a flat sheet. Strong’s #7554 BDB #955.


Translation: Then Elohim said, “Let there be an atmosphere... We do not know when God begins work; we do not know when He says this. It would makes sense for Him to speak and act in the daylight, as this is all being observed. God does not take a nap, because, as we know, the world is round, so, at all times, there is a hemisphere of the earth wherein there is light. So, in that light, God speaks and says, “Let there be a râqîya.” Râqîya means atmosphere, extended surface, expanse, the first heaven; extended surface (solid); firmament; that which is spread out like a hemisphere above the earth. Strong’s #7549 BDB #956. It comes from a fascinating verb, which means to beat, to stamp, to beat out, to spread out by beating. This describes, for instance, what a goldsmith might to in order to beat gold into a flat sheet. Strong’s #7554 BDB #955.


Râqîya is that which has been beat down and spread out above the earth and refers to the earth’s atmosphere. The related verb is used to overlay something with a thin plate. The precision of this term is amazing. The earth itself is 3960 miles in radius. 99% of the atmosphere is within 100 miles of the surface of the earth. When comparing a globe with a 3960 mile radius to its atmosphere, which is only a mile or so above the surface of the earth, then we are describing a very thin sheet of something which is overlaid above the entire earth.


With my rudimentary understanding of the earth and its atmosphere, if I had to choose the best noun from the Hebrew for this word, I would have chosen râdîyaʿ myself. The writer of Genesis and the psalmist David, not having the resources and background that I have, chose the same word. The NRSV suggests the word dome (Psalm 19:1).


Genesis 1:6b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

tâveke (תָּוֶ) [pronounced taw-VEKE]

midst, among, middle

masculine singular construct

Strong's #8432 BDB #1063

mayim (מַיִם) [pronounced mah-YIHM]

water (s)

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4325 BDB #565


Translation: ...in the midst of the waters. I have postulated that the earth was encased in a solid ice pack, and the Holy Spirit, and the light and the rotation of the earth. Began to melt that ice into water. God then needs to begin placing some of that water into the atmosphere.


We are very unappreciative at of environment in which we live. There is a very narrow temperature range between ice and water vapor, and this sustained temperature range is not known to exist anywhere else in the universe except by theory. The sheer volume of water, ice and water vapor which is on the earth is also unprecedented in our solar system, and I suspect the same is true of others.


As we know, the water itself, in turn, helps to maintain this narrow temperature range. Water is a very efficient conductor of heat, as compared to the atmosphere. The water in the seas, and the water vapor in the air, have a stabilizing effect upon this earth’s temperature.


Genesis 1:6c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect voluntative

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

bâdal (בָּדַל) [pronounced baw-DAHL]

separating, [disjoining, severing]; dividing into parts; distinguishing, making a distinction, showing a difference; selecting [out from a group]; dividing into parts; shuting out

Hiphil participle

Strong's #914 BDB #95

bêyn (בֵּין) [pronounced bane]

in the midst of, between, among; when found twice, it means between

preposition

Strong's #996 BDB #107

mayim (מַיִם) [pronounced mah-YIHM]

water (s)

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #4325 BDB #565

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

Bêyn (בֵּין) [pronounced bane] followed by lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le] can mean between, an interval...unto, a difference between. Used disjunctively to mean whether...or. This is often used with verbs of dividing, judging, knowing, teaching, etc. where distinguishing between two things is required.

mayim (מַיִם) [pronounced mah-YIHM]

water (s)

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #4325 BDB #565


Translation: Let it be separating between the waters [above] and [lit., to] the waters [below] .” I have quite obviously added the words above and below. However, that is what is being described here. God is forming an atmosphere which comes between the water vapor above and the waters below.


All of angelic creation is intently watching the restoration of their previous home, which had been packed in ice. God brought light again to this planet and when the light appeared, the ice pack had been melted. However, the earth is covered entirely in water. God lifts an appreciable amount of water above the earth, giving the earth a belt of water vapor . This is an interesting point. If this were mythology or the product of Moses' imagination, why have one kind of atmosphere here in the beginning of Genesis and a different atmospheric conditions after the flood? This idea is certainly not beyond the realm of human imagination, but why develop this in a fictional account of history and then change it a few chapters later?


Gen 1:6 Then God said, "Let there be an atmosphere in the middle of the waters in order to separate the waters."


The word "waters" can refer to water in any form—ice, vapor or water. There became a separation between the surface water and the vapor in the air (clouds), which is the atmosphere.


What occurred at the very beginning was, the ice encasing the earth was suddenly warmed, which caused water vapor to rise and fill the surface above the earth. This water vapor does not simply float out into space, because the earth has gravity and the earth holds these clouds in place. The earth was encased in a huge cloud of water vapor, which began right at the surface of the earth. Essentially, we are talking about fog—a thick, dense fog. On day two, God separated this fog from the earth’s surface, so that there would be an atmosphere between the seas and the very thick clouds.


One thing which ought to strike you about v. 6 is the stated necessity for atmosphere. It is something which we take for granted, something which ancient man would never have thought to include in some creation myth, but something which God spent an entire day making. This is the second very untypical thing in creation. First, we have light but no mention of the sun; and now we have God creating an atmosphere. If a man were to write this, we would expect the sun to play a prominent, first-day role, and for the creation of the atmosphere to be ignored. Why would some ancient cave man or even some Greek philosopher look up into the sky and distinguish between the earth’s atmosphere and the deep, empty space beyond? We understand that concept, because we have been taught this from grade school on; but ancient man had no reason to specify that the earth needed to have an atmosphere.


You may think that I am making too big of a deal out of the earth’s atmosphere, but, bear in mind, God spent one entire day on it. God spend one creative/restorative day making something that ancient man did not appreciate. Here, we are, maybe 5000 years later, and we appreciate and understand, to some extent, our atmosphere; and obviously, its absolute necessity. The Bible makes further reference to the atmosphere in Isa. 40:21–22: Have you not known? Have you not heard? Has it not been told you from the beginning? Have you not understood from the foundations of the earth? It is He [God] who sits above the sphere of the earth, and its people are like grasshoppers; [it is God] who stretches out the heavens like a curtain, and spreads them out like a tent to dwell in. God surrounds the earth with an atmosphere, which is like a tent for us to live in. As we know now, the earth’s atmosphere is absolutely necessary for our survival.


——————————


And so constructs, Elohim, the atmosphere. And so He separates between the waters which [are] from under to the atmosphere and between the waters which [are] from above to the atmosphere. And so he is so.

Genesis

1:7

Therefore, Elohim constructed the atmosphere. He separated between the waters which [are] under the atmosphere and the waters which [are] above the atmosphere. And it therefore comes to pass.

Therefore, God constructed the atmosphere. He distinguished between the waters which were above the atmosphere [water vapor] and the waters which were below the atmosphere [the oceans]. Therefore, this all came to pass.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the Lord made the expanse, upbearing it with three fingers, between the confines of the heavens and the waters of the ocean, and separated between the waters which were below the expanse, and the waters which were above, in the collection (or covering) of the expanse; and it was so.

Latin Vulgate                          And God made a firmament, and divided the waters that were under the firmament, from those that were above the firmament, and it was so.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so constructs, Elohim, the atmosphere. And so He separates between the waters which [are] from under to the atmosphere and between the waters which [are] from above to the atmosphere. And so he is so.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And God made the firmament, and divided the waters that were under the firmament from the waters that were above the firmament; and it was so.

Septuagint (Greek)                And God made the firmament, and God divided between the water which was under the firmament and the water which was above the firmament.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           God made the dome and separated the waters under the dome from the waters above the dome. And it happened in that way.

Contemporary English V.       And that's what happened. God made the dome ...

Easy English                          So then there was water above the *dome and there was water underneath it. It was exactly as God said.

Easy-to-Read Version            So God made the air and separated the water. Some of the water was above the air, and some of the water was below the air.

The Message                         God made sky. He separated the water under sky from the water above sky. And there it was:...

New Century Version             So God made the air and placed some of the water above the air and some below it.

New Life Bible                        God made the open space, and divided the waters under the open space from the waters above the open space. And it was so.

New Living Translation           And that is what happened. God made this space to separate the waters of the earth from the waters of the heavens.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          God made the space and [He] divided the waters that were under the space from the waters that were over the space.

Ancient Roots Translinear      God made the expanse to separate between the waters with waters under the expanse and above the expanse. So it was.

Christian Community Bible     So God made the ceiling and separated the waters below it from the waters above it. And so it was.

God’s Word                         So God made the horizon and separated the water above and below the horizon. And so it was.

New American Bible              God made the dome [The dome: the Hebrew word suggests a gigantic metal dome. It was inserted into the middle of the single body of water to form dry space within which the earth could emerge. The Latin Vulgate translation firmamentum, "means of support (for the upper waters); firmament," provided the traditional English rendering.], and it separated the water below the dome from the water above the dome. And so it happened. Prv 8:27-28; 2 Pt 3:5.

NIRV                                      And that's exactly what happened. God made the huge space between the waters. He separated the water that was under the space from the water that was above it.

New Jerusalem Bible             God made the vault, and it divided the waters under the vault from the waters above the vault.

Revised English Bible            So God made the vault, and separated the water under the vault from the water above it, and so it was,...


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And God made the arch for a division between the waters which were under the arch and those which were over it: and it was so.

Complete Jewish Bible           God made the dome and divided the water under the dome from the water above the dome; that is how it was.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 And God made the expanse, and it divided the waters which were below the expanse from the waters which were above the expanse; and that was done.

HCSB                                     So God made the expanse and separated the water under the expanse from the water above the expanse. And it was so.

New Advent Bible                  And God made a firmament, and divided the waters that were under the firmament from those that were above the firmament, and it was so. "By firmament is here understood the whole space between the earth and the highest stars, the lower part of which divides the waters that are upon the earth from those that are above in the clouds." -Bishop Richard Challoner (Commentary on the Old Testament))

NET Bible®                             So God made the expanse and separated the water under the expanse from the water above it [Heb "the expanse."]. It was so. This statement indicates that it happened the way God designed it, underscoring the connection between word and event.

NIV, ©2011                             So God made the vault and separated the water under the vault from the water above it. And it was so.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

American KJV                        And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.

Concordant Literal Version    And coming is it to be so. And making is the Elohim the atmosphere. And separating is He between the water which is under the atmosphere and the water which is above the atmosphere.

English Standard V. – UK       And God made [Or fashioned; also verse 16] the expanse and separated the waters that were under the expanse from the waters that were above the expanse. And it was so.

exeGeses companion Bible   And Elohim works the expanse

and separates the waters under the expanse

from the waters above the expanse

- and so be it:.

Modern KJV                           And God made the expanse, and divided the waters which were under the expanse from the waters which were above the expanse; and it was so.

New RSV                               So God made the dome and separated the waters that were under the dome from the waters that were above the dome. And it was so.

Syndein                                  Then Elohiym/Godhead manufactured the atmosphere, and caused to separate between the waters under the atmosphere {surface waters} and the water over the atmosphere {heavenly waters}. And so it came to pass as previously described.

Young’s Updated LT             And God makes the expanse, and it separates between the waters which are under the expanse, and the waters which are above the expanse: and it is so.

 

The gist of this verse: 


Genesis 1:7a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʿâsâh (עָשָֹה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWH]

to do, to make, to construct, to fashion, to form, to prepare, to manufacture

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #6213 BDB #793

The full set of Qal meanings from BDB: to do, work, make, produce; to do; to work; to deal (with); to act, act with effect, effect; to produce; to prepare; to make (an offering); to attend to, put in order; to observe, celebrate; to acquire (property); to appoint, ordain, institute; to bring about; to use; to spend, pass.

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun

Strong's #430 BDB #43

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

râqîyaʿ (רָקִיעַ) [pronounced raw-KEE-aģ]

atmosphere, extended surface, expanse, the first heaven; extended surface (solid); firmament; that which is spread out like a hemisphere above the earth

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #7549 BDB #956


Translation: Therefore, Elohim constructed the atmosphere. We have a different verb used here for creation. In making this atmosphere, God constructed it or manufactured it.


Genesis 1:7b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

bâdal (בָּדַל) [pronounced baw-DAHL]

to separate, [disjoin, sever]; to divide into parts; to distinguish, to make a distinction, to show a difference; to select [out from a group]; to divide into parts; to shut out

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect

Strong's #914 BDB #95

bêyn (בֵּין) [pronounced bane]

in the midst of, between, among; when found twice, it means between

preposition

Strong's #996 BDB #107

mayim (מַיִם) [pronounced mah-YIHM]

water (s)

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4325 BDB #565

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

min (מִן) [pronounced mihn]

from, away from, out from, out of from, off, on account of, since, above, than, so that not, beyond, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

tachath (תַּחַת) [pronounced TAH-khahth]

underneath, below, under, beneath; instead of, in lieu of; in the place [in which one stands]; in exchange for; on the basis of

preposition

Strong’s #8478 BDB #1065

Min + tachath together mean below, beneath, from under, from beneath and it is used of those that were under anything and came out from there.

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

Bêyn (בֵּין) [pronounced bane] followed by lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le] can mean between, an interval...unto, a difference between. Used disjunctively to mean whether...or. This is often used with verbs of dividing, judging, knowing, teaching, etc. where distinguishing between two things is required.

râqîyaʿ (רָקִיעַ) [pronounced raw-KEE-aģ]

atmosphere, extended surface, expanse, the first heaven; extended surface (solid); firmament; that which is spread out like a hemisphere above the earth

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #7549 BDB #956


Translation: He separated between the waters which [are] under the atmosphere... There are a ton of particles and prepositions strewn throughout this verse. Several of them, when used together, combine to make one English preposition. Although the between...to combination is found here, we need only translate the preposition between. In some cases, the lâmed preposition simply tells us the direction of the action or of the rest of the words to connect to the between. My point here, and I am making it poorly, is that we do not have to translate each and every preposition to get the correct corresponding meaning in the English.


We first have the waters under the atmosphere. These are the waters which have encased the earth. What I believe happened was, the earth was inhabited by angels and by a variety of animals, the most prominent group of which are dinosaurs. When the angels sinned, God took the earth upon which they were living and encased it in ice, trapping the fallen angels.


God is now going to show His great wisdom, power and majesty in restoring this earth and revamping the laws of physics.


Genesis 1:7c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

bêyn (בֵּין) [pronounced bane]

in the midst of, between, among; when found twice, it means between

preposition

Strong's #996 BDB #107

mayim (מַיִם) [pronounced mah-YIHM]

water (s)

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4325 BDB #565

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

min (מִן) [pronounced mihn]

from, away from, out from, out of from, off, on account of, since, above, than, so that not, beyond, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl ]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5920, #5921 BDB #752

Together, they mean from upon, from over, from by, from beside, from attachment to, from companionship with, from accompanying [in a protective manner], from adhesion to, from. Some translators rendered this away from.

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

râqîyaʿ (רָקִיעַ) [pronounced raw-KEE-aģ]

atmosphere, extended surface, expanse, the first heaven; extended surface (solid); firmament; that which is spread out like a hemisphere above the earth

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #7549 BDB #956


Translation: ...and the waters which [are] above the atmosphere. This is water vapor, which makes up a portion of the atmosphere. Whereas the description herein is not perfectly accurate—that is, we do not have this layer of water, a layer of atmosphere, and a layer of water vapor, all carefully separated into 3 nonintersecting groups. But, this does give us a reasonable layman’s description of what is occurring. Scientists all the time speak of the sun setting and the sun rising. They do not suddenly correct themselves, and begin explaining how the earth is turning on its axis while circling the sun, and that this rotation turns our portion of the earth either toward the sun or away from the sun. By that time, everyone around the scientist has either wandered off to get coffee or go to bed, depending upon whether the sun is rising or setting.


So, essentially God is explaining this to us in layman’s terms. Above is water vapor, below are the oceans, and in between is the atmosphere.


One possibility is, one of the angels who observed all of these things occurring later, at some point, told some man what they saw, and that man either memorized it or he wrote it down. Of course, God could have simply told these things to Adam and the woman after He created them.


Genesis 1:7d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

kên (כֵּן) [pronounced kane]

so, therefore, thus; then, afterwards; upright, honest; rightly, well; [it is] so, such, so constituted

properly, an active participle; used primarily as an adverb

Strong's #3651 BDB #485


Translation: And it therefore comes to pass. God spoke and He caused His words to come to pass.


Gen 1:7 So God made the atmosphere and separated the water above and below the atmosphere. And so it was.


You may recall the 4 verbs of creation, and this 4th verb is ʿâsâh (עָשָֹה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWH]. It means to do, to make, to construct, to fashion, to form, to prepare, to manufacture. Some say this means to make something out of something else. So God is taking the materials at hand and using them to make the atmosphere.


So, on the first day, God warmed the waters of the earth, as the earth was packed in ice. This caused a great deal of steam to rise. This covered the earth in a great fog, which fog was lifted on the 2nd day. The air still had humidity, but God separated the water on the earth from the clouds filled with water vapor above. God took the chemicals which were at His disposal (nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen) and made our atmosphere from these gases. Obviously the hydrogen and oxygen are taken out of the water. However, most of the atmosphere is made out of nitrogen, which is commonly found in decayed plant matter.


Given the amount of water versus the amount of prehistoric plant life, the natural result, it would seem to me, would be to have more oxygen and hydrogen in the air than nitrogen—if left to natural processes. However, here we have God making the atmosphere so God is making use of the chemicals He had originally created in order to make the atmosphere. Generally speaking, the verb here means to make something out of something else.


I have an interesting proposition. Oil is said to have an organic source, so, is it possible that the extraction of the nitrogen from rotted matter would have resulted in a huge amount of oil? Crude oil is a complex mixture of compounds composed of (mainly) carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur (notice, no nitrogen). So, if the earth has all of this plant and animal matter, which has been destroyed and is rotting (prehistoric life, apart from angels), and if God extracts the nitrogen out of this for the atmosphere, what remains? Since we are a carbon-based life form, that leaves carbon; since we are 70% water, that would leave oxygen and hydrogen. Sulfur is also an essential component of all living cells. So if God removes the Nitrogen from all this vegetable and animal remains, that would leave behind Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Sulfur, the primary components of oil. This is just a theory.


——————————


And so names Elohim the atmosphere “[two] heavens.” And so is evening and so is morning—day two.

Genesis

1:8

And Elohim named the atmosphere “heaven.” And evening is and morning is—the second day.

And God called the atmosphere “heaven.” There was evening and there was morning—the second day-age.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the Lord called the expanse the Heavens. And it was evening, and it was morning, the Second Day.

Latin Vulgate                          And God called the firmament, Heaven; and the evening and morning were the second day.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew) 

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And God called the firmament Sky. And there was evening and there was morning, the second day.

Septuagint (Greek)                And God called the firmament Heaven, and God saw that it was good, and there was evening and there was morning, the second day.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       ...and named it "Sky." Evening came and then morning--that was the second day.

Easy-to-Read Version            God named the air “sky.” There was evening, and then there was morning. This was the second day.

Good News Bible (TEV)         He named the dome "Sky." Evening passed and morning came---that was the second day.

The Message                         ...he named sky the Heavens; It was evening, it was morning-- Day Two.

New Living Translation           God called the space "sky."

And evening passed and morning came, marking the second day.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      God called the expanse 'Heaven'. Evening was and morning was the second day.

Beck’s American Translation God called the expanse the sky. Evening came and then morning—the second day.

Christian Community Bible     God called the firm ceiling ‘Sky’. There was evening and there was morning: the second day.

God’s Word                         God named what was above the horizon sky. There was evening, then morning-a second day.

New American Bible              God called the dome "sky." Evening came, and morning followed-the second day.

NIRV                                      God called the huge space "sky." There was evening, and there was morning. It was day two.

New Jerusalem Bible             God called the vault 'heaven'. Evening came and morning came: the second day.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And God gave the arch the name of Heaven. And there was evening and there was morning, the second day.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 And God named the expanse the Heavens. This was the close and dawn of the second age.

HCSB                                     God called the expanse "sky." Evening came, and then morning: the second day.

NET Bible®                             God called the expanse "sky [Though the Hebrew word can mean "heaven," it refers in this context to "the sky."]." There was evening, and there was morning, a second day.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And calling is the Elohim the atmosphere "heavens." And seeing is the Elohim that it is good. And coming is it to be evening and coming to be morning, the second da.

Context Group Version          And God called the expanse the skies { or heavens }. And there was evening and there was morning, a second day.

English Standard Version      And God called the expanse Heaven. And there was evening and there was morning, the second day.

exeGeses companion Bible   ...and Elohim calls the expanse, Heavens:

and evening becomes and morning becomes

day two.

Heritage Bible                        And God called the firmament, Heavens. And it was dusk, and it was dawn, the second day.

Syndein                                  Therefore, Elohiym/Godhead called the atmosphere . . . heavens. So it became 'getting darker' {evening } and it became 'getting lighter' {dawn}.

Day two.

World English Bible                God called the expanse sky. There was evening and there was morning, a second day.

Young’s Updated LT             And God calls to the expanse “Heavens;” and there is an evening, and there is a morning—day second.

 

The gist of this verse: 


Genesis 1:8a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

qârâʾ (קָרָא) [pronounced kaw-RAW]

to call, to proclaim, to read, to call to, to call out to, to assemble, to summon; to call, to name [when followed by a lâmed]

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #7121 BDB #894

When followed by a lâmed, as it is here, it means to give a name to.

This is a homonym; the other qârâʾ means to encounter, to befall, to meet, to assemble.

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun

Strong's #430 BDB #43

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

râqîyaʿ (רָקִיעַ) [pronounced raw-KEE-aģ]

atmosphere, extended surface, expanse, the first heaven; extended surface (solid); firmament; that which is spread out like a hemisphere above the earth

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #7549 BDB #956

shâmayîm (שָמַיִם) [pronounced shaw-MAH-yim]

heaven, heavens, skies; the visible heavens, as in as abode of the stars or as the visible universe, the sky, atmosphere, etc.; Heaven (as the abode of God)

masculine dual noun; pausal form

Strong’s #8064 BDB #1029


Translation: And Elohim named the atmosphere “heaven.” The firmament or atmosphere or the extended surface above the earth was then called heaven. That which enveloped the earth and envelops us as well, in addition to being above us, is called heaven.


There is something strangely epistemological about this. When I taught geometry, we first had to begin with a vocabulary, and then the system of geometry was built upon this vocabulary. We will learn a theology in the Bible (theology means the study of God). However, there is no subject that you can learn without having the vocabulary for it. Whether you are a plumber, a builder, a Wall Street trader, or a philosophy professor, you must build your own discipline upon a foundation of a vocabulary. The Bible is very careful to do this, even though it may not always stop and say, “And we will call this thing a jiveram.” Therefore, when we talk about creation and the essence of God, we will have words upon which we can base our thoughts, dissertations and conclusions.


Heavens, or shāmayim, is always found in the dual. I can refer to the earth's atmosphere (as it does in this passage), to a location which is far removed from the earth's atmosphere (Gen. 1:14 Isa. 34:4), to the entirety of creation (Gen. 1:1) and to the throne room (or, dwelling place) of God (Deut. 26:15 1Kings 8:30 Psalm 2:4). God has placed over the earth a shield of water vapor to hold in the atmosphere but, unlike every other day, He does not stand back and observe that it is good. This will be the source of judgement in Noah's day and the way that God will water the earth and this thick water vapor barrier will no longer exist after the great flood. So God does not observe that this is good, or fully functional, or will fulfill the purpose for which it was designed until the end of human history.


Genesis 1:8b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

ʿereb (עֶרֶב) [pronounced ĢEH-rebv]

evening, sunset

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #6153 BDB #787

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

bôqer (בֹּקֶר) [pronounced BOH-ker]

morning, daybreak, dawn; the next morning

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #1242 BDB #133


Translation: And evening is and morning is... We have a rhythm which is beginning to occur here; we find the exact same vocabulary back in v. 5. We have already set up the pattern. So we know that God took an entire day to make the atmosphere.


This ought to strike you as being very odd—on day two, God creates something that man, at that time, supposedly did not know existed: atmosphere or air. We didn’t know what it was. We did not know, for many hundreds of years, that the air around us had a particular substance; a particular chemical makeup. It was not just random emptiness. In the past century or two, we have begun to understand how important air is, how important its composition is, and how there are things which we produce that we would rather not have in the air (which substances, we often disagree about—some people, for instance, hate CO2 and treat it like a poison; others do not view in this way).


Genesis 1:8c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article); possibly immediately

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

shênîy (שֵנִי) [pronounced shay-NEE]

second, the second; two, both, double, twice; When only two items are named, it can be rendered [the] other

adjective singular numeral ordinal

Strong’s #8145 BDB #1041


Translation:...—the second day. Again, God’s power seems to be directed at half of the earth, which is being rotated, possibly not nearly as fast as it rotates today, so, from the standpoint of a person on earth, there is evening and then there is daylight, and this is seen as one day, day two in this case. However, God, over this same period of time, however long it may be, works on making up the atmosphere, putting the chemicals into it that He has determined are important to sustain life.


So, just as God spent a period of time warming the earth and creating light for the earth; He also spends a certain amount of time on manufacturing the atmosphere for the earth.


Gen 1:8 God named the atmosphere "sky" [lit., (two) skies]. There was evening, then morning—a second day.


On the second day, God made the atmosphere, where there was water on the earth and water (steam, fog and clouds) in the sky; and that there was a division between the earth and the clouds, which is the atmosphere. Above our atmosphere is space, and the words in Hebrew used to refer to the sky or to heaven is typically dual nouns. Today, we may understand this to refer to our atmosphere and space.


This is the third great oddity of Biblical creation. Why would the Hebrews look up in the sky and name it two skies? You and I, after a proper schooling, look up in the sky, and we understand that there is the atmosphere wrapped around the earth, held by gravity; and then, above that, is space. However, why would ancient man think that? So far, the 3 oddities of Biblical creation make sense if creationism is true and this information came from God; and they make very little sense if this is just some made-up myth.


We finish vv. 6–8 with the backward-looking refrain, And so evening [literally, day turning dark] is and so morning [lit., night turning light] is, day two. This again summarizes the time frame.


——————————


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Day Three: God Separates Land from Water and Produces Vegetation


And so says Elohim, “Are gathered together waters from under the [two] heavens unto a place one; and let appear the dry land.” And so he is so.

Genesis

1:9

And Elohim said, “The waters under the heavens will be gathered together to one place; and let the dry land appear.” And therefore it came to pass.

And God said, “Let the waters under the heavens be gathered together to one place; and let the dry land appear.” Therefore, this came to pass.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the Lord said, Let the lower waters which remain under the heavens be gathered together into one place, and the earth be dried, that the land may be visible. And it was so.

Latin Vulgate                          God also said; Let the waters that are under the heaven, be gathered together into one place: and let the dry land appear. And it was so done.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so says Elohim, “Are gathered together waters from under the [two] heavens unto a place one; and let appear the dry land.” And so he is so.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And God said, Let the waters that are under the sky be gathered together in one place, and let the dry land appear; and it was so.

Septuagint (Greek)                And God said, Let the water which is under the heaven be collected into one place, and let the dry land appear, and it was so. And the water which was under the heaven was collected into its places, and the dry land appeared.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           God said, "Let the waters under the sky come together into one place so that the dry land can appear." And that's what happened.

Contemporary English V.       God said, "I command the water under the sky to come together in one place, so there will be dry ground." And that's what happened.

Easy English                          And God said, `Let the waters underneath the sky come together into one place. Let dry land appear.' And it was so.

Easy-to-Read Version            Then God said, “Let the water under the sky be gathered together so the dry land will appear.” And it happened.

Good News Bible (TEV)         Then God commanded, "Let the water below the sky come together in one place, so that the land will appear"---and it was done.

The Message                         God spoke: "Separate! Water-beneath-Heaven, gather into one place; Land, appear!" And there it was.

New Century Version             Then God said, "Let the water under the sky be gathered together so the dry land will appear." And it happened.

New Living Translation           Then God said, "Let the waters beneath the sky flow together into one place, so dry ground may appear." And that is what happened.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Then God said, 'May the waters under the skies be brought together in one place so the land can be seen,' and that's what happened.

Ancient Roots Translinear      God said, "Waters under the heaven: Wait at one place, to see the dry-land!" So it was.

New American Bible              Then God said: Let the water under the sky be gathered into a single basin, so that the dry land may appear. And so it happened:...

NIRV                                      God said, "Let the water under the sky be gathered into one place. Let dry ground appear." And that's exactly what happened.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And God said, Let the waters under the heaven come together in one place, and let the dry land be seen: and it was so.

Complete Jewish Bible           God said, "Let the water under the sky be gathered together into one place, and let dry land appear," and that is how it was.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 God then commanded, “Let the waters below the Heavens be collected in one place, and let dry land appear;” and that was done.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               God said, “Let the water below the sky be gathered into one area, that the dry land may appear.” And it was so

New Advent Bible                  God also said: Let the waters that are under the heaven be gathered together into one place, and let the dry land appear. And it was so done.

NET Bible®                             God said, "Let the water under the sky be gathered to one place [Let the water.be gathered to one place. In the beginning the water covered the whole earth; now the water was to be restricted to an area to form the ocean. The picture is one of the dry land as an island with the sea surrounding it. Again the sovereignty of God is revealed. Whereas the pagans saw the sea as a force to be reckoned with, God controls the boundaries of the sea. And in the judgment at the flood he will blur the boundaries so that chaos returns.] and let dry ground appear [When the waters are collected to one place, dry land emerges above the surface of the receding water.]." It was so.

New Heart English Bible        God said, "Let the waters under the sky be gathered together in one gathering, and let the dry land appear;" and it was so.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                And God said, Let the waters under the heavens be collected into one place [of standing], and let the dry land appear. And it was so.

Concordant Literal Version    And saying is the Elohim, "Flow together shall the water from under the heavens to one place, and appear shall the dry land." And coming is it to be so. And flowing together is the water under the heavens to one place, and appearing is the dry land.

Heritage Bible                        And God said, Waters, be bound [bound, qavah, to bind. Psa 104:9, You have put a boundary; they do not cross over; they do not return to cover the earth.] together under the heavens to one place, and dry ground, appear; and it was so.

LTHB                                     And God said, Let the waters under the heavens be collected to one place, and let the dry land appear. And it was so.

Syndein                                  {Verses 9-13: The Third Day of Restoration of the Earth}

Then Elohiym/Godhead said {a command}, "Waters {surface waters} below the heaven/atmosphere, be assembled into one place/boundaries {God designed boundaries for the bodies of waters and they stay in their place}, and {NOW} dry land be seen."

And so it came to pass as described.

Webster’s Bible Translation  And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered into one place, and let the dry [land] appear: and it was so.

Young’s Updated LT             And God says, “Let the waters under the heavens be collected unto one place, and let the dry land be seen:” and it is so.

 

The gist of this verse: 


Genesis 1:9a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun

Strong's #430 BDB #43

qâvâh (הָו ָק) [pronounced kaw-VAW]

to be gathered together; to be bound or wound together, to expect [one another

3rd person masculine plural, Niphal imperfect

Strong’s #6960 BDB #876

mayim (מַיִם) [pronounced mah-YIHM]

water (s)

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4325 BDB #565

min (מִן) [pronounced mihn]

from, away from, out from, out of from, off, on account of, since, above, than, so that not, beyond, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

tachath (תַּחַת) [pronounced TAH-khahth]

underneath, below, under, beneath; instead of, in lieu of; in the place [in which one stands]; in exchange for; on the basis of

preposition

Strong’s #8478 BDB #1065

Min + tachath together mean below, beneath, from under, from beneath and it is used of those that were under anything and came out from there.

shâmayîm (שָמַיִם) [pronounced shaw-MAH-yim]

heaven, heavens, skies; the visible heavens, as in as abode of the stars or as the visible universe, the sky, atmosphere, etc.; Heaven (as the abode of God)

masculine dual noun with the definite article

Strong’s #8064 BDB #1029

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to, in respect to; because of; according to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied); expanded meanings given

Strong's #413 BDB #39

mâqôwm (מָקוֹם) [pronounced maw-KOHM]

place, situated; for a soldier, it may mean where he is stationed; for people in general, it would be their place of abode (which could be their house or their town)

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #4725 BDB #879

ʾechâd (אֶחָד) [pronounced eh-KHAWD]

one, first, certain, only; each, every; but it can also mean a composite unity; possibly particular; anyone

numeral adjective

Strong's #259 BDB #25


Translation: And Elohim said, “The waters under the heavens will be gathered together to one place;... What is occurring is, water is being drawn underground into great underground rivers and caverns. Therefore, water is receding all over the world. Psalm 33:7 is a parallel passage that reads: He gathers the waters of the sea into a heap; He puts the depths into storehouses.


Genesis 1:9b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

râʾâh (רָאָה) [pronounced raw-AWH]

to be seen, to be visible; to let oneself be seen, to appear; to present oneself; to be provided [cared] for (i.e., looked after)

3rd person masculine singular, Niphal imperfect; apocopated with a voluntative hê

Strong's #7200 BDB #906

The hê at the end is called a voluntative hê and the verb itself is known as a cohortative and is often translated with the additional word let, may, might, ought, should.

yabbâshâh (יַבָּשָה) [pronounced yahb-bvaw-SHAW]

dry ground, dry land; but not to the point of complete absence of moisture

feminine singular substantive: with the definite article

Strong’s #3004 BDB #387


Translation: ...and let the dry land appear.” The land is here all the time, but with the waters receding, it begins to appear.


I have suggested to the world is slow rotating before God, and He causes this to occur. Therefore, this could have been a process which took several days, weeks or months. Prior to the universe being created, we merely have getting dark and getting light, which is not necessarily associated with a specific time frame (as has already been discussed). Therefore, to some degree, this could have been a fairly natural process.


There are legends that the land may have been but one land mass surrounded by waters. The Bible does not come out and say this specifically, but such a thing is not contradicted by the creation/restoration narrative.


Genesis 1:9c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

kên (כֵּן) [pronounced kane]

so, therefore, thus; then, afterwards; upright, honest; rightly, well; [it is] so, such, so constituted

properly, an active participle; used primarily as an adverb

Strong's #3651 BDB #485


Translation: And therefore it came to pass. These final words indicate that God has brought this all to pass; God made this happen.


Gen 1:9 Then God said, "Let the water under the sky come together in one area, and let the dry land appear." And so it was.


As the water began to evaporate, this revealed some dry land. There were probably volcanic eruptions and earth quakes, which caused land to separate, land to rise, and volcanic activity. This resulted in land coming to the surface. Whatever kind of sculpting of the land which God did, is not told to us. Given that this takes place in the space of a day suggests that these are not all natural processes, although they may approximate natural processes to some extent.



——————————


And so calls, Elohim, the dry land Earth, and a collection of the waters He called Seas. And so sees, Elohim, that he is good.

Genesis

1:10

And so Elohim calls the dry land Earth, and the collection of waters, He called Seas. And Elohim observed that it is good.

So God called the dry land earth and the collection of water seas. And God observed that is was good.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And it was so. And the Lord called the dry (land) the Earth, and the place of the assemblage of waters called He the Seas; and the Lord saw that it was good.

Latin Vulgate                          And God called the dry land, Earth; and the gathering together of the waters, he called Seas. And God saw that it was good.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so calls, Elohim, the dry land Earth, and a collection of the waters He called Seas. And so sees, Elohim, that he is good.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters he called Seas; and God saw that it was good.

Septuagint (Greek)                And God called the dry land Earth, and the gathering of the waters He called Seas; and God saw that it was good.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           God named the dry land Earth, and he named the gathered waters Seas. God saw how good it was.

Contemporary English V.       God named the dry ground "Land," and he named the water "Ocean." God looked at what he had done and saw that it was good.

Good News Bible (TEV)         He named the land "Earth," and the water which had come together he named "Sea." And God was pleased with what he saw.

The Message                         God named the land Earth. He named the pooled water Ocean. God saw that it was good.

New Berkeley Version           God called the dry land Earth and the gathering of the waters He called Seas, and God saw that it was good.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          God called the dry land earth and the collected waters the seas, and God saw that this was good.

Ancient Roots Translinear      God called the dry-land "Land", and the pool of waters he called "Seas". God saw good.

God’s Word                         God named the dry land earth. The water which came together he named sea. God saw that it was good.

New Jerusalem Bible             God called the dry land 'earth' and the mass of waters 'seas', and God saw that it was good.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And God gave the dry land the name of Earth; and the waters together in their place were named Seas: and God saw that it was good.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 And God named the dry land Earth; and the accumulated waters He named Seas; and God admired their beauty.

NET Bible®                             God called the dry ground "land" [Heb "earth," but here the term refers to the dry ground as opposed to the sea.] and the gathered waters he called "seas." God saw that it was good.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                God called the dry land Earth, and the accumulated waters He called Seas. And God saw that this was good (fitting, admirable) and He approved it.

Concordant Literal Version    And calling is the Elohim the dry part "land" [or "earth"] and the confluence of the water He calls "seas. "And seeing is the Elohim that it is good.

exeGeses companion Bible   And Elohim calls the dry, Earth;

and he calls the congregating of the waters, Seas:

and Elohim sees it is good.

Heritage Bible                        And God called the dry ground, Earth, and the binding together of the waters he called, Seas; and God saw that it was good.

Syndein                                  And Elohiym/Godhead {all Three agreed} called the dry ground . . . land/earth. And the 'gathered waters'/ 'one place waters' He called . . . oceans/seas/rivers. Therefore Elohiym/Godhead saw . . . {that it was} good. {Note: Why good? Because it came from His hand. Perfect environment was made for man BEFORE He made man. God also provided everything YOU will ever need in eternity past!}.

Young’s Updated LT             And God calls to the dry land “Earth,” and to the collection of the waters He has called “Seas;” and God sees that it is good.

 

The gist of this verse: 


Genesis 1:10a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

qârâʾ (קָרָא) [pronounced kaw-RAW]

to call, to proclaim, to read, to call to, to call out to, to assemble, to summon; to call, to name [when followed by a lâmed]

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #7121 BDB #894

When followed by a lâmed, as it is here, it means to give a name to.

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun

Strong's #430 BDB #43

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

yabbâshâh (יַבָּשָה) [pronounced yahb-bvaw-SHAW]

dry ground, dry land; but not to the point of complete absence of moisture

feminine singular substantive: with the definite article

Strong’s #3004 BDB #387

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: And so Elohim calls the dry land Earth,... God is teaching these angels, both fallen and elect; and this requires a vocabulary. So, to the dry land which appeared, He called that earth.


Genesis 1:10b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

miqeveh (מִקְוֶה) [pronounced mihk-VEH]

 expectation, confidence, hope, ground of hope, things hoped for, outcome; a collection, a collected mass, a congregation

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #4723 BDB #876

mayim (מַיִם) [pronounced mah-YIHM]

water (s)

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4325 BDB #565

qârâʾ (קָרָא) [pronounced kaw-RAW]

to call, to proclaim, to read, to call to, to call out to, to assemble, to summon; to call, to name [when followed by a lâmed]

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #7121 BDB #894

yammîym (יַמִּים) [pronounced yam-MEEM]

seas, lakes, rivers

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #3220 BDB #410


Translation: ...and the collection of waters, He called Seas. He called the waters which had been collected together seas. They had been collected to allow for the land to appear.


Genesis 1:10c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

râʾâh (רָאָה) [pronounced raw-AWH]

to see, to look, to look at, to view, to behold; to, observe; to perceive, to understand, to learn, to know

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #7200 BDB #906

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun

Strong's #430 BDB #43

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

ţôwb (טוֹב) [pronounced towbv]

to be good [pleasant, beautiful, delightful], to be delicious, to be cheerful [happy, joyful], to be kind, to be well, to do well, to do right

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect (or a Qal participle)

Strong’s #2895 BDB #373

Apparently, the 3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect is identical to the Qal participle and to the masculine singular adjective as well (which is Strong’s #2896 BDB #373). The masculine singular adjective means pleasant, pleasing, agreeable, good, better; approved.

Therefore, the word here may be...

ţôwb (טוֹב) [pronounced tohbv]

pleasant, pleasing, agreeable, good, better; approved

masculine feminine singular adjective which can act like a substantive

Strong’s #2896 BDB #373


Translation: And Elohim observed that it is good. So far, what God has done is Good; it is right for what He has in mind.


Gen 1:10 God named the dry land earth. The water which came together he named sea. God saw that it was good.


Again, God develops a working vocabulary to accompany that which He has created. God also recognizes that what He did was accomplished, complete, and the end result was exactly what He had desired to make.


One of the things which has concerned me, and has been at the back of my mind, is, what about all the salt in salt water? Won’t that essentially destroy the land in terms of growing crops? When the water was frozen solid over the earth, this is probably (and reasonably) salt water. However, for it to go from being suddenly frozen to suddenly melted and turned to steam, in the period of one day, would not really allow for saturation of the soil by the salt water. Now, could part of the creation process involve pulling some of the sodium chloride out of the earth and placing huge chunks of salt here and there? Possibly. We just do not have a detailed description here of everything which God did when it comes to separating land from sea.


Speaking of odd theories: there has always been this theory out there that the land masses of the earth used to all be one. There is nothing in the Bible which necessarily contradicts this. In fact, if anything, these few verses seem to support such a theory. If the seas are gathered into one place and dry land appears, this sounds more like one great ocean than several oceans and several land masses. It is possible and reasonable that the original land was one continent, which became several continents during the flood of Noah. This is not something which is spoken of in the Bible. However, it is always fun to speculate.


——————————


And so says Elohim, “Let bring forth the earth vegetation—a plant bearing seed, a tree of fruit producing fruit—to his kind which their seed [is] in him—upon the earth.” And so he is so.

Genesis

1:11

And Elohim said, “Let the earth bring forth vegetation—plants bearing seed, fruit trees producing fruit—according to its kind whose seed [is] within—upon the earth.” And therefore, it came to pass.

And God said, “Let the earth bring forth vegetation, including plants that bear seed and fruit trees that produce fruit—each according to its own kind, which flora can replicate itself, all upon the earth.” Therefore, this all came to pass.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the Lord said, Let the earth increase the grassy herb whose seed seedeth, and the fruit-tree making fruit after its kind, whose seed is in itself upon the earth. And it was so.

Latin Vulgate                          And he said: let the earth bring forth green herb, and such as may seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after its kind, which may have seed in itself upon the earth. And it was so done.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so says Elohim, “Let bring forth the earth vegetation—a plant bearing seed, a tree of fruit producing fruit—to his kind which their seed [is] in him—upon the earth.” And so he is so.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And God said, Let the earth bring forth vegetation, the herb yielding seed after its kind, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after its kind, wherein is their seed, upon the earth; and it was so.

Septuagint (Greek)                And God said, Let the earth bring forth the herb of grass bearing seed according to its kind and according to its likeness, and the fruit tree bearing fruit whose seed is in it, according to its kind on the earth, and it was so.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       God said, "I command the earth to produce all kinds of plants, including fruit trees and grain." And that's what happened.

Easy English                          And God said, `Let grass grow on the earth. Let plants grow there that have grain and seeds. And let trees grow there. They will be trees with fruits that have seeds. So then more grass and plants and trees will grow. Each one will be the same kind as the first one that it came from.' And it was so.

Easy-to-Read Version            Then God said, “Let the earth grow grass, plants that make grain, and fruit trees. The fruit trees will make fruit with seeds in it. And each plant will make its own kind of seed. Let these plants grow on the earth.” And it happened.

Good News Bible (TEV)         Then he commanded, "Let the earth produce all kinds of plants, those that bear grain and those that bear fruit"---and it was done.

The Message                         God spoke: "Earth, green up! Grow all varieties of seed-bearing plants, Every sort of fruit-bearing tree." And there it was.

New Berkeley Version           God said: Let the earth produce vegetation, various kinds of seed-bearing herbs and fruit-bearing trees with their respective seeds in the fruit upon the earth; and it was so.

New Living Translation           Then God said, "Let the land sprout with vegetation-every sort of seed-bearing plant, and trees that grow seed-bearing fruit. These seeds will then produce the kinds of plants and trees from which they came." And that is what happened.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Then God spoke, saying, 'May the land sprout with pastures of grasses that bear seeds [each] of its own kind and appearance. And may there be fruit trees that bear fruit with its seeds, [each] of its own kind.' And that's what happened.

Ancient Roots Translinear      God said, "Land, spring-up grass! Cereals, sow seed! Fruit trees, make the kinds of fruit with seed in it over the land!" So it was.

God’s Word                         Then God said, "Let the earth produce vegetation: plants bearing seeds, each according to its own type, and fruit trees bearing fruit with seeds, each according to its own type." And so it was.

New American Bible              Then God said: Let the earth bring forth vegetation: every kind of plant that bears seed and every kind of fruit tree on earth that bears fruit with its seed in it. And so it happened:... Ps 104:14.

NIRV                                      Then God said, "Let the land produce plants. Let them bear their own seeds. And let there be trees on the land that bear fruit with seeds in it. Let each kind of plant or tree have its own kind of seeds." And that's exactly what happened.

New Jerusalem Bible             God said, 'Let the earth produce vegetation: seed-bearing plants, and fruit trees on earth, bearing fruit with their seed inside, each corresponding to its own species.' And so it was.

Revised English Bible            Then God said, ‘Let the earth produce growing things; let there be on the earth plants that bear seed, and trees bearing fruit each with its own kind of seed.’ So it was,...


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And God said, Let grass come up on the earth, and plants producing seed, and fruit-trees giving fruit, in which is their seed, after their sort: and it was so.

Complete Jewish Bible           God said, "Let the earth put forth grass, seed-producing plants, and fruit trees, each yielding its own kind of seed-bearing fruit, on the earth"; and that is how it was.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 God then said, “Let the Earth produce seeding-bearing vegetation, as well as fruit trees according to their several species, capable of reproduction upon the Earth;” and that was done.

NET Bible®                             God said, "Let the land produce vegetation [The Hebrew construction employs a cognate accusative, where the nominal object ("vegetation") derives from the verbal root employed. It stresses the abundant productivity that God created.] [egetation. The Hebrew word translated "vegetation" (???????, deshe') normally means "grass," but here it probably refers more generally to vegetation that includes many of the plants and trees. In the verse the plants and the trees are qualified as self-perpetuating with seeds, but not the word "vegetation," indicating it is the general term and the other two terms are sub-categories of it. Moreover, in vv. 29 and 30 the word vegetation/grass does not appear. The Samaritan Pentateuch adds an "and" before the fruit trees, indicating it saw the arrangement as bipartite (The Samaritan Pentateuch tends to eliminate asyndetic constructions).]