Genesis 10

 

Genesis 10:1–32

Noah’s Descendants


These studies are designed for believers in Jesus Christ only. If you have exercised faith in Christ, then you are in the right place. If you have not, then you need to heed the words of our Lord, Who said, “For God so loved the world that He gave His only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son, so that every [one] believing [or, trusting] in Him shall not perish, but shall be have eternal life! For God did not send His Son into the world so that He should judge the world, but so that the world shall be saved through Him. The one believing [or, trusting] in Him is not judged, but the one not believing has already been judged, because he has not believed in the Name of the only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son of God.” (John 3:16–18). “I am the Way and the Truth and the Life! No one comes to the Father except through [or, by means of] Me!” (John 14:6).


Every study of the Word of God ought to be preceded by a naming of your sins to God. This restores you to fellowship with God (1John 1:8–10). If there are people around, you would name these sins silently. If there is no one around, then it does not matter if you name them silently or whether you speak aloud.


This is a collection of the weekly lessons of Genesis (HTML) (PDF) interspersed with the complete word-by-word exegesis of this chapter from the Hebrew with some information from Genesis (HTML) (PDF) thrown in. Furthermore, the examination of this chapter has been expanded with additional commentary as well. However, much of this material was thrown together without careful editing. Therefore, from time to time, there will be concepts and exegetical material which will be repeated, because there was no overall editing done once all of this material was combined. At some point in the future, I need to go back and edit this material and consider other source material as well. Links to the word-by-word, verse-by-verse studies of Genesis (HTML) (PDF).

 

One more thing: it is not necessary that you read the grey Hebrew exegesis tables. They are set apart from the rest of the study so that you can easily skip over them. However, if you ever doubt a translation of a phrase or a verse, these translation tables will tell you exactly where that translation came from.


This should be the most extensive examination of Gen. 10 available, where you will be able to examine in depth every word of the original text.


Bob Deffinbaugh: “If we are honest, that is what most of us do with the genealogies of the Bible-we skip them. In my teaching through the book of Genesis, I must admit I seriously considered doing the same thing, merely passing by Genesis chapter 5. Leupold, in one of the classic commentaries on the book of Genesis has this word of advice to preachers: ‘Not every man would venture to use this chapter as a text.’ ”

 

J. Vernon McGee: "The Perizzites, the Hittites, the Jebusites and the electric lights."

 

Gen. 9:24–27 When Noah awoke from his wine and knew what his youngest son had done to him, he said, "Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be to his brothers." He also said, "Blessed be the LORD, the God of Shem; and let Canaan be his servant. May God enlarge Japheth, and let him dwell in the tents of Shem, and let Canaan be his servant." (ESV)

 

R. B. Thieme, Jr.: “The line of Shem (Semitic People) holds spiritual superiority. The line of Japheth (Japhetic People) holds physical superiority (large conquering people). And the line of Ham (Hamitic People) will be the servant of the other brothers (at least the line through Canaan).”

 

Gary Kukis: “Let me suggest to you, that, if the Bible is true along with all of these logical premises, then a chapter in the Bible like this would logically occur. That Shem, Ham and Japheth could keep track of their own lines (and that one of them would be able to keep track of the lines of his brothers) is possible, logical and likely to happen. This is not some random chapter just thrown in here, as in, Hey, let’s just talk about some genealogies for awhile.”


Outline of Chapter 10:

 

Introduction

 

         v.       1              Title and Introduction

         vv.     2–5           The Descendants of Japheth

         vv.     6–20         The Descendants of Ham

         vv.    21–31         The Descendants of Shem

         v.      32              Summary

 

Addendum


Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines:

 

         Introduction         What is the Purpose of the Bible?

         Introduction         The Principals of Genesis 10

         Introduction         A Synopsis of Genesis 10

 

         v.       1              The Doctrine of Toledoth

         v.       2              The NET Bible Footnotes for Genesis 10:2

         v.       3              The NET Bible Footnotes for Genesis 10:3

         v.       4              The NET Bible Footnotes on Genesis 10:4

         v.       4              The Sons of Japheth and their Ancestors

         v.       7              The NET Bible Footnotes on Genesis 10:7

         v.       7              Hamite Descendants by Tim Osterholm

         v.      10              The NET Bible Footnotes on Genesis 10:10

         vv.    11–12         The NET Bible Footnotes on Genesis 10:11–12

         vv.    13–14         The NET Bible Footnotes on Genesis 10:13–14

         vv.    15–18         The NET Bible Footnotes on Genesis 10:15–19

         v.      19              Ham and his Descendants (who Primarily Occupy Southwest Asia and Africa)

         v.      19              A Map of the Descendants of Shem, Ham and Japheth

         v.      22              The NET Bible Footnotes on Genesis 10:22

         vv.    26–29         The NET Bible Footnotes on Genesis 10:26–29

         v.      30              The Descendants of Shem who Occupy the Middle East

         v.      30              The Descendants of Adam (Chart)

         v.      32              The Map of Noah’s Son’s Sons

         v.      32              Noah, His Descendants, and their Distribution

 

         Addendum          A Modern Map of Iraq and Iran (which includes the journey of Noah’s Family)

         Addendum          The 5 Divine Institutions

         Addendum          Attacks Against the Divine Institutions

         Addendum          Josephus’ History of this Time Period

         Addendum          Edersheim Summarizes Genesis 10

         Addendum          A Complete Translation of Genesis 10


Chapter Outline

 

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines

Forward

Doctrines Covered and Alluded to

Chapters of the Bible Alluded To

Psalms Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Other Chapters of the Bible Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Definition of Terms

Introduction

Text

Addendum

www.kukis.org

 

Exegetical Studies in Genesis


Doctrines Covered

Doctrines Alluded To

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Chapters of the Bible Alluded To

 

 

 

 


Psalms Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

 

 

 

 


Other Chapters of the Bible Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

 

 

 

 



Many who read and study this chapter are 1st or 2nd generation students of R. B. Thieme, Jr., so that much of this vocabulary is second nature. One of Bob’s contributions to theology is a fresh vocabulary along with a number of concepts which are theologically new or reworked, yet still orthodox. Therefore, if you are unfamiliar with his work, the definitions below will help you to fully understand all that is being said. Also, I have developed a few new terms and concepts which require definition as well.

In addition, there are other more traditional yet technical theological terms which will be used and therefore defined as well.

Sometimes the terms in the exegesis of this chapter are simply alluded to, without any in-depth explanation of them. Sometimes, these terms are explained in detail and illustrated. A collection of all these terms is found here: (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Definition of Terms

Angelic Conflict

The angelic conflict is an intense war on the part of the fallen angels to further their cause by producing a creature incapable of being saved-part angel and part man, killing the humanity of Christ, inducing Christ to sin, somehow keeping man from accepting Christ as Savior, and causing sweeping Christian apostasy.

Atonement

The idea of atonement is not full and complete forgiveness, but a covering over of the sins committed. Psalm 65:3: When iniquities prevail against me, You [God] atone for [or, cover over] our transgressions. Atonement is a temporary measure. Sins are temporarily covered over.

Dispensations

A Dispensation is a period of human history expressed from Divine viewpoint (God's point of view). Dispensations give us the Divine outline of human history.

Divine institutions

A divine institution speaks of the absolute social structures that have been instituted by God for the entire human race—for believers and unbelievers alike. The term divine emphasizes the fact that they have their origin in God. These are social structures that have been built into creation and into the nature of man by God. These divine institutions provide protection, perpetuation, orderly function, survival and blessing of the human race, and allow for the teaching of the gospel of Jesus Christ.

Type and antitype

Most of the time, a type is an incident, a person, or a symbol of some sort in the Old Testament which generally represents Jesus Christ (the antitype) in the New.

Some of these definitions are taken from

http://gracebiblechurchwichita.org/?page_id=1556

http://www.bibledoctrinechurch.org/?subpages/GLOSSARY.shtml

http://rickhughesministries.org/content/Biblical-Terms.pdf

http://www.gbible.org/index.php?proc=d4d

http://www.wordoftruthministries.org/termsanddefs.htm

http://www.realtime.net/~wdoud/topics.html

http://www.theopedia.com/


——————————


An Introduction to Genesis 10


I ntroduction: Like anyone else, my earliest response to Gen. 10 was to ignore it. Much of this and the next chapter is just a bunch of names. In my failed attempts to read the entire Bible, when I came to this and the next chapter, I just skimmed it. Whether it took me 1 minute or 5, I could not have told you anything about this chapter after reading it except perhaps Noah had the 3 sons, Shem, Ham and Japheth. Hopefully, after reading this exegetical study, you will not feel as if you have simply been reading lists of names.


Gen. 10 gives us a complete breakdown of the peoples of the earth, and who was descended from whom. I am unaware of any ancient historical book which does this. This would be the ultimate ancient document on beginning genealogy. This chapter also defines nationalism, which is the fifth of the divine institutions. However, it is in Gen. 11 when we find out why mankind split up into nations. In this chapter, we have the fact of man splitting up into nations; and in the next, we will find out why.


There is a reason why these genealogies would be known. Shem, Ham and Japheth, as we will see after the flood will live to be about 600 years old (about 500 years after the flood—Gen. 11:11). It was also typical for a man to father a child around age 30 (Gen. 11:12, 14, 16, 18, 20). So, whereas we might be about to, in our own lifetimes, see 3 or 4 generations of our own seed, Shem, Ham and Japheth would have seen nearly 20 generations of their own seed. In Gen. 11, we follow a particular line, Shem’s line to Abraham. So, we are not necessarily only keeping track of the oldest male child in each family. Let’s just say that one of these original 3 has 10 children (which was very common in the early United States)—5 males and 5 females. In generation 1, that is 2 people (say, Shem and his wife); in generation 2, that would be 12 people (Shem, his wife and 10 children); in generation 3, that would be 62 people (12+50); generation 4 would be 62+500; generation 5 would be 562+5000; generation 6 would be 5562+50,000; generation 7 would be 55,562+500,000; generation 8 is 555,562+5 million; generation 9 is 5,555,562+50 million; etc. So, you see how there is a great potential for population growth in Shem’s line, which all takes place while Shem is still alive. Therefore, this is how it is possible for Shem to keep track of his line in his lifetime, to a point where he is speaking of a people as opposed to a few grandkids. This is all taking place while Shem is still alive.


There is a brain capacity issue, which I have mentioned in the past. We write things down in order to remember them. Many of us have a to-do list for the day or the week (or a calendar); and without this list, we might not know what to do with ourselves. Let me submit to you that, for Shem, Ham and Japheth, this was not necessarily an issue. Just as mankind degenerated physically, mankind would have also degenerated mentally. Early man was able to keep track of a lot of stuff—it would not shock me if Shem was able to keep track of much of his line, at least to the point where he knew that this large group of people in this or that location were all descended from him; and he knew all of these peoples and all of their locations.


Most grandparents, if they had to, could list all of their children and all of their children. They might, as my mother does, call me by the wrong name from time to time, but this is not a difficult task. Imagine having a great increased ability to think and retain information—Shem could very likely keep track of 5 or 6 generations and know all of their names (remember, we are talking in the thousands at this point); and he would no doubt know the peoples and the groups who had come from him.


Therefore, let me suggest to you, that, if the Bible is true along with all of these logical premises, then a chapter in the Bible like this would logically occur. That Shem, Ham and Japheth could keep track of their own lines (and that one of them would be able to keep track of the lines of his brothers) is possible, logical and likely to happen. This is not some random chapter just thrown in here, as in, “Hey, let’s just talk about some genealogies for awhile.” This is the beginnings of the history of mankind; and the fact that we have several generations for each of Noah’s sons followed out to the point where we are speaking of a people, rather than of just a family, is exactly what would make sense to occur.


In other words, what we have come to is the most logical, likely chapter of the Bible, even though it appears, on the surface, as if someone just thought, one day, to throw in a genealogy into the midst of everything.


And, as you will see, we are able to take our knowledge of ancient history and integrate it with this chapter of Scripture. This is not some imaginative writer who sat down one day and just started making up names and wrote them down. We will actually take a few names and show how this is done. It would become quite boring for most people if we did this to most of the names in this chapter; but a few are good in order to illustrate how well this jives with what we know on our end (Shem, for instance, is on one end of history, and we are at the other end).


The Bible is filled with a number of things—some of them quite unexpected. I often find myself asking, “Okay, why is this in the Bible?” Answering that question often is the key to understanding the passage itself.

Some of the links below note related studies which we have already done. Many of those studies did not cover this or that topic completely.

What is the Purpose of the Bible?

1.      First of all, the Bible is a product of God the Holy Spirit and man. Several dozen human authors from all walks of life, from various nationalities, on 3 different continents, record the Word of God, over a period of time I believe is more than 3000 years (even the most conservative estimates have this occurring over a 1500 year period of time). What we have are the writings of men, in their style of writing, reflecting their thoughts, vocabulary and emotions; and yet, simultaneously, the Bible is the Word of God. Although there is some dictation in the Bible (God dictating directly to man; which passages are mostly found in Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers), most of what is written in the Bible is clearly written by man. Yet, simultaneously, the Scriptures are God-breathed. In this way, the written Word of God is a reflection of the Jesus Christ, the Living Word of God, fully man and yet, fully God.

2.      The primary purpose of the Bible is to reveal Jesus Christ. We encounter Jesus Christ in Gen. 1–2 as the Creator of all things; in Gen. 3 as both a Promise (the Seed of the Woman) and a Judge (the revealed member of the Trinity Who spoke to Adam and the woman). The very nature of the Bible itself—being God-breathed and yet, completely a product of man—illustrates the nature of Jesus Christ, the God-man, equal to both God and to man. Therefore, both the Bible and Jesus Christ are called the Word of God (see John 1:1–14 and Heb. 4:12 13:7 Rev. 19:13 20:4).

3.      The Bible reveals the character and essence of God.

4.      It reveals God’s plan.

5.      The Bible teaches dispensations, which is how God interacts with man during various periods of time and how God moves His plan forward in each epoch.

6.      The Bible reveals the Angelic Conflict.

7.      The Bible reveals our purpose on this earth, which is to resolve the Angelic Conflict.

8.      The Bible is given to us so that we have food to grow spiritually from. We grow in grace and the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ (2Peter 3:18).

9.      The Bible contains proofs of its divine nature. I have already given examples of this:

         1)      Statements related to the science contained in Scripture.

         2)      There are a host of unusual topics found in the Bible, which stand out much more prominently than found in other books.

         3)      The historical nature of the Bible.

         4)      Fulfilled prophecy of the Bible. These include prophecies about Israel, about other nations and trends and about Jesus Christ.

10.    Prophets spoke to Israel during very problematic times. They told the people what they were doing wrong and what they needed to do in order to reverse their historical decline. This was often closely associated with prophecies, some of which were very short term (to come true in the near future) and some of which would come to pass in the far future (and some remain unfulfilled even to this day). Often these prophecies were parallel; that is, the same words could be understood to describe both the near and far future.

         1)      Although these prophetic words are not addressed to us, we learn from the historical trends found therein.

11.    The Bible contains real historical incidents and actual historical figures, many of which point toward the Person and work of Jesus Christ. These are called types and Jesus is called the antitype.

         1)      We first covered the concept of type and antitype back in lesson 39.

         2)      Animal sacrifices were a type, which was mentioned in the Doctrine of Atonement.

         3)      Both the Ark of God in the Tabernacle (spoken of in Doctrine of Atonement) and Noah’s Ark are types.

12.    The Bible reveals the creation and restoration of the earth (Gen. 1), something we would know nothing about, apart from the Bible.

         1)      No other religious book or human tradition has any sort of origin of the earth and man which anyone takes seriously.

         2)      The most popular scientific theory of origins is the Big Bang theory, which is very likely, the scientific explanation of what God did in Gen. 1:1.

                  (1)     Gen. 1:1 reads: In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.

                  (2)     The verb created is in the perfect tense, indicating a past event and an event seen (in most cases) as a singular event, as opposed to an ongoing event.

13.    The Bible reveals important human history.

14.    The Bible contains the accurate history of man as related to God and God’s plan.

15.    There are many chapters and passages which are directed toward a specific audience, long-dead, but which has some application to us. The five cycles of discipline, for instance, found in Lev. 26, is very important for the members of a client nation to understand (a client nation is a nation through which God works).

16.    We understand God’s view of history and the interrelationship of nations; and how God has dealt with nations in the past. This gives us an idea of how we ought to relate to other nations. The keys to when we ought to, as a nation, go to war, are found in the Bible.

17.    Sometimes, the words we find in one verse, and how they are used, help to explain the meaning of these words in another verse.

18.    One of the most instructive aspects of the New Testament is how Old Testament verses are quoted and used. Even though many verses from the Old Testament are cited as being fulfilled in the New, the NT writers use OT Scripture in far more imaginative ways than that.

19.    The Bible is our guide, whether from a personal standpoint, from a family perspective, or as a nation.

20.    And Gen. 10 tells us which nations came from which sons, so that we would be able to trace out in history, the descendants of Shem, Ham and Japheth, and how they continue to fulfill the Noahic pronouncement: “Blessed be Jehovah, the God of Shem, and Canaan shall be his servant. God will enlarge Japheth, and he will dwell in the tents of Shem. And Canaan will be their servant.” That is what Gen. 10 is all about.

21.    The Bible contains the complete linear genealogy from Adam to Jesus (Gen. 11:10–26 is an example eof one of these genealogies). What is fascinating about this is, there are no linear genealogies given to us in the Bible which take us to a dead end; all of the linear genealogies, compiled by perhaps a half-dozen different authors living hundreds of years apart, lead us directly from Adam to Jesus.

I assume that I (or someone else) will add to this list in the future.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Authorship: There are two possibilities for authors here: Noah, recording the generations which follow him (as he lived to see Abram) or Shem (who also lived to see Abram). Gen. 10:1a (And these are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. LTHB) and Gen. 11:10a (These are the generations of Shem. LTHB) both begin with a genealogy, which could signify the change of authors (Noah followed by Shem; or Shem followed by Abraham). Many believe that the book of Genesis has had several authors [see Authorship in the Introduction to the Book of Genesis (HTML) (PDF) (WPD)]. It is possible the Noah wrote most of Genesis 10 and that Shem wrote much of Gen. 11; or, it is even more likely that Shem recorded Gen. 10 and Abraham recorded Gen. 11. As has been mentioned previously, I do not mean that they necessarily wrote anything down, but that they committed this genealogical lines to memory and passed them along. I do not say this dogmatically, as authorship here is simply speculation, but it is more reasonable for Shem and Abraham to be the authors rather than Moses. In any case, as R. B. Thieme, Jr. would always say, It is not the man but the message which is important. Authorship of a portion of God's Word is a matter of interest and sometimes is helpful in terms of isagogics; however, what is recorded in God's Word is what is important.


In this lesson, I am going to do something which I rarely do, I will quote many additional sources for much of the information contained in the next few lessons. Like much of the Bible, this is a phenomenal chapter but rarely appreciated.


We need to know who the people are who populate this chapter.

The Principals of Genesis 10

Characters

Commentary

Noah

Noah, along with his sons below, lived on both sides of the flood. All members of the human race today are descend from Noah through one of his sons named below.

Shem

Shem is the father of the Semitic peoples (Arabs and Jews).

Ham

Ham appears to be the father of Black races and the Asians.

Japheth

Japheth seems to be the father of the Caucasoids.

There was certainly intermingling of these lines after a time.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


There has been a lot of speculation concerning these lines—that there has been some skipping of several generations. There would be two reasons for this. If a line is mentioned in retrospect, perhaps the more well-known of the ancestral line are mentioned. However, when the lines are recorded by a contemporary, recall that in early history, men lived for a long time and they might live with their grandsons, and great grandsons in a way which would be not unlike living with one's son. However, there is no reason to suppose that this occurred continually in each line of descendants recorded. There are some definite instances of it in the NT genealogies and in the 1Chronicles take on these genealogies; but that does not mean that we should read several generations between each father and son. That has come about because it is wrongly presumed that man dates back a million years in time and this would be a way to slip in a few additional years. However, that is not necessarily so (in fact it is very doubtful) and, as I have pointed out before, mathematically (HTML) (PDF), the population of the earth today does not put the flood and the repopulating of the earth too far back. Estimates of 5-6000 years ago are reasonable and, 15,000 years ago is probably too far back.


This also would be a very likely reason for ancestral worship or ancestral veneration (which has found its way into several cultures) because the oldest living ancestor would date back several generations and have a very good perspective of life.


This particular chapter is not a narrative, so it is more difficult to summarize.

A Synopsis of Genesis 10

Japheth and his progeny.

Ham and his progeny, with an extended section on Nimrod.

Shem and his progeny.

There is one area of confusion, where Nimrod appears to found a city that is associated with on of Shem’s sons.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short doctrines


Because this is a chapter dealing with genealogical lines, we should note a fascinating peculiarity in the Bible. Somewhere between 5 to 10 authors follow out a specific genealogy, which genealogy could be strung together and take us all the way from Adam to Jesus (which Luke presents). No other lines are followed out in this way. We do not have the line of Moses; we do not have the line of Isaiah. We do not have the line of Jeremiah.

 

Typically, we have one patriarch and his sons and possibly some of his grandsons (or more) are named. But, no author in the Bible just follows, say, a particular line of Ham out for 5 or 6 or 7 generations and then stops (with the exception of the line of Cain, which is a 6-generation line). However, for the most part, throughout the Bible, 2, 3 or 4 generations are listed.

 

There are two types of genealogies found in the Bible. There is the cluster, family or group genealogy, where the father is mentioned, some of his sons are named, some of their sons are named and, on occasion, some of their sons are named (e.g., Gen. 10:2–5 21–31). This is pretty much how the entire line of Japheth is presented in this chapter. Only 1–4 generations are typically listed.

 

However, there is also the linear or straight-line genealogy when the father is named, then a son of his, then his son, then his son. Only on rare occasions do we find two brothers named in such a line; and these lines typically go on for 7–10 generations (see Gen. 10:24–26a 11:10–24).

 

Here is the interesting question: how did 9 or so Biblical authors (who did not personally know one another or even live in the same time period) know to list only the linear genealogies that take us from Adam to Noah to Abraham to David to Jesus? If a family typically had 5 to 10 male children, how did they know which line to choose? Why don’t we find the occasional odd splintered line from Adam to Noah to Jeffrey to Virgil? Human viewpoint cannot give us a satisfactory answer. However, our understanding of the Bible, that this is the Word of God, written by God the Holy Spirit utilizing the hand of man, explains it. God the Holy Spirit knows the line of Jesus. He knew it in eternity past. Therefore, God the Holy Spirit knows which linear line to follow; and which lines to relegate to a cluster genealogies.


These are the notes for the title of this chapter from the NAB.

Notes From the New American Bible

[10:1-32] Verse 1 is the fourth of the Priestly formulas (2:4; 5:1; 6:9; 11:10) that structure Part I of Genesis; it introduces 10:2-11:9, the populating of the world and the building of the city. In a sense, chaps. 4-9 are concerned with the first of the two great commands given to the human race in 1:28, "Be fertile and multiply!" whereas chaps. 10-11 are concerned with the second command, "Fill the earth and subdue it!" ("Subdue it" refers to each nation's taking the land assigned to it by God.) Gn 9:19 already noted that all nations are descended from the three sons of Noah; the same sentiment is repeated in 10:5, 18, 25, 32; 11:8. The presupposition of the chapter is that every nation has a land assigned to it by God (cf. Dt 32:8-9). The number of the nations is seventy (if one does not count Noah and his sons, and counts Sidon [vv. 15, 19] only once), which is a traditional biblical number (Jgs 8:30; Lk 10:1, 17). According to Gn 46:27 and Ex 1:5, Israel also numbered seventy persons, which shows that it in some sense represents the nations of the earth.

This chapter classifies the various peoples known to the ancient Israelites; it is theologically important as stressing the basic family unity of all peoples on earth. It is sometimes called the Table of the Nations. The relationship between the various peoples is based on linguistic, geographic, or political grounds (v. 31). In general, the descendants of Japheth (vv. 2-5) are the peoples of the Indo-European languages to the north and west of Mesopotamia and Syria; the descendants of Ham (vv. 6-20) are the Hamitic-speaking peoples of northern Africa; and the descendants of Shem (vv. 21-31) are the Semitic-speaking peoples of Mesopotamia, Syria and Arabia. But there are many exceptions to this rule; the Semitic-speaking peoples of Canaan are considered descendants of Ham, because at one time they were subject to Hamitic Egypt (vv. 6, 15-19). This chapter is generally considered to be a composite from the Yahwist source (vv. 8-19, 21, 24-30) and the Priestly source (vv. 1-7, 20, 22-23, 31-32). Presumably that is why certain tribes of Arabia are listed under both Ham (v. 7) and Shem (vv. 26-28).

From: http://www.usccb.org/bible/Genesis/10 accessed January 24, 2013.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


This is a unique period of time in human history, and a unique which I realize will not be appreciated by many who are skeptical as to some of these things which have occurred. Many people look at much of Genesis, and if it does not line up with their perception or beliefs, then they reject it, or they believe that it is fantasy or some sort of representative reality, that perhaps grew out of true events that became mythologized


Personally, I take Genesis on its own terms and believe that these are real historical events and they occur exactly as presented.


Here is what I mean by unique: these first people to step off the ark—Shem, Ham and Japheth—all lived for a very long time. They lived much longer, because of their genetic makeup, than did their sons or grandsons. In fact, they lived for as many as 10 to 20 generations. This occurs only during the history of man, described in this and the next chapter.


These are the only people who have knowledge of what happened before the flood; they are the only ones alive who knew about what life was like before the flood, which would have been amazing to their sons, grandson, great grandsons, etc. Also, these 3 men knew all human history from the flood forward. They knew every historical event in human history for the next 500 or so years. Can you imagine that? For a half a millennium, you know essentially every event that happened in human history. You lived through it. Their minds would have been quite able to hold all of this knowledge as well.


This helps to explain a custom known in some Asian cultures: ancestor worship. This made little sense to me. We nearly all go through the mistaken notion that our parents all old fuddy duddies who don’t know very much; and then, somewhere in our 30's or 40's, we begin to recognize their wisdom and love. This happened at this period of time when these ancestors lived such a long period of time when all of their descendants eventually recognized the brilliance of Shem, Ham and Japheth. So, it would make sense for ancestor worship to come out of this. Not necessarily that this was practiced then, but for the respect of ancestors to be greater than it has ever been before.


A debt of gratitude is owed to R. B. Thieme, Jr., who, among other things, was a scholar in the field of ancient history. Syndein (I have forgotten his real name) recorded basic notes on this chapter at http://syndein.com/Genesis_10.html (this would have come from the Civilizations, Dispensations or one of the Genesis series). These notes include the origins of the various peoples. Now, I am sure that Bob made some mistakes now and again; however, I would trust his opinion as to the national origins of these various peoples over that of pretty much any other Bible commentator, including myself. This is not an area in which I have had formal training, and therefore, have had to depend upon the excellent work of others who went before me. For the most part, I will give the opinions of R. B. Thieme, Jr. and the NET Bible (which seems to have the most thorough notes as to who these various peoples are). As an aside, Syndein obviously does not know how to spell many of the names of the ancient peoples who are listed in this chapter. If I was able to find and make the correction to his notes, I did. However, there are probably a half-dozen peoples at least whose names in Syndein’s notes are misspelled which I did not catch.

 

C. I. Scofield: This chapter contains the earliest ethnological table in the literature of the ancient world, compiled centuries before the Homeric writings. In this table of nations there is a remarkable perception of the ethnic and linguistic situation of the age of Noah and his descendants. Virtually all the names here have been found in archaeological discoveries of the past century.


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Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Title and Introduction

1Chronicles 1:4


Slavishly literal:

 

Moderately literal:

And these [are] the generations [genealogies, families, history, origin] of the sons of Noah: Shem, Ham and Japheth. And were born to them sons after the flood.

Genesis

10:1

These are the generations [genealogies, families; history, origin] of the sons of Noah: Shem, Ham and Japheth. Sons were born to them after the flood.

What follows are the family lines for Shem, Ham and Japheth, the sons of Noah; along with a list of the children born to them after the deluge.


Here is how others have translated this verse:

 

Ancient texts:                       Note: I compare the Hebrew text to English translations of the Latin, Syriac and Greek texts, using the Douay-Rheims translation; George Lamsa’s translation, and Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton’s translation as revised and edited by Paul W. Esposito, respectively. I often update these texts with non-substantive changes (e.g., you for thou, etc.). I often use the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible instead of Brenton’s translation, because it updates the English text.

 

The Septuagint was the earliest known translation of a book (circa 200 b.c.). Since this translation was made before the textual criticism had been developed into a science and because different books appear to be translated by different men, the Greek translation can sometimes be very uneven.

 

When there are serious disparities between my translation and Brenton’s (or the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible), I look at the Greek text of the Septuagint (the LXX) to see if a substantive difference actually exists (and I reflect these changes in the English rendering of the Greek text). I use the Greek LXX with Strong’s numbers and morphology available for e-sword. The only problem with this resource (which is a problem for similar resources) is, there is no way to further explore Greek verbs which are not found in the New Testament. Although I usually quote the Complete Apostles’ Bible here, I have begun to make changes in the translation when their translation conflicts with the Greek and note what those changes are.

 

The Masoretic text is the Hebrew text with all of the vowels (vowel points) inserted (the original Hebrew text lacked vowels). We take the Masoretic text to be the text closest to the original. However, differences between the Masoretic text and the Greek, Latin and Syriac are worth noting and, once in a great while, represent a more accurate text possessed by those other ancient translators.

 

In general, the Latin text is an outstanding translation from the Hebrew text into Latin and very trustworthy (I say this as a non-Catholic). Unfortunately, I do not read Latin—apart from some very obvious words—so I am dependent upon the English translation of the Latin (principally, the Douay-Rheims translation).

 

Underlined words indicate differences in the text.

 

Bracketed portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls are words, letters and phrases lost in the scroll due to various types of damage. Underlined words or phrases are those in the Dead Sea Scrolls but not in the Masoretic text.

 

The Targum of Onkelos is actually the Pentateuchal Targumim, which are The Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan Ben Uzziel. On the Pentateuch With The Fragments of the Jerusalem Targum From the Chaldee by J. W. Etheridge, M.A. Take from http://targum.info/targumic-texts/pentateuchal-targumim/ and first published in 1862.

 

Targum of Onkelos                These are the generations of the sons of Noach, and (of the) sons (who) were born to them after the deluge.

Latin Vulgate                          These are the generations of the sons of Noe: Sem, Cham, and Japheth: and unto them sons were born after the flood.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And these [are] the generations [genealogies, families, history, origin] of the sons of Noah: Shem, Ham and Japheth. And were born to them sons after the flood.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    NOW these are the descendants of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth: and to them were sons born after the flood.

Septuagint (Greek)                Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah: Shem, Ham, and Japheth; and sons were born to them after the flood.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           These are the descendants of Noah's sons Shem, Ham, and Japheth, to whom children were born after the flood.

Contemporary English V.       After the flood Shem, Ham, and Japheth had many descendants.

Easy English                          Noah's sons were Shem, Ham and Japheth. This is their families' history. They had sons after the flood.

Easy-to-Read Version            Noah’s sons were Shem, Ham, and Japheth. After the flood, these three men became the fathers of many more sons. Here is a list of the sons that came from Shem, Ham, and Japheth.

Good News Bible (TEV)         These are the descendants of Noah's sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. These three had sons after the flood.

The Message                         This is the family tree of the sons of Noah: Shem, Ham, and Japheth. After the flood, they themselves had son.

New Century Version             Nations Grow and Spread

This is the family history of Shem, Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah. After the flood these three men had sons.

New Living Translation           This is the account of the families of Shem, Ham, and Japheth, the three sons of Noah. Many children were born to them after the great flood.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Now, these are the generations of the sons of Noah: Shem, Ham, and JaPheth. And these are the sons that were born to them after the Downpour:...

New American Bible (R.E.)    Table of the Nations.*

hese are the descendants of Noah's sons, Shem, Ham and Japheth, to whom children were born after the flood.

NIRV                                      A List of Nations

Here is the story of Shem, Ham and Japheth. They were Noah's sons. After the flood, they too had sons.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      These are the progeny of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth, and their sons begotten to them after the flood:...

Bible in Basic English             Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth: these are the sons which they had after the great flow of waters.

Complete Jewish Bible           Here is the genealogy of the sons of Noach - Shem, Ham and Yefet; sons were born to them after the flood.

The Expanded Bible              Nations Grow and Spread

This is the family history [LThese are the generations; 2:4] of Shem, Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah. After the flood ·these three men had sons [Lsons were born to them]..

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 History of Noah’s Sons.

Now these are the registers of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth; for they had sons born to them after the deluge.

HCSB                                     These are the family records of Noah's sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. They also had sons after the deluge.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               These are the lines of Shem, Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah: sons were born to them after the Flood.

New Advent Bible                  These are the generations of the sons of Noe: Sem, Cham, and Japheth: and unto them sons were born after the flood.

NET Bible®                             The Table of Nations

This is the account [The title אֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת (’elle tolÿdot, here translated as “This is the account”) here covers 10:1–11:9, which contains the so-called Table of Nations and the account of how the nations came to be dispersed.] of Noah's sons Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Sons [Sons were born to them. A vertical genealogy such as this encompasses more than the names of sons. The list includes cities, tribes, and even nations. In a loose way, the names in the list have some derivation or connection to the three ancestors.] were born [It appears that the Table of Nations is a composite of at least two ancient sources: Some sections begin with the phrase “the sons of” (בְּנֵי, bÿne) while other sections use “begot” (יָלָד, yalad). It may very well be that the “sons of” list was an old, “bare bones” list that was retained in the family records, while the “begot” sections were editorial inserts by the writer of Genesis, reflecting his special interests. See A. P. Ross, “The Table of Nations in Genesis 10 – Its Structure,” BSac 137 (1980): 340-53; idem, “The Table of Nations in Genesis 10 – Its Content,” BSac 138 (1981): 22-34.] to them after the flood. When it comes to making an actual material change to the text, the NET Bible® is pretty good about indicating this. Since most of these corrections will be clear in the more literal translations below and within the Hebrew exegesis itself, I will not continue to list every NET Bible® footnote.

NIV – UK                                The table of nations

This is the account of Shem, Ham and Japheth, Noah's sons, who themselves had sons after the flood.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                This is the history of the generations (descendants) of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. The sons born to them after the flood were:...

Concordant Literal Version    And these are the genealogical annals of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. And sons are being born to them after the deluge.

Context Group Version          Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah, [ namely ], of Shem, Ham, and Japheth: and to them were sons born after the flood.

English Standard Version      These are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Sons were born to them after the flood.

The Geneva Bible                  Now these [are] the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth: and unto them were sons born after the flood. These generations are here recited, partly to declare the marvellous increase, and also to set forth their great forgetfulness of Gods grace towards their fathers.

NASB                                     Descendants of Noah

Now these are the records of the generations of Shem, Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah; and sons were born to them after the flood.

New King James Version       Nations Descended from Noah

Now this is the genealogy of the sons of Noah: Shem, Ham, and Japheth. And sons were born to them after the flood.

New RSV                               These are the descendants of Noah's sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth; children were born to them after the flood.

World English Bible                Now this is the history of the generations of the sons of Noah and of Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Sons were born to them after the flood.

Young's Literal Translation     And these are births of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth; and born to them are sons after the deluge.

 

The gist of this verse:          The title for Gen. 11 is: These are the Genealogies of Shem, Ham and Japheth, the Sons of Noah. The italicized text which follows is, Sons were born to them after the flood.


Genesis 10:1a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêlleh (אֵלֶּה) [pronounced ALE-leh]

these, these things

demonstrative plural adjective

Strong's #428 BDB #41

tôwledôth (תּוֹלְדֹת) [pronounced tohle-DOTH]

generations, results, proceedings, genealogies, history, course of history; origin; families; races

feminine plural construct

Strong’s #8435 BDB #410

bânîym (בָּנִים) [pronounced baw-NEEM]

sons, descendants; children; people; sometimes rendered men

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

Nôach (נֹחַ) [pronounced NOH-ahkh]

rest, repose; consolation; transliterated Noah

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #5146 BDB #629


Translation: These are the generations [genealogies, families; history, origin] of the sons of Noah:... Noah had 3 sons who accompanies him on the ark. This chapter chronicles their families and the peoples who arose out of their families.


Gen 10:1a Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth.


Generations is the Hebrew word tôwledôth (תּוֹלְדֹת) [pronounced tohle-DOHTH], which means generations, results, proceedings, genealogies, course of history. We find this word used in conjunction with the genealogies (e.g., Gen. 5:1 6:9 Ex. 6:16). Strong’s #8435 BDB #410. Dr. Robert Dean calls these the toledot sections (which is the singular, vocabulary form of this word, transliterated into English). Dr. Dean simplifies the translation to This is what happened to the sons of Noah: [to] Shem, Ham and Japheth. Although this is clearly more of an interpretation than translation, it conveys what is going on with a more common, English phrase.


Toledoth is one of the most significant words in Genesis.

The Doctrine of Toledoth

1.      Toledoth is a transliteration of the feminine plural word tôwledôth (תּוֹלְדֹת) [pronounced tohle-DOTH], which means generations, results, proceedings, genealogies, history, course of history; origin; families; races. Strong’s #8435 BDB #410.

2.      It is found in 9 passages in Genesis.

3.      Some associate this word with a change of authorship in the book of Genesis.

4.      After the creation of the universe and the restoration of the earth, in Gen. 2:4, we read: This is the account of heaven and earth when they were created, at the time when the LORD God made earth and heaven. (God’s Word™). At that point, the author hunkers down with Adam and tells us much more about him than was revealed in Gen. 1.

5.      Gen. 5:1 This is the written account of Adam and his descendants. When God created humans, he made them in the likeness of God. (God’s Word™). At this point, the line of Adam is followed, from Adam to Noah, 10 generations.

6.      Gen 6:9 begins the narrative of Noah and the flood: This is the account of Noah and his descendants. Noah had God's approval and was a man of integrity among the people of his time. He walked with God. (God’s Word™). Or, as we have in the CLV: These are the genealogical annals of Noah: Noah is a just man. Flawless became he in his generations. With the Elohim walks Noah.

7.      Gen. 10:1 Now this is the history of the generations of the sons of Noah and of Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Sons were born to them after the flood. (WEB). We will then follow out the peoples who came from Shem, Ham and Japheth.

8.      Gen. 10:32 closes out this chapter using the word toledoth: These were the families of the sons of Noah, by their generations, in their nations. And from these the nations were divided in the earth after the flood. (LTHB). This sentence seems more to signal the end of this chapter than to suggest a new writer has come on board.

9.      Gen. 11:10 begins the genealogy for Shem: These are the generations of Shem. When Shem was 100 years old, he fathered Arpachshad two years after the flood. (ESV).

10.    Near the end of this chapter, we come to the genealogy of Terah, where we are introduced to Noah: Now these are the generations of Terah. Terah fathered Abram, Nahor, and Haran; and Haran fathered Lot. (ESV).

11.    After a long period of time is spend on the life of Abraham, Gen 25:12–13 reads: And these are the generations of Ishmael, the son of Abraham, whom Hagar the Egyptian, the slave-girl of Sarah, bore to Abraham. And these are the names of the sons of Ishmael, by their names, according to their generations: the first-born of Ishmael was Nebajoth; then Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam,... (LTHB).

12.    Gen 25:19 then goes back to the line of promise: And these were the generations of Isaac, the son of Abraham: Abraham fathered Isaac. (LTHB).

13.    We have a similar pattern repeated, where the dead line of Esau is begun in Gen. 36:1, 8; but then the genealogy of promise is begun again in Gen. 37:2 (These are the generations of Jacob: Joseph, a son of seventeen years, was feeding the flock with his brothers, with Bilhah's sons and with Zilpah's sons, his father's wives. And he was a youth. And Joseph brought an evil report of them to their father.—LTHB).

14.    Given the areas where these are interspersed, it is not out of the question that each time we find this word, we are looking at a new author of Genesis. See the Authorship of Genesis in the Genesis Introduction (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

 


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Genesis 10:1b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

Shêm (שֵם) [pronounced shame]

name, reputation, character; and is transliterated Shem

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #8035 BDB #1028

Hâm (הָם) [pronounced hawm]

hot, sunburnt, brown; the Egyptian word means black; transliterated Ham; originally of a son of Noah and his ancestors; and later applied to Egypt

proper noun, masculine

Strong’s #2526 BDB #325

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Yepheth (יֶפֶתּ) [pronounced YEH-fehth]

open, spacious; simple foolish, beguiled; and transliterated Japheth

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #3315 BDB #834


Translation: ...Shem, Ham and Japheth. These are Noah’s 3 sons, and this chapter will be all about following the line or genealogy of each son.


As noted in the introduction, what follows, assuming that the Bible is true, is possible, logical and likely. That is, given the intelligence of these men (which would have been greater than our intelligence), it would be possible for them to keep track of their children, grandchildren, great grandchildren, etc. for many generations. Furthermore, it is logical that each of these men would do so; or that one of these men would take an interest in genealogy from the beginning and keep track of these things. And just as the doting grandparent keeps track of his or her grandchildren; it would be likely that Shem, Ham, and/or Japheth would keep track of theirs.


Noah is only said to have 3 sons, Shem, Ham and Japheth. For all we know, he could have had 10 sons, but only 3 went with him into the ark. What seems to be clearly the case is, Noah has no more children after the flood, as we will examine the descendants only of those who come from his 3 sons. From these 3, the entire earth was populated. In the previous 2 lessons, we studied Ham and Japheth. This is the 3rd son, Shem, in whose tents, Japheth would dwell (indicating a spiritual link between Shem and Japheth).


Genesis 10:1c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

yâlad (יָלַד) [pronounced yaw-LAHD]

to be born; in the participle, being born, receiving birth

3rd person masculine plural, Niphal perfect

Strong’s #3205 BDB #408

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

bânîym (בָּנִים) [pronounced baw-NEEM]

sons, descendants; children; people; sometimes rendered men

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

ʾachar (אַחַר) [pronounced ah-KHAHR]

after, following, behind; afterwards, after that

preposition/adverb

Strong’s #310 BDB #29

mabbûwl (מַבּוּל) [pronounced mahb-BOOL]

flood, a deluge, an inundation of water

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3999 BDB #550


Translation: Sons were born to them after the flood. This is logical that these sons of Noah would have children. This particular sentence appears to be parenthetical or a subtitle of sorts.


These are the generations [genealogies, families; history, origin] of the sons of Noah: Shem, Ham and Japheth. Sons were born to them after the flood. This first verse is a title for what is to come, The first phrase is a series of nouns, conjunctions and an adjective; there are no verbs. We do not have a verb until the verb for born which occurs at the end of the verse. It is in the Niphal imperfect—that is a passive stem—and it can function as an adjective in that respect. The action can be in progress at the time of writing, and, in this case, it is still in progress. The generations of these three continue until today.


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Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


The Descendants of Japheth

1Chronicles 1:5–7

Sons of Japheth: Gomer and Magog and Madai and Javan and Tubal and Meshech and Tiras.

Genesis

10:2

The sons of Japheth [were]: Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech and Tiras.

Japheth had 7 sons: Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech and Tiras.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                The sons of Japheth, Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Thubal, and Meshek, and Thiras. And the names of their provinces, Afriki, and Germania, and Medi, and Makadonia, and Iatinia, and Asia, and Tharki.

Jerusalem targum                  The sons of Japheth, Gomer; and the name of their provinces, Afriki, and Garmania, and Madai, and Mokdonia, and Yatania, and Asia, and Tharki.

Latin Vulgate                          The sons of Japheth: Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Thubal, and Mosoch, and Thiras.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        Sons of Japheth: Gomer and Magog and Madai and Javan and Tubal and Meshech and Tiras.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    The sons of Japheth were Gomer, Mongolia, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras.

Septuagint (Greek)                The sons of Japheth were Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Elisa, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Japheth's sons: Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras.

Contemporary English V.       Japheth's descendants had their own languages, tribes, and land. They were Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras. Gomer was the ancestor of Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah. Javan was the ancestor of Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim, who settled along the coast.

Good News Bible (TEV)         The sons of Japheth---Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras---were the ancestors of the peoples who bear their names.

New Century Version             Japheth's Sons

The sons of Japheth were Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          JaPheth's sons were Gamer, Magog [the Scythians], Madoi [the Medes], Jovan, EliSa, Thobel [of Tubal], Mosoch [possibly Moscow of Russia], and Thiras [Islands of the Aegean Sea].

New American Bible (R.E.)    The descendants [1Chr 1:5-10.] of Japheth: Gomer,* Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech and Tiras. Gomer: the Cimmerians; Madai: the Medes; Javan: the Greeks. 1 Chr 1:5-10.

NIRV                                      The Japhethites

The sons [Sons may mean descendants or successors or nations; also in verses 3, 4, 6, 7, 20-23, 29 and 31.] of Japheth:

Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshek and Tiras.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      The sons of Japheth: Gomer, Magog, North-Iran, Greece, East-Turkey, West-Turkey, and Tyre (city).

Complete Jewish Bible           The sons of Yefet were Gomer, Magog, Madai, Yavan, Tuval, Meshekh and Tiras.

The Expanded Bible              Japheth's Sons

The sons of Japheth were Gomer, Magog, Madai [Cancestor of the Medes], Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 The sons of Japheth: Gomer, Magog, and Madai, and Ion, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Thiras.

New Advent Bible                  The sons of Japheth: Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Thubal, and Mosoch, and Thiras.

NIV – UK                                The Japhethites

The sons[a] of Japheth:

Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshek and Tiras....


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    The sons of Japheth: Gomer and Magog and Media and Javan and Elisha, and Tubal and Meshech and Tiras.

The Geneva Bible                  The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and b Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras. Of Madai and Javan came the Medes and Greeks.

New RSV                               The descendants of Japheth: Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras.

Syndein/Thieme                     {The Japhetic People}

The sons of Japheth . . .

Gomer {his line includes the Samaritans (people who settled in France, England, Scotland, Ireland, Germany, Northern Italy and Northern Spain): Celts (Irish and Galls/Galatians and Chur-de-ton-ie in Spain and the Bri-thons in England and Scots), Teutons (Germans, Goth, Vandals, Visigoths, Austra-Goths), one branch of Sideans, and the Kurds - a tall blonde segment of the Armenians},

Magog {his line includes most of the Slavic People and the rest of the Sid-eans they settled in Western Russia, Polls, Checks, Serbs, on and on} {SideNote: Gog of Magog will come from this part of Eastern Europe in Armageddon campaign},

Madai {his line of descendents are called the Meads and some Persian tribes and the Aryans of India (Parsees - blonde with blue eyes - conquered India and spoke

Sanscrit)},

Javan {his line of descendents are the original Greeks and Romans Greeks - A-kee-an, Dorian, Ionian, Cre-tian (Caf-terines and Philistines - Greek Sea peoples), and the Aeolian Greeks, Macedonians, Frig-ians, I-pyer-ians, Romans - Villanovans, Sabeans (NOT Etruscans)},

Tubal {his line of descendents are the Ti-ber-inie. Who they are is a mystery today per R. B. THIEME, JR.},

Meshech {his line of descendents are some of the Frig-ian type Greek also},

{and} Tiras {his line of descendents are the Greek Thracians and A-lear-ians}. As you will notice in these notes, many of these groups are misspelled, as is true with my notes of this era as well. I have been able to correct some of them.

World English Bible                The sons of Japheth: Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras.

Young's Literal Translation     Sons of Japheth are Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras.

 

The gist of this verse: 


Genesis 10:2a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

bânîym (בָּנִים) [pronounced baw-NEEM]

sons, descendants; children; people; sometimes rendered men

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

Yepheth (יֶפֶתּ) [pronounced YEH-fehth]

open, spacious; simple foolish, beguiled; and transliterated Japheth

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #3315 BDB #834

Gômer (גֹּמֶר) [pronounced GOH-mehr]

complete; transliterated Gomer

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #1586 BDB #170

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Mâgôwg (מָגוֹג) [pronounced maw-GOHGUE]

land of Gog transliterated, Magog

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #4031 BDB #156


Translation: The sons of Japheth [were]: Gomer, Magog,... Japheth appears to be the father of all of the Caucasoid peoples. Given the construction of his name, he is thought to be the father of the Greek peoples.


Chris is a pleasant name for a male or a female. Gomer is also a male or a female name, although it would not be my first choice for anyone that I liked. Historians have determined that his progeny are the Cimmerians (the Akkadian name is gimmirrai and the Greek is Kimmerioi) and the Cimbri, from who come the Celts. For awhile, they occupied Southern Russia and were forced out by the Scythians and they moved into Asia Minor at the end of the 8th century b.c. In the 7th century b.c., they conquered Urartus, Phrygia and Lydia and battled Greek cities on the West Coast. The Scythians that they did battle with are probably descended from Magog, his brother (according to Josephus). They occupied the territory North of the Black Sea, which would put them in Western Russia and Poland. Magog figures into prophecy quite heavily in Ezek. 38:2 39:6 and Rev. 20:8.


These are the descendants of Japheth, the lighter-skinned son of Noah.


The information below was taken from http://creation.com/the-sixteen-grandsons-of-noah which was accessed August 26, 2009 (I have italicized the direct quotations).


Gomer, his first named son, moved northward (Ezek. 38:6), and some of his descendants probably settled Galatia. The Jewish historian Flavius Josephus records that the people who were called Galatians or Gauls in his day (c. AD 93) were previously called Gomerites.


They also migrated westward to what are now called France and Spain. For many centuries France was called Gaul, after the descendants of Gomer. North-west Spain is called Galicia to this day.


Some of the Gomerites migrated further to what is now called Wales. The Welsh historian, Davis, records a traditional Welsh belief that the descendants of Gomer `landed on the Isle of Britain from France, about three hundred years after the flood'. He also records that the Welsh language is called Gomeraeg (after their ancestor Gomer).


Magog


The next grandson mentioned is Magog. According to Ezekiel, Magog lived in the north parts (Ezek. 38:15 39:2). Josephus records that those whom he called Magogites, the Greeks called Scythians. According to Encyclopedia Britannica, the ancient name for the region which now includes part of Romania and the Ukraine was Scythia.


Genesis 10:2b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Mâday (מָדַי) [pronounced maw-DAH-ee]

middle land; transliterated Media, Medes, Madai

proper noun singular gentis

Strong’s #4074 BDB #552

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Yâvân (יָוָן) [pronounced yaw-VAWN]

effervescing (hot and active); and is transliterated Javan; also Ionia, Greece

proper noun singular; also a location

Strong’s #3120 BDB #402


Translation: ...Madai, Javan,...


From Madai comes one of the most famous of the ancient peoples: the Medes. They are Indo-European peoples who populated northwestern Iran and were later absorbed by the Persians. Except for words of theirs taken by other nations, their language has disappeared in antiquity and the records of their distribution are found in the documents of Assyrian rulers who fought against them. It appears that they might have been allied with the Cimmerians and protected from the Scythians in that alliance.


The next grandson is Madai. Along with Shem's son Elam, Madai is the ancestor of our modern-day Iranians. Josephus says that the descendants of Madai were called Medes by the Greeks. Every time the Medes are mentioned in the Old Testament, the word used is the Hebrew word Madai. After the time of Cyrus, the Medes are always (with one exception) mentioned along with the Persians. They became one kingdom with one law-`the law of the Medes and Persians' (Daniel 6:8, 12, 15). Later they were simply called Persians. Since 1935 they have called their country Iran. The Medes also `settled India'.


Javan is the Jewish word for Greeks. Javan's famous descendants include the Ionians, who lived in the West Coast of Asia Minor, Greece, Macedonia and Syria. Isaiah (in Isa. 66:19) associates Javan with the far-off nations to whom Yahweh's messengers will be dispatched. This associates him with the far-western nations with respect to the Jews at that time. Ezekiel tells us that Javan contributed to the wealth of Tyre (Ezek. 27:13). Daniel associates Javan with Alexander's Greco-Macedonian empire.


The name of the next grandson, Javan, is the Hebrew word for Greece. Greece, Grecia, or Grecians appears five times in the Old Testament, and is always the Hebrew word Javan. Daniel refers to `the king of Grecia' (Daniel 8:21), literally `the king of Javan'. Javan's sons were Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim (Genesis 10:4), all of whom have connections with the Greek people. The Elysians (an ancient Greek people) obviously received their name from Elishah. Tarshish or Tarsus was located in the region of Cilicia (modern Turkey). The Encyclopedia Britannica says that Kittim is the Biblical name for Cyprus. The people who initially settled around the area of Troy worshipped Jupiter under the name of Jupiter Dodonaeus, possibly a reference to the fourth son of Javan, with Jupiter a derivative of Japheth. His oracle was at Dodena. The Greeks worshipped this god but called him Zeus.


Genesis 10:2c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Tûbâl (תֻּבָל) [pronounced too-BAWL]

you will be brought; transliterated Tubal

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #8422 BDB #1063

This is also spelled Tûwbal (תּוּבַל) [pronounced too-BAHL].

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Mesheke (מֶשֶ) [pronounced MEH-sheik]

a drawing out; transliterated Moschi, Meech, Meshech

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #4902 BDB #604

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Tîyrâç (תִּירָס) [pronounced tee-RAWSE]

desire; transliterated Tiras

proper singular noun/location

Strong’s #8494 BDB #1066


Translation: ...Tubal, Meshech and Tiras.


Tubal is mentioned several times throughout the Bible and his descendants are thought to have populated the area south of the Black Sea, in what is today Turkey, but then it was called southern Anatolia. The Assyrian empire began to expand to the North and East and began to be in conflict with the tribes of Anatolia from the rise of Ashurnasirpal (circa 870 b.c.) to onslaught of the Scythians in 679 b.c. Their strength and tenacity in battle is shown by resisting these forces for several centuries, remaining in continual, bitter conflict with the Assyrians. The Bible ascribes to Tubal the trading of slaves and metals.


Next is Tubal. Ezekiel mentions him along with Gog and Meshech (Ezek. 39:1). Tiglath-pileser I, king of Assyria in about 1100 b.c. refers to the descendants of Tubal as the Tabali. Josephus recorded their name as the Thobelites, who were later known as Iberes. ‘Their land, in Josephus’ day, was called by the Romans Iberia, and covered what is now (the former Soviet State of) Georgia whose capital to this day bears the name Tubal as Tbilisi. From here, having crossed the Caucasus mountains, this people migrated due north-east, giving their tribal name to the river Tobol, and hence to the famous city of Tobolsk.’


Meschech is often mentioned in conjunction with Tubal and Magog in Biblical and secular literature alike. Some believe that they were Indo-European peoples who populated central Asia Minor, but were later pushed by their enemies southeast of the Black Sea. Many think that these three are the source of the modern Russians. Ezekiel refers to them as traders of slaves and bronze (Ezek. 27:13); when castigating Egypt, Ezekiel tells them that they will inhabit Sheol with uncircumcised barbarians like Meshech and Tubal (Ezek. 32:26); they are grouped again with Tubal in Ezek. 38 and 39 as the anti-God forces from the land of Magog.


Meshech, the name of the next grandson, is the ancient name for Moscow. Moscow is both the capital of Russia, and the region that surrounds the city. To this day, one section, the Meschera Lowland, still carries the name of Meshech, virtually unchanged by the ages.


Tiras is thought to be the progenitor of the Thracians, and later the Tyrsenoi, a people which occupied the coastal area of the Aegean Sea. There is some disagreement here and others see them as being related to Tarsus and Tarshish and possibly as the ancestor of the Etruscans.


According to Josephus, the descendants of grandson Tiras were called Thirasians. The Greeks changed their name to Thracians. Thrace reached from Macedonia on the south to the Danube River on the north to the Black Sea on the east. It took in much of what became Yugoslavia. World Book Encyclopedia says: `The people of Thrace were savage Indo-Europeans, who liked warfare and looting.' Tiras was worshipped by his descendants as Thuras, or Thor, the god of thunder.


The NET Bible divides these groups into their families.

The NET Bible Footnotes for Genesis 10:2

The sons of Japheth4 were Gomer,5 Magog,6 Madai,7 Javan,8 Tubal,9 Meshech,10 and Tiras.11

3 It appears that the Table of Nations is a composite of at least two ancient sources: Some sections begin with the phrase “the sons of” (בְּנֵי, bÿne) while other sections use “begot” (יָלָד, yalad). It may very well be that the “sons of” list was an old, “bare bones” list that was retain ed in the family records, while the “begot” sections were editorial inserts by the writer of Genesis, reflecting his special interests. See A. P. Ross, “The Table of Nations in Genesis 10 – Its Structure,” BSac 137 (1980): 340-53; idem, “The Table of Nations in Genesis 10 – Its Content,” BSac 138 (1981): 22-34.

4 The Greek form of the name Japheth, Iapetos, is used in Greek tradition for the ancestor of the Greeks.

5 Gomer was the ancestor of the Cimmerians. For a discussion of the Cimmerians see E. M. Yamauchi, Foes from the Northern Frontier (SBA), 49-61.

6 For a discussion of various proposals concerning the descendants of Magog see E. M. Yamauchi, Foes from the Northern Frontier (SBA), 22-24.

7 Madai was the ancestor of the Medes, who lived east of Assyria.

8 Javan was the father of the Hellenic race, the Ionians who lived in western Asia Minor.

9 Tubal was the ancestor of militaristic tribes that lived north of the Black Sea. For a discussion of ancient references to Tubal see E. M. Yamauchi, Foes from the Northern Frontier (SBA), 24-26.

10 Meshech was the ancestor of the people known in Assyrian records as the Musku. For a discussion of ancient references to them see E. M. Yamauchi, Foes from the Northern Frontier (SBA), 24-26.

11 Tiras was the ancestor of the Thracians, some of whom possibly became the Pelasgian pirates of the Aegean.

From: http://bible.org/netbible/index.htm?gen10.htm accessed January 24, 2013.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines



——————————


And sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz and Riphath and Togarmah.

Genesis

10:3

Gomer’s sons [are] Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah.

Gomer’s sons include Ashkenaz, Riphath and Togarmah.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the sons of Gomer, Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarma.

Jerusalem targum                  And the sons of Gomer, and the name of their provinces, Asia and Pharkui (Phrygia?) and Barberia.

Latin Vulgate                          And the sons of Gomer: Ascenez and Riphath and Thogorma.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz and Riphath and Togarmah.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And the sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Diphar, and Togarmah. .

Septuagint (Greek)                And the sons of Gomer were Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Gomer's sons: Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah.

Good News Bible (TEV)         The descendants of Gomer were the people of Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah.

The Message                         The sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath, Togarmah.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Gamer's sons were AshKenaz [Germans], Riphath [of Northwestern Asia Minor], and Thorgama [the Armenians].

New American Bible (R.E.)    The descendants of Gomer: Ashkenaz,* Diphath and Togarmah. Ashkenaz: an Indo-European people, which later became the medieval rabbinic name for Germany. It now designates one of the great divisions of Judaism, Eastern European Yiddish-speaking Jews.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      The sons of Gomer: Armenia, Romania, and Georgia.

The Expanded Bible              The sons of Gomer [Cancestor of the Cimmerians] were Ashkenaz [Cancestor of the Scythians], Riphath, and Togarmah.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 And the sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Thorgarmah.

New Advent Bible                  And the sons of Gomer: Ascenez and Riphath and Thogorma.

NIV, ©2011                             The sons of Gomer:

Ashkenaz, Riphath and Togarmah.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

New King James Version       The sons of Gomer were Ashkenaz, Riphath [Spelled Diphath in 1 Chronicles 1:6], and Togarmah.

Syndein/Thieme                     The sons of Gomer . . . Ashkenaz {Tutonic Groups}, Riphath {Celtic tribes}, {and} Togarmah {Kurds}.

World English Bible                The sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah.

Young's Updated LT              And sons of Gomer are Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah.

 

The gist of this verse:          Gamer has 3 sons of note: Ashkenaz, Riphath and Togarmah


Genesis 10:3

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

bânîym (בָּנִים) [pronounced baw-NEEM]

sons, descendants; children; people; sometimes rendered men

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

Gômer (גֹּמֶר) [pronounced GOH-mehr]

complete; transliterated Gomer

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #1586 BDB #170

ʾashekenaz (אַשְכְּנַז) [pronounced ash-kehn-AHZ]

a man as sprinkled; fire as scattered; transliterated Ashkenaz

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #813 BDB #79

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Rîyphath (רִיפַת) [pronounced ree-FAHTH]

 spoken; transliterated Riphahth

proper singular noun

Strong’s #7384 BDB #937

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Tôgaremâh (תֹּגַרְמָה) [pronounced toh-gar-MAW]

you will break her; transliterated Togarmah

proper singular noun/location

Strong’s #8425 BDB #1062

There is an alternative but similar spelling for this name.


Translation: Gomer’s sons [are] Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah.


Ashkenaz apparently did not stray too far. According to Jer. 51:27, they lived in Ararat and Armenia during Jeremiah's time. Extra-Biblical Jewish literature indicates that Ashkenaz later became a synonym for Germany. Just as Jews in Spain and Portugal were called Sephartic Jews, Jews in Germany were called Ashkenazim. According to the Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia they likely became the Scythians who were allied with the Manneans in battle against the Assyrians. Their name became a synonym for Barbarian as they were a crude and warlike people who caused unrest in the Assyrian empire. Herodotus recorded their conquest of the Cimmerians (Gomer).


The parallel passage in 1Chronicles calls Riphath, Diphath. In Hebrew, this is an R: ר and this is a D: ד. There is obviously very little difference. Why wasn't this error caught? The Scribe who copied Genesis is not necessarily the same Scribe who copied 1Chronicles; even if it was, they would likely not have caught the error that they made. Any Scribe who caught the error later was not permitted to change it. However, we do have several manuscripts plus the Septuagint and the Latin Vulgate which read Riphath in both passages. Scofield notes that Riphath and Togarmah were both inhabitants of Asia Minor. The ZPEB gives several possibilities, identifying them with the Ripheaean mountains and the river Rhebas in Bithynia and with the Rhibii, a people who lived eastward of the Caspian Sea which would be in Southern Russia. All of these could be true as it is not necessary for a family to all remain in the same geographical area for the rest of their lives. Certainly there are groups who break off and others who intermarry. What we are examining is general trends.


Togarmah is described by Ezekiel as a nation which traded with Tyre, providing them with Mules, horses and horsemen (Ezek. 27:14). They are called allies of Magog and associated with Gomer, Persia, Cush and Put in Ezek. 38:6. Josephus believed them to be the Phrygians but Assyrian inscriptions refer to a Til-garimmu (Tegarama in Hittite) which could refer to Togarmah. That city was in East Cappadocia, so this would place them possibly North of Palestine and southeast of the Black Sea. This city was destroyed by the Assyrians in 695 b.c.


Other members of their clan settled along the way, including in Armenia. The sons of Gomer were `Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah' (Genesis 10:3). Encyclopedia Britannica says that the Armenians traditionally claim to be descended from Togarmah and Ashkenaz. Ancient Armenia reached into Turkey. The name Turkey probably comes from Togarmah. Others of them migrated to Germany. Ashkenaz is the Hebrew word for Germany.


The NET Bible divides these groups into their families.

The NET Bible Footnotes for Genesis 10:3

The sons of Gomer were12 Askenaz,13 Riphath,14 and Togarmah.15

12 The descendants of Gomer were all northern tribes of the Upper Euphrates.

13 Askenaz was the ancestor of a northern branch of Indo-Germanic tribes, possibly Scythians. For discussion see E. M. Yamauchi, Foes from the Northern Frontier (SBA), 63.

14 The descendants of Riphath lived in a district north of the road from Haran to Carchemish.

15 Togarmah is also mentioned in Eze_38:6, where it refers to Til-garimmu, the capital of Kammanu, which bordered Tabal in eastern Turkey. See E. M. Yamauchi, Foes from the Northern Frontier (SBA), 26, n. 28.

From: http://bible.org/netbible/index.htm?gen10.htm accessed January 24, 2013.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


——————————


And sons of Javan: Elishah and Tarshish, Kittim and Dodanim.

Genesis

10:4

The sons of Javan: Elishah and Tarshish, Kittim and Dodanim.

The sons of Javan include Elishah and Tarshish, Kittim and Dodanim.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the sons of Javan, Elisha, Alas, and Tarsas, Akazia, and Dordonia.

Jerusalem targum                  And the sons of Javan, Elisha, and the name of their provinces, Alastarasom, Italia, and Dordonia.

Latin Vulgate                          And the sons of Javan: Elisa and Tharsis, Cetthim and Dodanim.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And sons of Javan: Elishah and Tarshish, Kittim and Dodanim.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And the sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, China, and Doranim.

Septuagint (Greek)                And the sons of Jovan were Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Easy English                          Javan's sons were Elishah, Tarshish, the people called Kittim and the people called Dodanim.

Good News Bible (TEV)         The descendants of Javan were the people of Elishah, Spain, Cyprus, and Rhodes;...

New Century Version             The sons of Javan were Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim [Kittim His descendants were the people of Cyprus.], and Rodanim.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Jovan's sons were EliShah [of Tyre], Tarshish [of Spain], Cetian [Of Cypress], and Rhodes [of Rhodes].

Christian Community Bible     Javan’s sons: Elishah, Tarshish, the Kittim, the Dananites.

New American Bible (R.E.)    The descendants of Javan: Elishah,* Tarshish, the Kittim and the Rodanim. Elishah: Cyprus; the Kittim: certain inhabitants of Cyprus; the Rodanim: the inhabitants of Rhodes.

New Jerusalem Bible             Javan's sons: Elishah, Tarshish, the Kittim, the Dananites..

Today’s NIV                          The sons of Javan:

Elishah, Tarshish, the Kittites and the Rodanites [Some manuscripts of the Masoretic Text and Samaritan Pentateuch (see also Septuagint and 1 Chron. 1:7); most manuscripts of the Masoretic Text Dodanites].


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      The sons of Greece: Ephesus (city), Tarsus (city), Cyprus (island), and Rhodes (island).

Complete Jewish Bible           The sons of Yavan were Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim and Dodanim.

The Expanded Bible              The sons of Javan were Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim [Cancestor of the people of Cyprus], and ·Rodanim [LDodanim; see 1 Chr. 1:7].

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 And the sons of Javan (Ion) Elishah, and Tharshish, Kittim, and the Dodanim.

New Advent Bible                  And the sons of Javan: Elisa and Tharsis, Cetthim and Dodanim.

NIV – UK                                The sons of Javan:

Elishah, Tarshish, the Kittites and the Rodanites [Some manuscripts of the Masoretic Text and Samaritan Pentateuch (see also Septuagint and 1 Chron. 1:7); most manuscripts of the Masoretic Text Dodanites].


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And the sons of Javan: Elishah and Tharshish, Kittim and Rodanim.

Context Group Version          And the sons of Javan: Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Rodanim.

LTHB                                     And Javan's sons were Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.

New RSV                               The descendants of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah.

Syndein/Thieme                     The sons of Javan . . . Elishah {Aeolians} , Tarshish {Dorian pirates}, Kittim {Ionians of Cyprus}, {and} Dodanim {Dorians and probably connected with the Trojans}.

Young's Literal Translation     And sons of Javan are Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.

 

The gist of this verse:          The sons of Javan includec Elishah and Tarshish, Kittim and Dodanim.


Genesis 10:4

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

bânîym (בָּנִים) [pronounced baw-NEEM]

sons, descendants; children; people; sometimes rendered men

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

Yâvân (יָוָן) [pronounced yaw-VAWN]

effervescing (hot and active); and is transliterated Javan; also Ionia, Greece

proper noun singular; also a location

Strong’s #3120 BDB #402

ʾĂlîyshâh (אֲלִישָה) [pronounced uhl-ee-SHAW]

 God of the coming one; transliterated Elishah

masculine singular proper noun person/location

Strong’s #473 BDB #47

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Tareshiysh (תַּרְשִיש) [pronounced tahr-SHEESH]

breaking, subjection a region subjected; yellow jasper; and is transliterated Tarshish, Tharshish

proper singular noun noun/location:

Strong’s #8659 BDB #1076

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Kittîym (כִּתִּים) [pronounced kiht-TEEM]

bruisers; transliterated Chittim, Kittim; Cypriotes

gentilic singular adjective

Strong’s #3794 BDB #508

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Dôdânîym (דֹּדָנִים) [pronounced doh-daw-NEEM]

leaders, transliterated Dodanim, Rodanim

gentilic proper singular noun

Strong’s #1721 BDB #186

The matching noun in 1Chron. 1:7 is spelled with a rêysh (ר) instead of a dâleth (ד).


Translation: The sons of Javan: Elishah and Tarshish, Kittim and Dodanim.


Josephus identified Elishah with the Æolians, a Greek peoples and others have associated them with Carthage, a nation in Northern Africa because the name of the Tyrian princess who, according to tradition, founded Carthage had a similar name: Elissa. The ZPEB concludes that due to their supplying purple dyes to the Tyrians and their association with Greece and Kittam, they were likely the inhabitants of islands out in the Aegean Sea or of Sicily and Southern Italy.


Tarshish was the name of a city in the West Mediterranean region near Gibralter in Spain and it is likely equivalent to Tartessus, where Jonah fled when he was told to evangelize Nineveh. They could have also been associated with sea ports around southwestern Italy as Tarshish is closely associated with sea vessels and sea ports. This reputation would have allowed them to occupy a spread-out area like this. When Tarshish is used in connection with ships, it likely does not refer to a geographical origin or destination but to the ships themselves; their large size and sea worthiness.


You will note the im endings for the next two names. In the Hebrew, this indicates a plural noun.


Kittim is associated with the Island of Cyprus, which Herodotus claims was colonized by the Phœnicians (Shem), the Ethiopians (Ham) and the Greeks (Japheth), which is not unlike what happened on the Isle of Crete. Josephus ties Kittam to a city on the southeast coast of Cyprus, Cition. Jeremiah uses Kittam to refer to generally the seafaring West which would exert dominance over the East. Daniel's reference to the ships of Kittam could refer to the Romans who defeated Antiochus Epiphanes in Egypt in 169 b.c. In fact, the Septuagint, instead of reading ships of Kittam reads Romans. The Apocryphal and Pseudopigraphal literature associate Kittam with the Grecian empire.


Dodanim could very likely be Rodanim (as it is rendered in 1Chron. 1:7), in which case they are associated with the inhabitants of the island of Rhodes in the Aegean Sea, right off the coast of Turkey, a stepping stone to Crete and the Mediterranean Sea. If Dodanim is the correct rendering, then we have no idea as to who these people are.


 

The NET Bible Footnotes on Genesis 10:4

The sons of Javan were Elishah,16 Tarshish,17 the Kittim,18 and the Dodanim.19

16 The descendants of Elishah populated Cyprus.

17 The descendants of Tarshish settled along the southern coast of what is modern Turkey. However, some identify the site Tarshish (see Jonah 1:3) with Sardinia or Spain.

18 The name Kittim is associated with Cyprus, as well as coastlands east of Rhodes. It is used in later texts to refer to the Romans.

19 Most of the MT mss read "Dodanim" here, but 1 Chr 1:7 has "Rodanim," perhaps referring to the island of Rhodes. But the Qere reading in 1 Chr 1:7 suggests "Dodanim." Dodona is one of the most ancient and revered spots in ancient Greece.

From http://bible.org/netbible/index.htm?gen10.htm accessed January 24, 2013.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


As we have seen before, these various lines will be followed out to sons and grandsons; but, one only particular line will be continued to be followed in later Scripture. That is, in a majority of cases, any given line is followed out 2, 3 or maybe even 4 generations. However, only in the rarest of cases are there more generations than these given (the first third of 1Chronicles contains these exceptions, where the lines of the 12 sons of Israel [Jacob] are followed).


Japheth was one of the 3 sons of Noah; the lighter-skinned son.

The Sons of Japheth and their Ancestors

1.     Gomer: Galatia, France, Spain and Wales [Germany, Crimea, Cambrai, Celts]

        1)     Ashkenaz: Armenia [Germany, Saxons, Scandinavia]

        2)     Riphath [Carpathians]

        3)     Togarmah: Armenia [Armenians]

2.     Magog: Magogites (also known as the Scythians); Romania, the Ukraine [Georgia, Scythians]

3.     Madai: Mede, Iran, India [Medes, Aryans, Indians]

4.     Javan: Greece [Ionians, Greeks, the coastlands]

        1)     Elishah: Greece (Elysians) [Hellas]

        2)     Tarshish: Greece (the city Tarshish or Tarsus is located in the region of Cilicia (modern Turkey) [Spain]

        3)     Kittim: Greece (Kittim is the Biblical name for Cypress) [Cypress]

        4)     Dodanim: Greece [Rhodes]

5.     Tubal: the Thobelites, who were later known as Iberes. They occupied what the Romans called Iberia, which is not (the former Soviet State) of Georgia. The cities Tbilisi and Tobolsk and the Tobol River all come from Tubal’s name. [Tobolsk]

6.     Meshech: Moscow (both the city and the region around the city). The Meschera Lowland still bears his name. [Moscow]

7.     Tiras: worshiped by his ancestors as Thuras or Thor [Thrace, Teutons]

The big picture is, those descended from Japheth settled Europe, Russia, India and Iran. It is unclear whether or not these moved into the Orient.

It is not an anomaly for two or more lines to later intersect or band together (as did the Medes and the Persians).

The information below was taken from http://creation.com/the-sixteen-grandsons-of-noah which was accessed August 26, 2009 (I have italicized the direct quotations).

The bracketed information came from http://ldolphin.org/shj.jpg accessed August 27, 2009.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


What I have not given is some of the justification for this. The various names of these patriarchs are continued in the nations given, and remain significant names—sometimes slightly altered in form—for hundreds and even thousands of years.


Let’s turn to Dr. Robert Dean for this: Gomer, when you take out the vowels is GMR. If the G hardens to a C or a K you have the word CMR. This is related to the Cimerians who were related to the Cythians, the people who inhabited the central part of Turkey in the period right after the flood. Eventually those people moved north and west into Europe. The Assyrians listed them as the Gamaria, and in Greek they were called the Kemarioi. Notice how the G becomes a C and then becomes a K. Also, sometimes when a word goes from one language to another language the consonants will shift. Think about that: GMR, can we think of a country that instead of having as its root consonants GMR it has its root consonants as GRM? Germany! The descendants of Gomer through Ashkenaz (there is a lake Ashkenaz up in northern Germany): the Germanic tribes ultimately derived from the descendants of Gomer, and, of course, many, many others because he is so far back. Other names that are etymologically related to Gomer are Umber in Italy-the G in Gomer softens to O, and then U in Umber. That also shows up in the English North Umberland. Related to Gomer: the Gauls, the Celts, Galatia, etc. Ireland was also known as Ibernai or Hybernia, which again is etymologically related to the word Gomer. All of these are related to Gomer. So we end up with the Irish, the Scots, the Germans, Brits, some tribal groups in northern Italy, the Gauls in France; all are descendants from Gomer. This matching of the sons of Japheth through the Bible, through ancient history and through logistic tools could be done in almost every single case. However, doing so would make your eyes glaze over.


——————————


Gen. 10:5 describes exactly what a nation is.


From these were divided the borders peoples [lit., Goiim], in their lands, each to his tongue, to their families, to their peoples.

Genesis

10:5

From these [ancestors] were divided the costal [or, region] peoples [or national entities] into their lands: each as regarding his language, regarding their families, [and] among their [own] people.

National entities with distinct borders came from these sons of Japheth; each occupies a specific piece of land, each nation spoke their own language, they had a racial continuity along with a cultural similarity.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                From these were distributed the tribes of the islands of the Gentiles, every one according to his language, to his kindred in their nations.

Latin Vulgate                          By these were divided the islands of the Gentiles in their lands, every one according to his tongue and their families in their nations.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        From these were divided the costal peoples [lit., Goiim], in their land, each to his tongue, to their families, to their peoples.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    It was from these that the people were divided into the Islands of the Gentiles and their main lands; every one after his language, after their families, in their nations.

Septuagint (Greek)                From these were the islands of the Gentiles divided in their land, each according to his tongue, in their tribes and in their nations.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           From these the island-nations were divided into their own countries, each according to their languages and their clans within their nations.

Easy English                          The nations spread along the coasts from those families. Each nation got its own language.

Easy-to-Read Version            All the people who lived in the area around the Mediterranean Sea came from these sons of Japheth. Each son had his own land. All the families grew and became different nations. Each nation had its own language.

Good News Bible (TEV)         ...they were the ancestors of the people who live along the coast and on the islands. These are the descendants of Japheth, living in their different tribes and countries, each group speaking its own language.

The Message                         The seafaring peoples developed from these, each in its own place by family, each with its own language.

New Century Version             Those who lived in the lands around the Mediterranean Sea came from these sons of Japheth. All the families grew and became different nations, each nation with its own land and its own language.

New Life Bible                        From these the people who live beside the sea spread out into their lands, each one by his language, family, and nation.

New Living Translation           Their descendants became the seafaring peoples that spread out to various lands, each identified by its own language, clan, and national identity.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          ...[they settled the] islands, which lands were divided by tribe and nation among the ethnics, each according to his own language.

Beck’s American Translation ...by these the coastlands of the gentiles were populated in their separate territories, each with its respective language, its tribes and nations.

Christian Community Bible     These were dispersed and peopled the islands of the nations.

These were Japheth’s sons, according to their countries and each of their languages, according to their tribes and their nations.

God’s Word                         From these descendants the people of the coastlands spread into their own countries. Each nation had its own language and families.

New American Bible              These are the descendants of Japheth, and from them sprang the maritime nations, in their respective lands - each with its own language - by their clans within their nations.

New American Bible (R.E.)    From these branched out the maritime nations.

These are the descendants of Japheth by their lands, each with its own language, according to their clans, by their nations.

NIRV                                      The people who lived by the sea came from all of them. Their tribes and nations spread out into their own territories. Each tribe and nation had its own language.

New Jerusalem Bible             From these came the dispersal to the islands of the nations. These were Japheth's sons, in their respective countries, each with its own language, by clan and nation.

New Simplified Bible              From these the maritime peoples spread out into their territories by their clans within their nations, each with its own language.

Revised English Bible            From these the people of the coasts and islands separated into their own countries, each with their own language, family by family, nation by nation.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      These islands and nations segregated in their lands: a man by his tongue in their families and in their nations.

Bible in Basic English             From these came the nations of the sea-lands, with their different families and languages.

The Expanded Bible              Those who lived in the lands around the Mediterranean Sea [LThe people of the coastlands] ·came [spread] from these sons of Japheth. All the ·families [clans] grew and became different nations, each nation with its own land and its own language.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 From these they spread themselves over the sea-coasts of the countries of the nations, each with their language amongst the gentile tribes.

HCSB                                     The coastland peoples spread out into their lands. These are Japheth's sons by their clans, in their nations. Each group had its own language.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               From these the maritime nations branches out. [These are the descendants of Japheth] [compare vv. 20 and 31] by their lands—each with its language—their clans and their nations.

New Advent Bible                  By these were divided the islands of the Gentiles in their lands, every one according to his tongue and their families in their nations.

NET Bible®                             From these the coastlands of the nations were separated into their lands, every one according to its language, according to their families, by their nations.

NIV – UK                                (From these the maritime peoples spread out into their territories by their clans within their nations, each with its own language.).


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                From these the coastland peoples spread. [These are the sons of Japheth] in their lands, each with his own language, by their families within their nations.

Concordant Literal Version    From these are parted the coastlanders of the nations among their lands, each man to his tongue, to their families, in their nations.

Darby Translation                  From these came the distribution of the isles of the nations, according to their lands, every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations.

Emphasized Bible                  From these, were dispersed the inhabitants of the coastlands of the nations, in their lands, each man by his tongue, by their families in their nations.

English Standard Version      From these the coastland peoples spread in their lands, each with his own language, by their clans, in their nations.

The Geneva Bible                  By these were the isles [So do the Jews call all countries which are separated from them by sea, as Greece, Italy etc,]of the Gentiles divided in their lands; every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations.

LTHB                                     The coasts of the nations were divided by these in their lands each by his tongue, by their families, in their nations.

New King James Version       From these the coastland peoples of the Gentiles were separated into their lands, everyone according to his language, according to their families, into their nations.

New RSV                               From these the coastland peoples spread. These are the descendants of Japheth [Compare verses 20, 31. Heb lacks These are the descendants of Japheth] in their lands, with their own language, by their families, in their nations.

Syndein/Thieme                     {Divine Institution Number Four - Nationalism}

By these were the isles/countries/regions {'iy} of the Gentile Nations {gowy} divided in their lands {'erets} {geographical segregation of the peoples of the earth}. . . every one after his language/tongue {lashown} {segregation linguistically of the peoples of the earth}, after their families {racial segregation of the peoples of the earth} . . . in their nations {by divine decree of God as witnessed by His Written Word}. {Note: The Fourth Divine Institution is Nationalism. This verse tells us that God decreed that people would be separated by 1) geographically 2) linguistically and then by 3) families/race.} {Note: In typical Hebrew writing style, a subject is mentioned and then later expounded upon. Just as with Chapter 1 and Chapter 2. Here we have the division of the peoples into Nations - each with their own language. This occurs after the tower of Babel incident which will be described in more detail later in Genesis.} {Note: Why did God decree that Nationalism was His Way instead of Internationalism? Answer: To protect the human race. As long as there are strong independent Nations, then evangelists can be sent out to evangelize the rest of the World. If there is one world power, then Satan and his forces can stifle all evangelism - as we have seen large communist governments attempt to do. The only time Internationalism will be authorized is in the Millennium where the ruler of the World is perfect - our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.}.

Third Millennium Bible            By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided into their lands, every one after his own tongue, according to their families, into their nations.

A Voice in the Wilderness      From these the regions of the nations were separated into their lands, everyone according to their tongue, according to their families, into their nations.

World English Bible                Of these were the isles of the nations divided in their lands, everyone after his language, after their families, in their nations.

Young's Literal Translation     By these have the isles of the nations been parted in their lands, each by his tongue, by their families, in their nations.

 

The gist of this verse:          Distinct national entities with distinct borders came from these sons of Japheth. Each nation occupied a specific piece of land, each nation spoke their own language, each nation had both a racial continuity along with a cultural similarity.


As we will find out in the next chapter, it was not mankind’s desire to separate himself from one another. At first, men stayed together in one geographical area. God would confuse their languages, and, as a result, they would spread apart into these various nations. The why of this separation will be covered in Gen. 11.


Genesis 10:5a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʾêlleh (אֵלֶּה) [pronounced ALE-leh]

these, these things

demonstrative plural adjective

Strong's #428 BDB #41

pârad (פָּרַד) [pronounced paw-RAHD]

to divide, to separate; to be divided, to be separated; to separate oneself

3rd person plural, Niphal perfect

Strong’s #6504 BDB #825

ʾîy (אִי) [pronounced ee]

sea coasts; islands; regions, borders; habitable land; inhabited land; maritime land

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #339 BDB #15

gôwyîm (גּוֹיִם) [pronounced goh-YIHM]

Gentiles, [Gentile] nations, people, peoples, nations

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #1471 BDB #156

This is the first time this noun is used in the Bible.

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʾărâtsôwth (אֲרָצוֹת) [pronounced uh-raw-TSOHTH]

lands, countries

feminine plural noun with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: From these [ancestors] were divided the costal [or, region] peoples [or, national entities] into their lands:... At the point that this was written, there may not have been a careful designation for the 5th divine institution, nation. However, we have here, literally, regions of the Goiim. The idea of the masculine plural construct of ʾîy (אִי) [pronounced ee] can include the idea of regions and borders. A goiim is a people; so we have a group of people within a region within a specific border; or a national entity.


Genesis 10:5b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾîysh (אִיש) [pronounced eesh]

a man, a husband; anyone; a certain one; each, each one, everyone

masculine singular noun (sometimes found where we would use a plural)

Strong's #376 BDB #35

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

lâshôwn (לָשוֹן) [pronounced law-SHOHN]

tongue; speech; language; lapping; tongue-shaped

masculine singular noun with a 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #3956 BDB #546

This is the first occurrence of this noun in Scripture.


Translation: ...each as regarding his language,... In Gen. 11 (HTML) (PDF) (WPD), God will separate men into various groups by language. God will confuse their language, so, suddenly, instead of all men speaking the same language, men will speak different languages and be unable to communicate with one another. And, when A speaks to B, it will sound as if B is just talking crazy to A. And, in frustration, if A tries to imitate what B is saying, it will sound as if he is making fun of B. This will even be referenced when we get to the line of Shem.


However, key to a national entity is, they speak the same language.


Genesis 10:5c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

mishepâchâh (מִשְפָּחָה) [pronounced mish-paw-KHAWH]

family, clan, tribe, sub-tribe, class (of people), species [genus, kind] [of animals], or sort (of things)

feminine plural noun with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #4940 BDB #1046


Translation: ...regarding their families,... Here, we have a similar racial stock; a similar background, genetically speaking. They come from the same families.


Genesis 10:5d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

gôwyîm (גּוֹיִם) [pronounced goh-YIHM]

Gentiles, [Gentile] nations, people, peoples, nations

masculine plural noun with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong’s #1471 BDB #156


Translation:...[and] among their [own] people. Here, they are among their own peoples.


There was a radio announcer named Michael Savage (a pseudonym), and, when he spoke about immigration, he would say, over and over again, “Language, borders, culture.” The idea was, a national entity has to have its own language, which everyone speaks; clear definable borders which are enforced; and a similar culture, which, in America, we often call this the melting pot. That is, since we have so many people coming from other lands, they bring a little of their own culture with them, but then they allow themselves to be assimilated into American culture (this has changed in the past 20 or so years; I write this in 2013—and there is less assimilation taking place among illegal aliens in particular).


Essentially, this is what this verse of Genesis 10, written 4000 or more years ago: national entities were groups of people who had a well-defined and defended border; they spoke the same language; they had a common racial stock and they had common values (or, a common culture).


Now, this is not earth-shattering information, but, there is a primacy of the divine institutions as defined by God in the Bible; we have, in the United States, moved far away from them. There are some in our culture who want to celebrate and retain antithetical cultures as well as the barrier of different languages. Now, as an individual, I love going nearly anywhere in the United States, and bumping into people who have different skin color, who speak English with a labored accent; some of whom may have been in this country for decades. And, they may have their own family traditions, their own foods which they love and are able to find; and yet, they see themselves as being Americans, through and through.


Gen 10:5 By these were the regions of the nations divided in their lands, every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations.


This indicates that the writer of this is recording this information after the Tower of Babel and the confusion of the languages in Gen. 11. This also shows that the distribution of languages was not arbitrary, but God gave each family their own language, so that it would be natural to move off in a group of those they had been raised with, were kin to and who spoke the same language.


The word translated twice as nations is the Hebrew word gôy (יֹ) [pronounced GOH-ee] which most of us recognize as Gentiles. It can refer to a community, a nation or a group of peoples. This is generally, but not always, a word for those who are not Jewish in the Bible and this is its first occurrence.


Borders [or, coastlines] is the Hebrew word ’îy (אִי) [pronounced ee] and it refers to islands, to coast lands and to regions bordered by coast lands (the are seen from the perspective of the person in the water). As you have no doubt noticed, all of these peoples seemed to be associated with islands or with the various seas.


We have an interesting phrase at the end, that these make up the various nations, who are divided by geography, language and family. At this point, there is only one language; however, this verse anticipates the division of man by language. Recall that the Bible is not completely chronological and it is a common Hebraism to give a general statement and then to later follow up that statement with details.


Gen. 10:2–5 Japheth's descendants were Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras. Gomer's descendants were Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah. Javan's descendants were the people from Elishah, Tarshish, Cyprus, and Rhodes. From these descendants the people of the coastlands spread into their own countries. Each nation had its own language and families.


From BibleBelievers.org in Australian: History has recorded Japheth's geographical enlargement. The entire Western hemisphere of our globe is settled by Japhetic peoples, and East Indians are of the same stock. The record of Japheth's spread (enlargement) over the earth has been marred consistently by his destruction of the cultures which were already in existence wherever he arrived in sufficient force to achieve dominion. It happened in the Americas, Africa, Asia, Australia, and only numerical superiority of the native population has hitherto preserved parts of Africa from the same fate. Indeed, in early historic times the pattern of events is repeated again and again, whatever cultural advances the pioneering Hamites had achieved tended to be swallowed up by the succeeding Japhethites. The "enlargement" of Japheth has continued to this day, an enlargement greatly accelerated geographically in the last few centuries-frequently at the expense of the Hamites (or Canaanites) who first possessed the land.


I should point out that, although most of these identifications of Noah’s descendants with the lands they eventually assembled in is reasonably, but not necessarily 100%, accurate. Historians have studied such things for thousands of years without being in complete agreement. I have simply passed along what seems reasonable to me.


To me, it is rather an amazing thing for this ancient book to just lay out all of the principle families, which became peoples and nations. How they came to have their own languages will be discussed in Gen. 11.


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Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


The Descendants of Ham

1Chronicles 1:8–16

Ham’s family is next.


Gen 10:6–7 And the sons of Ham: Cush and Mizraim and Phut and Canaan. And the sons of Cush: Seba and Havilah and Sabtah and Raamah and Sabtecha. And the sons of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan.


The descendants of Ham live mainly in south-west Asia and Africa. The Bible often refers to Africa as the land of Ham (Psalm 105:23,27 106:22). The name of Noah's grandson Cush is the Hebrew word for old Ethiopia (from Aswan south to Khartoum). Without exception, the word Ethiopia in the English Bible is always a translation of the Hebrew word Cush. Josephus rendered the name as Chus, and says that the Ethiopians `are even at this day, both by themselves and by all men in Asia, called Chusites'.


And sons of Ham: Cush and Mizraim and Put and Canaan.

Genesis

10:6

The sons of Ham [are] Cush, Mizraim (Egypt), Put and Canaan.

The sons of Ham included Cush, Mizraim (Egypt), Put and Canaan.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the sons of Cham, Kush, and Mizraim, and Phut, and Kenaan. And the name of their provinces, Arabia, and Mizraim, and Alichrok, and Kenaan.

Latin Vulgate                          And the Sons of Cham: Chus, and Mesram, and Phuth, and Chanaan.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And sons of Ham: Cush and Mizraim and Put and Canaan.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And the sons of Ham: Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan.

Septuagint (Greek)                And the sons of Ham were Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan.

Brenton’s Septuagint             And the sons of Cham, Chus, and Mesrain, Phud, and Chanaan.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       Ham's descendants had their own languages, tribes, and land. They were Ethiopia, Egypt, Put, and Canaan. Cush was the ancestor of Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabteca. Raamah was the ancestor of Sheba and Dedan. Cush was also the ancestor of Nimrod, a mighty warrior whose strength came from the LORD. Nimrod is the reason for the saying, "You hunt like Nimrod with the strength of the LORD!" Nimrod first ruled in Babylon, Erech, and Accad, all of which were in Babylonia. From there Nimrod went to Assyria and built the great city of Nineveh. He also built Rehoboth-Ir and Calah, as well as Resen, which is between Nineveh and Calah. Egypt was the ancestor of Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, Pathrusim, Casluhim, and Caphtorim, the ancestor of the Philistines. Canaan's sons were Sidon and Heth. He was also the ancestor of the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites. Later the Canaanites spread from the territory of Sidon and went as far as Gaza in the direction of Gerar. They also went as far as Lasha in the direction of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim.

Easy-to-Read Version            Ham’s sons were: Cush [This is also another name for Ethiopia.], Mizraim [This is also another name for Egypt.], Put, and Canaan.

Good News Bible (TEV)         The sons of Ham---Cush, Egypt, Libya, and Canaan---were the ancestors of the peoples who bear their names.

New Century Version             Ham's Sons

The sons of Ham were Cush, Mizraim,[b] Put, and Canaan.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Ham's sons were Kush [blacks], Mesrain [Egyptian tribes], Phud [Libyans], and CanaAn [Palestine].

New American Bible (R.E.)    The descendants of Ham: Cush,* Mizraim, Put and Canaan. Cush: biblical Ethiopia, modern Nubia. Mizraim: Lower (i.e., northern) Egypt; Put: either Punt in East Africa or Libya.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      The sons of Ham: Ethiopia, Egypt, Sudan, and Canaan.

Complete Jewish Bible           The sons of Ham were Kush, Mitzrayim, Put and Kena'an.

The Expanded Bible              Ham's Sons

The sons of Ham [Cancestors of near neighbors and rivals of Israel] were Cush [Cancestor of the Ethiopians], Mizraim [Cancestor of the Egyptians], Put [C?perhaps ancestor of the Libyans], and Canaan.

New Advent Bible                  And the Sons of Cham: Chus, and Mesram, and Phuth, and Chanaan.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                The sons of Ham: Cush, Egypt [Mizraim], Put, and Canaan.

English Standard V. – UK       The sons of Ham: Cush, Egypt, Put, and Canaan.

The Geneva Bible                  And the sons of Ham; Cush, and Mizraim, and Phut, and Canaan. Of Cush and Mizraim came the Ethiopians and Egyptians.

Hebrew Names Version         The sons of Cham: Kush, Mitzrayim, Put, and Kena`an.

LTHB                                     And Ham's sons were Cush, and Mizraim, and Put, and Canaan.

Syndein/Thieme                     The sons of Ham . . . Cush {a black son of Ham - Ethiopians and black settlers of Southern Part of Africa}, Mizraim {white decedents of Ham - includes the Egyptians and the Caf-ta-rines (which RBT says could be the decedents of the Etruscans (central Italy around Rome) or at least first cousins). One segment lived in Crete and mixed with Greek sea peoples and they attacked Egypt and became the Philistines}, Phut {a black son of Ham - settlers of Northern Part of Africa and moved into Spain, Italy, Greece}, {and} Canaan {Amorites, Hittites, Palestinians - skin color varies from white, to yellow to red. Includes the Oriental peoples and the American Indians}.

World English Bible                The sons of Ham: Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan.

Young's Literal Translation     And sons of Ham are Cush, and Mitzraim, and Phut, and Canaan.

 

The gist of this verse:          The sons of Ham included Cush, Mizraim, Put and Canaan.


Genesis 10:6a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

bânîym (בָּנִים) [pronounced baw-NEEM]

sons, descendants; children; people; sometimes rendered men

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

Hâm (הָם) [pronounced hawm]

hot, sunburnt, brown; the Egyptian word means black; transliterated Ham; originally of a son of Noah and his ancestors; and later applied to Egypt

proper noun, masculine

Strong’s #2526 BDB #325


Translation: The sons of Ham [are]... We do not have any idea if this is a complete listing of Ham’s sons; but these are his sons who settled into an area.


Genesis 10:6b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

Kûwsh (שכּוּ) [pronounced koosh]

This word is translated variously as Ethiopia, Cush, Cushi and Cushite (it is all the same word)

Proper masculine noun/location

Strong’s #3568 BDB #468


Translation: ...Cush,... Cush settled Ethiopia.


Cush apparently first moved southwest from the Euphrates valley into Arabia and kept going to the Red Sea, which they crossed, settling into the modern-day Ethiopia.


Cush is translated variously as Ethiopia, Cush, Cushi and Cushite (it is all the same word). Ethiopia is south of Egypt, off the Red Sea. They appear to be associated with Egypt circa the twentieth century because, but later became independent from the Egyptians around 1000 because. A few centuries later, they ruled over Egypt and had prepared to do battle with Hezekiah, but they were driven off by the Assyrians in the late 7th century because.


Genesis 10:6c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Mitserayim (מִצְרַיִם) [pronounced mits-RAH-yim]

double straights; transliterated Mizraim; also Egypt, Egyptians

proper noun

Strong’s #4714 BDB #595

This is the first occurrence of this word in Scripture.


Translation: ...Mizraim,... The name here is transliterated Mizraim; and this is Egypt.


Mizraim is Hebrew for Egypt and is translated that way in the RSV.


Genesis 10:6d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Phûwţ (פּוּט) [pronounced fut]

 a bow, transliterated Put, Phut; [probably] Libyans

gentilic singular adjective

Strong’s #6316 BDB #806


Translation: ...Put... This people settled Libya.


Phut, the name of Noah's next grandson is the Hebrew name for Libya. It is so translated three times in the Old Testament. The ancient river Phut was in Libya. By Daniel's day, the name had been changed to Libya (Daniel 11:43). Josephus says, `Phut also was the founder of Libia [sic], and called the inhabitants Phutites, from himself'.


Josephus claims that Put was the founder of Libya and that the first inhabitants are called the Putites. Put has quite the varied future. Isaiah said that Put (and Tarshish and Lud) would one day here the glory of God in Isa. 64:19. Jeremiah groups Put with Ethiopia and Lud as nations whose warriors would be used in the conquest of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar (Jer. 46:9) Ezekiel, on the other hand, both mentions that Put contributed to the wealth of Tyre (Ezek. 27:10) and as a nation which will fall by the sword (Ezek. 30:5). She is grouped with other nations as an object of God's wrath (Ezek. 38:5) and with nations which supported Nineveh (Nahum 3:6–9).


Genesis 10:6e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Kenaʿan (כְּנַעַן) [pronounced keNAH-ģahn]

which possibly means merchant and is transliterated Canaan

masculine proper noun; territory

Strong’s #3667 BDB #488


Translation: ...and Canaan. Many of the Canaanites moved into the Land of Promise.


Canaan occupied the promised land before the Jews did and is the source of many peoples who were antagonistic toward the Jews.


 

NET Bible Footnotes on Genesis 10:6

The sons of Ham were Cush,20 Mizraim,21 Put,22 and Canaan.23

20 The descendants of Cush settled in Nubia (Ethiopia).

21 The descendants of Mizraim settled in Upper and Lower Egypt.

22 The descendants of Put settled in Libya.

23 The descendants of Canaan lived in the region of Phoenicia (Palestine).

From http://bible.org/netbible/index.htm?gen10.htm accessed January 24, 2013.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


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And sons of Cush: Seba, Havilah and Sabah and Raamah and Sabteca. And sons of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan.

Genesis

10:7

The sons of Cush [are] Seba and Havilah and Sabah and Raamah and Sabteca. The sons of Raamah [are] Sheba and Dedan.

Cush’s sons included Seba, Havilah and Sabah and Raamah and Sabteca. Among sons of Raamah are Sheba and Dedan.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the sons of Kush, Seba, and Havilah, and Sabta, and Raama, and Sabteka, and the name of their provinces, Sinirai, and Hindiki, and Semadi, and Lubai, and Zingai. And the sons of Mauritinos, Zmargad and Mezag.

Latin Vulgate                          And the sons of Chus: Saba, and Hevila, and Sabatha, and Regma, and Sabatacha. The sons of Regma: Saba, and Dadan.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And sons of Cush: Seba, Havilah and Sabah and Raamah and Sabteca. And sons of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And the sons of Cush: Sheba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabtechah. And the sons of Raamah: Sheba, and Daran.

Septuagint (Greek)                And the sons of Cush were Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabtechah. And the sons of Raamah were Sheba and Dedan.

Brenton’s Septuagint             And the sons of Chus, Saba, and Evila, and Sabatha, and Rhegma, and Sabathaca. And the sons of Rhegma, Saba, and Dadan.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Easy English                          Cush's sons were Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah and Sabteca. Raamah's sons were Sheba and Dedan.

Easy-to-Read Version            Cush’s sons were: Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabtecah.

Good News Bible (TEV)         The descendants of Cush were the people of Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabteca. The descendants of Raamah were the people of Sheba and Dedan.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          The sons of Kush were Saba [other blacks of southern Africa], Evilat, Sabatha, Rhegma, and Sabathaca [East Africans].

The sons of Rhegma were Saba [of thirteen Arabian Tribes], and Dadan [part of Arabia].

New American Bible (R.E.)    The descendants of Cush: Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah and Sabteca. The descendants of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      The sons of Ethiopia: South-Arabia, West-Arabia, Oman, Raamah, Sabtechah. The sons of Raamah: Yemen (country) and Dedan (oasis).

Complete Jewish Bible           The sons of Kush were S'va, Havilah, Savta, Ra'mah and Savt'kha. The sons of Ra'mah were Sh'va and D'dan.

The Expanded Bible              The sons of Cush were Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabteca.

The sons of Raamah were Sheba and Dedan [Csome of their descendants were the people around the Red Sea and southern Arabia].

New Advent Bible                  And the sons of Chus: Saba, and Hevila, and Sabatha, and Regma, and Sabatacha. The sons of Regma: Saba, and Dadan.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Hebrew Names Version         The sons of Kush: Seva, Chavilah, Savtah, Ra`mah, and Savtekha. The sons of Ra`mah: Sheva and Dedan.

LTHB                                     And the sons of Cush were Seba and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabtecha. And Raamah's sons were Sheba and Dedan.

Syndein/Thieme                     The sons of Cush {black races} . . . Seba {Northern Ethopians, Sudanese}, Havilah {Southern Arabians and Ethiopians}, Sabtah {also Southern Arabians and Ethiopians}, Raamah {Queen of Sheba came form Raamah and was probably a black woman}, And the sons of Raamah . . . Sheba, {and} Dedan. {Note: Sabtechah was in the KJV but RBT does not mention this one as being in the translation and it would be out of place where it was so I moved it here.}

Young's Literal Translation     And sons of Cush are Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and

The gist of this verse:          Cush’s sons included Seba, Havilah and Sabah and Raamah and Sabteca. Among sons of Raamah are Sheba and Dedan.


Genesis 10:7a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

bânîym (בָּנִים) [pronounced baw-NEEM]

sons, descendants; children; people; sometimes rendered men

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

Kûwsh (שכּוּ) [pronounced koosh]

This word is translated variously as Ethiopia, Cush, Cushi and Cushite (it is all the same word)

Proper masculine noun/location

Strong’s #3568 BDB #468

Çebâʾ (סְבָא) [pronounced sehb-AW]

drink [you], liquor; transliterated Seba, Ceba

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #5434 BDB #685

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Chăvîylâh (חֲוִילָה) [pronounced khuh-vee-LAW]

circle; sand-land, sand region, wet sand and is transliterated Havilah, Chavilah

proper noun, location

Strong’s #2341 BDB #296


Translation: The sons of Cush [are] Seba and Havilah... According to the NET Bible, the descendants of Seba settled in Upper Egypt along the Nile.


According to the NET Bible, Havilah’s descendants settled in eastern Arabia.


Seba is a land and a people in Southern Arabia. Some have thought them to be equivalent to Sheba, since the difference between the names is a small dot; but this would not make any sense to list the same person twice. They may have stayed together as brothers and founded, for all intents and purposes, one nation or people. Psalm 72:10 mentions them together. God spoke through Isaiah, saying, "For I the Lord your God, the Holy One of Israel, your Savior; I have Egypt as your ransom; Ethiopia and Seba for you." (Isa. 43:3) Isaiah also indicates that the Sabeans would come to Israel, recognizing the God of Israel is the only God (Isa. 45:14).


Havilah is likely located in the Western portion of Arabia, just North of Yemen. This son of Cush likely received his name after the land mentioned in or near the garden of Eden. Let me quote from ZPEB: Many regard this Havilah of Arabia and that of the Garden of Eden story as two different places. Duh.


Genesis 10:7b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Çabetâh (סַבְתָּה) [pronounced sahb-TAW]

striking; transliterated Sabta, Sabtah

proper noun singular gentilic

Strong’s #5454 BDB #688

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Raʿemâh (רַעְמָה) [pronounced rahģ-MAW]

trembling; horse mane; transliterated Raamah

feminine singular proper noun

Strong’s #7484 BDB #947

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Çabetekâʾ (סַבְתְּכָא) [pronounced sahb-tehk-AW]

striking, transliterated Sabtecha, Sabtechah

proper singular noun gentilic:

Strong’s #5455 BDB #688


Translation: ...and Sabah and Raamah and Sabteca. According to the NET Bible, the descendants of Sabtah settled near the western shore of the Persian Gulf in ancient Hadhramaut; the descendants of Raamah settled in southwest Arabial; and the descendants of Sabteca settled in Samudake, east toward the Persian Gulf.


Sabta is thought to be a place in Arabia on or near the East coast. Sabteca is thought to be by some a scribal error for Sabtah, but this would not make any sense to name the same group twice. They are associated with Southern Arabia.


Raamah was probably located in Arabia, but exactly where is disputed. They traded with Tyre as did Sheba (Ezek. 27:22).


Genesis 10:7c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

bânîym (בָּנִים) [pronounced baw-NEEM]

sons, descendants; children; people; sometimes rendered men

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

Raʿemâh (רַעְמָה) [pronounced rahģ-MAW]

trembling; horse mane; transliterated Raamah

feminine singular proper noun

Strong’s #7484 BDB #947

Shebâʾ (שְבָא) [pronounced sheb-VAW]

seven; an oath; transliterated Sheba, Sebean

proper singular noun

Strong’s #7614 BDB #985

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Dedân (דְּדָן) [pronounced dehd-AWN]

low country; transliterated Dedan

gentilic singular adjective/location:

Strong’s #1719 BDB #186

There is an alternate way of spelling this with an eh ending.


Translation: The sons of Raamah [are] Sheba and Dedan. According to the NET Bible, Sheba became the name of a kingdom in southwest Arabia; and the name Dedan is associated with àUla in northern Arabia.


Since there are other Sheba's in the Bible (Abraham's grandson and a decedent of Joktan), it is hard to identify which is which. Some have even suggested that there had been a blending of the Semitic and Hamitic tribes, which is possible. Whereas some authorities are not sure whether this could refer to one, two or three people, I do not find it difficult to imagine that some kids just got the same name and some families have two children with the same names (Sheba and Dedan were both sons of Raamah and Sheba and Dedan were both sons of Jokshan, a descendant of Abraham). Sheba was a country in Southwest Arabia, where Yemen is today. Camel caravans from Sheba are mentioned twice: once in Job 6:19 and also in 1Kings 10:1–13 (the latter is in connection to the visit of the Queen of Sheba to Solomon). Which Sheba populated this area is not known, but I would think the grandson of Cush.


 

The NET Bible Footnotes on Genesis 10:7

The sons of Cush were Seba,24 Havilah,25 Sabtah,26 Raamah,27 and Sabteca.28 The sons of Raamah were Sheba29 and Dedan.30

24 The descendants of Seba settled in Upper Egypt along the Nile.

25 The Hebrew name Havilah apparently means “stretch of sand” (see HALOT 297 s.v. חֲוִילָה). Havilah’s descendants settled in eastern Arabia.

26 The descendants of Sabtah settled near the western shore of the Persian Gulf in ancient Hadhramaut.

27 The descendants of Raamah settled in southwest Arabia.

28 The descendants of Sabteca settled in Samudake, east toward the Persian Gulf.

29 Sheba became the name of a kingdom in southwest Arabia.

30 The name Dedan is associated with àUla in northern Arabia.

From http://bible.org/netbible/index.htm?gen10.htm accessed January 24, 2013.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


What follows is Ham and his sons, and which groups of people were probably descended from him (which information was put together by Tim Osterholm).

Hamite Descendants by Tim Osterholm

Progenitor

Meanings

Sons

Descendants

Ham (Also Cham or Kham)

passionate, hot, burnt or dark

Cush, Mizraim, Phut and Canaan

He is the father of the Australoid, Negroid and Mongoloid people groups - Hamites. He was the progenitor of...

Cush (also Chus, Kush, Kosh, Cushaean)

black

Seba, Havilah, Sabta, Raama and Satecha

Cushites, Nubians, Ethiopians, Ghanaians, Africans, Bushmen, Pygmies, Australian Aborignies, New Guineans, other related groups.

Mizraim (also Masr, Misr, Misraim, Mitzraim, Mizraite, Mitsrayim)

double straits

Lud, Anom, Pathros, Chasloth and Chaphtor.

Egyptians, Khemets, Copts, other related groups.

Phut (also Punt, Puta, Put, Puni, Phoud, Pul, Fula, Putaya, Putiya, Libia, Libya)

a bow

Gebul, Hadan, Benah and Adan

Libyans, Cyrenacians, Tunisians, Berbers, Somalians, Sudanese, North Africans, other related groups. Some current historians are drawing links between Phut and Phœnicians.

Canaan (also Canaanites, Cana, Chna, Chanani, Chanana, Canaana, Kana, Kenaanah, Kena'ani, Kena'an, Kn'nw, Kyn'nw, Kinnahu, Kinahhi, Kinahni, Kinahna, Kinahne)

down low

Zidon, Heth, Amori, Gergashi, Hivi, Arkee, Seni, Arodi, Zimodi and Chamothi

Mongols, Asians, Orientals, Chinese, Tibetans, Taiwanese, Thais, Vietnamese, Laotians, Cambodians, Japanese, Eskimos, American Indians, Malayasians, Indonesians, Filipinos, Hawaiians, Maoris, Polynesians, Tahitians, Guamanians, Samoans, Fijians, Tongans, Tokelauans, Tuvaluans, Pacific Islanders and related groups.

Tribes in other parts of Africa, Arabia and Asia, aboriginal groups in Australia, native Pacific Islanders, American Indians and Eskimos were birthed from descendants of Canaan, Cush, Mizraim and Phut.

Taken from http://www.soundchristian.com/man/ and he footnotes several or his sources as well (which footnotes are found on that page). Part of Osterholm’s approach is to look at this genetically.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


——————————


And Cush fathered Nimrod. He began to be a mighty one in the earth.

Genesis

10:8

Cush fathered Nimrod. He began to be a mighty person in the land.

Cush fathered Nimrod. He was the first man with great power throughout the land.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And Kush begat Nimrod: he began to be mighty in sin, and to rebel before the Lord in the earth.

Latin Vulgate                          Now Chus begot Nemrod: he began to be mighty on the earth.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And Cush fathered Nimrod. He began to be a mighty one in the earth.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And Cush begot Nimrod; he began to be a mighty one on the earth.

Septuagint (Greek)                And Cush begot Nimrod: he began to be a giant upon the earth.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Easy English                          Cush was also Nimrod's father. Nimrod began to be a powerful man on the earth.

Good News Bible (TEV)         Cush had a son named Nimrod, who became the world's first great conqueror.

New Berkeley Version           To Cush Nimrod was born, the first on earth to become a despot.

New Century Version             Cush also had a descendant named Nimrod, who became a very powerful man on earth.

New Life Bible                        Cush became the father of Nimrod, who was the first on earth to become a powerful man.

New Living Translation           Cush was also the ancestor of Nimrod, who was the first heroic warrior on earth.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Kush fathered Nimrod, who became a giant on the earth.

New American Bible              Cush became the father of Nimrod, who was the first potentate on earth.

New American Bible (R.E.)    Cush became the father of Nimrod, who was the first to become a mighty warrior on earth. Cush: here seems to be Cossea, the country of the Kassites; see note on 2:10-14. Nimrod: possibly Tukulti-Ninurta I (thirteenth century B.C.), the first Assyrian conqueror of Babylonia and a famous city-builder at home.

NIRV                                      Cush was the father of Nimrod. Nimrod grew up to be a mighty hero on the earth.

Revised English Bible            Cush was the father of Nimrod, who began to be known on earth for his might.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      Ethiopia begat Nimrod: He began to be mighty in the land.

Bible in Basic English             And Cush was the father of Nimrod, who was the first of the great men of the earth.

Complete Jewish Bible           Kush fathered Nimrod, who was the first powerful ruler on earth.

The Expanded Bible              Cush also had a descendant named Nimrod, who became a very powerful man on earth.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 To Kush was born Nimrod. Wild beasts began then to infest the earth; so he became a powerful hunter in the presence of the Lord;... A portion of v. 9 was included for context.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               Cush also begot Nimrod, who was the first man of might on earth.

New Advent Bible                  Now Chus begot Nemrod: he began to be mighty on the earth.

NET Bible®                             Cush was the father of Nimrod [Heb "fathered." Embedded within Cush's genealogy is an account of Nimrod, a mighty warrior. There have been many attempts to identify him, but none are convincing.]; he began to be a valiant warrior on the earth.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And Cush generates Nimrod. He starts to become a master in the earth.

The Geneva Bible                  And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to be a mighty one [Meaning, a cruel oppressor and tyrant. ] in the earth.

LTHB                                     And Cush fathered Nimrod; he began to be a mighty one in the land.

New RSV                               Cush became the father of Nimrod; he was the first on earth to become a mighty warrior.

Syndein/Thieme                     And Cush sired/'caused the birth of' {yalad} Nimrod. He began to be a mighty one {gibbowr - technical when used with Nimrod for 'dictator'} in the whole earth {'erets}. {Note: Nimrod was the first dictator of the human race after the flood with his headquarters at Babylon and built the first United Nations 'headquarters' - the Tower of Babel which God destroyed. And, he was a black descendent of Ham through Cush. The name Nimrod means 'we will revolt' referring to revolting against God.}.

World English Bible                Cush became the father of Nimrod: he began to be a mighty one in the earth.

Young's Updated LT              And Cush begot Nimrod; he had begun to be a hero in the land.

 

The gist of this verse: 


Genesis 10:8a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

Kûwsh (שכּוּ) [pronounced koosh]

This word is translated variously as Ethiopia, Cush, Cushi and Cushite (it is all the same word)

proper masculine noun/location

Strong’s #3568 BDB #468

yâlad (יָלַד) [pronounced yaw-LAHD]

is the father of, becomes the father of, fathers, sires to give birth, to bear, to be born, to bear, to bring forth, to beget;

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #3205 BDB #408

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Nimerôd (נִמְרֹד) [pronounced nihm-ROAD]

rebellion; valliant; transliterated Nimrod

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #5248 BDB #650

There is an alternate spelling for this name.


Translation: Cush fathered Nimrod. Nimrod was a man who stood out from the rest of Cush’s sons; so he is given great prominence in this list of genealogies.


Genesis 10:8b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

hûwʾ (הוּא) [pronounced hoo]

he, it; himself as a demonstrative pronoun: that, this (one)

3rd person masculine singular, personal pronoun; sometimes the verb is, is implied

Strong’s #1931 BDB #214

châlal (חָלַל) [pronounced khaw-LAHL]

to begin

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil perfect

Strong's #2490 BDB #320

This verb is a homonym which also means to pollute, to defile, to profane, to sully, to contaminate; to pierce, to bore through; to begin. Most of these 4 sets of meaning can be determined by context and by the stem of the verb.

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

Qal infinitive construct

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

gibbôwr (גִּבּוֹר) [pronounced gib-BOAR]

strong man, mighty man, soldier, warrior, combatant, veteran

masculine singular noun/adjective

Strong’s #1368 BDB #150

This word was also used in Gen. 6:4

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: He began to be a mighty person in the land. The word found here is nearly always used to refer to a man of great military might. Bearing that in mind, I would suggest that Nimrod is the first great human celebrity. However, whereas, in our culture, celebrities are often related to the entertainment or sports industries, Nimrod was not a celebrity in this way. However, it is reasonable to assume that he is a great military man who wields great political power. His reputation is given in the next verse.


——————————


He was a mighty man of hunting to faces of Yehowah. Upon so, he is said, “As Nimrod, a mighty man of hunting to faces of Yehowah.”

Genesis

10:9

Nimrod [lit., he] was a mighty man of hunting before Yehowah. Therefore, it is said, “Just like Nimrod, a mighty man of hunting before Yehowah.”

.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                He was a mighty rebel before the Lord; therefore it is said, From the day that the world was created there hath not been as Nimrod, mighty in hunting, and a rebel before the Lord.

Latin Vulgate                          And he was a stout hunter before the Lord. Hence came a proverb: Even as Nemrod the stout hunter before the Lord.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        He was a mighty man of hunting to faces of Yehowah. Upon so, he is said, “As Nimrod, a mighty man of hunting to faces of Yehowah.”

Peshitta (Syriac)                    He was a mighty hunter before the LORD; wherefore it is said, Even as Nimrod was a mighty hunter before the LORD.

Septuagint (Greek)                He was a giant hunter before the Lord God; therefore they say, As Nimrod the giant hunter before the Lord.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           The Lord saw him as a great hunter, and so it is said, "Like Nimrod, whom the Lord saw as a great hunter."

Easy English                          He was a powerful hunter. The *Lord could see what Nimrod was doing. Therefore people often say, `like Nimrod, who is a powerful hunter. The *Lord can see what Nimrod is doing.'

Easy-to-Read Version            Nimrod was a great hunter before the Lord. That is why people compare other men to Nimrod and say, “That man is like Nimrod, a great hunter before the Lord.”

Good News Bible (TEV)         By the LORD's help he was a great hunter, and that is why people say, "May the LORD make you as great a hunter as Nimrod!"

New Century Version             He was a great hunter before the Lord, which is why people say someone is "like Nimrod, a great hunter before the Lord."

New Life Bible                        He was a powerful animal-killer in the eyes of the Lord. So it is said, "Like Nimrod, a powerful animal-killer in the eyes of the Lord."

New Living Translation           Since he was the greatest hunter in the world [Hebrew a great hunter before the Lord; also in 10:9b.], his name became proverbial. People would say, "This man is like Nimrod, the greatest hunter in the world."


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          He was a gigantic hunter before Jehovah God, and that's why people speak of Nimrod as 'the gigantic hunter before Jehovah.'

Christian Community Bible     He was a mighty hunter in the eyes of Yahweh, hence the saying, “Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter in the eyes of Yahweh.”

God’s Word                         He was a mighty hunter whom the LORD blessed. That's why people used to say, "He's like Nimrod, a mighty hunter whom the LORD blessed."

NIRV                                      He was a mighty hunter in the Lord's eyes. That's why people sometimes compare others with Nimrod. They say, "They are like Nimrod, who is a mighty hunter in the Lord's eyes."

Revised English Bible            He was outstanding as a mighty hunter—as the saying goes, ‘like Nimrod, outstanding as a mighty hunter’.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      He was a mighty gamehunter to Yahweh's face. So it is said toward Nimrod, "A mighty gamehunter to Yahweh's face".

Bible in Basic English             He was a very great bowman, so that there is a saying, Like Nimrod, a very great bowman.

The Expanded Bible              He was a ·great [mighty] hunter before the Lord, which is why people say someone is "like Nimrod, a ·great [mighty] hunter before the Lord."

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 Wild beasts began then to infest the earth, so he became a powerful hunter before the Lord; therefore, it is said, “Like Nimrod, a might hunter before the Lord.”

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               He was a mighty hunter by the grace of the Lord, hence the saying, “Like Nimrod a mighty hunter by the grace of the Lord.”

New Advent Bible                  And he was a stout hunter before the Lord. Hence came a proverb: Even as Nemrod the stout hunter before the Lord.

NET Bible®                             He was a mighty hunter [The Hebrew word for “hunt” is צַיִד (tsayid), which is used on occasion for hunting men (1 Sam 24:12; Jer 16:16; Lam 3:15).] before the Lord [Another option is to take the divine name here, לִפְנֵי יִהוָה (lifne yÿhvah, “before the Lord [YHWH]”), as a means of expressing the superlative degree. In this case one may translate “Nimrod was the greatest hunter in the world.”]. (That is why it is said, "Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before the Lord.")

NIV – UK                                He was a mighty hunter before the Lord; that is why it is said, `Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before the Lord.'


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:


 

Concordant Literal Version    He becomes a master hunter before Yahweh Elohim. Therefore is it being said, "As Nimrod, the master hunter before Yahweh.

The Geneva Bible                  He was a mighty hunter before the LORD: wherefore it is said, Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before the LORD. His tyranny came into a proverb as hated both by God and man: for he did not cease to commit cruelty even in Gods presence.

LTHB                                     He was a mighty hunter before Jehovah; so it is said, Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before Jehovah.

Syndein/Thieme                     He {Nimrod} was a 'mighty hunter {of men}' {gibbowr} {he hunted and murdered men in order to build his One Government World empire} in defiance of {paniym} the Jehovah/God {God decreed Nationalism was His Policy}. Wherefore it is said {a proverb developed from his attempted conquests}, "Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter {of men} in defiance of {paniym} Jehovah/God." {Note: Nimrod hunted people. He was a gangster even though this was against the commandment of the Lord.}.

World English Bible                He was a mighty hunter before Yahweh. Therefore it is said, "Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before Yahweh."

Young’s Updated LT             He has been a hero in hunting before Jehovah; therefore it is said, “As Nimrod the hero in hunting before Jehovah.”

 

The gist of this verse: 


Genesis 10:9a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

hûwʾ (הוּא) [pronounced hoo]

he, it; himself as a demonstrative pronoun: that, this (one)

3rd person masculine singular, personal pronoun; sometimes the verb is, is implied

Strong’s #1931 BDB #214

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

gibbôwr (גִּבּוֹר) [pronounced gib-BOAR]

strong man, mighty man, soldier, warrior, combatant, veteran

masculine singular noun/adjective; construct form

Strong’s #1368 BDB #150

tsayid (צַיִד) [pronounced TSAH-yihd]

hunting; game [prey] hunted; provisions [especially for a journey], food

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #6718 BDB #845

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

pânîym (פָּנִים) [pronounced paw-NEEM]

face, faces, countenance; presence

masculine plural construct (plural acts like English singular)

Strong’s #6440 BDB #815

Together, they mean upon the face of, before, before the face of, in the presence of, in the sight of, in front of. When used with God, it can take on the more figurative meaning in the judgment of. This can also mean forwards; the front part [or, the edge of a sword]. Lepânîym (לְפָּנִים) can take on a temporal sense as well: before, of old, formerly, in the past, in past times.

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217


Translation: Nimrod was a mighty man of hunting before Yehowah. There are two general schools of thought here: almost everyone’s idea that Nimrod was a great hunter; that he killed a lot of animals, which were possibly overrunning the earth by this time. The other view of this is R. B. Thieme, Jr.’s, that we are speaking of a man who was a gangster who hunted and killed people. As we will find out in the next verse, Nimrod was a world leader, and perhaps he became the first leader of a national entity.


Remember, the nation is something which was a new phenomenon. Nimrod is from the 3rd generation in from the flood (Ham ➔ Cush ➔ Nimrod); and the earth was divided in the 5th generation from the flood (Shem ➔ Arpachshad ➔ Salah ➔ Eber ➔ Peleg). It would make sense that a man of great renown, who is alive and a celebrity of sorts, to be a national leader; perhaps the first one of note.


Suddenly we have a break in the mood. Throughout this genealogy, there have been a dearth of verbs, with the exception of v. 5. What was written was as little as possible. This particular author did not care for genealogies either yet had to record them, so he recorded as little as possible. The second verb in this verse is the Hiphil perfect of the most unusual verb châlal (חָלַל) [pronounced chaw-LAWL]. It is unusual, not because it is rarely found but because it has such a variety of meanings. In Ezekiel, it is used several times in conjunction with God's name—it means to profane His name. It can mean to defile or to pollute (see Gen. 49:4 Lev. 19:29 1Chron. 5:1). However, in Gen. 4:26 6:1 9:20 11:6 41:54 and in many other places, it means to begin. This use of châlal is always in the Hiphil or the Hophal (although its use in conjunction with profanity is also found in the Hiphil). My first thought is could there a way to integrate these meanings? This would change a great many translations severely; such as Gen. 4:26 could mean, It was then that man began to profane the name of God. However, this would be misplaced as the line being examined in context is Seth's, the line of our Lord; the verb for to call is used consistently in a good sense. I do not find it used in conjunction with taking God's name in vain. The Hiphil is the causative stem, yet it can assume a reflexive meaning. The object of the verb can participate in the action as a second subject. The emphasis is upon the causing of the action rather than on the result of the action. The perfect tense means a completed action at the time of the writing; or an action looked upon as complete by the writer and reader. Then we have the infinitive of the verb to be and Nimrod was the first to be known as mighty, strong, valiant. The perfect action of this verb means that Nimrod was recognized as having accomplished a certain reputation or sphere of might at the time of writing.


Prior to the flood, man did not eat meat; man farmed or man was a shepherd (although professions were more diverse than those two). After the flood, animals began to fear man on the earth; therefore, their ferocity increased as they were associated less and less with man; and, whereas Noah began to be a farmer upon the earth, Nimrod began to be a hunter. This is a brand new profession and Nimrod was renown for this profession. Before Yahweh is probably a neutral expression. God figured into the thinking of some of the inhabitants of the earth; Nimrod had achieved this fame as a great hunter and the fame is emphasized by using God's name. He is not just a great hunter, but a great hunter before God. He was the measuring rod by which all other hunters were measured. If someone was mentioned as being a great hunter, it would be said he was a mighty hunter before the Lord just as Nimrod was.


Genesis 10:9b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl ]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

kên (כֵּן) [pronounced kane]

so, therefore, thus; then, afterwards; upright, honest; rightly, well; [it is] so, such, so constituted

adverb

Strong's #3651 BDB #485

Together, ʿal kên (כֵּן עַל) mean so, upon the ground of such conditions, therefore, on this account, on account, for this reason.

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to be told, to be said, to be called

3rd person masculine singular, Niphal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

kaph or ke (כְּ) [pronounced ke]

like, as, just as; according to, after; about, approximately

preposition of comparison, resemblance or approximation

No Strong’s # BDB #453

Nimerôd (נִמְרֹד) [pronounced nihm-ROAD]

rebellion; valliant; transliterated Nimrod

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #5248 BDB #650

gibbôwr (גִּבּוֹר) [pronounced gib-BOAR]

strong man, mighty man, soldier, warrior, combatant, veteran

masculine singular noun/adjective; construct form

Strong’s #1368 BDB #150

tsayid (צַיִד) [pronounced TSAH-yihd]

hunting; game [prey] hunted; provisions [especially for a journey], food

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #6718 BDB #845

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

pânîym (פָּנִים) [pronounced paw-NEEM]

face, faces, countenance; presence

masculine plural construct (plural acts like English singular)

Strong’s #6440 BDB #815

Together, they mean upon the face of, before, before the face of, in the presence of, in the sight of, in front of. When used with God, it can take on the more figurative meaning in the judgment of. This can also mean forwards; the front part [or, the edge of a sword]. Lepânîym (לְפָּנִים) can take on a temporal sense as well: before, of old, formerly, in the past, in past times.

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217


Translation: Therefore, it is said, “Just like Nimrod, a mighty man of hunting before Yehowah.” This indicates the celebrityship of this man—he had become a part of popular culture, to where there was a proverb that many people knew. When someone hunted, they would say, “He is just like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before the Lord.”


Whether or not Nimrod killed people or just killed big game, the fact that many people knew him by name was the key to him being the first celebrity of early man. People knew of him and talked about him; although they had not ever actually met him before.


Gen 10:8–9 And Cush fathered Nimrod. He began to be a mighty one in the earth. He was a mighty hunter before Jehovah. Therefore it is said, Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before Jehovah.


Nimrod appears to be the first human celebrity in that, people who did not know him personally, talked about him. There seems to be a much different attitude today, where the expression what a Nimrod has found its way into the American language.


In any case, this indicates a change. The first 2 ancient professions were farmer and rancher (animals were used for animal sacrifices before the flood, but there was no authorization to eat them). After a certain point in time, animal populations began to grow and spread out, and Nimrod apparently originated and defined the profession of hunting (now that animals could be eaten).


——————————


And so it a first of his kingdom—Babel and Erech and Akkad and Calneh [or, and all of them] in a land of Shinar.

Genesis

10:10

The beginning of his kingdom is Babel, Erech and Akkad, all of them [or, and Calneh] in the land of Shinar.

His kingdom began in Babel, Erech and Akkad, all of these cities being in the land of Shinar.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the beginning of his kingdom was Bavel the Great, and Hadas, and Netsibin, and Ketispon, in the land of Pontos. From that land went forth Nimrod, and reigned in Athur, because he would not be in the counsel of a divided generation. And he left those four cities; and the Lord thereupon gave him a place; and he builded four other cities, Nineveh and Pelatiath, Kartha and Parioth. And Talesar, which was builded between Nineveh and Hadiath; that is a great city. And Mizraim begat the Nivatee, and the Mariotee, and the Livakee, and the Pantascinee, and the Pathrosim, and the Nasiotaee, and the Pantapolotee, from whom went forth the Philistaee and the Kaphodikaee.

Jerusalem targum                  And the beginning of his kingdom was Bavel, and Hadas, and Netsibin, and Katispa in the land of Bavel.

Latin Vulgate                          And the beginning of his kingdom was Babylon, and Arach, and Achad, and Chalanne in the land of Sennaar.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so it a first of his kingdom—Babel and Erech and Akkad and Calneh [or, and all of them] in a land of Shinar.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And the beginning of his kingdom was Babylon, Erech, Akhar, and Caliah, in the land of Sinar.

Septuagint (Greek)                And the beginning of his kingdom was Babylon, Erech, Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           The most important cities in his kingdom were Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh in the land of Shinar.

Easy English                          The beginning of Nimrod's *kingdom consisted of Babel, Erech and Accad. Those are all in the country called Shinar.

Easy-to-Read Version            Nimrod’s kingdom spread from Babylon to Erech, Akkad, and Calneh in the land of Shinar.

Good News Bible (TEV)         At first his kingdom included Babylon, Erech, and Accad, all three of them in Babylonia.

The Message                         His kingdom got its start with Babel; then Erech, Akkad, and Calneh in the country of Shinar.

New Berkeley Version           He began his kingdom with Babel; then Ewrech, Accad, and Calneh in the Shinar country [In the Babylonian plain].

New Century Version             At first Nimrod's kingdom covered Babylon, Erech, Akkad, and Calneh in the land of Babylonia.

New Living Translation           He built his kingdom in the land of Babylonia [Hebrew Shinar.], with the cities of Babylon, Erech, Akkad, and Calneh.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          His kingdom started with Babylon, and then to Orech, Archad, and ChalanNe, which were all in the land of Shinar.

Beck’s American Translation Nimrod began his kingdom with Babylon, Erek, and Accad, all of them in the country of Babylonia.

Christian Community Bible     The beginning of his empire was Babel, with Erech and Accad, all of them in the land of Shinar.

God’s Word                         The first cities in his kingdom were Babylon, Erech, Accad, and Calneh in Shinar [Babylonia].

New American Bible              The chief cities of his kingdom were Babylon, Erech, and Accad, all of them in the land of Shinar. Shinar: ancient Sumer in southern Mesopotamia, mentioned also in ? Genesis 11:2; ? 14:1.

New American Bible (R.E.)    His kingdom originated in Babylon, Erech and Accad, all of them in the land of Shinar. Shinar: the land of ancient Babylonia, embracing Sumer and Akkad, present-day southern Iraq, mentioned also in 11:2; 14:1.

NIRV                                      At first Nimrod's kingdom was made up of Babylon, Erech, Akkad and Calneh. Those cities were in the land of Babylonia.

New Jerusalem Bible             The mainstays of his empire were Babel, Erech and Accad, all of them in the land of Shinar.

Revised English Bible            At first his kingdom consisted of Babel, Erech, and Accad, all of them in the land of Shinar.

Today’s NIV                          The first centers of his kingdom were Babylon, Uruk, Akkad and Kalneh, in [Or Uruk and Akkad-all of them in] Shinar [That is, Babylonia].


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      His first realm had Babylon (city), Erech (city), Accad (city), and Calneh (city) in the land of Central-Iraq.

Complete Jewish Bible           His kingdom began with Bavel, Erekh, Akkad and Kalneh, in the land of Shin'ar.

The Expanded Bible              At first Nimrod's kingdom covered [LThe beginning of his kingdom was] Babylon, ·Erech [or Uruk], Akkad, and Calneh [Cwell-known cities in southern Mesopotamia] in the land of ·Babylonia [LShinar].

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 And the capitals of his kingdoms were Babel [The Babel mentioned here must not be confused with the Babylon of the Nebuchadnezzars, which was built long after, as a City probably really by Nebuchadnezzar the First—F.F.], and Ereck and Akad, and Kalinah in the Bush-land [“Shinar” signifies “Bush-land” and I therefore translate it, to remove a geographical error of old standing—F.F.].

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               The mainstays of his kingdom were Babylon, Erech, Accad, and Calneh [Heb. we-khalneh, better vocalized we-khullanah “all of them being.”] in the land of Shinar.

New Advent Bible                  And the beginning of his kingdom was Babylon, and Arach, and Achad, and Chalanne in the land of Sennaar.

NIV – UK                                The first centres of his kingdom were Babylon, Uruk, Akkad and Kalneh, in [Or Uruk and Akkad - all of them in] Shinar [That is, Babylonia].

The Scriptures 1998              And the beginning of his reign was Bab?el, and Erek?, and Akkad?, and Kalnĕh, in the land of Shinʽar.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                The beginning of his kingdom was Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar [in Babylonia].

Concordant Literal Version    And coming is the beginning of his kingdom to be Babel and Erech and Accad and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.

Context Group Version          And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, Erech, and Accad--all of them in the land of Shinar.

The Geneva Bible                  And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. For there was another city in Egypt, called Babel.

LTHB                                     And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.

NASB                                     The beginning of his kingdom was Babel [Or Babylon] and Erech and Accad and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.

Syndein/Thieme                     {Verses 10-12 Description of Nimrod's Empire}

And the beginning of his {Nimrod's} kingdom . . . {was the headquarters city of } Babel, {and other southern cities of} Erech, Accad, {and} Calneh {undiscovered to date}, in the land {'erets} of Shinar.

Young's Literal Translation     And the first part of his kingdom is Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.

 

The gist of this verse: 


Genesis 10:10a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person feminine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

rêʾshîyth (רֵאשִית) [pronounced ray-SHEETH]

first fruit, firstling, first of one’s kind, first, chief; a beginning, a former state; former times

feminine singularct

Strong’s #7225 BDB #912

Inexplicably, Owen (upon whom I depend to parse my verbs for me) lists this as a feminine singular construct, which makes little sense because this is a plural noun (always found in the plural form).

This does not have a singular form. There is an aleph thrown in there, but without a corresponding vowel. Gesenius says that aleph was not there originally.

mamelâkâh (מַמְלָכָה) [pronounced mahme-law-kaw]

kingdom, national government; sovereignty, dominion, reign, dynasty; used to refer to both the royal dignity and to the country of a king

feminine singular noun with 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #4467 BDB #575

This is the first occurrence of this word in Scripture.

Babel (בָּבֶל) [pronounced baw-BEHL]

confusion (by mixing), confusion of speech; stammering; gate of god; transliterated Babel, Babylon

proper singular noun; location

Strong’s #894 BDB #93

This is the first occurrence of this word in Scripture.


Translation: The beginning of his kingdom is Babel,... It appears as though this Nimrod had dominion over more than one city, which is also a reflection of his power by means of celebrityship.


There appear to be two foremost opinions. First, there appears to be general agreement that there are two Babel’s (at least); the disagreement is, whether this is the Babel (Babylon) with which we are familiar; or whether this is one of the secondary Babel’s.


Although we have not delved into Gen. 11 yet, the tower of Babel is where God will confuse the languages of man, and most of the Hamitic families moved toward northern Africa (Cush and Egypt) and that general area. The question is, of course, is this the Babel of which we are speaking—some Babel in northern Africa, or is it the more well-known Babel?


The other cities named seem to indicate that we are speaking of the Euphrates River/Tigris River valley in Iraq.


Nimrod, in order to be a hunter, had to do a great deal of traveling and apparently what he would do is hunt throughout a certain area, found a city, and then move on to another city. He seems to be the first person infected with wanderlust. I'll wait until chapter 11 to cover Babylon.


Genesis 10:10b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾEreke (אֶרֶ) [pronounced EH-rehk]

long, length; transliterated Erech

proper singular noun/location

Strong’s #751 BDB #74


Translation: ...Erech... This appears to be equivalent to the Semitic-Babylonian Uruk, from the Sumerian Unug, a word meaning “seat,” probably in the sense of “residential city.” As above, this appears to coincide with the present-day Iraq area, but we appear to have a Semitic name.


Erech is a city just down the Euphrates a ways from Babylon. This city is also found on the Sumerian king list. One of the kings was Gilgamish, who was a hero of Sumerian legends.


Genesis 10:10c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾAkkad (אַכַּד) [pronounced ahk-KAHD]

 strengthen; a fortress; subtle; transliterated Akkad

proper singular noun location

Strong’s #390 BDB #37


Translation: ...and Akkad,... This is a name obviously related to the Akkadian area, also in this general vicinity. Again, we either seem to have a number of cities with similar names to those found in the area of Babylon; or these are all cities from the Babylon area.


We do not know where the city Accad was located, but we have extra-Biblical documentation that as early as 2350 b.c. there was a dynasty there founded by Sargon (which means true king). During this time period, Accad controlled all of Sumer (Southern Babylon) and it had armies stationed as far away as Elam, Syria and southern Anatolia. This dynasty lasted two centuries and became known to the Babylonians as the ideal kingdom, a golden age if you will; or the good old days. Accad later became the designation for northern Babylonia and the word Accadian today is applied to the language of Babylonia and not to its speakers.


Genesis 10:10d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Kalenêh (כַּלְנֵה) [pronounced kahl-NAY]

fortress of Anu; transliterated Calneh, Calno

proper singular noun/location:

Strong’s #3641 BDB #484

This noun is also spelled Kaleneh (כַּלְנֶה) [pronounced kahl-NEH]; and kalenôw (כַּלְנוֹ) [pronounced kahl-NOH].

All of them (kôl + the feminine plural suffix) would be spelled kôlenêh (כֹּלְנֵה) [pronounced kohl-NAY]. Given that there were no vowels, it is not out of the question that this final phrase reads: and all of them [are] in the land of Shinar.

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular construct

Strong's #776 BDB #75

Shineʿâr (שִנְעָר) [pronounced shine-GAWR]

country of two rivers; land of Babylon; transliterated Shinar

proper singular noun location

Strong’s #8152 BDB #1042


Translation: ...all of them [or, and Calneh] in the land of Shinar. Calneh is the one city which causes us a great deal of confusion; and many have, therefore, chosen to understand this not as a city, but as the phrase, all of them (feminine plural); referring to all of these cities.


We are unsure about Calneh; the original Hebrew was consonants only with no spaces between the words; the vowel points were added sometime later. A different set of vowel points changes Calneh to all of them. So the sense of this verse could be that all of these cities were in the land of Shinar. We do find a city of Calneh is Amos 6:2 and a similarly named city in Isaiah 10:9 (Calno).


Scholarship seems to support that Shinar is equivalent to Babylonia in designation or area. Shinar was probably the first designation of the area of these three or four cities and later, due to the prominence of Babylon, the area took on the name of Babylonia. There is not an undisputed corresponding word for Shinar found in extra-Biblical literature, however. The Bible continues to use the term Shinar in several instances (Gen. 14:1 Joshua 7:21 Isa. 11:11 Dan. 1:2 Zech. 5:11).


Shinar is also associated with Babylon. It means country of two rivers; land of Babylon.


We can explain, to some degree, what may have happened. By generation, Nimrod is the third generation from the flood, two generations before the separation of the people; and apparently the first celebrity, which is associated either with the killing of animals or people. It is possible that, in all of this confusion, the Nimrod took over these cities in and around Babylon. He could have achieved this immediately before the confusion of the languages or immediately after. When the forth generation came along, he may have begun ruling at this time. In order for there to have been the coordinated building of the Tower of Babel, there was likely someone ruling.


This control does not have to be a permanent thing. Nimrod may have had control, and, eventually lost it; and the people of Ham expelled to northern Africa, leaving the Semites to control the Babylonian area.


Unfortunately, apart from these few verses, we do not really have a timeline laid out for us nor do we have a series of circumstances which clearly fix the place for us (although it seems obvious that this is the Babylonian area, given the Semitic names).


 

The NET Bible Footnotes on Genesis 10:10

The primary regions34 of his kingdom were Babel,35 Erech,36 Akkad,37 and Calneh38 in the land of Shinar.39

34 Heb “beginning.” E. A. Speiser, Genesis (AB), 67, suggests “mainstays,” citing Jer 49:35 as another text where the Hebrew noun is so used.

35 Or “Babylon.”

36 Erech (ancient Uruk, modern Warka), one of the most ancient civilizations, was located southeast of Babylon.

37 Akkad, or ancient Agade, was associated with Sargon and located north of Babylon.

38 No such place is known in Shinar (i.e., Babylonia). Therefore some have translated the Hebrew term כַלְנֵה (khalneh) as “all of them,” referring to the three previous names (cf. NRSV).

39 Shinar is another name for Babylonia.

From http://bible.org/netbible/index.htm?gen10.htm accessed January 24, 2013.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


——————————


From the land the that, he went [into] Assyria [or, From that land, Asshur went forth...] and built Nineveh and Rehoboth–Ir and Calah and Resen between Nineveh and between Calah; she [is] the city the great.

Genesis

10:11–12

From that land, he went [into] Assyria [or, From that land, Asshur went forth...] and he built Nineveh, Rehoboth–Ir, Calah and Resen, between Nineveh and Calah. She [is] the great city.

He went from that land into Assyria and he built the cities of Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, Calah, and Resen, which is between Nineveh and Calah. She is the great city.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                From that land he went out towards Athur, and builded Nineveh, and Pelatiath-Kartha, and Hadiath......And Talesar, between Nineveh and Hadiath, which is a great city......

Latin Vulgate                          Out of that land came forth Assur, and built Ninive, and the streets of the city, and Chale. Resen also between Ninive and Chale: this is the great city.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        From the land the that, he went into Assyria and built Nineveh and Rehoboth–Ir and Calah and Resen between Nineveh and between Calah; she [is] the city the great.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    Out of Sinar went forth the Assyrian and built Nineveh, and the city of Rehoboth, and Calah, And Resen which lies between Nineveh and Calah; the same is a great city.

Septuagint (Greek)                Out of that land he came to Assyria, and built Nineveh, and the city Rehoboth Ir, and Calah, and Resen between Nineveh and Calah: this is the great city.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Asshur left that land and built Nineveh, Rehoboth City, Calah, and Resen, the great city between Nineveh and Calah.

Easy English                          From Shinar, Nimrod went into Assyria. He built Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, Calah and Resen. Resen is between Nineveh and Calah. That is the great city.

Easy-to-Read Version            Nimrod also went into Assyria. In Assyria, Nimrod built the cities of Nineveh, Rehoboth Ir, Calah, and Resen. (Resen is the city between Nineveh and Calah, the big city.)

New Berkeley Version           From there he extended his reign to Assyria, building Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, Calah 12and Resen between Nineveh and Calah, the great city [Four towns together seem to be thought of as a great city, with the first superior until together they became Greater Nineveh.].

New Century Version             From there he went to Assyria, where he built the cities of Nineveh, Rehoboth Ir, and Calah. 12 He also built Resen, the great city between Nineveh and Calah.

New Living Translation           From there he expanded his territory to Assyria [Or From that land Assyria went out.], building the cities of Nineveh, Rehoboth-ir, Calah, and Resen (the great city located between Nineveh and Calah).


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Then outside that land [he went to] Assyria and built Nineveh, the cities of RehobOth, Chalach, and Dase (between Nineveh, and Chalach), which is the great city.

Christian Community Bible     From this country came Ashur, the builder of Niniveh, Rehoboth- ir, Calah, and Resen between Niniveh and Calah (this is the great city).

New American Bible (R.E.)    From that land he went forth to Assyria, where he built Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir [Rehoboth-Ir: lit., "wide-streets city," was probably not the name of another city, but an epithet of Nineveh; cf. Jon 3:3.] and Calah, as well as Resen, between Nineveh and Calah [Calah: Assyrian Kalhu, the capital of Assyria in the ninth century B.C.], the latter being the principal city.

NIRV                                      From that land he went to Assyria. There he built Nineveh, Rehoboth Ir and Calah. He also built Resen. It is between Nineveh and Calah. Nineveh is the great city.

New Jerusalem Bible             From this country came Asshur, and he built Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, Calah, and Resen between Nineveh and Calah (this being the capital).

Revised English Bible            From that land he migrated to Assyria and built Nineveh, Rehoboth-ir, Calah, and Resen, a great city between Nineveh and Calah.

Today’s NIV                          From that land he went to Assyria, where he built Nineveh, Rehoboth Ir, [Or Nineveh with its city squares] Calah and Resen, which is between Nineveh and Calah-which is the great city.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      From that land Assyria (North-Iraq) proceeded and built the city of Mosul and enlarged Calneh. Resen was a great city between Mosul and Calneh.

Bible in Basic English             From that land he went out into Assyria, building Nineveh with its wide streets and Calah, And Resen between Nineveh and Calah, which is a very great town.

Complete Jewish Bible           Ashur went out from that land and built Ninveh, the city Rechovot, Kelach, and Resen between Ninveh and Kelach - that one is the great city.

The Expanded Bible              From there he went to Assyria [Cin northern Mesopotamia], where he built the cities of Nineveh, ·Rehoboth Ir [or that is a great city], and Calah. He also built Resen, the great city between Nineveh and Calah.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 From that land, Asshur proceeded to Assyria, and built Ninevah and the town of the plains, and Kalah, and Resen, between Ninevah and Kalah, which is a large city.

Judaica Press Complete T.    From that land emerged Asshur, and he built Nineveh and Rehoboth ir and Calah. And Resen, between Nineveh and between Calah; that is the great city.

New Advent Bible                  Out of that land came forth Assur, and built Ninive, and the streets of the city, and Chale. 12 Resen also between Ninive and Chale: this is the great city.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                Out of the land he [Nimrod] went forth into Assyria and built Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, Calah, And Resen, which is between Nineveh and Calah; all these [suburbs combined to form] the great city.

Concordant Literal Version    (From that land fares forth Ashur, and building is he Nineveh and Rehoboth city, and Calah, and Desen between Nineveh and Calah. That city is great.)

New King James Version       From that land he went to Assyria and built Nineveh, Rehoboth Ir, Calah, and Resen between Nineveh and Calah (that is the principal city).

Syndein/Thieme                      {Four Cities now in the North}

Out of that land {'erets} went forth Asshur. And builded Nineveh {became the capital city of Assyria}, and the city Rehoboth {suburb of Nineveh}, and Calah {Shal-man-ies's capital of Assyria}, and Resen between Nineveh and Calah - the same is a great city. {Note: Nimrod's empire was basically the Tigris -Euphrates Valley all the way to Syria.}.

Third Millennium Bible            Out of that land he went forth to Assyria, and built Nineveh and the city Rehoboth, and Calah, 12 and Resen between Nineveh and Calah; the same is a great city.

Updated Bible Version 2.11   Out of that land he went forth into Assyria, and built Nineveh, and Rehoboth-ir, and Calah, and Resen between Nineveh and Calah (the same is the great city).

Webster’s Bible Translation  Out of that land went forth Ashur, and built Nineveh, and the city Rehoboth, and Calah, 12And Resen between Nineveh and Calah: the same [is] a great city.

Young’s Updated LT             From that land he has gone out to Asshur, and he builds Nineveh, even the broad places of the city, and Calah, and Resen, between Nineveh and Calah; it is the great city.

 

The gist of this verse:          Nimrod, as a hunter, continued to branch out, and to found new cities.


Genesis 10:11a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75

yâtsâʾ (יָצָא) [pronounced yaw-TZAWH]

to go [come] out, to go [come] forth; to rise; to flow, to gush up [out]

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #3318 BDB #422

ʾAshshûwr (אַשּוּר) [pronounced ahsh-SHOOR]

a step; transliterated Assur or Assyria

Proper singular noun gentilic/territory

Strong’s #804 & #838 BDB #78


Translation: From that land, he went [into] Assyria [or, From that land, Asshur went forth...]... Interpreting this is somewhat difficult, as it is unclear whether we are still speaking of Nimrod going forth; or whether there is someone named Asshur (Assur) who goes forth to build.


Now, what would suggest that Asshur is not the subject is, he has not been mentioned before as being anyone’s son. However, we will come upon Asshur as the son of Shem, which is somewhat confusing, no matter how this is interpreted. It would make less sense to name a person who is not yet named in these genealogies.


Now, it is possible that Assyria is an established city, as Asshur is from the 2nd generation. There would not be enough people in the 2nd generation to make up a city, but by the 4th or 5th generation, there could have been enough for a city called Assyria or an area with that name (Asshur would be a prominent person by the 4th or 5th generation).


Since we are dealing with the line of Ham, it is not out of the question that he establishes a city with the name of Asshur (Assyrian); or that he has a son in that area and names him Asshur and builds a city to him.


Genesis 10:11b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

bânâh (בָּנָה) [pronounced baw-NAWH]

to build, to construct; to erect; to rebuild, to restore

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #1129 BDB #124

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Nîynevêh (נִינְוֵה) [pronounced nee-nehv-AY]

 abode of Ninus; transliterated Nineveh

proper noun singular location

Strong’s #5210 BDB #644


Translation: ...and he built Nineveh,... If this is Nimrod, then he goes out and establishes cities, and, using his strong influence to get them built.


It is reasonable to assume that Nimrod then moves northwest into Assyria and, as before, hunts over a great area and founds cities near this area. He originally traveled down the Euphrates and then he moved up the Tigris river. He apparently would found a city and then hunt throughout the adjoining area. For that reason, the area adjacent to Assyria is called the land of Nimrod in Mic. 5:6. His name is used to designate at least two cities: Birs Nimrud, which is south-west of Babylon, and Nimrod in Assyria. He is found in Sumerian, Assyrian and other extra-Biblical documents and has been identified by some scholars as perhaps Gilgamish or Sargon of Agade. There is no reason for that, however. It is likely that he would found these cities, remain for a century or so, and move on. By examining Shem's line in chapter 11, we see that immediately after the flood, people lived for five hundred years on the average; including those of Nimrod's generation. Since Noah lived 950 years, it would not be out of the question for Nimrod to have lived that long. Being a man struck with wanderlust, it would not be surprising that he would move from place to place, possibly with a different wife (or, wives) and found a city with his progeny.


Nimrod stopped and founded two of the most famous cities of the ancient world: Babylon and Ninevah. Ninevah, now in ruins, will figure prominently (as will Babylon) into Israel's future history. See R. B. Thieme, Jr.’s The Worm and the Gourd (now out of print) or Henry Hastings study of the book of Jonah.


Genesis 10:11c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Rechôbôwth (רְחֹבוֹת) [pronounced rekh-oh-BOATH]

wide place, wid streets, broad open place; and is transliterated Rehoboth

proper singular noun location

Strong's #7344 BDB #932

ʿîyr (עִיר) [pronounced ģeer]

encampment, city, town

feminine singular noun

Strong's #5892 BDB #746


Translation: ...Rehoboth–Ir,... This may be the city of the wide place.


Rehoboth-Ir and Resen are cities both lost to history, even though Resen was obviously a very famous city at one time and the most prominent of the cities named at the time of writing. It is supposed that Calah is 24 miles south of Nineveh on the Tigris river and it has been rebuilt several times since then.


Genesis 10:11d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Kelach (כֶּלַה) [pronounced KEH-lakh]

vigor, full strength, rugged strength; transliterated Calah

proper singular noun/location

Strong’s #3625 BDB #480


Translation: ...Calah...


Genesis 10:12a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Reçen (רֶסֶן) [pronounced REH-sehn]

something that restrains; bridle, curb, halter; inner part of the mouth, jaw; transliterated Resen

proper singular noun/location:

Strong’s #7449 BDB #944

bêyn (בֵּין) [pronounced bane]

in the midst of, between, among; when found twice, it means between

preposition

Strong's #996 BDB #107

Nîynevêh (נִינְוֵה) [pronounced nee-nehv-AY]

 abode of Ninus; transliterated Nineveh

proper noun singular location

Strong’s #5210 BDB #644

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

bêyn (בֵּין) [pronounced bane]

in the midst of, between, among; when found twice, it means between

preposition

Strong's #996 BDB #107

Kelach (כֶּלַה) [pronounced KEH-lakh]

vigor, full strength, rugged strength; transliterated Calah

proper singular noun/location

Strong’s #3625 BDB #480


Translation: ...and Resen, between Nineveh and Calah. I am not aware of Resen from history.


Genesis 10:12b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

hîyʾ (הִיא) [pronounced hee]

she, it; also used as a demonstrative pronoun: that, this (one)

3rd person feminine singular, personal pronoun; sometimes the verb is, is implied

Strong’s #1931 BDB #214

ʿîyr (עִיר) [pronounced ģeer]

encampment, city, town

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #5892 BDB #746

gâdôwl (גָּדוֹל) [pronounced gaw-DOHL]

large, great or mighty [in power, nobility, wealth; in number, or magnitude and extent], loud, older, important, distinguished; vast, unyielding, immutable, significant, astonishing

masculine singular adjective with a definite article

Strong’s #1419 BDB #152


Translation: She [is] the great city. Any of these could be called the great city. We know Nineveh as the great city, but it is possible that Resen (or Calah) is the great city which is being referred to.


 

The NET Bible Footnotes on Genesis 10:11–12

From that land he went40 to Assyria,41 where he built Nineveh,42 Rehoboth-Ir,43 Calah,44 and Resen, which is between Nineveh and the great city Calah.45

40 The subject of the verb translated "went" is probably still Nimrod. However, it has also been interpreted that "Ashur went," referring to a derivative power.

41 Heb "Asshur."

42 Nineveh was an ancient Assyrian city situated on the Tigris River.

43 The name Rehoboth-Ir means "and broad streets of a city," perhaps referring to a suburb of Nineveh.

44 Calah (modern Nimrud) was located twenty miles north of Nineveh.

45 Heb "and Resen between Nineveh and Calah; it [i.e., Calah] is the great city."

From http://bible.org/netbible/index.htm?gen10.htm accessed January 24, 2013.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Gen 10:10–12 And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. Out of that land he went forth to Asshur. And he built Nineveh, and the city Rehoboth, and Calah, and Resen between Nineveh and Calah, which is a great city.


Nimrod apparently fathered those who founded the cities of Babel and Accad, among others.


We will, further down in this lesson, identify each of these men with the area that they settled.


——————————


And Mizraim [that is, Egypt] is the father of Ludim and Anamim and Lehabim and Naphtuhim and Pathrusim and Casluhim (that go out from there the Philistines) and Caphtorim.

Genesis

10:13–14

Mizraim [that is, Egypt] is the father of the Ludim, the Anamim, the Lehabim, the Naphtuhim, the Pathrusim, the Casluhim (out from whom come the Philistines) and Caphtorim.

Egypt is the father of the peoples known as theh Ludim, the Anamim, the Lehabim, the Naphtuhim, the Pathrusim, the Casluhim (from whom come the Philistines) and the Caphtorim.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And Mizraim begat the Nivatee, and the Mariotee, and the Livakee, and the Pantascinee, and the Pathrosim, and the Nasiotaee, and the Pantapolotee, from whom went forth the Philistaee and the Kaphodikaee.

Jerusalem targum                  And Mizraim begat the Mariotaee, and Pentepolitaee, and Lusetaee, and Pelusaee, and the Pantaskenaee, from whom went forth the Philistaee and Kapodekaee.

Latin Vulgate                          And Mesraim begot Ludim, and Anamim and Laabim, Nephthuim. And Phetrusim, and Chasluim; of whom came forth the Philistines, and the Capthorim.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And Mizraim [that is, Egypt] is the father of Ludim and Anamim and Lehabim and Naphtuhim and Pathrusim and Casluhim (that go out from there the Philistines) and Caphtorim.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And Mizraim begot Ludim and Anamim and Lehabim and Naphtuhim. And Pathrusim and Casluhim (out of whom came the Philistines) and Caphtorim.

Septuagint (Greek)                And Mizraim begot the Ludim, and the Naphtuhim, and the Enemetim, and the Lehabim, and the Pathrusim, and the Casluhim (from whom came forth the Philistine) and the Caphtorim.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           13 Egypt fathered Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, 14 Pathrusim, Casluhim, and Caphtorim [Or Casluhim, from which the Philistines set out, and Caphtorim], from which the Philistines came.

Easy English                          Egypt was the father of Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, Pathrusim, Casluhim, and Caphtorim. The *Philistines came from Casluhim's family.

Easy-to-Read Version            Mizraim (Egypt) was the father of the people of Lud, Anam, Lehab, Naphtuh, Pathrus, Casluh, and Caphtor. (The Philistine people came from Casluh.).

Good News Bible (TEV)         The descendants of Egypt were the people of Lydia, Anam, Lehab, Naphtuh, Pathrus, Casluh, and of Crete, from whom the Philistines are descended.

The Message                         Egypt was ancestor to the Ludim, the Anamim, the Lehabim, the Naphtuhim, the Pathrusim, the Casluhim (the origin of the Philistines), and the Kaphtorim.

New Berkeley Version           To Mizraim were born the Ludim [The names ending with –im, signify peoples named after personal ancestors. The same is true of the next series of names, ending with –ite.], the Anamin, the Lehabim, the Naphtuhim, the Pathrusim, the Casluhim—from whom the Philistines came—and the Caphtorim.

New Century Version             Mizraim was the father of the Ludites, Anamites, Lehabites, Naphtuhites, Pathrusites, Casluhites, and the people of Crete. (The Philistines came from the Casluhites.).

New Living Translation           13 Mizraim was the ancestor of the Ludites, Anamites, Lehabites, Naphtuhites, 14 Pathrusites, Casluhites, and the Caphtorites, from whom the Philistines came [Hebrew Casluhites, from whom the Philistines came, and Caphtorites. Compare Jer 47:4; Amos 9:7.].


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Mesrain fathered the Lydim [Lydians], the MaphTuhim [people of Memphis, Egypt], the AnaMim [Libyans], the Lehabim [people of Lower Egypt], 14 the Pathrusim [people of Upper Egypt], the Casluhim [Cretans] (from whom the Philistines descended), and the GaphThoriim [also from the area of Crete].

New American Bible (R.E.)    Mizraim became the father of the Ludim, the Anamim, the Lehabim, the Naphtuhim, the Pathrusim,* the Casluhim, and the Caphtorim from whom the Philistines came. The Pathrusim: the people of Upper (southern) Egypt; cf. Is 11:11; Jer 44:1; Ez 29:14; 30:13. Caphtorim: Crete; for Caphtor as the place of origin of the Philistines, cf. Dt 2:23; Am 9:7; Jer 47:4.

New Jerusalem Bible             Mizraim fathered the people of Lud, of Anam, Lehab, Naphtuh, Pathros, Casluh and Caphtor, from which the Philistines came.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      Egypt begat North-Egypt, Anamim, Libya (nation), Memphis (city), South-Egypt, and Crete (island). Palestine (Gaza Strip) proceeded from the Cretans there.

Complete Jewish Bible           Mitzrayim fathered the Ludim, the 'Anamim, the L'havim, the Naftuchim, 14 the Patrusim, the Kasluchim (from whom came the P'lishtim) and the Kaftorim.

The Expanded Bible              Mizraim [10:6] was the father of the ·Ludites [Cprobably the Lydians], Anamites, Lehabites, Naphtuhites, 14 Pathrusites, Casluhites, and the ·people of Crete [LCaphtorites]. (The Philistines came from the ·Casluhites [or Caphtorites].).

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 The Mizraim also produced the Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim, and Pathrusim, and Kasluhim, from whom sprung the Philistines and the Kaphtorites.

Judaica Press Complete T.    And Mizraim begot the Ludim and the Anamim and the Lehabim and the Naphtuhim, And the Pathrusim and the Casluhim, from whom the Philistines emerged, and the Caphtorim.

New Advent Bible                  And Mesraim begot Ludim, and Anamim and Laabim, Nephthuim. And Phetrusim, and Chasluim; of whom came forth the Philistines, and the Capthorim.

New Heart English Bible        Mizraim became the father of Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, Pathrusim, Casluhim (which the Philistines descended from), and Caphtorim.

NIV, ©2011                             Egypt was the father of

the Ludites, Anamites, Lehabites, Naphtuhites, Pathrusites, Kasluhites (from whom the Philistines came) and Caphtorites.

The Scriptures 1998              And Mitsrayim brought forth Luim, and Anamim, and Lehaim, and Naphtuḥim, and Pathrusim, and Kasluḥim, from whom came the Philistines and Kaphtorim.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And Mizraim generates Ludim and Anamim and Lehabim and Naphtuhim and Pathrusim and Casluhim, whence fare forth the Philistim and Caphthorim.

Context Group Version          And Mizraim fathered Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim, and Pathrusim, and Casluhim ( from where went out the Philistines ), and Caphtorim.

Darby Translation                  13 -- And Mizraim begot the Ludim, and the Anamim, and the Lehabim, and the Naphtuhim, 14 and the Pathrusim, and the Casluhim, out of whom came the Philistines, and the Caphtorim.

English Standard V. – UK       Egypt fathered Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, 14 Pathrusim, Casluhim (from whom [Or from where] the Philistines came), and Caphtorim.

Green’s Literal Translation    And Mizraim fathered Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim, and Pathrusim, and Casluhim, from whom came the Philistines and Caphtorim.

New King James Version       Mizraim begot Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, Pathrusim, and Casluhim (from whom came the Philistines and Caphtorim).

New RSV                               Egypt became the father of Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, 14Pathrusim, Casluhim, and Caphtorim, from which the Philistines come [Heb Casluhim, from which the Philistines come, and Caphtorim].

Syndein/Thieme                     And Mizraim {second son of Ham} sired/'caused the birth of' {father of the Southern Egyptians [Upper Egypt (higher altitude land)]},{salad} Ludim {father of the Moors and the Aborigines in the peninsula's of the Mediterranean Sea - Spain, Italy and Greece - the Sicels}, Anamim {father of the Anamim people, the Thieb-ians who lived in the Egyptian delta}, Lehabim {father of the Libyans - a race in North Africa}, Naphtuhim {father of the Mempha-cites, Egyptians in extreme North of Egypt}, Pathrusim Casluhim {father of the Cal-ki-ians} {and} Caphtorim {father of those who settled in Crete - sea peoples and invaders} - out of whom came Philistim/Philistines.

Young’s Updated LT             And Mitzraim has begotten the Ludim, and the Anamim, and the Lehabim, and the Naphtuhim, and the Pathrusim, and the Casluhim, (whence have come out Philistim,) and the Caphtorim.

 

The gist of this verse:          Egypt is the father of the peoples known as theh Ludim, the Anamim, the Lehabim, the Naphtuhim, the Pathrusim, the Casluhim (from whom come the Philistines) and the Caphtorim.


Genesis 10:13a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Mitserayim (מִצְרַיִם) [pronounced mits-RAH-yim]

double straights; transliterated Mizraim; also Egypt, Egyptians

proper noun

Strong’s #4714 BDB #595

yâlad (יָלַד) [pronounced yaw-LAHD]

is the father of, becomes the father of, fathers, sires to give birth, to bear, to be born, to bear, to bring forth, to beget;

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #3205 BDB #408

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Lûwdîym (לוּדִים) [pronounced loo-DEEM]

 to the firebrands; travailing; transliterated Lud, Lydia, Ludim

proper masculine plural noun/gentilic

Strong’s #3865 & #3866 BDB #530

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʿĂnâmîym (עֲנָמִים) [pronounced ģun-aw-MEEM]

affliction of the waters; transliterated Anamim

gentilic plural noun/adjective

Strong’s #6047 BDB #777


Translation: Mizraim [that is, Egypt] is the father of the Ludim, the Anamim,... First of all, notice that all of these names are Hebraic plurals. When you see the –im ending, that means we are speaking of plurals. All of these proper nouns are plurals. There are two possibilities: it became the family thing to do to give all of those born to Mizraim a plural name; or, we are simply speaking of peoples at this point rather than of individuals’ names. The latter seems to be the most reasonable approach.


All the names are have the im plural ending. Since we know sired or became the father of is not a literal father, my guess is that from this person came several famous tribes of peoples (famous in those days) although the ancestor of each tribe was not necessarily Mizraim's son. In fact, Mizraim's name is plural, so he could have named all of his children in the plural. However, it is clear that from Ham came Mizraim and through Mizraim, we either have several peoples or several individuals.


Ludim is not Lud, the son of Shem, and his place in history, along with Anamim and Naphtuhim, are unknown. Some scholars believe that Lubim should be Libya, others claim that we do not know at this time who they are or who they became. The Pathrusim belong to upper Egypt (they are the people of Pathros). At the end of the verse, I changed the word order from the Hebrew to give the proper sense to the end of the verse. Comment The Philistines are related to Caphtorim, so I placed the and, which goes with Caphtorim, before the Philistine phrase (see Deut. 2:23 Amos 9:7). It is generally agreed that this phrase became misplaced.


According to R. B. Thieme, Jr., Mizraim refers to southern Egypt, also known as Upper Egypt (called upper because it is a higher altitude).


According to R. B. Thieme, Jr. the Ludim are the origin of the Moors and the Aborigines in the peninsula's of the Mediterranean Sea (Spain, Italy and Greece - the Sicels). According to the NET Bible, the Ludim were African tribes west of the Nile Delta.


The Anamim, according to R. B. Thieme, Jr., are Thiebians who lived in the Egyptian delta. The NET Bible says that the Anamites lived in North Africa, west of Egypt, near Cyrene.


Genesis 10:13b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Lehâbîym (לְהָבִים) [pronounced leh-haw-BEEM]

flames; transliterated Lehabim

gentilic plural proper noun/adjective

Strong’s #3853 BDB #529

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Naphetuchîym (נַפְתֻּחִים) [pronounced nahf-too-CHEM]

openings; transliterated Naphtuhim

proper noun/location plural

Strong’s #5320 BDB #661


Translation: ...the Lehabim, the Naphtuhim,... According to R. B. Thieme, Jr. and the NET Bible, the Lehabim are the Libyans.


According to R. B. Thieme, Jr., the Naphtuhim are Egyptians in extreme North of Egypt. This agrees with the NET Bible, which says that the Naphtuhites lived in Lower Egypt (the Nile Delta region).


Genesis 10:14a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Patherucîym (פַּתְרֻסִים) [pronounced path-roo-SEEM]

region of the south; in habitants of Pathros transliterated Pathrusim, Pathrusites

gentilic plural noun/adjective

Strong’s #6625 BDB #837

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Kaceluchîym (כַּסְלֻחִים) [pronounced kahs-LOO-kheem]

fortified, transliterated Casluhim

gentilic plural noun

Strong’s #3695 BDB #493


Translation: ...the Pathrusim, the Casluhim... The NET Bible tells us that the Pathrusites are known in Egyptian as P-to-reshi; they resided in Upper Egypt and that the Casluhites lived in Crete and eventually settled east of the Egyptian Delta, between Egypt and Canaan.


Genesis 10:14b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

yâtsâʾ (יָצָא) [pronounced yaw-TZAWH]

to go [come] out, to go [come] forth; to rise; to flow, to gush up [out]

3rd person plural, Qal imperfect

Strong's #3318 BDB #422

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

shâm (שָם) [pronounced shawm]

there; at that time, then; therein, in that thing

adverb of place

Strong’s #8033 BDB #1027

The combination ʾăsher + shâm, whether together or not, means where, in what place, to what place. Min + shâm mean from that thing, from whence, out of which.

Pelishetîy (פְּלִשְתִּי) [pronounced pe-lish-TEE]

land of sojourners [wanderers, temporary residents]; transliterated Philistines

masculine plural gentilic adjective (acts like a proper noun); with the definite article

Strong’s #6430 BDB #814

Here, this is spelled Pelishetîym (פְּלִשְתִּים) [pronounced pe-lish-TEEM].


Translation:...(out from whom come the Philistines)... There are several interpretations of this last portion of v. 14, which tell us the origins of the Philistines. However, in the Hebrew, this is fairly simple. The phrase above is different from all of the other phrases in this passage. Referring back to the Casluhim, we are told that this is from where the Philistines originated. Who the Philistines are and from whom they originated is quite the hot topic in ancient history circles; however, the Bible clearly identifies them here as coming from the Casluhim. The Hebrew, Greek, Latin and Aramaic manuscripts all agree on this point.


If memory serves, R. B. Thieme, Jr. suggested either that the Philistines are originally early Greeks or they came from a mixture of Ham and Greek origins. This is from my memory, and I do not claim that it is correct.


Genesis 10:14c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Kaphetôrîym (כַּפְתֹּרִים) [pronounced kahf-toh-REEM]

crown, transliterated Caphtorim

gentilic plural noun/adjective

Strong’s #3732 BDB #499


Translation: ...and Caphtorim. You will note that, unlike some translators, I did not place the Caphtorim as having come from the Casluhim (along with the Philistines). How do we know that we have slipped outside of the parentheses? In the Hebrew, we have the wâw conjunction and the untranslated sign of the direct object. This is how the most of vv. 13–14 read. Egypt is the father of... is how all of this began, and every time we see the wâw conjunction and the sign of the direct object, then that can be preceded by Egypt is the father of. Furthermore, the names of all the peoples to have come from Egypt are all written with the familiar –im ending. This is not the case for the Philistines. So we can say authoritatively, based upon these manuscripts, that the Philistines came from the Casluhim; and that the Caphtorim is another group of peoples whose origin was Egypt.


According to the NET Bible, the Caphtorites resided in Crete; however, in Egyptian literature Caphtor refers to "the region beyond" the Mediterranean. R. B. Thieme, Jr. calls them sea peoples and invaders.


Gen 10:13–14 And Mizraim fathered Ludim and Anamim and Lehabim and Naphtuhim, and Pathrusim and Casluhim (from whom came the Philistines) and Caphtorim.


Mizraim was the second son of Ham. Extremely famous and well-known cities and peoples were descended from Mizraim. Mizraim is often translated Egypt (depending upon your English translation), which is one of the greatest ancient nations.


 

The NET Bible Footnotes on Genesis 10:13–14

Mizraim46 was the father of47 the Ludites,48 Anamites,49 Lehabites,50 Naphtuhites,51 Pathrusites,52 Casluhites53 (from whom the Philistines came),54 and Caphtorites.55

46 Mizraim is the Hebrew name for Egypt (cf. NRSV).

47 Heb "fathered."

48 The Ludites were African tribes west of the Nile Delta.

49 The Anamites lived in North Africa, west of Egypt, near Cyrene.

50 The Lehabites are identified with the Libyans.

51 The Naphtuhites lived in Lower Egypt (the Nile Delta region).

52 The Pathrusites are known in Egyptian as P-to-reshi; they resided in Upper Egypt.

53 The Casluhites lived in Crete and eventually settled east of the Egyptian Delta, between Egypt and Canaan.

54 Several commentators prefer to reverse the order of the words to put this clause after the next word, since the Philistines came from Crete (where the Caphtorites lived). But the table may suggest migration rather than lineage, and the Philistines, like the Israelites, came through the Nile Delta region of Egypt. For further discussion of the origin and migration of the Philistines, see D. M. Howard, "Philistines," Peoples of the Old Testament World, 232.

55 The Caphtorites resided in Crete, but in Egyptian literature Caphtor refers to "the region beyond" the Mediterranean.

From http://bible.org/netbible/index.htm?gen10.htm accessed January 24, 2013.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


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And Canaan is the father of Sidon, his firstborn, and Heth and the Jebusite and the Amorite and the Girgashite and the Hivite and the Arkite and the Sinite and the and the Arvadite and the Zemarite and the Hamathite. And after were dispersed families of the Canaanite.

Genesis

10:15–18

Canaan became the father of Sidon, his firstborn, and Heth. [He was also father to] the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, the Hivites, the Arkites, and Sinites, the Arvadites, the Zemarites and the Hamathites. Afterwards, the families of the Canaanites were dispersed;...

Canaan became the father of Sidon (his firstborn) and of Heth. Canaan was also the ancestor to the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, the Hivites, and Arkites, the Sinites, the Arvadites, the Zemarites and the Hamathites. Afterwards, the families of the Canaanites were dispersed...


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And Kenaan begat Zidon his firstborn, and Heth, and the Jebusaee, and the Emoraee, and the Gergeshaee, and the Hivaee, and the Irkaee, and the Antosaee, and the Lutasaee, and the Chomtsaee, and the Antekoee; and after then the seed of the Kenaanaee were scattered.

Jerusalem targum                  And the Tripolaee, and the Arkaee, and the Kaphrusaee. And the Antridanaee, and the Chamatsaee, and the Antukeia: from Bavel, after then, were distinguished the islands of the peoples.] And the limit of the Kenaanaee was from Kothanis, going up to Gerar, unto Azah, unto Sedom and Amorah, Admah and Zeboim, unto Kaldahi. This appears to begin with v. 17.

Latin Vulgate                          And Chanaan begot Sidon his firstborn, the Hethite,   And the Jebusite, and the Amorrhite, and the Gergesite. The Hevite and Aracite: the Finite, And the Aradian, the Samarite, and the Hamathite: and afterwards the families of the Chanaanites were spread abroad.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And Canaan is the father of Sidon, his firstborn, and Heth and the Jebusite and the Amorite and the Girgashite and the Hivite and the Arkite and the Sinite and the and the Arvadite and the Zemarite and the Hamathite. And after were dispersed families of the Canaanite.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    15 And Canaan begot Sidon, his first-born, and Heth, 16 And the Jebusite, the Amorite, the Girgasite, 17 And the Havite, the Arkite, the Sinite, 18 And the Arvadite, the Zemarite, and the Hamathite; and afterward the families of the Canaanites spread abroad.

Septuagint (Greek)                And Canaan begot Sidon his firstborn, and the Hittite, and the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgashites, and the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Senite, and the Aradian, and the Samarean, and the Amathite; and after this the tribes of the Canaanites were dispersed.

Brenton’s Septuagint             And Chanaan begot Sidon his fist-born, and the Chettite, and the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgashites, and the Evite, and the Arukite, and the Asennite, and the Aradian, and the Samarean, and the Amathite; and after this the tribes of the Chananites were dispersed.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Canaan fathered Sidon his oldest son, and Heth, the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites. After this the Canaanite clans were dispersed.

Easy English                          Canaan was the father of Sidon, his oldest son. Canaan was also the father of Heth. He was also the father of the people called Jebusites, *Amorites, Girgashites, Hivites, Arkites, Sinites, Arvadites, Zemarites and Hamathites.

Later the families that came from Canaan scattered.

Easy-to-Read Version            Canaan was the father of Sidon. Sidon was Canaan’s first son. Canaan was also the father of {Het, the father of} the Hittite people. And Canaan was the father of the Jebusite people, the Amorite people, the Girgashite people, the Hivite people, the Arkite people, the Sinite people, the Arvadite people, the Zemarite people, and the people from Hamath. The families of Canaan spread to different parts of the world.

Good News Bible (TEV)         Canaan's sons---Sidon, the oldest, and Heth---were the ancestors of the peoples who bear their names. Canaan was also the ancestor of the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites. The different tribes of the Canaanites spread out, until the Canaanite borders reached from Sidon southward to Gerar near Gaza, and eastward to Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim near Lasha. V. 19 was included for context.

New Century Version             Canaan was the father of Sidon, his first son, and of Heth. He was also the father of the Jebusites, Amorites, Girgashites, Hivites, Arkites, Sinites, Arvadites, Zemarites, and Hamathites. The families of the Canaanites scattered.

New Living Translation           Canaan's oldest son was Sidon, the ancestor of the Sidonians. Canaan was also the ancestor of the Hittites [Hebrew ancestor of Heth.], Jebusites, Amorites, Girgashites, Hivites, Arkites, Sinites, Arvadites, Zemarites, and Hamathites. The Canaanite clans eventually spread out, and the territory of Canaan extended from Sidon in the north to Gerar and Gaza in the south, and east as far as Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim, near Lasha. V. 19 was included for context.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          CanaAn's first-born son was Sidon. Then there were the Hittites, the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, the Hevites, the Arukites, the Sinites [Chinese?], the Asenites, the Aradians, the Samarians [northern Lebanon], and the Hamathites. But the CanaAnites were scattered, so their territory ran from Sidon to Gerar (near Gaza), to Sodom and GomorRah, to Adama, and Seboim, as far as Dasa. V. 19 was included for context.

New American Bible (R.E.)    Canaan became the father of Sidon, his firstborn, and of Heth [the biblical Hittites; see note on 23:3.]; also of the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites. Afterward, the clans of the Canaanites spread out, so that the Canaanite borders extended from Sidon all the way to Gerar, near Gaza, and all the way to Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboiim, near Lasha. V. 19 was included for context.

NIRV                                      15 Canaan was the father of

Sidon. Sidon was his oldest son. Canaan was also the father of the Hittites, 16 Jebusites, Amorites and Girgashites. 17 And he was the father of the Hivites, Arkites, Sinites, 18 Arvadites, Zemarites and Hamathites.

Later the Canaanite tribes scattered.

New Simplified Bible              Canaan was the father of Sidon his firstborn, and of the Hittites, Jebusites, Amorites, Girgashites, Hivites, Arkites, Finites, Arvadites, Zemarites, and Hamathites. Later the Canaanite clans scattered, and the borders of Canaan reached from Sidon toward Gerar as far as Gaza, and then toward Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim, as far as Lasha. V. 19 was included for context.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      Canaan begat his firstborn Sidon (city), Heth, Jebus (Jerusalem), North-Jordan, Girgasites (sea-merchants), West-Bank (nation), Arka (city), Sinai (region), Ruad (island), Samaria, Hama (city). Afterward the families of Canaan scattered.

Bible in Basic English             And Canaan was the father of Zidon, who was his oldest son, and Heth, And the Jebusite and the Amorite and the Girgashite, And the Hivite and the Arkite and the Sinite, And the Arvadite and the Zemarite and the Hamathite; after that the families of the Canaanites went far and wide in all directions; Their country stretching from Zidon to Gaza, in the direction of Gerar; and to Lasha, in the direction of Sodom and Gomorrah and Admah and Zeboiim. V. 19 was include for context.

Complete Jewish Bible           Kena'an fathered Tzidon his firstborn, Het, the Y'vusi, the Emori, the Girgashi, the Hivi, the 'Arki, the Sini, the Arvadi, the Tz'mari and the Hamati. Afterwards, the families of the Kena'ani were dispersed.

The Expanded Bible              Canaan [Cthe son of Ham whom Noah cursed; 9:25-27] was the father of Sidon [Cname of a famous coastal city in Syria], his first son, and of Heth [Cancestor of the Hittites, important inhabitants of Asia Minor]. He was also the father of the Jebusites [Cpre-Israelite inhabitants of Jerusalem], Amorites, Girgashites, Hivites, Arkites, Sinites, Arvadites, Zemarites, and Hamathites [Cpeoples who lived in Syria-Palestine before the Israelites]. The ·families [clans] of the Canaanites scattered.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 And to Canaan were born Zidon, his eldest, and Heth; and the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgashites; and the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, and the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamaathite; and each tribe spread themselves as the tribes of the Canaanites.

New Advent Bible                  And Chanaan begot Sidon his firstborn, the Hethite, and the Jebusite, and the Amorrhite, and the Gergesite. The Hevite and Aracite: the Sinite, and the Aradian, the Samarite, and the Hamathite: and afterwards the families of the Chanaanites were spread abroad.

NIV – UK                                15 Canaan was the father of

Sidon his firstborn,[g] and of the Hittites, 16 Jebusites, Amorites, Girgashites, 17 Hivites, Arkites, Sinites, 18 Arvadites, Zemarites and Hamathites.

Later the Canaanite clans scattered 19 and the borders of Canaan reached from Sidon towards Gerar as far as Gaza, and then towards Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboyim, as far as Lasha. V. 19 was added for context.

The Scriptures 1998              And Kenaʽan brought forth Tsid?on his first-born, and Ḥĕth, and the Yeb?usite, and the Amorite, and the Girgashite, and the Ḥiwwite, and the Arqite, and the Sinite, and the Arwad?ite, and the Tsemarite, and the Ḥamathite. And afterward the clans

Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And Canaan generates Sidon, his firstborn, and Het. and the Jebusite and the Amorite and the Girgashites and the Hivite and the Arkite and the Finite and the Arvadite and the Zemarite and the Hamathite. And afterwards the families of the Canaanite are scattered.

Darby Translation                  15 -- And Canaan begot Sidon, his firstborn, and Heth, 16 and the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgashite, 17 and the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, 18 and the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite. And afterwards the families of the Canaanites spread themselves abroad.

English Standard V. – UK       Canaan fathered Sidon his firstborn and Heth, and the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites. Afterwards the clans of the Canaanites dispersed.

Syndein/Thieme                     {Peoples Specifically under the Curse of Canaan}

And Canaan {a white, degenerate son of Ham} sired/'caused the birth of' {salad} Sidon {father of all Phoenician peoples} . . . his firstborn, Heth {father of the Hittites - they were driven into what is now Mongolia and are the basis for the Mongolian, Chinese and other Oriental Races}, the Jebusite {father of those who settled around Jerusalem - they were never conquered until David did so and made Jerusalem his headquarters - until the Jews lived around but not in Jerusalem}, the Amorite {father of the mountaineers around Judea - Ephraim, Gilead}, {and} the Girgasite {father of people who also lived around Palestine}, the Hivite {father of the Canaanites who lived in Syria, and another branch were the Gibeonites of Joshua's day}, the Arkite {father of the people who were the North Phœnicians}, the Sinite {father of the Canaanites who lived in Lebanon},the Arvadite {father of the Canaanites who also were the North Phœnicians}, the Zemarite {father of the Ar-vad and Ha-nith (RBT studied in Zechariah series)}, {and} the Hamathite {father of those living in the city of Hamath in Lebanon area}. And afterward were the families of the Canaanites spread abroad. {Note: RBT says the most reliable and most accepted extra-biblical source for ancient history is the 12 to 15 volume edition of Cambridge ancient history.}.

Third Millennium Bible            And Canaan begot Sidon his firstborn, and Heth; and the Jebusite and the Amorite, and the Girgashite and the Hivite, and the Arkite and the Sinite, and the Arvadite and the Zemarite and the Hamathite; and afterward were the families of the Canaanites spread abroad.

Webster’s Bible Translation  15: And Canaan begat Sidon his first-born, and Heth,

16: And the Jebusite, and the Emorite, and the Girgasite,

17: And the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Finite,

18: And the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite: and afterward were the families of the Canaanites dispersed..

Young’s Updated LT             And Canaan has begotten Sidon his first-born, and Heth, and the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgashite, and the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, and the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite; and afterwards have the families of the Canaanite been scattered.

 

The gist of this verse:          Canaan became the father of Sidon (his firstborn) and of Heth. Canaan was also the ancestor to the Jebusites, the amorites, the Girgashites, the Hivites, and Arkites, the Sinites, the Arvadites, the Zemarites and the Hamathites. Afterwards, the families of the Canaanites were dispersed...


Genesis 10:15

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Kenaʿan (כְּנַעַן) [pronounced keNAH-ģahn]

which possibly means merchant and is transliterated Canaan

masculine proper noun; territory

Strong’s #3667 BDB #488

yâlad (יָלַד) [pronounced yaw-LAHD]

is the father of, becomes the father of, fathers, sires to give birth, to bear, to be born, to bear, to bring forth, to beget;

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #3205 BDB #408

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Tsîydôwn (צִידוֹן) [pronounced tsee-DOHN]

hunting, fishing, catching fish; transliterated Sidon or Zidon

proper noun; location

Strong’s #6721 BDB #851

This is the first occurrence of this word.

bekôwr (בְּכוֹר) [pronounced beKOHR]

firstborn; metaphorically used for anything which is chief or first of its kind

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #1060 BDB #114

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Cheth (חֵת) [pronounced khayth]

transliterated Heth; Hittite

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #2845 BDB #366

This is the first occurrence of this word.


Translation: Canaan became the father of Sidon, his firstborn, and Heth. Two sons of Canaan are given by name: Sidon and Heth. The morphology indicates that these are the names of individuals rather than the names of families or tribes.


Sidon and Heth are the sons of Canaan and the others which follow are the various tribes which eventually populated Canaan. Sidon is not spoken of as an individual or as the head of a tribe again (except in the 1Chronicles list), but the city he gave his name to is mentioned throughout the Bible. It was once the capitol of ancient Phœnicia. From Heth came the Hittites. The Hittites lived in the land of Canaan. Esau's wives are said to have been the daughters of Heth and Jacob was warned by Rebekah against marrying the daughters of Heth (Gen. 27:46). My maps place them in southern Turkey as well.


According to R. B. Thieme, Jr., Canaan is a white, degenerate son of Ham. Sidon is the father of the Phœnician peoples and Heth is the father of the Hittite groups, who were driven into Mongolia, and from whom are the Mongolian, Chinese and other Asian groups. The NET Bible suggests that Heth, here, may not be the father of the Hittites.


Recall that Canaan is the cursed line. Gen. 9:24–27 And Noah awoke from his wine, and perceived what his younger son had done to him. And he said: “ Canaan is [hereby] cursed. He will be a servant of servants to his brothers.” And he also said: “Blessed is Jehovah the God of Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant. God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant.” (VW).


Genesis 10:16

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Yebûçîy (יְבֻסִי) [pronounced yevoo-SEE]

an inhabitant or descendant of Jebus; transliterated Jebusite

adjective gentilis with the definite article

Strong’s #2983 BDB #101

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʾĔmôrîy (אֱמֹרִי) [pronounced eh-moh-REE]

mountaineer (possibly); and is transliterated Amorite

gentilic adjective; with the definite article

Strong’s #567 BDB #57

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Giregâshîy (גִּרְגָּשִי) [pronounced ghihr-gaw-SHEE]

 dwelling on clay soil; transliterated Girgashite

gentilic singular noun/adjective with the definite article

Strong’s #1622 BDB #173

This is the first time that these 3 groups are named in Scripture.


Translation: [He was also father to] the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites,... Two things to note about the Hebrew: we have a continuation indicated by the wâw conjunction and the sign of the direct object. So, that means that Canaan is the father of these peoples in the verses which follow. The second thing to note is, the form of the proper nouns here; is the gentilic singular, with the definite article, which refers to a people and not to a person. So Canaan is the father of these following groups, which have come from him, but not in any way that we can track in a genealogy.


The Jebusites lived in the hills surrounding Jerusalem. Jebus, later called Jerusalem, was their main city and Jebusite is first used of the present occupants of that area (Gen. 15:21 Ex. 3:8) and then of the former occupants of that area (Ezek. 16:3, 45 Zech. 9:7). No one could drive them out of this area for centuries, so they lived side-by-side the Israelites (Joshua 15:63 Judges 1:21). David finally conquered this city, making it his own. He either restored the name of Jerusalem or the author of Judges (or an editor of Judges), inserted its name in Judges 19:10.


The Jebusites settled around Jerusalem and were never driven out of this area until King David came along. However, they were once a great, spiritual people. Abraham will give tithes to Melchizedek of Salem (Jerusalem); which suggests that Abraham recognized the spiritual authority of Melchizedek.


The Amorites lived scattered about the hills surrounding the Jordan. They occupied a large enough territory and exerted enough influence to have their named used as a general term for those who lived in Canaan (Gen. 15:16 48:22 Joshua 24:15). Ezekiel described Jerusalem as the offspring of the Amorite and the Hittite (Ezek. 16:3, 45). The difference between the two might be a northern and a southern area of occupation. Their leaders (Gen. 14:13 Num. 21:21 Deut. 31:4), their stature (Amos 2:9) and their gods (Joshua 24:15 Judges 6:10) are all mentioned in Scripture. They have a rich, extra-Biblical history (see the Doctrine of the Amorite--not finished).


According to R. B. Thieme, Jr., the Amorites, who became mountain people in Judæa, Ephraim and Gilead.


The Girgashites have been associated by some with the city Karkisha, found in the cuneiform Hittite texts, but this is not an historical certainty. Israel did defeat them in Deut. 7:1 Joshua 3:10 24:11.


The Girgashites lived in the Palestine area.


Genesis 10:17

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Chivvîy (חִוִּי) [pronounced khihv-VEE]

villagers, transliterated Hivite

masculine singular, gentilic adjective; with the definite article

Strong’s #2340 BDB #295

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʿArqîy (עַרְקִי) [pronounced ģahr-KEE]

gnawing; inhabitant of the city Arka, and is transliterated Arkite

gentilic singular noun/adjective with the definite article

Strong’s #6208 BDB #792

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Çîynîy (סִּינִי) [pronounced see-NEE]

thorn; clay; and is transliterated Sinite

gentilic singular adjective with the definite article

Strong’s #5513 BDB #696

This is the first time that these proper nouns are found in Scripture.


Translation: ...the Hivites, the Arkites, and Sinites,... According to R. B. Thieme, Jr., the Hivites eventually were the Canaanites who lived in Syria and another branch of them were the Gibeonites in the days of Joshua. The NET Bible says that these are Canaanites of Hurrian descent.


The Hivites lived in the hills of Lebanon (Gen. 10:17 Judges. 3:3) and the Hermon range to the valley which leads to Hamath (Joshua 6:3). They occupied this territory even until the time of David (2Sam. 24:7). They are more closely associated with the Arkites than the other tribes mentioned. It is quite likely that these are also known as the Horites, the mixup being due to a scribal error. Gen. 36:2,20–30 are cited to prove this (Zibeon is called both a Hivite and a Horite). The original difference between the words is vav (waw), ו, and resh, ר, so it is easy to see how a scribal error could have been made. Gen. 34:2 and Joshua 9:7 have various readings of Hittite, Hivite and Horite.


The Arkite inhabited, of all places, the town of Arka (presently, it is Tell ‘Arqa, four miles from the sea and 12 miles northeast of Tripolis, Syria. The city is found in the Assyrian inscriptions under the name Irkatah, described by both Shalmaneser II and Tiglath-pileser II as rebellious.


According to R. B. Thieme, Jr., the Arkites were eventually the northern Phœnicians. The NET Bible says that the Arkites lived in Arka, a city in Lebanon, north of Sidon.


Except for the parallel passage in 1Chronicles, the Sinites and the Hamathites (v. 18) are never mentioned again. The Sinites have been variously associated with Sinna on Mount Lebanon (Strabo notes this). We find that their name may have survived in the names Nahr as-Sinn and Sinn addarb and might be related to other peoples in secular history.


R. B. Thieme, Jr. said that the Sinites eventually occupied the area of Lebanon. The NET Bible identifies them with a city called Sin in Lebanon.


Genesis 10:18a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʾarevâdîy (אַרְוָדִ