Genesis 43

Written and compiled by Gary Kukis

Genesis 43:1–34

Jacob’s Sons Return to Egypt with Benjamin


These studies are designed for believers in Jesus Christ only. If you have exercised faith in Christ, then you are in the right place. If you have not, then you need to heed the words of our Lord, Who said, “For God so loved the world that He gave His only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son, so that every [one] believing [or, trusting] in Him shall not perish, but shall be have eternal life! For God did not send His Son into the world so that He should judge the world, but so that the world shall be saved through Him. The one believing [or, trusting] in Him is not judged, but the one not believing has already been judged, because he has not believed in the Name of the only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son of God.” (John 3:16–18). “I am the Way and the Truth and the Life! No one comes to the Father except through [or, by means of] Me!” (John 14:6).


Every study of the Word of God ought to be preceded by a naming of your sins to God. This restores you to fellowship with God (1John 1:8–10). If there are people around, you would name these sins silently. If there is no one around, then it does not matter if you name them silently or whether you speak aloud.


Document Navigation

Preface and Quotations

Outline of Chapter

Charts, Graphics, Short Doctrines

Doctrines Alluded to

Dictionary of Terms

Introduction and Text

Chapter Summary Material

Addendum

A Complete Translation

Verse Navigation

Genesis 43:1–2

Genesis 43:3–5

Genesis 43:6

Genesis 43:7

Genesis 43:8–10

Genesis 43:11–14

Genesis 43:15

Genesis 43:16

Genesis 43:17–18

Genesis 43:19–22

Genesis 43:23

Genesis 43:24–25

Genesis 43:26

Genesis 43:27

Genesis 43:28

Genesis 43:29

Genesis 43:30–31

Genesis 43:32

Genesis 43:33–34

 


This document incorporates 2 previous studies done in the book of Genesis. Much of this material was thrown together without careful editing. Therefore, from time to time, there will be concepts and exegetical material which will be repeated, because there was no overall editing done once all of this material was combined. There is a second, less complete set of weekly lessons of Genesis (HTML) (PDF). Every word of that study can be found in this document.

 

This study makes reference to a wide-range of sources. There are quotations from doctrinal teachers, of course; but from Catholic commentaries and from other sources as well. Wherever I found relevant truth, I quoted from it or was inspired by it. Even though it is clear that some churches have a better concept of our reason for being here, that does not mean that there is no truth to be found anywhere else. So, from time to time, I will quote from John Calvin, even though I do not subscribe to 5-point Calvinism; I will quote from some Catholic sources, even though I believe that they are very wrong regarding Mary, the pope, apostolic succession and other such doctrines. The intention is for this to be the most thorough and accurate study of Genesis available anywhere.

 

Also, it is not necessary that you read the grey Hebrew exegesis tables. They are set apart from the rest of the study so that you can easily skip over them (based upon the suggestion of a friend). However, if you ever doubt the translation of a word, phrase or a verse, these translation tables are readily available to you.


Preface:


There are many chapter commentaries on the book of Genesis. This will be the most extensive examination of Genesis 43, where you will be able to examine in depth every word of the original text. Every attempt has been made to make this both a complete and self-contained study. Therefore, all references, vocabulary, and related concepts should be found within this extensive study. Easy access links to more in-depth studies of some vocabulary words, concepts and doctrines are also provided.


Quotations:


Outline of Chapter 43:

 

Introduction

 

         vv.     1–10         Judah Convince Jacob to Send Benjamin with Them to Egypt

         Vv.    11–15a       Jacob Sends His Sons with a Present and His Blessing

         vv.    15b–23       The Brothers, Invited to Dine with Joseph, Explain Themselves to Joseph’s Servant

         vv.    24–31         Joseph’s Hospitality; Joseph Sees Benjamin

         vv.    32–34         Joseph Enjoys a Meal with His Brothers

 

Addendum


Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines:

 

         Preface               Quotations

         Introduction         The Prequel of Genesis 43

         Introduction         The Principals of Genesis 43

         Introduction         The Places of Genesis 43

         Introduction         The Patriarchal Timeline for Genesis 43

         Introduction         A Synopsis of Genesis 43

         Introduction         Paragraph Divisions of Modern Translations for Genesis 43 931 (from Dr. Bob Utley)

         Introduction         William Ramey’s Chiasmos of Genesis 43:1–34c

         Introduction 

         Introduction 

 

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         v.       8              Summarizing Genesis 42:1–43:7

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         v.      14              The NET Bible on ʾEl Shaddai

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         v.      23              “I had your money,” Joseph’s servant said (an artist’s conception)

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         v.      32              The American English Bible on Hebrews, Israelites, Jews and Semites

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         v.      33              Joseph as a Type of Christ at this Meal

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         v.      34              Joseph and His brothers at a Meal by Jim Padgett

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         Summary            A Set of Summary Doctrines and Commentary

         Summary            B. H. Carroll Summarizes Genesis 43

         Summary            Edersheim Summarizes Genesis 43

         Summary 

         Summary 

         Summary 

         Summary 

 

         Addendum 

         Addendum          Why Genesis 43 is in the Word of God

         Addendum          What We Learn from Genesis 43

         Addendum          Josephus’ History of this Time Period

         Addendum          A Complete Translation of Genesis 43

         Addendum          Word Cloud from a Reasonably Literal Paraphrase of Genesis 43

         Addendum          Word Cloud from Exegesis of Genesis 43


Chapter Outline

 

Charts, Graphics, Short Doctrines

Beginning of Document

Doctrines Covered or Alluded to

Chapters of the Bible Alluded to

Definition of Terms

Introduction and Text

Addendum

www.kukis.org

 

Exegetical Studies in Genesis


Doctrines Covered or Alluded To

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Additional doctrines and links are found in Definition of Terms below.


Chapters of the Bible Alluded To and/or Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

 

 

 

 


Many who read and study this chapter are 1st or 2nd generation students of R. B. Thieme, Jr., so that much of this vocabulary is second nature. One of Bob’s contributions to theology is a fresh vocabulary along with a number of concepts which are theologically new or reworked, yet still orthodox. Therefore, if you are unfamiliar with his work, the definitions below will help you to fully understand all that is being said. Also, I have developed a few new terms and concepts which require definition as well.

In addition, there are other more traditional yet technical theological terms which will be used and therefore defined as well.

Sometimes the terms in the exegesis of this chapter are simply alluded to, without any in-depth explanation of them. Sometimes, these terms are explained in detail and illustrated. A collection of all these terms is found here: (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Definition of Terms

Rebound (Restoration to fellowship with God)

In the New Testament, this is naming your sins to God, so that you are both restored to temporal fellowship with God and are then filled with the Spirit of God. In the Old Testament, naming your sins to God would result in a restoration of fellowship and, in some cases, the empowerment of the Holy Spirit once again (the Holy Spirit was not given to all Old Testament believers). See the Doctrine of Rebound (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Some of these definitions are taken from

http://gracebiblechurchwichita.org/

http://rickhughesministries.org/content/Biblical-Terms.pdf

http://www.gbible.org/index.php?proc=d4d

http://www.wordoftruthministries.org/terms-and-definitions/

http://www.theopedia.com/

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


——————————


An Introduction to Genesis 43


I ntroduction: In Gen. 42, Joseph's ten brothers returned to their father and related what Joseph had said to them. They desired to return with Benjamin so that Joseph would free Simeon, who was held hostage in the Egyptian prison. Jacob, because he loved Benjamin more than he loved Simeon, would not allow this. He had become a cold, selfish, hard-hearted old man and he will not bend on this. He had his grain, he had is favorite son, and Jacob was not going to let any of his sons go back to Egypt with Benjamin.


In chapter 43, we pick up the narrative six months to a year later. Their food will only last for so long. They had no way of knowing how long the famine would last so they brought provisions for probably a year, expecting that the next year would have a normal rainfall. They assumed that it would get them through a bad season and that they would prosper again. They had wealth, but they did not have food (specifically grain). They needed grain to make bread and they needed grain for their animals. In this chapter, they will have to return to Joseph once again. This period of time intervening allows Joseph to think through this situation so that he does not make a hasty decision.


It is important to understand what has gone before.

The Prequel of Genesis 43

Joseph, the son of Jacob, was sold into slavery in Egypt by his brothers. He has risen from the lowly station of a slave to the second highest position in Egypt—prime minister, right below Pharaoh in authority. Pharaoh told Joseph about his dreams he correctly interpreted them to mean that Egypt would enjoy 7 years of prosperity followed by 7 years of devastating famine. Joseph set up a system where grain was set aside for those first 7 yeas so that Egypt would be able to survive the famine. In addition, people from other countries came to Egypt to buy this grain.


In Gen. 42, the sons of Jacob, Joseph’s brothers, came down to Egypt to buy grain. They did not recognize Joseph, but he recognized them, and he purposely did not divulge his identify to them. Joseph sold them grain, but accused them of being spies (which allowed him to separate these brothers from all of the other grain buyers; and also allowed him to ask them a great many personal questions about their family—questions that could not have been passed off as mere chit chat between grain buyers and grain seller). Joseph let 9 of the brothers return to Canaan with grain, but he kept back Simeon, and required them to bring their youngest brother, Benjamin the next time. Obviously, Joseph’s intent here, besides to put Simeon in jail for a bit, is to see his full brother again (Benjamin would have been about 10 when Joseph was sold into slavery; and Benjamin would have believed that Joseph was killed by a wild animal as their father Jacob did).


When Joseph oversaw the sons of Jacob being loaded up with grain, he also had their silver placed back into their sacks of grain and then sent the 9 brothers back home (I would assume that Simeon’s mule had a bag of grain to carry as well). When the brothers all tell their father Jacob all that happened, they add, “So we must return to Egypt with Benjamin.” Jacob refused, saying, “Absolutely not!”

In Gen. 43, a year has gone by and the famine is ongoing (this is year two of the 7-year famine— a timeline which Joseph and Pharaoh know and possibly many in Egypt know, but the family of Jacob would not have known that the famine would continue for another 6 years). Jacob realizes that he has no choice but to send Benjamin with his brothers to purchase more grain. Furthermore, he has to make provision for the returned silver which his sons had.


The sons will return to Egypt, and, being met by Joseph’s house manager, they explain immediately the circumstances to him. First thing they tell him about is the silver that they found in their bags.


At the end of this chapter, Joseph will provide a sumptuous feast for his brothers, and yet still not reveal who he is to them.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


We need to know who the people are who populate this chapter.

The Principals of Genesis 43

Characters

Commentary

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


We need to know where this chapter takes place.

The Places of Genesis 43

Place

Description

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


The Patriarchal Timeline for Genesis 43


Legend

Birth or death

God speaks with Abraham

Historical incidents (most of which are related to Abraham)

Parenthetical dates (2065 b.c.) simply refer to taking the date assigned by the chronologist and using Scripture to determine the next date.

The entire Abrahamic Timeline (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

The entire Patriarchal Timeline (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

With Abraham, there are continual references to his age, which helps to determine relative dates. There are far fewer references to the ages of Isaac, Jacob and Joseph, which means that there is more guesswork involved in determining dates during their lifetimes.


MacDonald

(N. Berkeley Bible)

Reese’s Chronology Bible

Bible Hub

Ages

Scripture

Event/Description

2234 b.c.

2097 b.c.

 

 

Gen. 11:24

Terah, Abram’s father, is born. Gen 11:24–26 Nahor lived 29 years and fathered Terah. After he fathered Terah, Nahor lived 119 years and fathered other sons and daughters. Terah lived 70 years and fathered Abram, Nahor, and Haran.

 

1978 b.c.

 

 

Gen. 11:25

Death of Nahor, Abram’s uncle

 

1969 b.c.

 

Noah is 950

Gen. 9:28–29

Death of Noah

2164 b.c.

1967 b.c.

 

 

Gen. 11:26–27

Abraham (Terah’s son) and Lot (Haran’s son) born in Ur of the Chaldeans. Abram would be the 43rd generation from Adam. Gen 11:26 Terah lived 70 years and fathered Abram, Nahor, and Haran.

2078 b.c.

1881 b.c.

2080 b.c.

Abraham is 86

Gen. 16:15–16

Ishmael born to Abraham and Hagar in the land of Canaan. Gen 16:16 Abram was 86 years old when Hagar bore Ishmael to him.

2064 b.c. (2066 b.c.)

 

2066 b.c.

Abraham is 100

Gen. 21:1–7 1Chron. 1:34

Isaac born to Abraham. Isaac would be the 44th generation from Adam. Gen 21:5 Abraham was 100 years old when his son Isaac was born to him.

 

1841–

1816 b.c.

 

 

Gen. 25:12–16 1Chron. 1:29–31

Ishmael’s children.

 

1834 b.c.

1829 b.c. (Klassen)

2054 b.c.

 

Gen. 22:1–19

Abraham is told by God to go to the land of Moriah to offer up his son Isaac to God as a sacrifice. This was a 3-day journey away. They then go to Beer-sheba, which could simply indicate that they are returning home to Beer-sheba.

Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge puts this date at 1872 b.c., based upon Antiquities by Josephus.

(2029 b.c.)

1830 b.c.

2030 b.c.

Abraham is 137

Gen. 23:1–20

The death of Sarah. She dies in Kirjatharba, it is Hebron, in the land of Canaan. Gen 23:1 Now Sarah lived 127 years; these were all the years of her life. She is buried in a cave of the field of Machpelah before Mamre; it is Hebron, in the land of Canaan, purchased by Abraham from the sons of Heth.

(2026 b.c.)

 

 

 

Gen. 24:1–67 Gen. 25:20

Isaac (Abraham’s son) and Rebecca. Gen. 25:20 Isaac was 40 years old when he took as his wife Rebekah daughter of Bethuel the Aramæan from Paddan-aram, and sister of Laban the Aramæan. At this time, Isaac is living in the Negev. It is likely that Abraham lived there as well; or near to there.

 

 

2026 b.c.

Isaac is 40

Gen. 25:20

Isaac marries Rebecca. Gen. 25:20

 

1826 b.c.

 

 

Gen. 25:1

Abraham marries Keturah. Smith puts the date at 1860 b.c.; and Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge at 1853 b.c.

 

 

 

 

Gen. 25:2–4 1Chron. 1:32–33

Abraham’s fathers children by Keturah.

 

1817 b.c.

 

Shem is 600

Gen. 11:11

Death of Shem.

2004 b.c.

1807 b.c.

2006 b.c.

Abraham is 160; Isaac is 60

Gen. 25:19, 21–26

Jacob & Esau born to Isaac. Gen 25:26 After this, his brother came out grasping Esau's heel with his hand. So he was named Jacob. Isaac was 60 years old when they were born. Therefore, Abraham would be 160 years old.

(1991 b.c.)

 

 

 

Gen. 25:5–6

Isaac is the heir of all things that Abraham has (but, most importantly, of the covenant of God with Abraham).

1989 b.c.

1792 b.c.

1991 b.c.

Abraham is 175

Gen. 25:7–10

Abraham dies. Gen 25:7 This is the length of Abraham's life: 175 years. He is buried in the cave of Machpelah near Mamre, in the field of Nephron (this would be with Sarah).

 

 

 

 

Gen. 25:11

God blesses Isaac.

(1943 b.c.)

1788 b.c.

 

 

Gen. 25:17

The death of Ishmael. Gen 25:17 This is the length of Ishmael's life: 137 years. He took his last breath and died, and was gathered to his people.

 

 

 

Eber is 464

Gen. 11:17

Death of Eber.

 

1782 b.c.

1978 b.c.

 

Gen. 25:27–34

Jacob obtains Esau’s birthright for a mess of pottage.

 

1782 b.c.

1740 b.c. (Klassen)

 

 

Gen. 26:1–5

A famine in the land; God renews covenant with Isaac at Gerar.

 

 

 

 

Gen. 26:6–10

Rebecca and Isaac in Gerar.

 

 

 

 

Gen. 26:11–16

Isaac is blessed by God in Gerar.

 

1782 b.c.

1735 b.c. (Klassen)

 

 

Gen. 26:17–22

Strife between Isaac and Philistines in and near Gerar.

 

1767 b.c.

 

 

Gen. 26:34–35

Esau marries two Canaanite women.

 

1757–

1739 b.c.

1733 b.c.

(Klassen)

 

 

Gen. 26:23–25

Isaac makes an altar in Beer-sheba.

(1943 b.c.)

1744 b.c.

 

Ishmael is 137

Gen. 25:17–18

The death of Ishmael.

 

1738 b.c.

c 1732 b.c.

(Klassen)

1977 b.c.

 

Gen. 26:26–33

Isaac’s alliance with Abimelech at Beersheba.

(1929 b.c.)

1737 b.c.

1730 b.c. (Klassen)

1929 b.c.

 

Gen. 27:1–46

Jacob by deception receives a final blessing from Isaac that was meant for Esau.

 

 

 

 

Gen. 28:1–5

Jacob goes to his Uncle Laban’s home in Padan-aram for a wife.

 

 

1928 b.c.

 

Gen. 28:10–22

Jacob’s dream; God speaks to Jacob.

 

 

 

 

Gen. 28:6–9

Esau marries a daughter of Ishmael.

 

 

1906 b.c. (For descendants)

 

Gen. 36:1–42

Esau’s marriages and descendants.

 

1736 b.c.

1730 b.c. (Klassen)

1928 b.c.

 

Gen. 29:1–14

Jacob in Haran (Charan).

 

1736–

1729 b.c.

1730–

1723 b.c. (Klassen)

 

 

Gen. 29:15–20

Jacob works 7 years to marry Rachel, but is deceived by Laban, and Jacob marries Leah, her older sister.

 

1729 b.c.

1724 b.c. (Klassen)

1921 b.c.

 

Gen. 29:21–31

Jacob marries Rachel

(1915 b.c.)

1729–

1716 b.c.

1723–

1710 b.c. (Klassen)

1921 b.c.

1916 b.c. (Rachel bears Joseph)

 

Gen. 29:32–34

Gen. 30:1–6

Gen. 29:35

Gen. 30:9, 7–8, 10–24

Jacob has 12 children by his wives, Rachel and Leah; and by their personal servants as well. Reese breaks the timeline down in smaller increments in his book.

1915 b.c.

 

 

 

Gen. 

Joseph is born.

 

1711 b.c.

 

 

Gen. 36:31–33

1Chron. 1:43–44

Gen. 26:34–39

1Chron. 1:45–50

Gen. 36:40–43

1Chron. 1:51–54

The kings of Edom.

(1909 b.c.)

1716 b.c.

1710 b.c. (Klassen)

 

 

Gen. 30:25–43

Gen. 31:1–16

Jacob’s final years with Laban.

 

 

 

 

Gen. 31:17–55

Jacob’s departure from Laban.

 

 

1908 b.c.

 

Gen. 32:1–23

Jacob returns to Canaan.

 

 

1906 b.c.

 

Gen. 32:24–32

Gen. 35:10

Jacob wrestles with the angel.

 

 

1906 b.c.

 

Gen. 33:1–16

Jacob meets Esau face to face.

 

1715 b.c.

1710 b.c. (Klassen)

1906 b.c.

 

Gen. 33:17–20

The resumption of Jacob’s journey.

 

1711–

1708 b.c.

1706–

1705 b.c. (Klassen)

 

 

Gen. 38:1–5

1Chron. 2:3

Judah fathers 3 sons.

 

1700 b.c.

1687 b.c. (Klassen)

1906 b.c.

 

Gen. 34:1–31

Dinah, daughter of Judah, is defiled.

 

 

1906 b.c.

 

Gen. 35:1–15

Jacob returns to Bethel.

 

1700 b.c.

1710 b.c. (Klassen)

1903 b.c.

 

Gen. 35:16–19 48:7 35:20–22

Rachel dies when giving birth to Benjamin.

(1898 b.c.)

 

 

 

Gen. 35:27 37:1

The return to Hebron.

 

1699 b.c.

 

Joseph is 17

Gen. 37:2–11

Joseph—his early days and his dreams.

 

 

 

 

Gen. 37:12–35

Joseph in Shechem and Dothan.

1897 b.c.

 

1898 b.c.

 

Gen. 37:36 39:1

Joseph is sold into slavery, to end up in Egypt.

 

c1699–

1690 b.c.

1898 b.c.

 

Gen. 39:2–6

Joseph enjoys prosperity in Egypt.

 

c1695 b.c.

1707 b.c. (Klassen)

1898 b.c.

 

Gen. 38:6–11

Judah and Tamar.

 

1692 b.c.

 

 

Gen. 38:12–26

Judah’s wife dies.

 

1692 b.c.

1691 b.c. (Klassen)

 

 

Gen. 38:27–30

1Chron. 2:4

The birth of Pharez, the 41st generation from Adam.

 

c1690 b.c.

1689 b.c. (Klassen)

1889 b.c.

 

Gen. 39:7–19

Joseph flees adultery.

 

 

1889 b.c.

 

Gen. 39:20–23

Joseph is put into jail; yet prospers in jail.

(1887 b.c.)

1688 b.c.

1887 b.c.

 

Gen. 40:1–23

Joseph gives the interpretation of the dreams of the baker and the butler.

1884 b.c.

1687 b.c.

 

Isaac is 180

Gen. 35:28–29

The death of Isaac. Now the days of Isaac were 180 years. (Gen. 35:28)

(1885 b.c.)

1686 b.c.

1886 b.c.

 

Gen. 41:1–37

Joseph interprets the Pharaoh’s dream.

 

 

1886 b.c.

 

Gen. 41:38–44

Joseph is made governor.

 

 

 

 

Gen. 41:45

Joseph marries Asenath.

1884 b.c.

1686–

1679 b.c.

1886 b.c. (Beginning)

 

Gen. 41:46–49

The 7 years of plenty.

 

1685–

1683 b.c.

 

 

Gen. 41:50–53

Sons are born to Joseph.

 

1685–

1681 b.c.

 

 

Ex. 6:16 Num. 3:17 1Chron. 6:1, 16

The descendants of Levi are born.

 

1679–

1672 b.c.

1875 b.c.

 

Gen. 41:54–57

The seven years of famine.

(1876 b.c.)

1678 b.c.

1677 b.c. (Klassen)

1875 b.c.

 

Gen. 42:1–44:34

Joseph provides his family with food.

 

 

1875 b.c.

 

Gen. 45:1–15

Joseph reveals himself to his brothers.

 

 

1875 b.c.

 

Gen. 45:16–28

Jacob hears that his son, Joseph, is still alive, and he prepares to travel to Egypt himself.

 

1677 b.c.

 

 

Ruth 4:18 1Chron. 2:5

Birth of Hezron, the 40th generation.

1873 b.c.

1677 b.c.

1875 b.c.

 

Gen. 46:1–7, 28

Jacob goes to Egypt after God’s assurance in Beersheba.

 

 

1875 b.c.

Jacob is 130

Gen. 46:8–27 Ex. 1:1–5

Summary of the 70 who came to Egypt. Compare Gen. 47:8–9 and 46:27 for Jacob’s age.

 

 

1875 b.c.

 

Gen. 46:29–34 47:1–12

The people of Joseph are established in Egypt.

 

1676–

1675 b.c.

 

 

Gen. 47:13–21

Joseph continues as prime minister in Egypt, exercising wise leadership during the famine.

 

 

 

 

Gen. 47:22–26

The land of the priests in Egypt.

 

1672–

1593 b.c.

 

 

1Chron. 2:6–8

Zerah, the brother of Pharez, and his descendants.

 

1671 b.c.

1660 b.c. (Klassen)

 

 

Gen. 48:1–22

Blessings to Manasseh and Ephraim.

 

1660 b.c.

1665 b.c. (Klassen)

 

 

 

Birth of Berith to Ephraim.

 

 

 

 

Gen. 47:28–31

The last days of Jacob; his charge to Joseph.

 

 

1859 b.c.

 

Gen. 49:1–32

Jacob speaks to his sons, giving them their final blessings and encouraging them.

1857 b.c.

1660 b.c.

1859 b.c.

Jacob is 147

Gen. 49:33

The death of Jacob.

 

 

1859 b.c.

 

Gen. 50:1–14

The burial of Jacob.

 

 

 

 

Gen. 50:15–21

The fears of Joseph’s brothers after the death of Jacob.

 

1638 b.c.

1644 b.c. (Klassen)

 

 

 

Birth of Resheph (who is in the line between Ephraim and Joshua).

 

1625 b.c.

1620 b.c. (Klassen)

 

 

Num. 26:58

Birth of Aram (Levi’s grandson and Moses’ father.

 

1623 b.c.

1604 b.c. (Klassen)

 

 

 

The birth of Ram, the 39th generation.

 

1615 b.c.

1625 b.c. (Klassen)

 

 

 

The birth of Telah, in the line between Ephraim and Joshua.

 

 

 

 

Gen. 50:22–23

Joseph’s last days.

 

1606 b.c.

 

 

Gen. 50:24–25

Joseph’s last words.

1805 b.c. (1805 b.c.)

 

1806 b.c.

Joseph is 110

Gen. 50:26 Ex. 1:6

The death of Joseph. His brothers also die.

 

1606–

1462 b.c.

 

 

Gen. 47:27 Ex. 1:7

The population explosion among the Jews living in Egypt.


Bibliography

MacDonald’s timeline is from: http://www.bibleistrue.com/qna/qna63.htm accessed October 11, 2011 and August 12, 2014. Included in MacDonald’s timeline is a timeline for Egypt interspersed.

See http://www.bibleistrue.com/qna/qna63dating.htm for his justification of his timeline.


The Bible Hub timeline (accessed January 11, 2015) appears to be pretty thorough, but no one specifically is credited.

From: http://www.christianshepherd.org/bible_study_guides/abram_to_the_exodus.pdf (Christian shepherd). This source believes that the Jews live only a short time in Egypt (210 years).

The Reese Chronological Bible; KJV translation; Editor: Edward Reese; ©1977 by Edward Reese and Klassen’s dating system ©1975 by Frank R. Klassen; Ⓟ1980 by Bethany House Publishers, South Minneapolis, MN; pp. 18–19, 54–74.


The Modern Language Bible (The New Berkeley Version), Revised Edition; ©1969 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.; pp. 10–54.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Here is what to expect from Genesis 43:

A Synopsis of Genesis 43

 

 

 

 

Like all chapters of the Word of God, you need more than just the simple plot outline to understand what God wants us to know.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


The first title is often applicable to the entire chapter (although it may pertain just to the verses which follow it to the next section heading).

Paragraph Divisions of Modern Translations for Genesis 43 (from Dr. Bob Utley)

NASB

NKJV

NRSV

TEV

NJB (FOLLOWS MT)

The Return to Egypt

The Return to Egypt with Benjamin

The Second Journey to Egypt

Joseph's Brothers Return to Egypt with Benjamin

Jacob's Sons Leave Again with Benjamin

 

 

 

43:1-2

 

  

43:1-7

 

43:3-5

 

43:1-10

  

  43:1-10

43:6

 43:1-10

  

  

  

43:7

 

  

43:8-14

  

43:8-10

 

43:11-15

  

43:11-15

43:11-14

43:11-14

Joseph Sees Benjamin

 

  

 

The Meeting with Joseph

 

  

 

 43:15-17

43:15-17

43:16-25

 43:15-25

43:16-25

43:18-22

43:18-23

  

  

  

43:23

 

  

  

  

43:24-27

43:24-25

43:26-34

42:26-34

43:26-34

43:28

43:26-34

  

  

  

43:29-34

 

From Dr. Bob Utley, Copyright © 2014 Bible Lessons International; www.freebiblecommentary.org; from e-sword; Gen. 43 chapter comments).

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Like every chapter before of Joseph’s writings, Gen. 43 can be organized chiastically.

William Ramey’s Chiasmos of Genesis 43:1–34c

A The famine was severe in the land (1-2)

B Israel's release of Benjamin (3-15)

C Joseph sees Benjamin; a meal is prepared (16-17)

D The brothers' fear of retaliation (18)

E The brothers' speech to the steward near the house (19-22)

X The Steward's magnificent response (23)

E' The brothers are brought into the house and their needs provided (24-25)

D' The brothers' prostration and greeting (26-28)

C' Joseph sees Benjamin; Joseph weeps and meal served (29-31)

B' Joseph's preferential treatment of Benjamin (32-34b)

A' The brothers feasted and drank freely (34c)

One of the reasons I believe that the book of Genesis was transmitted verbally from generation to generation is, many portions of it are very well organized, like this. Such organization often lends itself to memorization.

From https://www.inthebeginning.org/chiasmus/examples.html accessed September 19, 2015. Many times, what happens in the middle of the chiasmos is key or is the most important part of the chapter.


——————————


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Genesis 43 begins with year 2 of the famine, and the family of Jacob recognizes that they will have to return to Egypt for more grain.


As always, 3 separate translations will be produced for each verse. The slavishly literal translation attempts to preserve word order and number, making it more literal than Young’s translation (however, I do not preserve the consistency of the translation that Young does). The moderately literal translation may add or delete a definite article, change the number of a noun to correspond with the English sense of thinking, and the order is often changed in order to better represent our English sentence structure. The paraphrase is an attempt to give a thought-for-thought interpretation of what each verse tells us.


Kukis slavishly literal:

 

Kukis moderately literal:

And the famine [was] severe in the land and so he is, as which they completed to eat grain which they had brought from Egypt, and so says unto them their father, “Return; buy a little of food.”

Genesis

43:1–2

The famine was severe in the land. And it was, when they had finished eating the grain which they had bought in Egypt, their father said to them, “Return [and] buy a little food.”

Kukis not-so-literal paraphrase:

The famine was severe over the land. Once they had finished eating all of the grain which they had purchased in Egypt, their father said to them, “Return to Egypt and buy a little more food.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:

 

Ancient texts:                       Note: I compare the Hebrew text to English translations of the Latin, Syriac (= Aramaic) and Greek texts, using the Douay-Rheims translation; George Lamsa’s translation, and Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton’s translation as revised and edited by Paul W. Esposito, respectively. I often update these texts with non-substantive changes (e.g., you for thou, etc.). I often use the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible instead of Brenton’s translation, because it updates the English text.

 

The Septuagint was the earliest known translation of a book (circa 200 b.c.). Since this translation was made before the textual criticism had been developed into a science and because different books appear to be translated by different men, the Greek translation can sometimes be very uneven.

 

When there are serious disparities between my translation and Brenton’s (or the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible), I look at the Greek text of the Septuagint (the LXX) to see if a substantive difference actually exists (and I reflect these changes in the English rendering of the Greek text). I use the Greek LXX with Strong’s numbers and morphology available for e-sword. The only problem with this resource (which is a problem for similar resources) is, there is no way to further explore Greek verbs which are not found in the New Testament. Although I usually quote the Complete Apostles’ Bible here, I have begun to make changes in the translation when their translation conflicts with the Greek and note what those changes are.

 

The Masoretic text is the Hebrew text with all of the vowels (vowel points) inserted (the original Hebrew text lacked vowels). We take the Masoretic text to be the text closest to the original. However, differences between the Masoretic text and the Greek, Latin and Syriac are worth noting and, once in a great while, represent a more accurate text possessed by those other ancient translators.

 

In general, the Latin text is an outstanding translation from the Hebrew text into Latin and very trustworthy (I say this as a non-Catholic). Unfortunately, I do not read Latin—apart from some very obvious words—so I am dependent upon the English translation of the Latin (principally, the Douay-Rheims translation).

 

Underlined words indicate differences in the text.

 

Bracketed portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls are words, letters and phrases lost in the scroll due to various types of damage. Underlined words or phrases are those in the Dead Sea Scrolls but not in the Masoretic text.

 

I will only list the translation from the Dead Sea Scrolls if it exists and if it is different from the Masoretic text.

 

The Targum of Onkelos is actually the Pentateuchal Targumim, which are The Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan Ben Uzziel. On the Pentateuch With The Fragments of the Jerusalem Targum From the Chaldee by J. W. Etheridge, M.A. From http://www.becomingjewish.org/texts/targum/onkelos_genesis.html and first published in 1862.

 

The very fact that we have ancient Greek, Latin, Syriac and Arabic translations of the Bible testifies to its accuracy. There may be a difference word or phrase here or there; the Greek may have a singular where the Hebrew has a plural, but there is no set of doctrines in the Latin Bible which are any different from those found in the Greek Bible or the Syriac Bible. These different cultures when they chose to translate the Bible chose to translate it as accurately as possible. Where human viewpoint would expect to find doctrinal differences between the Bible of the Hebrews, of the Greeks or of the Romans, no such differences exist.


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And the famine [was] severe in the land and so he is, as which they completed to eat grain which they had brought from Egypt, and so says unto them their father, “Return; buy a little of food.”

Dead Sea Scrolls                   .

Targum (trans. Etheridge)      .

Targum (Onkelos)                  But the famine prevailed in the land. And it was when they had ended to eat the corn which they had brought from Mizraim, that their father said to them, Return, and buy for us a little corn. Translation for Onkelos and Pseudo-Jonathan by J. W. Etheridge, M.A. (1862).

Targum (Pseudo-Jonathan)   And it was when they had finished eating the corn they had brought from Mizraim, their father said to them, Return and buy us a little corn.

Jerusalem targum                  .

Revised Douay-Rheims         In the mean time the famine was heavy upon all the land. And when they had eaten up all the corn, which they had brought out of Egypt, Jacob said to his sons: Go again and buy us a little food.

Jerusalem targum                  .

Latin Vulgate                          .

Aramaic ESV of Peshitta        The famine was severe in the land. It happened, when they had eaten up the grain which they had brought out of Egypt, their father said to them, "Go again, buy us a little more food."

Peshitta (Syriac)                    THE famine was very severe in the land. And when they had finished eating the wheat which they had brought from Egypt, their father Jacob said to them, Go down to Egypt, and buy us a little grain.

Septuagint (Greek)                Joseph's brothers return with Benjamin. Gn.43.1-34

But the famine prevailed in the land. And it came to pass, when they had finished eating the corn which they had brought out of Egypt, that their father said to them, Go again; buy us a little food.

NETS (Greek)                        .

Brenton’s Septuagint             .

 

Significant differences: 


Limited Vocabulary Translations:

 

Bible in Basic English             Now the land was in bitter need of food. And when the grain which they had got in Egypt was all used up, their father said to them, Go again and get us a little food.

Easy English                          Joseph’s brothers return to Egypt

The *famine was very bad in the country called Canaan. Jacob’s family had eaten up the corn that they had brought from Egypt. So Jacob said, ‘Go again to Egypt to buy a little food.’

Easy-to-Read Version            .

Easy-to-Read Version–2006  Jacob Lets Benjamin Go to Egypt

The famine was very bad in that country. The people ate all the grain they had brought from Egypt. When that grain was gone, Jacob said to his sons, “Go to Egypt and buy some more grain for us to eat.”

Easy-to-Read Version–2008  .

International Children’s B.     The Brothers Go Back to Egypt

Still no food grew in the land of Canaan. Jacob’s family had eaten all the grain they had brought from Egypt. So Jacob said to them, “Go to Egypt again. Buy a little more grain for us to eat.”

God’s Word                         Jacob [Israel] Sends Ten Sons Back to Egypt

The famine was severe in the land. When they finished eating the grain they had brought from Egypt, Israel said to his sons, “Go back and buy us a little more food.”

Good News Bible (TEV)         Joseph's Brothers Return to Egypt with Benjamin

The famine in Canaan got worse, and when the family of Jacob had eaten all the grain which had been brought from Egypt, Jacob said to his sons, “Go back and buy a little food for us.”

The Message                         The famine got worse. When they had eaten all the food they had brought back from Egypt, their father said, “Go back and get some more food.”

Names of God Bible               .

NIRV                                      Joseph’s Brothers Go Down to Egypt Again

There still wasn’t enough food anywhere in the land. After a while Jacob’s family had eaten all the grain the brothers had brought from Egypt. So their father said to them, “Go back. Buy us a little more food.”

New Simplified Bible              The famine was extremely bad in the land. 2 When they finished eating the grain they brought from Egypt, Israel said to his sons: »Go back and buy us a little more food.«


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           .

Contemporary English V.       .

The Living Bible                     But there was no relief from the terrible famine throughout the land. When the grain they had brought from Egypt was almost gone, their father said to them, “Go again and buy us a little food.”

New Berkeley Version           .

New Century Version             The Brothers Go Back to Egypt

Still no food grew in the land of Canaan. When Jacob’s family had eaten all the grain they had brought from Egypt, Jacob said to them, “Go to Egypt again and buy a little more grain for us to eat.”

New Life Version                    The time of no food was hard in the land. When they had eaten all the grain they had brought from Egypt, their father said to them, "Go again and buy us a little food."

New Living Translation           The Brothers Return to Egypt

But the famine continued to ravage the land of Canaan. When the grain they had brought from Egypt was almost gone, Jacob said to his sons, “Go back and buy us a little more food.”


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          However, the famine continued in the land. And so, after they had finished eating the grain that they'd brought from Egypt, their father told them: 'Go there to buy us a little food again.'

Beck’s American Translation .

International Standard V        Preparing to Return to Egypt

Meanwhile, the famine remained severe throughout the region. As a result, when Jacob’s family [Lit. As they] was beginning to eat the last of the grain that they had brought back from Egypt, their father Jacob [The Heb. lacks Jacob] told his sons, “Go back to Egypt and buy us some food.”

New Advent (Knox) Bible       But still the land was famine-stricken and all the food they had brought with them from Egypt was used up. Go back, said Jacob to his sons, and bring us all a mouthful of food.

Today’s NIV                          .

Translation for Translators     Joseph's brothers returned to Egypt with Benjamin, to buy more grain

The famine in Canaan got worse. Finally, when Jacob and his family had eaten all the grain they had brought from Egypt, Jacob said to them, “Go back to Egypt and buy some more grain for us!”


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Awful Scroll Bible                   The famine is grievous on the solid grounds. Is to have been exhausted, that which they are to eat, of that broken apart, that they have brought in from Egypt. Their father was to say: Be turning back, and be buying grain and a little food.

Conservapedia                       The famine was severe in the known world [The Hebrew for "in the land," Va-aretz, can easily mean "in the earth." There is no reason to use language that limits the scope of this famine to the immediate region]. And so, when they had finished eating the victuals that they had brought from Egypt, their father (Jacob) said to them, "Return and buy us a little food."

Ferrar-Fenton Bible                But the famine oppressed the country, and it arrived that when all the food they had bought from the Mitzeraim ended, that their father said to them, " Return, and buy us a little food."

God’s Truth (Tyndale)           And the dearth waxed sore in the land. And when they had eaten up that corn which they brought out of the land of Egypt, their father said unto them: go again and buy us a little food.

HCSB                                     Decision to Return to Egypt

Now the famine in the land was severe. When they had used up the grain they had brought back from Egypt, their father said to them, “Go back and buy us some food.”

Jubilee Bible 2000                  .

H. C. Leupold                         The Second Journey to Egypt with Benjamin (43:1-34)

But as far as the famine was concerned, it was severe in the land. And it came to pass when they had entirely eaten up the grain which they brought from Egypt, that their father said to them: Buy a bit of food for us again.

Lexham English Bible            Joseph’s Brothers Return to Egypt

Now the famine in the land [was] severe. And it happened [that] as they finished eating the grain which they had brought from Egypt their father said to them, "Return and buy a little food for us."

NIV, ©2011                             .

NIV – UK 

Tree of Life Version                Judah Pledges for Benjamin

Now the famine was severe in the land. When they finished eating the grain they had brought from Egypt their father said to them, “Go back. Buy us a little food.”.


Catholic Bibles (those having the imprimatur):

 

Christian Community (1988)  The second journey to Egypt

Now the lack of food was severe in the land, and when they had eaten the grain they brought from Egypt, their father said to them, “Go down again and buy us a little food.”.

The Heritage Bible                 .

New American Bible (2002)   Now the famine in the land grew more severe. So when they had used up all the rations they had brought from Egypt, their father said to them, "Go back and procure us a little more food." This chapter and the following one are from the Yahwist source, in which Judah, not Reuben as in the Elohist source, volunteers to go surety for Benjamin.

New American Bible (2011)   The Second Journey to Egypt.*

Now the famine in the land grew severe. So when they had used up all the grain they had brought from Egypt, their father said to them, “Go back and buy us a little more food.”

[43:1–34] The second journey to Egypt. Joseph the sage has carefully prepared the brothers for a possible reconciliation. In this chapter and the following one Judah steps forward as the hero, in contrast to chaps. 37 and 42 where Reuben was the hero. Here Judah serves as guarantee for Benjamin.

New Jerusalem Bible             But the famine in the country grew worse, and when they had finished eating the supplies which they had brought from Egypt their father said to them, 'Go back and get us a little food.'

New RSV                               .

Revised English Bible            The famine was still severe in the land. When the grain they had brought from Egypt was all used up, their father said to them, “Go again and buy some more grain for us to eat.”


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           .

exeGeses companion Bible   THE BROTHERS OF YOSEPH RETURN TO MISRAYIM

And the famine is heavy in the land.

And so be it,

when they finish eating the kernels

they brought from Misrayim,

their father says to them, Return,

market for us kernels for a little food.

Hebraic Transliteration           .

Hebrew Names Version         .

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               But the famine in the land was severe. And when they had eaten up the rations which they had brought from Egypt, their father said to them, “Go again and procure some food for us.”

Judaica Press Complete T.    .

Kaplan Translation                 Joseph's Vindication

The famine became worse in the area. When they had used up all the supplies that they had brought from Egypt, their father said to them, 'Go back and get us a little food.'. The Kaplan Translation, particularly in Exodus through Deuteronomy, takes note of historic rabbinic opinions.

Natural Israelite Bible             .

Orthodox Jewish Bible           And the ra’av (famine) was kaved (heavy, severe) in the land.

And it came to pass, when they had eaten up the shever (grain) which they had brought out of Mitzrayim, then Avihem said unto them, Shuvu (return)! Buy for us a little ochel.

Restored Names Version       .

The Scriptures 1998              But the scarcity of food was severe in the land. And it came to be, when they had eaten up the grain which they had brought from Mitsrayim, that their father said to them, “Go back, buy us a little food.”


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

The Amplified Bible                The Return to Egypt

Now the famine was very severe in the land [of Canaan]. And it happened that when the families of Jacob’s sons had finished eating [all of] the grain which they had brought from Egypt, their father said to them, “Go again, buy us a little food.”

The Expanded Bible              The Brothers Go Back to Egypt

·Still no food grew in the land of Canaan [LThe famine was heavy/severe in the land]. When ·Jacob’s family [Lthey] had eaten all the grain they had brought from Egypt, Jacob said to them, “Go to Egypt again and buy a little more ·grain [Lfood] for us to eat.”

The Geneva Bible                  .

Kretzmann’s Commentary    Verses 1-10

The Preparations for the Journey

And the famine was sore in the land. And it came to pass, when they had eaten up the corn which they had brought out of Egypt, their father said unto them, Go again, buy us a little food. Since the land of Canaan had no relief in the next year, but the famine rather grew worse, the store of grain was soon consumed, and the necessity was thereby suggested of their making a second journey to Egypt for the purpose of purchasing food, something to eat, for their households.

NET Bible®                             The Second Journey to Egypt

Now the famine was severe in the land [The disjunctive clause gives supplemental information that is important to the storyline.]. When they finished eating the grain they had brought from Egypt, their father said to them, “Return, buy us a little more food.”. When it comes to making an actual material change to the text, the NET Bible® is pretty good about indicating this. Since most of these corrections will be clear in the more literal translations below and within the Hebrew exegesis itself, I will not continue to list every NET Bible® footnote. Language footnotes will be placed in the Hebrew exegesis. Some footnotes will quoted elsewhere in this document.

Syndein/Thieme                     {Joseph Reaps}

And the famine was severe in the land. And it came to pass, when they had eaten up the corn which they had brought out of Egypt, their father kept on saying unto them, "Go again, buy us a little food." {Judah Faces the True Issue and Therefore Shows Signs of Leadership that Descendent David will Possess}.

The Voice                               Now the famine raged on across the land. And after Jacob and his sons had eaten up all of the grain they had brought from Egypt, their father was ready to send them again.

Jacob: Go to Egypt again, and buy us some more food.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

American KJV                        .

Brenner’s Mechanical Trans....and the famine was heavy in the land, and it came to pass, just as they finished eating the barley which they brought from Mitsrayim [Troubles] and their father said to them, turn back, exchange for us a small amount of foodstuff,...

Concordant Literal Version    And the famine is heavy in the land. And coming is it, as they finish eating the victuals which they had brought from Egypt, then saying to them is their father, "Return. Purchase for us a little food.

A Conservative Version         .

Context Group Version          And the famine was intense in the land { or earth }. When they had eaten up the grain which they had brought out of Egypt, their father said to them, Go again, buy us a little food.

Darby Translation                  And the famine was grievous in the land. And it came to pass, when they had finished eating the grain which they had brought from Egypt, that their father said to them, Go again, buy us a little food.

Emphasized Bible                  .

English Standard Version      .

English Standard V. – UK       Joseph's Brothers Return to Egypt

Now the famine was severe in the land. And when they had eaten the grain that they had brought from Egypt, their father said to them, “Go again, buy us a little food.”

Evidence Bible                       .

Green’s Literal Translation    .

God’s Truth (Tyndale)           .

King James 2000 Version      .

21st Century KJV                   .

Modern KJV                           .

NASB                                     The Return to Egypt

Now the famine was severe in the land. So it came about when they had finished eating the grain which they had brought from Egypt, that their father said to them, “Go back, buy us a little food.”

New European Version          Jacob’s Sons Go to Egypt Again

The famine was severe in the land. It happened, when they had eaten up the grain which they had brought out of Egypt, their father said to them, Go again, buy us a little more food.

New King James Version       Joseph’s Brothers Return with Benjamin

Now the famine was severe in the land. And it came to pass, when they had eaten up the grain which they had brought from Egypt, that their father said to them, “Go back, buy us a little food.”

Owen's Translation                .

Third Millennium Bible            .

Updated Bible Version 2.11   .

A Voice in the Wilderness      .

Webster’s Bible Translation  And the famine was severe in the land. And it came to pass, when they had consumed the corn which they had brought from Egypt, their father said to them, Go again, buy us a little food.

World English Bible                .

Young's Literal Translation     .

Young’s Updated LT             And the famine is severe in the land; and it comes to pass, when they have finished eating the corn which they brought from Egypt, that their father says unto them, “Turn back, buy for us a little food.”

 

The gist of this passage:     This is year two of the famine, and the sons of Israel are running out of food. Jacob, their father, proposes that they return to Egypt to buy more grain.


Genesis 43:1

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

râʿâb (רָעָב) [pronounced raw-ĢAWBV]

famine, hunger; scarcity of grain; used figuratively for a lack of God’s Word

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #7458 BDB #944

kâbêd (כָבֵד) [pronounced kawb-VAYD]

heavy, overweight, abundant, numerous, dull; hard, difficult, burdensome, grievous; severe; very oppressive, numerous, rich

masculine singular adjective

Strong’s #3515 BDB #458

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: The famine was severe in the land. The famine continues. Joseph and some people in Egypt knew that this would continue for 7 years. The sons of Jacob would not go out and purchase enough grain for 7 years because they were unaware it would continue that long. They purchased a year’s worth, expecting/hoping that the next year would bring rain and an end to the famine.


Genesis 43:1 And the famine was severe in the land.


The famine was going to continue for 7 years. We are now beginning year 2 of the famine. The sons of Jacob would have purchased enough grain for one year, hoping that the famine would end after a year. They are not privy to the fact that Joseph predicted a 7 year famine. A year has passed and now there is not enough food for the extended family of Jacob.


Genesis 43:2a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

Without a specific subject and object, the verb hâyâh often means and it will come to be, and it will come to pass, then it came to pass (with the wâw consecutive). It may be more idiomatically rendered subsequently, afterwards, later on, in the course of time, after which. Generally, the verb does not match the gender whatever nearby noun could be the subject (and, as often, there is no noun nearby which would fulfill the conditions of being a subject).

kaph or ke (כְּ) [pronounced ke]

like, as, according to; about, approximately

preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #453

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced ash-ER]

that, which, when, who, whom; where

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

Together, kaʾăsher (כַּאֲשֶר) [pronounced kah-uh-SHER] means as which, as one who, as, like as, as just; because; according to what manner, in a manner as, when, about when. Back in 1Sam. 12:8, I rendered this for example.

kâlâh (כָּלָה) [pronounced kaw-LAWH]

to complete, to finish; to prepare; to come to an end; to consume, to waste, to destroy, to annihilate; to make pine away

3rd person plural, Piel perfect

Strong's #3615 BDB #477

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾâkal (אָכַל) [pronounced aw-KAHL]

to eat; to devour, to consume, to destroy

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #398 BDB #37

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

shêber (שֵבֶר) [pronounced SHAY-ber]

a breaking, fracture, breach [of a wall]; the breaking open [of a dream], an interpretation or solution [of a dream]; destruction (ruin, shattering) [of a kingdom; of men]; a breaking [of the mind], terror; quarries; a crushing [of corn, grain]; corn, grain [which has been crushed or threshed]

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #7667 & 7668 BDB #991

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced ash-ER]

that, which, when, who, whom; where

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

bôwʾ (בּוֹא) [pronounced boh]

to take in, to bring [near, against, upon], to come in with, to carry, to cause to come [in], to gather, to bring to pass

3rd person masculine plural, Hiphil imperfect

Strong’s #935 BDB #97

Mitserayim (מִצְרַיִם) [pronounced mits-RAH-yim]

double straights; transliterated Mizraim; also Egypt, Egyptians

masculine singular, proper noun

Strong’s #4714 BDB #595


Translation: And it was, when they had finished eating the grain which they had bought in Egypt,... A time frame is not given here. However, it would make sense for this to be a year later, and they have run out of grain. The sons of Jacob and their families had eaten all of the grain that they purchased.


Genesis 43:2b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend; to decide; to answer

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied); with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #413 BDB #39

ʾâb (אָב) [pronounced awbv]

father, both as the head of a household, clan or tribe; ancestor, grandfather; founder, civil leader, military leader; master, teacher

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #1 BDB #3

shûwb (שוּב) [pronounced shoobv]

return, turn, turn back, reminisce, restore something, bring back something, revive, recover something, make restitution

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperative

Strong's #7725 BDB #996

shâbar (שָבַר) [pronounced shawb-VAHR]

purchase, buy [grain]

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperative

Strong’s #7666 BDB #991

meʿaţ (מְעַט) [pronounced me-ĢAHT]

a little, fewness, few

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #4592 BDB #589

ʾôkel (אֹכֶל) [pronounced OH-kehl]

food, grain, meal; prey, meat; provisions

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #400 BDB #38


Translation: ...their father said to them, “Return [and] buy a little food.” Jacob, who seems to have forgotten all that happened previously, despite the fact that Simeon is no longer with them. They know that they can only return with Benjamin, otherwise all of them might be thrown into jail.


Jacob has a great deal of nerve. Even though time has passed, what has occurred has not. Simeon is still incarcerated in Egypt. Simeon has a wife and children, but no one is going to act because Jacob would not allow Benjamin to leave under any circumstances. So every day, they all sit down at a meal with Simeon's wife and children and every day they are reminded where he is. Jacob finds that his family (especially himself and Benjamin) are about to go hungry so he proposes to send his sons back for more grain, as if nothing had happened.


Genesis 43:2 And it happened, when they had eaten up the grain which they had brought out of Egypt, their father said to them, “Go again, buy us a little food.”


Jacob, the father, once that grain has been eaten, tells his sons to return to Egypt to buy some more grain.


Jacob probably has not forgotten what the boys said, upon their return—that Benjamin must go back with them—but apparently, he is not going to mention that. He appears willing to take a chance with them; and still unwilling to part with Benjamin.


This is unrealistic, because his sons may return with money to by grain and find themselves all thrown into prison (worst case scenario); or simply not being sold grain (the best case scenario).


——————————



Jacob does not say, “Okay, we need to determine what we will do about the Benjamin thing.” However, one of his sons speaks up:


And so says unto him Judah, to say, “Solemnly affirming, he solemnly affirmed in us, the man, to say, ‘You [all] will not see my face unless your brother [is] with you [all].’ If you are sending our brother with us we should go down and we should buy for you food. If you are not sending [him] we will not go down for the man said unto us, ‘You will not see my face unless your brother [is] with you.’ ”

Genesis

43:3–5

Then Judah spoke to him, saying, “The man solemnly affirmed with us, saying, ‘You [all] will not see my face unless your brother [is] with you [all].’ [So,] if you are sending our brother with us, [then] we will go down and we will buy food for you. [However,] if you are not sending [him], [then] we will not go down, for the man said to us, ‘You will not see my face unless your brother [is] with you.’ ”

Then Judah appealed to his father, saying, “This man, the prime minister, solemnly affirmed to us, saying, ‘You will not see my face unless you are accompanied by your youngest brother.’ So, if you are going to send our brother with us, then we will go down to Egypt and purchase food for you. However, if you are not sending him, then we will not go down, for the man said to us, ‘You will not see my face unless you bring your brother with you.’ ”


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so says unto him Judah, to say, “Solemnly affirming, he solemnly affirmed in us, the man, to say, ‘You [all] will not see my face unless your brother [is] with you [all].’ If you are sending our brother with us we should go down and we should buy for you food. If you are not sending [him] we will not go down for the man said unto us, ‘You will not see my face unless your brother [is] with you.’ ”

Dead Sea Scrolls                   .

Targum of Onkelos                .

Jerusalem targum                  .

Targum (Onkelos)                  And Jehuda spake to him, saying, The man attesting attested to us, saying, You shall not see my face unless your brother be with you. If thou wilt send our brother with us, we will go down and buy thee corn; but if thou wilt not send, we will not go down: for the man told us, You shall not see my face unless your brother be with you.

Targum (Pseudo-Jonathan)   And Jehuda spake to him, saying, The man attesting attested to us saying, You shall not see the sight of my face unless your youngest brother be with you. If thou wilt send our brother with us, we will go down and buy corn for thee; but if thou wilt not send (him), we will not go down; for the man told us, You shall not see the sight of my face unless your brother be with you.

Revised Douay-Rheims         Juda answered: The man declared unto us with the attestation of an oath, saying: You shall not see my face, unless you bring your youngest brother with you. If therefore you will send him with us, we will set out together, and will buy necessaries for you. But if you will not, we will not go: for the man, as we have often said, declared unto us, saying: You shall not see my face without your youngest brother.

Latin Vulgate                          .

Plain English Aramaic Bible   .

Aramaic ESV of Peshitta        Yudah spoke to him, saying, "The man solemnly warned us, saying, 'You shall not see my face, unless your brother is with you.' If you'll send our brother with us, we'll go down and buy you food, but if you'll not send him, we'll not go down, for the man said to us, 'You shall not see my face, unless your brother is with you.'"

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And Judah said to him, The man did solemnly charge us, saying, You shall not see my face except your brother is with you. 4 If you will send our brother with us, we will go down and buy grain for ourselves; 5 But if you will not send him, we will not go down; for the man said to us, You shall not see my face except your brother is with you.

Septuagint (Greek)                And Judas spoke to him, saying, The man, the lord of the country, positively testified to us, saying, Ye shall not see my face, unless your younger brother be with you. If, then, you send our brother with us, we will go down, and buy you food; but if you send not our brother with us, we will not go: for the man spoke to us, saying, Ye shall not see my face, unless your younger brother be with you.

NETS (Greek)                        .

Brenton’s Septuagint             .

 

Significant differences: 


Limited Vocabulary Translations:

 

Bible in Basic English             .

Easy English                          Judah said to Jacob, ‘The man warned us often. He said that we would not see him again unless we brought our brother with us. If you will send our brother with us, we will go down to Egypt. We will go there in order to buy food. If you will not send our brother, then we will not go down. The man told us this plainly. He said that we would not see him again unless our brother was with us.’

Easy-to-Read Version–2001  .

Easy-to-Read Version–2008  .

Easy-to-Read Version–2006  But Judah said to Jacob, “But the governor of that country warned us. He said, ‘If you don’t bring your brother back to me, I will refuse to talk to you.’ If you send Benjamin with us, we will go down and buy grain. But if you refuse to send Benjamin, we will not go. The man warned us to not come back without him.”

Easy-to-Read Version–2008  .

International Children’s B.     But Judah said to Jacob, “The governor of that country strongly warned us. He said, ‘Bring your brother back with you. If you don’t, you will not be allowed to see me.’ If you will send Benjamin with us, we will go down and buy food for you. But if you refuse to send Benjamin, we will not go. The governor of that country warned us. He said we would not see him if we didn’t bring Benjamin with us.”

God’s Word                         .

Good News Bible (TEV)         .

The Message                         But Judah said, “The man warned us most emphatically, ‘You won’t so much as see my face if you don’t have your brother with you.’ If you’re ready to release our brother to go with us, we’ll go down and get you food. But if you’re not ready, we aren’t going. What would be the use? The man told us, ‘You won’t so much as see my face if you don’t have your brother with you.’”

Names of God Bible               .

NIRV                                      .

New Simplified Bible              .


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Judah said to him, “The man was absolutely serious when he said, ‘You may not see me again without your brother with you.’ If you agree to send our brother with us, then we will go down and buy you food. But if you don’t agree to send him, then we can’t go down because the man said to us, ‘You may not see me again without your brother with you.’”

Contemporary English V.       Judah replied, "The governor strictly warned us that we would not be allowed to see him unless we brought our youngest brother with us. If you let us take Benjamin along, we will go and buy grain. But we won't go without him!"

The Living Bible                     But Judah told him, “The man wasn’t fooling one bit when he said, ‘Don’t ever come back again unless your brother is with you.’ We cannot go unless you let Benjamin go with us.”

New Berkeley Version           .

New Century Version             But Judah said to Jacob, “The governor of that country strongly warned us, ‘If you don’t bring your brother back with you, you will not be allowed to see me.’ If you will send Benjamin with us, we will go down and buy food for you. But if you refuse to send Benjamin, we will not go. The governor of that country warned us that we would not see him if we didn’t bring Benjamin with us.”

New Life Version                    But Judah told him, "The man said to us with sharp words, 'You will not see my face unless your brother is with you.' If you send our brother with us, we will go to Egypt and buy you food. But if you do not send him, we will not go. For the man said, 'You will not see my face unless your brother is with you.' "

New Living Translation           But Judah said, “The man was serious when he warned us, ‘You won’t see my face again unless your brother is with you.’ If you send Benjamin with us, we will go down and buy more food. But if you don’t let Benjamin go, we won’t go either. Remember, the man said, ‘You won’t see my face again unless your brother is with you.’”


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          But Judah said to him: 'That man who's the lord of the country absolutely warned us, You won't see my face again unless you have your younger brother with you. So if you'll send our brother with us, we'll go and buy you food. But if you won't send our brother with us, we won't go.'.

Beck’s American Translation .

International Standard V        But Judah reminded him, “The man distinctly warned us: ‘You’ll never see my face unless your brother comes with you.’ So if you send our brother with us, we’ll go down and buy some food. But if you don’t send him, we’re not going, because the man told us, ‘You’ll never see my face unless your brother is with you.’”

Revised Knox Bible                Why, answered Juda, this man we told you of warned us with a solemn oath he would not give us audience, unless our youngest brother came back with us. If you will send him in our company, we will all go together, and buy what you need; not otherwise. How often must we tell you that the man gave us solemn warning, You shall have no audience without this youngest brother of yours?

New Advent (Knox) Bible       .

Today’s NIV                          .

Translation for Translators     But Judah said to him, “The man who sold us the grain warned us sternly, ‘I will not let you see me [SYN] again if you come and your younger brother is not with you.’ So, if you will send our younger brother with us, we will go down to Egypt and buy some grain for you. But if you will not send him, we will not go down there, because that man said to us, ‘I will not let you see me again if your younger brother is not with you.’ ”


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Conservapedia                       Then Judah spoke to him, and said, "The man-in-charge told us positively [The Hebrew says, "to testify he testified," another example of repetition for emphasis.], 'You will not be allowed to see me unless your brother is with you. If you will send our brother with us, we can go down and buy food for you. But if you don't send him, there's no use in our going down. The man told us, 'You will not be allowed to see me unless your brother is with you.'"

Ferrar-Fenton Bible                When Judah replied to him saying, " The man swore to us, asseverating, 1 You shall never see my face, unless your brother is with you.' If you are wise enough to send our brother with us, we will return and buy food for you to eat. But if you will not send, we will not go down ; for the man said to us, ' You shall not see my face unless your brother is with you.' "

God’s Truth (Tyndale)           Then said Juda unto him: the man did testify unto us saying: look that you see not my face except your brother be with you. Therefore if you will send our brother with us, we will go and buy the food. But if you will not send him, we will not go: for the man said unto us: look that you see not my face, except your brother be with you.

HCSB                                     .

Jubilee Bible 2000                  .

H. C. Leupold                         But Judah said to him: The man strictly admonished us, saying, Ye shall not appear before me except your brother be with you. So if thou art sending our brother along with us, we shall go down and buy food for thee. But if thou art not sending him, we shall not go down. For the man said to us, Ye shall not appear before me except your brother be with you. (1)

Lexham English Bible            Then Judah said to him, "The man solemnly admonished us, saying, 'You shall not see my face unless your brother [is] with you.' {If you will send} our brother with us, we will go down and buy food for you, but {if you will not send} [him], we will not go down, for the man said to us, 'You shall not see my face unless your brother [is] with you.'"

NIV, ©2011                             .

NIV – UK                                .

Tree of Life Version                But Judah said to him, “The man warned us firmly saying, ‘You won’t see my face unless your brother is with you.’ If you send our brother with us, we will go down and buy grain for you for food. But if you won’t send him, we won’t go down, because the man said to us, ‘You won’t see my face unless your brother is with you.’”


Catholic Bibles (those having the imprimatur):

 

Christian Community (1988)  .

The Heritage Bible                 And Judah spoke to him, saying, The man protesting, protested to us, saying, You shall not see my face unless your brother is with you. If you are sending our brother with us, we will descend, and buy food for you; And if you are not sending him, we will not descend, because the man said to us, You shall not see my face unless your brother is with you.

New American Bible (2002)   But Judah replied: "The man strictly warned us, 'You shall not appear in my presence unless your brother is with you.' If you are willing to let our brother go with us, we will go down to procure food for you. But if you are not willing, we will not go down, because the man told us, 'You shall not appear in my presence unless your brother is with you.'"

New American Bible (2011)   .

New Jerusalem Bible             'But', Judah replied, 'the man expressly warned us, "You will not be admitted to my presence unless your brother is with you." If you are ready to send our brother with us, we will go down and get food for you. But if you are not ready to send him, we will not go down, in view of the man's warning, "You will not be admitted to my presence unless your brother is with you." '

New RSV                               .

Revised English Bible            Judah replied, “But the man warned us that we must not go into his presence unless our brother was with us. If you let our brother go with us, we will go down and buy you food. But if you will not let him, we cannot go, for the man declared, ‘You shall not come into my presence unless your brother is with you.’”


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           Y’hudah said to him, “The man expressly warned us, ‘You will not see my face unless your brother is with you.’ If you will send our brother with us, we will go down and buy you food; but if you will not send him, we will not go down; for the man said to us, ‘You will not see my face unless your brother is with you.’”

exeGeses companion Bible   And Yah Hudah says to him, saying,

In witnessing, the man witnessed to us, saying,

You see not my face,

unless your brother is with you.

If you send our brother with us,

we descend and market kernels for food for you:

but if you send him not, we descend not:

for the man says to us, You see not my face,

unless your brother is with you.

Hebraic Roots Bible               .

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               But Judah said to him, “The man warned us, ‘Do not let me see your faces unless your brother is with you.’ If you will let our brother go with us, we will go down and procure food for you; but if you will not let him go, we will not go down, for the man said to us, ‘Do not let me see your faces unless your brother is with you.’ ”

Judaica Press Complete T.    .

Kaplan Translation                 Judah tried to reason with him. He said, 'The man warned us, 'Do not appear before me unless your brother is with you.' If you consent to send our brother with us, we will go and get you food. But if you will not send [him], we cannot go. The man told us, 'Do not appear before me unless your brother is with you.' '

Orthodox Jewish Bible           And Yehudah spoke unto him, saying, The ish did solemnly warn us, saying, Ye shall not see my face, unless achichem be with you.

If thou wilt send achinu (our brother) with us, we will go down and buy thee ochel;

But if thou wilt not send him, we will not go down; for the ish said unto us, Ye shall not see my face, unless achichem be with you.

The Scriptures 1998              But Yehuah spoke to him, saying, “The man vehemently warned us, saying, ‘You do not see my face unless your brother is with you.’ ” “If you let our brother go with us, we go down and buy you food. “But if you do not let him go, we do not go down, because the man said to us, ‘You do not see my face unless your brother is with you.’ ”


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

The Amplified Bible                But Judah said to him, “The man [representing Pharaoh] solemnly and sternly warned us, saying, ‘You will not see my face [again] unless your brother is with you.’ If you will send our brother with us, we will go down [to Egypt] and buy you food. But if you will not send him, we will not go down there; for the man said to us, ‘You will not see my face unless your brother is with you.’”

The Expanded Bible              But Judah said to Jacob, “The ·governor of that country [man] strongly warned us, ‘·If you don’t bring your brother back with you, you will not be allowed to see me [LYou may not see my face unless your brother is with you].’ If you will send ·Benjamin [Lour brother] with us, we will go down and buy food for you. But if you ·refuse to send Benjamin [Lare not sending], we will not go. The ·governor of that country [Lman] ·warned [Lsaid to] us that ·we would not see him if we didn’t bring Benjamin with us [Lyou will not see my face unless your brother is with you].”

The Geneva Bible                  .

Kretzmann’s Commentary    And Judah spake unto him, saying, The man did solemnly protest unto us, saying, Ye shall not see my face except your brother be with you. There was a reason for the solemn testifying of Joseph, since he was so anxious to see his full brother, the only other son of his mother Rachel. Judah here steps to the front, Reuben having already failed, and Levi having lost the confidence of his father on account of the affair at Shechem. Judah's attitude is gentle, but firm, and shows an unselfish devotion. If thou wilt send our brother with us, we will go down and buy thee food; but if thou wilt not send him, we will not go down; for the man said unto us, Ye shall not see my face except your brother be with you. That was the alternative and the condition, and Judah was not in a position to change it.

NET Bible®                             But Judah said to him, “The man solemnly warned us, ‘You will not see my face [The idiom “see my face” means “have an audience with me.”] unless your brother is with you.’ If you send [Heb “if there is you sending,” that is, “if you send.”] our brother with us, we’ll go down and buy food for you. But if you will not send him, we won’t go down there because the man said to us, ‘You will not see my face unless your brother is with you.’”

Syndein/Thieme                     And Judah kept on speaking unto him, saying, "The man {referring to Joseph} protesting . . . he did protest/'did solemnly protest' {`uwd `uwd - doubling is very strong} unto us, saying, "You shall not see my face {come in my presence}, except/unless your brother be with you. If you will send our brother with us, we will go down and buy you food. But if you will not send him, we will not go down. For the man kept on saying unto us, You shall not see my face, except your brother be with you."

The Voice                               But Judah cautioned him.

Judah: The man who rules Egypt clearly warned us, Father, that he will not agree to see us again unless our brother Benjamin accompanies us. If you will send Benjamin along with us, then we will go down and buy the food. But if you won’t allow him to go, we will not go either because the man clearly told us, “You will not see my face unless your brother is with you.”


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And speaking to him is Judah, saying, "The man testified, yea, testified to us, saying, `You shall not see my face, if your small brother fails to be with you! Should you, forsooth, send our brother with us, down will we go and purchase food for you. Yet should you not be sending our brother with us, we will not go down, for the man said to us, `You shall not see my face if your small brother fails to be with you!

Context Group Version          And Judah spoke to him, saying, The man did solemnly warn us, saying, You {pl} shall not see my face, unless your {pl} brother be with you {pl}. If you will send our brother with us, we will go down and buy you food: but if you will not send him, we will not go down; for the man said to us, You {pl} shall not see my face, unless your {pl} brother be with you {pl}

Darby Translation                  .

Emphasized Bible                  .

English Standard Version      .

English Standard V. – UK       .

Evidence Bible                       .

Green’s Literal Translation    .

H. C. Leupold                         .

Jack Ballinger’s translation    .

Modern English Version         Judah spoke to him, saying, “The man solemnly warned us, saying, ‘You will not see my face unless your brother is with you.’ If you will send our brother with us, we will go down and buy food for you. But if you will not send him, we will not go down. For the man said to us, ‘You will not see my face unless your brother is with you.’ ”

Modern KJV                           .

NASB                                     .

New European Version          .

New King James Version       .

Owen's Translation                .

Brenner’s Mechanical Trans..

Stuart Wolf                             .

Third Millennium Bible            .

Updated Bible Version 2.11   .

A Voice in the Wilderness      .

Webster’s Bible Translation  .

World English Bible                .

Young's Literal Translation     .

Young’s Updated LT             And Judah speaks unto him, saying, “The man protesting protested to us, saying, You [all] do not see my face without your brother being with you; if you are sending our brother with us, we go down, and buy for you food, and if you are not sending—we do not go down, for the man said unto us, You [all] do not see my face without your brother being with you.”

 

The gist of this passage:     Judah speaks up, reminding his father that the prime minister told them that they would not be able to see his face unless their youngest brother was with them.


Genesis 43:3a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend; to decide; to answer

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied); with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #413 BDB #39

Yehûwdâh (יְהוּדָה) [pronounced yehoo-DAW]

possibly means to praise, to be praised; and is transliterated Judah

masculine proper noun/location

Strong’s #3063 BDB #397

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend; to decide; to answer

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

gûwd (עוּד) [pronounced ģood]

to take as a witness, to call [someone] to witness; to bear witness, to testify, to solemnly affirm; to solemnly admonish [or, enjoin]

Hiphil infinitive construct

Strong’s #5749 BDB #729

The infinitive absolute can act as a noun, a verb or an adverb. It takes the part of a noun, but with another verb (which may or may not be in the same stem), and it intensifies the verb’s meaning, where it functions either as a complement of affirmation, and therefore translated surely or indeed; or it may act as a complement of condition, and therefore be translated at all, freely or indeed. It’s primary use when found before its verb is to strengthen or emphasize.

gûwd (עוּד) [pronounced ģood]

to take as a witness, to call [someone] to witness; to bear witness, to testify, to solemnly affirm; to solemnly admonish [or, enjoin]

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect

Strong’s #5749 BDB #729

The NET Bible: The infinitive absolute with the finite verb stresses the point. The primary meaning of the verb is “to witness; to testify.” It alludes to Joseph’s oath, which was tantamount to a threat or warning.

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʾîysh (אִיש) [pronounced eesh]

a man, a husband; anyone; a certain one; each, each one, everyone

masculine singular noun (sometimes found where we would use a plural); with the definite article

Strong's #376 BDB #35


Translation: Then Judah spoke to him, saying, “The man solemnly affirmed with us,... Specific sons will be the focus of the narrative of Joseph. Clearly, Joseph was not here, he was not a fly on the ceiling, and it makes sense that certain brothers told him what happened, and then he incorporated it into his overall narrative. What is nice, apart from Gen. 38, this narrative is quite smooth. This great arc narrative is presented very artfully in the 3rd person omniscient format. While I am not an expert on ancient literature, my guess is, this is one of the earliest examples of 3rd person omniscient literature which integrated various events not observed by a single person.


Judah will make a very logical argument. He repeats a verb here, which, by itself means to solemnly affirm.


Note that some slang goes back quite a ways; here Joseph is called the man, terminology used today of one in authority (although it is used in derision today). Since they do not know who Joseph is and they do not know what his specific rank is, they refer to him as the man, a term here of fear and respect.


This is one of the few times that we will see the brothers distinguished. Reuben and Judah have stood out in this ordeal, both of them revealing some maturity and nobility. They had been biding their time; they desired to retrieve Simeon, but could not unless Benjamin went with them.


Genesis 43:3b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend; to decide; to answer

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

râʾâh (רָאָה) [pronounced raw-AWH]

to see, to look, to look at, to view, to behold; to observe; to perceive, to understand, to learn, to know

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong's #7200 BDB #906

pânîym (פָּנִים) [pronounced paw-NEEM]

face, faces, countenance; presence; person; surface

masculine plural construct (plural acts like English singular) with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #6440 BDB #815

When found by itself, pânîym, without a preposition preceding it and with a personal possessive pronoun, can be used for doing or saying something to someone, in front of someone or in their presence.

biletîy (בִּלְתִּי) pronounced bille-TEE]

besides that, unless that, unless

conjunction

Strong’s #1115 BDB #116

Biletîy actually has several applications: ➊ an adverb of negation (not); ➋ as a preposition/adverb which means without, besides except; ➌ as a conjunction which means besides that, unless that, unless.

ʾâch (אָח) [pronounced awhk]

brother, half-brother; kinsman or close relative; one who resembles

masculine singular noun with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #251 BDB #26

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

with, at, near, by, among, directly from

preposition (which is identical to the sign of the direct object) with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #854 BDB #85


Translation: ...saying, ‘You [all] will not see my face unless your brother [is] with you [all].’ The prime minister tells the brothers, “You will not see my face unless your youngest brother is with you.” According to the prime minister, that is required in order for him to believe that they are not spies.


Now, in order to buy grain, they must go through Joseph, the prime minister, as he was over the entire distribution process. If Joseph refused a meeting with them, they would not be able to purchase any grain.


Genesis 43:3 And Judah spoke to him, saying, “The man solemnly protested to us, saying, ‘You will not see my face unless your brother is with you.’


A year has passed and this is new—that Judah speaks up. Recall that the key brothers in the final chapters of Genesis are Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah and Joseph. Even though the other brothers are here, in attendance—even occasionally speaking—their names are never recorded when it comes to speaking or acting.


What seems to have come out of nowhere is, Judah is behaving like the oldest brother. He has to deal with the world as it is, not as they would want it to be. Judah speaks up this time, and reminds his father Jacob what the prime minister told them. They had to bring back their youngest brother to verify all that they told him. They told the prime minister that they were 10 brothers with one brother gone and the other brother at home. In order for him to believe this story (and not to think that these are simply 10 spies from a neighboring country), the brothers were to return with their youngest brother in tow.


Now, we know that the prime minister is Joseph; however, he has not yet revealed this to his older brothers. In fact, it appears that he may not reveal himself for who he is to them; but that he does want to see his younger, full brother and his father (and hence, the whole business with the accusations that Joseph actually knows to be false).


Joseph, in his position, deals with hundreds of hungry people coming to Egypt to purchase grain. He needed to set his brothers apart from the rest of those buying grain, so he accuses them of being spies and throws them all in jail. Now, they are separated from everyone else. When Joseph questions them, he has the excuse to ask for personal information. Joseph then allows 9 of his brothers out of jail, to take grain back to their families. And, as we studied, Joseph will require that his brothers return, but with their youngest brother with them—and this would allow Joseph to see his younger and full brother. All the while, his brothers do not know who he is.


Judah, having no idea about the Prime Minister’s actual motivation, firmly continues to make his case to his father:


Genesis 43:4a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾîm (אִם) [pronounced eem]

if, though; lo, behold; oh that, if only; when, whenever; since, though when (or, if followed by a perfect tense which refers to a past event)

primarily an hypothetical particle

Strong's #518 BDB #49

The particle ʾîm (אִם) can be used as a demonstrative (lo, behold), an interrogative (usually expecting a negative response and often used with other particles and rhetorically), and as a conditional particle (if, though); an indication of a wish or desire (oh that, if only; this is a rare usage).

Gesenius writes: Its primary power I regard as demonstrative, lo! Behold! 

yêsh (יֵש) [pronounced yaysh]

being, substance, existence; used as a substitute for to be (without reference to number or tense); there [is, are]; to be present, to be ready, to exist

substantive with a 2nd person masculine singular suffix; the verb to be may be implied

Strong’s #3426 BDB #441

The substantive yêsh often acts as a substantive plus the absolute status quo verb to be; e.g., [if] there be (1Sam. 20:8), there is (Esther 3:8), there shall be (Jer. 31:6). However, this acts not as a mere copula [pronounced KOP-ye-la], but existence is emphasized. In the KJV, the verbal portion of this is often italicized. The second word in the second line of Job 6:6 is the substantive of existence or being—or is there, or does there exist. We often render this there is, even though there is no verb.

shâlach (שָלַח) [pronounced shaw-LAKH]

sending [off, away], dismissing, giving over, casting out, letting go, setting free, shooting forth [branches], shooting [an arrow]

Piel participle

Strong’s #7971 BDB #1018

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʾâch (אָח) [pronounced awhk]

brother, half-brother; kinsman or close relative; one who resembles

masculine singular noun with the 1st person plural suffix

Strong's #251 BDB #26

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

with, at, near, by, among, directly from

preposition (which is identical to the sign of the direct object) with the 1st person plural suffix

Strong's #854 BDB #85


Translation: [So,] if you are sending our brother with us,... Jacob, then makes this a clear and simple binary choice. One approach is to agree to send Benjamin.


Genesis 43:4b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

yârad (יָרַד) [pronounced yaw-RAHD]

to descend, to come down, to go down

1st person plural, Qal imperfect; with the cohortative hê

Strong’s #3381 BDB #432

The cohortative expresses volition. In the English, we often render this with let or may; in the plural, this can be let us. The cohortative is designed for the 1st person, it can express a wish or a desire or purpose or an intent. It is found in conditional statements. Generally there is the hê suffix to indicate this.

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

shâbar (שָבַר) [pronounced shawb-VAHR]

to purchase, to buy [grain]

1st person plural, Qal imperfect; with the cohortative hê

Strong’s #7666 BDB #991

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾôkel (אֹכֶל) [pronounced OH-kehl]

food, grain, meal; prey, meat; provisions

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #400 BDB #38


Translation: ...[then] we will go down and we will buy food for you. If Benjamin is sent with them, then Judah says, “Then we will go down to Egypt and we will purchase food for you.”


Genesis 43:4 If you will send our brother with us, we will go down and buy you food.


“Therefore, send Benjamin with us, and we can buy the food.” Judah calmly puts his foot down. In fact, he personalizes this by saying to his father, “We will go down to buy food for you.” But he makes certain that his father understands: “Of course we will return to purchase more grain—but Benjamin must go with us.” Judah fully understands that there is no choice here. They cannot simply return as 9 brothers and expect to purchase grain with a problem. Judah reasonably expects that the prime minister may throw them all in jail and possibly even execute them for being spies. With that very real scenario facing them on their return to Egypt, Judah tells his father that they will return to Egypt, but only if Benjamin goes along with them.


Genesis 43:5a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾîm (אִם) [pronounced eem]

if, though; lo, behold; oh that, if only; when, whenever; since, though when (or, if followed by a perfect tense which refers to a past event)

primarily an hypothetical particle

Strong's #518 BDB #49

The particle ʾîm (אִם) can be used as a demonstrative (lo, behold), an interrogative (usually expecting a negative response and often used with other particles and rhetorically), and as a conditional particle (if, though); an indication of a wish or desire (oh that, if only; this is a rare usage).

Gesenius writes: Its primary power I regard as demonstrative, lo! Behold! 

ʾêyin (אֵין) [pronounced AYH-yin]

in the condition of being not = without, nothing, no, not; there is no [none, no one, not]

substantive of negative; 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #369 BDB #34

Together, ʾîm lôʾ (לֹא ם ̣א) [pronounced eem low] act as an emphatic affirmative and they mean if not, surely, unless. I am not sure how similar this is.

shâlach (שָלַח) [pronounced shaw-LAKH]

sending [off, away], dismissing, giving over, casting out, letting go, setting free, shooting forth [branches], shooting [an arrow]

Piel participle

Strong’s #7971 BDB #1018

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

yârad (יָרַד) [pronounced yaw-RAHD]

to descend, to come down, to go down

1st person plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #3381 BDB #432


Translation: [However,] if you are not sending [him], [then] we will not go down,... The alternate approach is not to send Benjamin with them. “If you don’t send him with us, then we are not going to go down to Egypt.”


Genesis 43:5b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

ʾîysh (אִיש) [pronounced eesh]

a man, a husband; anyone; a certain one; each, each one, everyone

masculine singular noun (sometimes found where we would use a plural); with the definite article

Strong's #376 BDB #35

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend; to decide; to answer

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied); with the 1st person plural suffix

Strong's #413 BDB #39

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

râʾâh (רָאָה) [pronounced raw-AWH]

to see, to look, to look at, to view, to behold; to observe; to perceive, to understand, to learn, to know

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong's #7200 BDB #906

pânîym (פָּנִים) [pronounced paw-NEEM]

face, faces, countenance; presence; person; surface

masculine plural construct (plural acts like English singular) with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #6440 BDB #815

When found by itself, pânîym, without a preposition preceding it and with a personal possessive pronoun, can be used for doing or saying something to someone, in front of someone or in their presence.

biletîy (בִּלְתִּי) pronounced bille-TEE]

besides that, unless that, unless

conjunction

Strong’s #1115 BDB #116

Biletîy actually has several applications: ➊ an adverb of negation (not); ➋ as a preposition/adverb which means without, besides except; ➌ as a conjunction which means besides that, unless that, unless.

ʾâch (אָח) [pronounced awhk]

brother, half-brother; kinsman or close relative; one who resembles

masculine singular noun with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #251 BDB #26

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

with, at, near, by, among, directly from

preposition (which is identical to the sign of the direct object) with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #854 BDB #85


Translation: ...for the man said to us, ‘You will not see my face unless your brother [is] with you.’ ” Judah repeats what the prime minister said to him; it is hard to argue with what Judah is saying. His approach is clear and logical.


Jacob is rather hard-headed and this will have to be said to him several times before he realizes that he has not alternative but for the family to starve or for him to send Benjamin down to Egypt with his brothers.


It is a simple binary choice: send Benjamin with them in order to buy grain; or the brothers simply will not go because the prime minister will not see them.


Genesis 43:5 But if you will not send him, we will not go down. For the man said to us, ‘You will not see my face unless your brother is with you.’ ”


The man is Joseph, the prime minister of Egypt. The brothers do have a healthy fear of him. He could call for their imprisonment or execution with a snap of his fingers. So they know that they must do as he has requested.


Judah stands firm. “We are not going down to Egypt to buy grain unless you send Benjamin to go with us. He has promised not to even see us unless our brother is there; and if he does not see us, then we cannot buy grain.” He reminds his father Jacob (and his other brothers) what the prime minister said.


Judah added something which was not said in Gen. 42: “The man said to us, ‘You will not see my face unless your brother is with you.’ ” Did Joseph tell them this? Joseph actually said, “[I]f you are honest men, let one of your brothers remain confined where you are in custody, and let the rest go and carry grain for the famine of your households, and bring your youngest brother to me. So your words will be verified, and you shall not die." (Gen. 42:19–20a). Let me suggest that Judah felt it was not prudent to reveal to Jacob that the prime minister has essentially threatened all of them with death. Jacob is upset enough already; adding this tidbit of information to the mix would not help. Judah knows that it is necessary for them to return with Benjamin; but he also knows his father and what he can and cannot say.


——————————



And so says Israel, “For why did you act with evil against me to tell to the man if still to you [all] a brother?”

Genesis

43:6

Then Israel said, “Why did you do evil toward me to tell this [lit., the] man whether [or not] you [all] still had a brother?”

Then Israel said, “Why did you do this evil toward me to tell this man whether or not you had another brother?”


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so says Israel, “For why did you act with evil against me to tell to the man if still to you [all] a brother?”

Dead Sea Scrolls                   .

Targum of Onkelos                .

Jerusalem targum                  .

Targum (Onkelos)                  And Israel said, Why did you do me this evil, in showing the man that you have a brother?

Targum (Pseudo-Jonathan)   And Israel said, Why did you do me evil in showing the man that you had yet a brother?

Revised Douay-Rheims         Israel said to them: You have done this for my misery in that you told him you had also another brother.

Latin Vulgate                          .

Plain English Aramaic Bible   .

Aramaic ESV of Peshitta        Yisrael said, "Why did you treat me so badly, telling the man that you had another brother?"

Peshitta (Syriac)                    Then their father Israel said to them, Why did you cause me this displeasure, as to tell the man whether you had another brother?

Septuagint (Greek)                And Israel said, Why did you harm me, inasmuch as you told the man that you had a brother?

NETS (Greek)                        .

Brenton’s Septuagint             .

 

Significant differences: 


Limited Vocabulary Translations:

 

Bible in Basic English             .

Easy English                          Israel said, ‘Why did you tell him that you had another brother? You did an evil thing to me when you said that.’

Easy-to-Read Version–2001  .

Easy-to-Read Version–2006  Israel said, “Why did you tell him you had another brother? Why did you do such a bad thing to me?”

International Children’s B.     Jacob, also called Israel, said, “Why did you tell the man you had another brother? You have caused me a lot of trouble.”

God’s Word                         Israel asked, “Why have you made trouble for me by telling the man you had another brother?”

Good News Bible (TEV)         .

The Message                         Israel said, “Why are you making my life so difficult! Why did you ever tell the man you had another brother?”

Names of God Bible               .

NIRV                                      Israel asked, “Why did you bring this trouble to me? Why did you tell the man you had another brother?”

New Simplified Bible              .


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Israel said, “Why have you caused me such pain by telling the man you had another brother?”

Contemporary English V.       Jacob asked, "Why did you cause me so much trouble by telling the governor you had another brother?"

The Living Bible                     “Why did you ever tell him you had another brother?” Israel moaned. “Why did you have to treat me like that?”

New Berkeley Version           .

New Century Version             Israel said, “Why did you tell the man you had another brother? You have caused me a lot of trouble.”

New Life Version                    .

New Living Translation           “Why were you so cruel to me?” Jacob moaned. “Why did you tell him you had another brother?”


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Then IsraEl asked: 'Why did you do so much harm to me by telling the man that you had a brother?'

Beck’s American Translation .

International Standard V        Israel replied, “Why did you make all this trouble by telling the man that you have another brother?”

New Advent (Knox) Bible       This was great unkindness you did me, Israel said, to tell him you had a brother at all.

Today’s NIV                          .

Translation for Translators     Jacob asked, “Why did you cause me to have this trouble by telling the man that you had a younger brother?”


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Awful Scroll Bible                   Isra-el was to say: Yous are to have fractured me, in that yous are to tell the man, that there is another brother.

Conservapedia                       So Israel said, "How could you have done me so ill a turn as to tell the man that you had still another brother?"

Ferrar-Fenton Bible                Israel, however, answered, " Why did you wrong me by telling the man that there was another brother to you ? "

God’s Truth (Tyndale)           And Israel said: wherefore dealt you so cruelly with me, as to tell the man that you had yet another brother?

HCSB                                     “Why did you cause me so much trouble?” Israel asked. “Why did you tell the man that you had another brother?”

Jubilee Bible 2000                  .

Lexham English Bible            .

NIV, ©2011                             .

NIV – UK                                .

Tree of Life Version                .


Catholic Bibles (those having the imprimatur):

 

Christian Community (1988)  .

The Heritage Bible                 And Israel said, Why did you do evil to me by causing it to stand out boldly to the man about your brother?

New American Bible (2002)   .

New American Bible (2011)   Israel demanded, “Why did you bring this trouble on me by telling the man that you had another brother?”

New Jerusalem Bible             Then Israel said, 'Why did you bring this misery on me by telling the man you had another brother?'

New RSV                               .

Revised English Bible            Israel said, “Why have you treated me so badly by telling the man that you had another brother?”


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           Isra’el said, “Why did you bring such trouble my way by telling the man you had another brother?”

exeGeses companion Bible   And Yisra El says,

Why vilify you me,

as to tell the man whether you had yet a brother?

Hebraic Roots Bible               .

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               And Israel said, “Why did you serve me so ill as to tell the man that you had another brother?”

Judaica Press Complete T.    .

Kaplan Translation                 Israel said, 'Why did you do such a terrible thing to me, telling the man that you had another brother?'

Orthodox Jewish Bible           And Yisroel said, Why dealt ye so ill with me, as to tell the ish whether ye had yet another ach (brother)?

The Scriptures 1998              And Yisra’ĕl said, “Why did you do evil to me to inform the man that you still had another brother?”


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

The Amplified Bible                .

The Expanded Bible              Israel [Canother name for Jacob; 32:28] said, “Why did you tell the man you had another brother? You have ·caused me a lot of trouble [wronged/harmed me].”

The Geneva Bible                  .

Kretzmann’s Commentary    And Israel said, Wherefore dealt ye so ill with me as to tell the man whether ye had yet a brother? Some of the petulance of old age appears here, though it is by no means excluded that Jacob occasionally suspected his sons of knowing more about the disappearance of Joseph than they cared to tell.

NET Bible®                             Israel said, “Why did you bring this trouble on me by telling [The infinitive construct here explains how they brought trouble on Jacob.] the man you had one more brother?”

Syndein/Thieme                     And Israel {Jacob} kept on saying, "Why have you dealt so ill/evilly with me, as to tell the man whether you had yet a brother?" {Note: Jacob says 'why didn't you lie to the man and not tell him you had a brother??' Human viewpoint response. Another reason - use human viewpoint techniques to get through life - lying here (see Chapter 42:36 for more reasons for Jacob's misery). Jacob would lie, cheat and steal to get through life. The 'chiseler' - Jacob means 'chiseler' - meant at this point in his life, he still used human viewpoint thinking and chiseled everyone!}

The Voice                               Jacob: Why did you do this to me? Why did you tell this man you had another brother?


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Brenner’s Mechanical Trans....and Yisra'el [He turns El] said, why did you make me dysfunctional, telling to the man you had another brother,...

Concordant Literal Version    .

Context Group Version          And Israel said, Why did you {pl} deal so ill with me, as to tell the man whether you {pl} had yet a brother?

Darby Translation                  .

Emphasized Bible                  .

English Standard Version      Israel said, "Why did you treat me so badly as to tell the man that you had another brother?"

English Standard V. – UK       .

Evidence Bible                       .

Green’s Literal Translation    And Israel said, Why did you do evil to me to tell the man you still had a brother?

H. C. Leupold                         .

Jack Ballinger’s translation    .

Modern English Version         .

Modern KJV                           .

NASB                                     .

New European Version          .

New King James Version       And Israel said, “Why did you deal so wrongfully with me as to tell the man whether you had still another brother?”

Owen's Translation                .

Brenner’s Mechanical Trans..

Stuart Wolf                             .

Third Millennium Bible            .

Updated Bible Version 2.11   And Israel said, Why did you + deal so ill with me, as to tell the man whether you + had yet a brother?

A Voice in the Wilderness      .

Webster’s Bible Translation  .

World English Bible                .

Young's Literal Translation     .

Young’s Updated LT             And Israel says, “Why did you [all] evil to me, by declaring to the man that you [all] had yet a brother?”

 

The gist of this passage:     Jacob asks why this evil was done to him specifically, to tell the prime minister of Egypt that there was yet another brother.


Genesis 43:6

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend; to decide; to answer

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

Yiserâʾêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

God prevails; contender; soldier of God; transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun; God-given name to Jacob; and national name for the Jewish people

Strong’s #3478 & #3479 BDB #975

The NET Bible: The name Israel means "God fights" (although some interpret the meaning as "he fights [with] God"). See Gen 32:28. The NIV Study Bible understands his name to mean, he struggles with God. See Gen. 32:22–30.

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

mâh (מָה) [pronounced maw]

what, how, why

interrogative; exclamatory particle

Strong’s #4100 BDB #552

Lâmed + mâh together literally mean for why. They can be rendered why, for what reason, to what purpose, for what purpose, indicating an interrogatory sentence. BDB also offers the rendering lest. Gesenius, perhaps for this passage alone (1Chron. 15:13), offers the rendering on account of [that] which, because that.

râʿaʿ (רָעַע) [pronounced raw-ĢAHĢ]

to make evil, to do evil, to do ill, to cause to do evil, to cause something injurious to be done, to do harm

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil perfect

Strong’s #7489 BDB #949

The NET Bible: The verb may even have a moral connotation here, “Why did you do evil to me?” 

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

nâgad (נָגַד) [pronounced naw-GAHD]

to make conspicuous, to make known, to expound, to explain, to declare, to inform, to confess, to make it pitifully obvious that

Hiphil infinitive construct

Strong's #5046 BDB #616

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾîysh (אִיש) [pronounced eesh]

a man, a husband; anyone; a certain one; each, each one, everyone

masculine singular noun (sometimes found where we would use a plural); with the definite article

Strong's #376 BDB #35

hă (הֲ) [pronounced heh]

interrogative particle which acts almost like a piece of punctuation, like the upside-down question mark which begins a Spanish sentence. The verb to be may be implied. This can be used in an indirect interrogation and translated whether.

Strong’s #none BDB #209

Hă (הֲ) [pronounced heh] usually an interrogative particle; but can act as indirect interrogation and be translated if, whether [or not].

ʿôwd (עוֹד) [pronounced ģohd]

still, yet, again, again and again, repeatedly, in addition to; continue, continually; more, farther, besides; as yet, even yet

adverb

Strong’s #5750 BDB #728

In Gen. 43:6, this appears to be an adjective that means, another, an additional.

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾâch (אָח) [pronounced awhk]

brother, half-brother; kinsman or close relative; one who resembles

masculine singular noun

Strong's #251 BDB #26


Translation: Then Israel said, “Why did you do evil toward me to tell this [lit., the] man whether [or not] you [all] still had a brother?” Here I am surprised at the use of the name Israel instead of Jacob. Since that is his God-given name, one would expect it to be used when he is doing or saying something of spiritual significance. However, here, Jacob is whining. It is clear what the alternatives are and no matter what is discussed, the alternatives will remain the same. Even if his sons were wrong, which they weren't, the past cannot be changed. What he will say to them will not be by way of a valuable lesson in their lives; a reiteration of what they should have learned from what they had done—it will just be Jacob trying to place blame. There is no one more egotistical than someone who thinks that everything that others do concerns them, and that they are the victim of everyone else’s actions.


This is unusual, because usually, when Jacob is called Israel, it is revealing perhaps a smidgeon of goodness in this man. Here, he takes what his sons did very personally, as if they were thinking, “How can we screw up dad’s life even more? Oh, I know, we will tell Pharaoh about our younger brother at home.” Obviously, that was not the thinking of these men.


With all of the sons of Israel speaking at once, without necessarily any prodding from the prime minister (although he may have prodded), the sons of Israel let it be known that they had two other brothers.


Given the verse that follows, it appears that Joseph did ask them questions which led them to telling him about their two other brothers. Since Joseph is one of those brothers, he was going to ask questions to get information about his younger brother, himself (whom they say is dead), and his father.


When the brothers of Joseph sold him into slavery, It did not full enter into their consciousness just how much this would impact their father Jacob. They simply did not think things through.


So there is no misunderstanding, Jacob is wrong in two areas: (1) he is trying to place blame where there is none (what comes to mind is frivolous lawsuits); and, (2) he turns things around so that he sees what was done was an intentional slight against him. This is short-sighted and egotistical.


Genesis 43:6 And Israel [= Jacob] said, “Why have you dealt ill with me, to tell the man whether you had yet a brother?”


Jacob asks them, “Why did you tell them you had a younger brother? How could you do that to me?” Jacob continues to see everything through the prism of his own life. To Jacob, he cannot understand why his sons would have told the prime minister about Benjamin and he takes this slip-up quite personally, as if this was their plan, to make his life miserable.


There are some people who relate each and every detail of that which goes on around them only as it relates to them. Jacob has become one of those kinds of people. Somehow, he thinks that his sons had ill motivation towards him, which caused them to reveal that they had a younger brother at home, thus putting Benjamin—Jacob’s favorite son—into danger. Jacob’s thinking was, “There was no reason for you to mention Benjamin.” He seems either unable or unwilling to understand what really happened, which his sons have fully explained to him.


Since we studied those chapters, we know that it was apparent that Jacob’s sons were panicked and began saying anything at all which might mollify the prime minister with his accusations. Saying that they are all brothers from the same father explained why 10 young men showed up to buy grain (his suspicions would have been that these are 10 generals who are casing Egypt for an attack).


——————————


Translations are always fascinating. In vv. 3–5, almost all of the translators agreed, nearly word-for-word. However, even though the meaning of this next verse is preserved throughout, the translations tended to be quite different, offering a multitude of different words, yet all meaning about the same thing.


And so they say, “Interrogating he interrogated the man to us and to our family, to say, ‘Is still your father alive? Is there to you [all] a brother?’ And so we made known to him upon a mouth of the words the these. Knowing how could we know that he says, ‘Bring down your brother’?”

Genesis

43:7

So they said, “He carefully [and thoroughly] interrogated each one concerning ourselves and our family, asking, ‘Is your father still alive? Do you have a brother?’ So we made known to him according to these words. How could we have known [for certain] that he would say, ‘Bring your brother down [to me]’?”

So they said, “He carefully and thoroughly interrogated each one of us about our own lives and about our family, asking questions like, “Is your father still alive? Do you have any other brothers?’ So we answered honestly the questions that he asked. How could we have possibly known he would say, ‘Now bring your brother down to me’?”.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so they say, “Interrogating he interrogated the man to us and to our family, to say, ‘Is still your father alive? Is there to you [all] a brother?’ And so we made known to him upon a mouth of the words the these. Knowing how could we know that he says, ‘Bring down your brother’?”

Dead Sea Scrolls                   .

Targum of Onkelos                .

Jerusalem targum                  .

Targum (Onkelos)                  And they said, The man asking asked us concerning our family ["Our generation."], saying, Is your father yet alive ? Have you a brother? And we showed him according to the word of these things: knowing could we know that be would say, Bring your brother to me?

Targum (Pseudo-Jonathan)   And they said, The man demanding demanded (to know) about us, and about our family, saying Is your father yet living? Have you a brother? And we informed him according to the word of these things. Could we know that be would say, Bring your brother down?

Revised Douay-Rheims         But they answered: The man asked us in order concerning our kindred: if our father lived: if we had a brother: and we answered him regularly, according to what he demanded: Bring hither your brother with you?

Latin Vulgate                          .

Aramaic ESV of Peshitta        They said, "The man asked directly concerning ourselves, and concerning our relatives, saying, 'Is your father still alive? Have you another brother?' We just answered his questions. Is there any way we could know that he would say, 'Bring your brother down?'"

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And they said, The man asked us straitly about ourselves and our kindred, saying, Is your father still alive? Have you another brother? And we told him simply because of these words; could we have known in advance that he would say to us that we should bring our brother down?

Septuagint (Greek)                And they said, The man closely questioned us about our family also, saying, Does your father yet live, and have you a brother? and we answered him according to this question: did we know that he would say to us, Bring your brother?

NETS (Greek)                        .

Brenton’s Septuagint             .

 

Significant differences: 


Limited Vocabulary Translations:

 

Bible in Basic English             And they said, The man put a number of questions to us about ourselves and our family, saying, Is your father still living? have you another brother? And we had to give him answers; how were we to have any idea that he would say, Come back with your brother?

Easy English                          The brothers replied, ‘The man asked us many questions about ourselves and our family. He asked us whether our father was still alive. He asked us whether we had any other brother. We only told him what he asked. We did not know that he would ask us to bring our brother down with us.’

Easy-to-Read Version–2001  .

Easy-to-Read Version–2006  .

Easy-to-Read Version–2006  The brothers answered, “He asked lots of questions. He wanted to know all about us and about our family. He asked us, ‘Is your father still alive? Do you have another brother at home?’ We only answered his questions. We didn’t know he would ask us to bring our brother to him!”

Easy-to-Read Version–2006  .

International Children’s B.     The brothers answered, “He questioned us carefully about ourselves and our family. He asked us, ‘Is your father still alive? Do you have another brother?’ We just answered his questions. How could we know he would ask us to bring our other brother to him?”

God’s Word                         .

Good News Bible (TEV)         .

The Message                         They said, “The man pressed us hard, asking pointed questions about our family: ‘Is your father alive? Do you have another brother?’ So we answered his questions. How did we know that he’d say, ‘Bring your brother here’?”

Names of God Bible               .

NIRV                                      .

New Simplified Bible              .


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           They said, “The man asked us pointedly about our family: ‘Is your father still alive? Do you have a brother?’ So we told him just what we’ve said. How were we to know he’d say, ‘Bring your brother down here’?”

Contemporary English V.       They answered, "He asked a lot of questions about us and our family. He wanted to know if you were still alive and if we had any more brothers. All we could do was answer his questions. How could we know he would tell us to bring along our brother?"

The Living Bible                     “But the man specifically asked us about our family,” they told him. “He wanted to know whether our father was still living and he asked us if we had another brother, so we told him. How could we know that he was going to say, ‘Bring me your brother’?”

New Berkeley Version           .

New Century Version             .

New Life Version                    .

New Living Translation           “The man kept asking us questions about our family,” they replied. “He asked, ‘Is your father still alive? Do you have another brother?’ So we answered his questions. How could we know he would say, ‘Bring your brother down here’?”


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          And they replied: 'The man asked a lot of questions about our family. He asked, Is your father still alive? and, Do you have you a brother? All we did was answer his questions! How could we know that he would tell us to bring our brother?'

Beck’s American Translation .

International Standard V        “The man specifically asked about us and our relatives,” they responded. “He asked us, ‘Is your father still alive?’ and ‘Do you have another brother?’ So we answered his questions. How could we have known that he would tell us to bring our brother back with us?”

New Advent (Knox) Bible       Why, they answered, the man asked news of all our family in turn, whether our father was still alive, and whether we had any brother besides; we told him no more than he asked, and how were we to know he would demand to have our brother brought into his presence?

Today’s NIV                          .

Translation for Translators     One of them replied, “The man asked about us and about our family. He said, ‘Is your father still living? Do you have another brother?’ We had to answer his questions. We could not know that he would say, ‘The next time that you come down here, bring your brother with you!’/How could we know that he would say, ‘The next time that you come down here, bring your brother with you!’ ” [RHQ]


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Awful Scroll Bible                   They were to say: The man is to have enquired, an enquiring of our offsprings, to the intent: Is you all's father alive? Persist to yous other brothers? We were to tell the concerns to him by mouth. Were we to know a knowing, that he was to say: Be bringing down, a bringing down of you all's brother?

Conservapedia                       And they said, "The man asked us specifically about our status, and our kindred. He asked, 'Is your father still alive? Do you have another brother?' So we answered the questions that he asked of us. How were we supposed to know that he would say, 'Bring your brother down'?"

Ferrar-Fenton Bible                And they responded, "The man demanded of us about our birth-place, asking, 'Have you a father living? Have you a brother ? ' and we told him straightforwardly about those things. How could we know he would say ' Bring your brother down with you' ? "

God’s Truth (Tyndale)           And they said: The man asked us of our kindred saying: is your father yet alive? have you not another brother? And we told him according to these words. How could we know that he would bid us bring our brother down with us?

HCSB                                     .

Jubilee Bible 2000                  .

H. C. Leupold                         The man closely questioned us about our family, saying: Is your father still alive? Have you a brother? and so we told him the facts of the case. Could we know in any way that he would say: Bring your brother down?

Lexham English Bible            And they said, "The man asked explicitly about us and about our family, saying, 'Is your father still alive? Do you have a brother?' And we answered him according to these words. How could we know that he would say, 'Bring down your brother'?"

NIV, ©2011                             .

NIV – UK                                .

Tree of Life Version                They said, “The man questioned particularly about us and about our relatives saying, ‘Is your father still alive? Do you have a brother?’ So we spoke to him on the basis of these words. How could we possibly know that he would say, ‘Bring your brother down’”?


Catholic Bibles (those having the imprimatur):

 

Christian Community (1988)  They replied, “The man questioned us carefully about ourselves and our kinsfolk saying: ‘Is your father still alive? Have you another brother?’ And so we answered these questions. Could we have known that he would tell us to bring our brother?”

The Heritage Bible                 And they said, Asking, the man asked about us, and about our family, saying, Is your father yet alive? Is there to you a brother? And we caused it to stand out boldly to him by the mouth of these words. Could we, knowing, know by seeing that he would say, Cause your brother to descend?

New American Bible (2002)   They answered: "The man kept asking about ourselves and our family: 'Is your father still living? Do you have another brother?' We had to answer his questions. How could we know that he would say, 'Bring your brother down here'?"

New American Bible (2011)   .

New Jerusalem Bible             They replied, 'He kept questioning us about ourselves and our family, asking, "Is your father still alive?" and, "Have you another brother?" That is why we told him. How could we know he was going to say, "Bring your brother down here"?'

New RSV                               They replied, ‘The man questioned us carefully about ourselves and our kindred, saying, “Is your father still alive? Have you another brother?” What we told him was in answer to these questions. Could we in any way know that he would say, “Bring your brother down”?’

Revised English Bible            They answered, “The man questioned us closely about ourselves and our family: ‘Is your father still alive?’ he asked, ‘Have you a brother?’ and we answered his questions. How were we to know he would tell us to bring our brother down?”


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           They answered, “The man kept questioning us about ourselves and about our kinsmen. He asked, ‘Is your father still alive?’ ‘Do you have another brother?’ and we answered according to the literal meaning of his questions. How were we to know he would say, ‘Bring your brother down’?”

exeGeses companion Bible   And they say,

In asking, the man asked us of our state

and of our kindred, saying,

Is your father yet alive? Have you a brother?

and we tell him

according to the mouth of these words:

in knowing, how know we that he says,

Descend your brother?

Hebraic Roots Bible               .

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               They replied, “But the man kept asking about us and our family, saying, ‘Is your father still living? Have you another brother?’ And we answered him accordingly. How were we to know that he would say, ‘Bring your brother here’?”

Judaica Press Complete T.    .

Kaplan Translation                 [The brothers] replied, 'The man kept asking about us and our family. He asked, 'Is your father still alive? Do you have another brother?' We simply answered his questions. How were we to know that he would demand that we bring our brother there?'

Orthodox Jewish Bible           And they said, The ish asked in detail about us and about our moledet (kindred), saying, Is Avichem yet alive? Have ye another ach? And we declared to him according to these words of [his inquiry]; could we certainly know that he would say, Bring down achichem?

The Scriptures 1998              And they said, “The man kept asking about us and our relatives, saying, ‘Is your father still alive? Have you another brother?’ And we informed him according to these words. How could we know that he would say, ‘Bring your brother down’?”


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

The Amplified Bible                And they said, “The man asked us straightforward questions about ourselves and our relatives. He said, ‘Is your father still alive? Have you another brother?’ And we answered him accordingly. How could we possibly know that he would say, ‘Bring your brother down [here to Egypt]’?”

The Expanded Bible              The brothers answered, “He questioned us ·carefully [or specifically] about ourselves and our family. He asked us, ‘Is your father still alive? Do you have another brother?’ We just answered his questions. How could we know he would ask us to bring our other brother to him?”

The Geneva Bible                  .

Kretzmann’s Commentary    And they said, The man asked us straitly of our state, he asked again and again, he was very inquisitive and insistent, and of our kindred, saying, Is your father yet alive? Have ye another brother? And we told him according to the tenor of these words, they answered him as best they could and exactly. Could we certainly know that he would say, Bring your brother down? The account of the preceding Chapter is thus supplemented.

NET Bible®                             They replied, “The man questioned us [The word “us” has been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.] thoroughly about ourselves and our family, saying, ‘Is your father still alive? Do you have another brother?’ So we answered him in this way [Heb “and we told to him according to these words.”]. How could we possibly know that he would say, ‘Bring your brother down’?”

Syndein/Thieme                     And they kept on saying, "Directly interrogating . . . the man interrogated {sha'al sha'al - very strong doubled} about our state, and of our kindred, saying, Is your father yet alive? Have you another brother? And we told him according to the tenor of these words Knowing . . . could we know {yada` yada` doubled - very strong and excited at this point} that he would say, Bring your brother down?"

The Voice                               Joseph’s Brothers: The man questioned us about every detail of ourselves and our relatives. He asked if our father was still alive and if we had another brother. What we told him was only in answer to all of his questions. How could we in any way know he would tell us to bring our brother down there?


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Brenner’s Mechanical Trans....and they said, the man greatly inquired about us and about our kindred saying, is your father yet alive and is there to you a brother, and we told to him upon the mouth of these words, could we know that he would say, bring down your brother,...

Concordant Literal Version    And saying are they, "In his asking, the man asked concerning us and concerning our kindred, saying, `Still is your father living? Forsooth, have you a brother?' And we told him, at his bidding these matters of which he asked. Did we know, yea, know that he would say to us, `Bring down your brother'?

Context Group Version          And they said, The man asked concerning ourselves, and concerning our family, saying, Is your {pl} father yet alive? Have you {pl} [ another ] brother? and we told him according to the tenor of these words: could we in any wise know that he would say, Bring your {pl} brother down?

Darby Translation                  And they said, The man asked very closely after us, and after our kindred, saying, Is your father yet alive? have ye a brother? And we told him according to the tenor of these words. Could we at all know that he would say, Bring your brother down?

Emphasized Bible                  .

English Standard Version      They replied, "The man questioned us carefully about ourselves and our kindred, saying, 'Is your father still alive? Do you have another brother?' What we told him was in answer to these questions. Could we in any way know that he would say, 'Bring your brother down'?"

English Standard V. – UK       .

Evidence Bible                       .

Green’s Literal Translation    And they said, The man keenly asked about us and about our kindred, saying, Is your father still alive? Is there a brother to you? And we said to him on the mouth of these words. Could we know certainly that he would say, Bring down your brother?

Jack Ballinger’s translation    But they said, "The man questioned particularly about us and our relatives, saying, 'Is your father still alive? Have you another brother?' So we answered his questions. Could we possibly know that he would say, 'Bring your brother down'?"

Modern English Version         And they said, “The man asked us directly about ourselves and our family, saying, ‘Is your father still alive? Do you have another brother?’ So we answered his questions. How could we even know that he would say, ‘Bring your brother down’?”

Modern KJV                           .

NASB                                     But they said, “The man questioned particularly about us and our relatives, saying, ‘Is your father still alive? Have you another brother?’ So we answered his questions. Could we possibly know that he would say, ‘Bring your brother down’?”

New European Version          They said, The man asked directly concerning ourselves, and concerning our relatives, saying, ‘Is your father still alive? Have you another brother?’ We just answered his questions. Is there any way we could know that he would say, ‘Bring your brother down?’

New King James Version       But they said, “The man asked us pointedly about ourselves and our family, saying, ‘Is your father still alive? Have you another brother?’ And we told him according to these words. Could we possibly have known that he would say, ‘Bring your brother down’?”

Owen's Translation                .

Brenner’s Mechanical Trans..

Stuart Wolf                             .

Third Millennium Bible            And they said, "The man asked us strictly about our state, and about our kindred, saying, `Is your father yet alive? Have ye another brother?' And we told him according to the tenor of these words. Could we certainly know that he would say, `Bring your brother down'?"

Updated Bible Version 2.11   .

A Voice in the Wilderness      .

Webster’s Bible Translation  And they said, The man asked us strictly concerning our state, and our kindred, saying, Is your father yet alive? have ye another brother? and we told him according to the tenor of these words: Could we certainly know that he would say, Bring your brother down?

World English Bible                They said, “The man asked directly concerning ourselves, and concerning our relatives, saying, ‘Is your father still alive? Have you another brother?’ We just answered his questions. Is there any way we could know that he would say, ‘Bring your brother down?’”

Young's Literal Translation     .

Young’s Updated LT             And they say, “The man asked diligently concerning us, and concerning our kindred, saying, Is your father yet alive? Have you [all] a brother? And we declare to him according to the tenor of these things; do we certainly know that he will say, Bring down your brother?”

 

The gist of this passage:     The sons of Jacob object to his question, saying they simply answered the questions offered to them, adding, “How did we know he would require us to bring our brother down to him?”


Genesis 43:7a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend; to decide; to answer

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

shâʾal (שָאַל) [pronounced shaw-AHL]

to ask [petition, request, inquire]; to demand [require]; to question, to interrogate; to ask [for a loan]; to consult; to salute

Qal infinitive absolute

Strong’s #7592 BDB #981

shâʾal (שָאַל) [pronounced shaw-AHL]

to ask [petition, request, inquire]; to demand [require]; to question, to interrogate; to ask [for a loan]; to consult; to salute

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #7592 BDB #981

The NET Bible: The infinitive absolute with the perfect verbal form emphasizes that Joseph questioned them thoroughly.

ʾîysh (אִיש) [pronounced eesh]

a man, a husband; anyone; a certain one; each, each one, everyone

masculine singular noun (sometimes found where we would use a plural); with the definite article

Strong's #376 BDB #35

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition; with the 1st person plural suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

môwledeth (מוֹלְדֶת) [pronounced mohle-DETH]

birth, origin, native; kindred, family; progeny, [female] offspring, children; circumstances of birth

feminine singular noun with the 1st person plural suffix

Strong’s #4138 BDB #409


Translation: So they said, “He carefully [and thoroughly] interrogated each one concerning ourselves and our family,... Again, the response is from all of the sons of Jacob, meaning that 2 or 3 or 4 of them answer Jacob’s ridiculous objection. So the phrasing here sounds like it is one person, but these are the comments from several brothers.


Joseph, when he accused them of being spies, did not do a pretend job of interrogating them. We would not have gotten that impression from the narrative itself, but what Jacob’s sons here say, indicates that Joseph did a very thorough job interrogating his brothers. Now, he did it (1) to make it sound like a real interrogation and (2) to elicit information about his younger brother Benjamin.


What is said here suggests that Joseph took these men to separate areas and interrogated them, getting a good idea about them and their truthfulness. Given the narrative and the text here, it sounds as if Jacob’s sons were all honest in their answers.


Genesis 43:7b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend; to decide; to answer

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

hă (הֲ) [pronounced heh]

interrogative particle which acts almost like a piece of punctuation, like the upside-down question mark which begins a Spanish sentence. The verb to be may be implied. This can be used in an indirect interrogation and translated whether.

Strong’s #none BDB #209

ʿôwd (עוֹד) [pronounced ģohd]

still, yet, again, again and again, repeatedly, in addition to; continue, continually; more, farther, besides; as yet, even yet

adverb

Strong’s #5750 BDB #728

ʾâb (אָב) [pronounced awbv]

father, both as the head of a household, clan or tribe; ancestor, grandfather; founder, civil leader, military leader; master, teacher

masculine singular noun with the 2nd person masculine plural, singular suffix

Strong’s #1 BDB #3

chay (חַי) [pronounced KHAH-ee]

living, alive, active, lively, vigorous [used of man or animals]; green [vegetation]; fresh [used of a plant]; flowing [water]; reviving [of the springtime]; raw [flesh]

adjective

Strong's #2416 BDB #311


Translation: ...asking, ‘Is your father still alive? No doubt, Joseph asked most or all of the brothers this question; as obviously, he would want to know about his father and how his father is doing.


Although in chapter 42 we do not have the specific question, is your father still alive, this would have been a question that Joseph would have asked. Apparently in Gen. 42:12, Joseph inquired about the family, having been told that they were the sons of one man. The reason we know this is not this passage (because here Judah could be lying) but in Gen. 44:19, Judah reminds Joseph that he, Joseph, inquired about the family. Judah will know enough at that point not to try to snow Joseph. So they volunteer information about their father and about Benjamin. They weren't wrong in doing so; there is no real blame to lay on anyone here. And they were absolutely right when they said, how could we have known that he would say, 'Bring down your brother.'?" They did not know who Joseph was, they had assumed that their explanation as to the number would be reasonably explained by the fact that they are all brothers, sons of the same man. As brothers, they undertook certain responsibilities together.


When it comes to a careful interrogation, particularly of several people, innocent people need to tell the entire truth, so that there are not glaring contradictions in the stories of these brothers. You may recall that Joseph appeared to carefully interrogate his brothers, as if they might be spies from another country looking to plunder Egypt. Obviously, we know that Joseph had no such suspicions, but when voicing such a possibility, he could not pursue questioned using halfway, unprofessional measures.


Genesis 43:7c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

hă (הֲ) [pronounced heh]

interrogative particle which acts almost like a piece of punctuation, like the upside-down question mark which begins a Spanish sentence. The verb to be may be implied. This can be used in an indirect interrogation and translated whether.

Strong’s #none BDB #209

yêsh (יֵש) [pronounced yaysh]

being, substance, existence; used as a substitute for to be (without reference to number or tense); there [is, are]; to be present, to be ready, to exist

substantive with a 2nd person masculine singular suffix; the verb to be may be implied

Strong’s #3426 BDB #441

The substantive yêsh often acts as a substantive plus the absolute status quo verb to be; e.g., [if] there be (1Sam. 20:8), there is (Esther 3:8), there shall be (Jer. 31:6). However, this acts not as a mere copula [pronounced KOP-ye-la], but existence is emphasized. In the KJV, the verbal portion of this is often italicized. The second word in the second line of Job 6:6 is the substantive of existence or being—or is there, or does there exist. We often render this there is, even though there is no verb.

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾâch (אָח) [pronounced awhk]

brother, half-brother; kinsman or close relative; one who resembles

masculine singular noun

Strong's #251 BDB #26


Translation: Do you have a brother?’ There were 10 brothers. What they say here suggests that no one just volunteered information about their family, but that Joseph asked them, and they responded honestly. So, whoever was asked this question said yes and told of the two brothers.

 

The NET Bible: The report given here concerning Joseph’s interrogation does not exactly match the previous account where they supplied the information to clear themselves (see 42:13). This section may reflect how they remembered the impact of his interrogation, whether he asked the specific questions or not. That may be twisting the truth to protect themselves, not wanting to admit that they volunteered the information. (They admitted as much in 42:31, but now they seem to be qualifying that comment.) On the other hand, when speaking to Joseph later (see 44:19), Judah claims that Joseph asked for the information about their family, making it possible that 42:13 leaves out some of the details of their first encounter.


We must also bear in mind that Joseph appeared to have interviewed several brothers independently, as a prime minister would do of people he suspects of being spies.


When it says we told him upon the mouth of these words, it is idiomatic for this is what in essence we told him. or these are the words with which we spoke to him.


Genesis 43:7d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

nâgad (נָגַד) [pronounced naw-GAHD]

to make conspicuous, to make known, to expound, to explain, to declare, to inform, to confess, to make it pitifully obvious that

1st person plural, Hiphil imperfect

Strong's #5046 BDB #616

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of relative proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

debârîym (דְּבָרִים) [pronounced dawb-vawr-EEM]

words, sayings, doctrines, commands; things, matters, affairs; reports

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong's #1697 BDB #182

ʾêlleh (אֵלֶּה) [pronounced ALE-leh]

these, these things

demonstrative plural adjective with the definite article

Strong's #428 BDB #41

The phrase the words the these can either refer to what will immediately follow this phrase (see Gen. 2:4 6:9 11:10), or it refers back to what has come before (see Gen. 9:19 10:20, 29, 31). Obviously, since a quotation does not follow, then this refers back to what precedes this. Given the addition of the kaph preposition, Goliath is making the same announcement as he has made before (from 1Sam. 17:23).


Translation: So we made known to him according to these words. What they have told their father is what they have said. “When we were asked these questions, we gave simple honest responses.


Genesis 43:7e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

hă (הֲ) [pronounced heh]

interrogative particle which acts almost like a piece of punctuation, like the upside-down question mark which begins a Spanish sentence. The verb to be may be implied. This can be used in an indirect interrogation and translated whether.

Strong’s #none BDB #209

yâdaʿ (יָדַע) [pronounced yaw-DAHĢ]

to know, to perceive, to acquire knowledge, to become acquainted with, to know by experience, to have a knowledge of something; to see; to learn; to recognize [admit, acknowledge, confess]

Qal infinitive absolute

Strong’s #3045 BDB #393

yâdaʿ (יָדַע) [pronounced yaw-DAHĢ]

to know, to perceive, to acquire knowledge, to become acquainted with, to know by experience, to have a knowledge of something; to see; to learn; to recognize [admit, acknowledge, confess]

1st person plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #3045 BDB #393

The NET Bible: The infinitive absolute emphasizes the imperfect verbal form, which here is a historic future (that is, future from the perspective of a past time).

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend; to decide; to answer

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

The NET Bible: Once again the imperfect verbal form is used as a historic future (that is, future from the perspective of past time).

yârad (יָרַד) [pronounced yaw-RAHD]

cause to go [or, come] down, make come down, bring down, lead down

2nd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperative

Strong’s #3381 BDB #432

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʾâch (אָח) [pronounced awhk]

brother, half-brother; kinsman or close relative; one who resembles

masculine singular noun with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #251 BDB #26


Translation: How could we have known [for certain] that he would say, ‘Bring your brother down [to me]’?” The repetition of the verb simply suggests that there is no way they would have known that the prime minister would suddenly say, “Okay, now bring your young living brother to me.”


One moment, they are giving simple, honest replies; the next moment, the Prime Minister tells them, “Bring your youngest brother to see me, to prove the veracity of your testimonies.”


Genesis 43:7 And they said, “The man asked us strictly of our state and of our kindred, saying, ‘Is your father still alive? Have you yet another brother?’ And we told him according to the tenor of these words. Could we certainly know that he would say, ‘Bring your brother down’?”


This verse suggests that there was much more conversation which occurred than was recorded. Although what Judah said was not exactly right; this does not appear to be an embellishment of their story. Joseph would have asked the brothers a great many questions. It would have appeared to them that he was trying to trip them up in their story; but he was simply eliciting information about the rest of the family. Joseph did want to see Benjamin and his father Jacob again. At that point, he was still unsure about revealing himself to his other brothers.


Joseph will ask them again about their father in this chapter upon their return. Furthermore, this would make sense that, when Joseph questioned them, that he would have turned the focus toward his brother and father (obviously, the brothers still do not suspect who Joseph really is).


——————————



Summarizing Genesis 42:1–43:7: A year has passed since Gen. 42. The sons of Jacob had gone to Egypt to buy grain because of the famine and were accused of being spies by the prime minister there (the prime minister there is Joseph, their brother, whom they do not recognize). The prime minister throws all of them in jail; and then three days later, says that 9 of them can return to Canaan, but he will keep one of them (Simeon) imprisoned until they return with the remaining brother.

 

When the brothers return home and convey all of this to their father Jacob, they also discover that all of them have the silver that they left with in their bags of grain. This was the silver that was supposed to have been given to Joseph to purchase the grain. So, not only are they accused of being spies, but now it appears that they have taken the grain without paying for it (or it appears as if they somehow took their silver back).

 

As a result of all this, Jacob had refused to let them return with Benjamin. They have enough grain for a year, and Jacob requires that they just leave things as they are. They have grain and Simeon is sitting in an Egyptian prison. Jacob, the patriarch, would not give his okay for Benjamin to return with the brothers in order to fetch Simeon from jail. He just did not want to take the chance.

 

What they did not expect was, the famine continues. A year later, there is still a famine in the land. The grain which Jacob’s sons purchased lasted a year, and now they were hungry once again.

 

In Gen. 43:1–7, because the famine has continued into year two, the brothers will have to return to Egypt, and that Benjamin must go with them this time. Judah, the 4th son, has stepped up as the leader among his brothers, and he is attempting to convince his father that there is no other choice but to send Benjamin along with them.

 

Although we cover this back-and-forth conversation in about ten verses, it makes seem as if this took place in about 10 minutes. However, clearly this conversation was much more involved and clearly took place over a period of a few weeks (we will get this from v. 10).


And so says Judah unto Israel, his father, “Send the boy with me and let us rise up and let us go and we will live and not die, both us and you and our little ones. I, [even] I am a pledge for him; from my hand you will require him. If not I bring him unto you and I place him to your faces and I have sinned to you all the days. For otherwise, we linger for now we have returned here two times.”

Genesis

43:8–10

So Judah said to Israel, his father, “Send the boy with me and let us rise up and we will go, so that we live and not die, both us, you and our little ones. I will [surely] be a pledge for him; you will require him from my hand. If I do not bring him to you and place him before you, then I have sinned regarding you in perpetuity. In the alternative, we linger, for by now, we could have returned here two times.”

So Judah said to Israel, his father, “Send the boy with me so that we may rise up and go, so that our entire family may live rather than die. Let me be the pledge for Benjamin; you will require him from me. If I do not bring him back to you, then I will have sinned against you in perpetuity. However, we continue to linger during which time, we could have gone there and come back a couple of times.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so says Judah unto Israel, his father, “Send the boy with me and we will rise up and we will go and we will live and not die, both us and you and our little ones. I, [even] I am a pledge for him; from my hand you will require him. If not I bring him unto you and I place him to your faces and I have sinned to you all the days. For otherwise, we linger for now we have returned here two times.”

Dead Sea Scrolls                   .

Targum of Onkelos                And Jehuda said to Israel his father, Send the youth with me, and let us arise and go, that we may live and not die, we, and thou, and our little ones. I will be the pledge for him; of my hand shalt thou require him; if I do not bring him back to thee, and set him before thee, let mine be the sin with thee all the days. For except we had delayed in this, we might now have returned twice.

Targum (Pseudo-Jonathan)   And Jehuda said to Israel his father, Send the youth with me, that we may arise and go; and that we may live and not die, both we, and you, and our little ones. I will be surety for him: of my hand shalt thou require him. If I bring him not to thee again, and set him before thee, the guilt be upon me before thee all days. [JERUSALEM. I will be afar off from the salutation of my father all days.] For unless we had thus delayed, we should already have returned these two times.

Revised Douay-Rheims         And Juda said to his father: Send the boy with me, that we may set forward, and may live: lest both we and our children perish. I take the boy upon me, require him at my hand: unless I bring him again, and restore him to you, I will be guilty of sin against you for ever. If delay had not been made, we had been here again the second time.

Latin Vulgate                          .

Aramaic ESV of Peshitta        Yudah said to Yisrael, his father, "Send the boy with me, and we'll get up and go, so that we may live, and not die, both we, and you, and also our little ones. I'll be collateral for him. From my hand will you require him. If I do not bring him to you, and set him before you, then let me bear the blame forever, for if we had not delayed, surely we would have returned a second time by now.".

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And Judah said to Israel his father, Send the lad with us, and we will arise and go; that we may live, and not die, both we, and you, and also our little ones. And I will be surety for him; of my hands shall you require him; if I do not bring him back to you, and set him before you, then I shall be guilty before my father forever; For if we had not delayed, perhaps we would have now returned a second time.

Septuagint (Greek)                And Judas said to his father Israel, Send the boy with me, and we will arise and go, that we may live and not die, both we and you, and our store. And I engage for him; at my hand do you require him; if I bring him not to you, and place him before you, I shall be guilty toward you for ever. For if we had not tarried, we should now have returned twice.

NETS (Greek)                        .

Brenton’s Septuagint             .

 

Significant differences: 


Limited Vocabulary Translations:

 

Bible in Basic English             Then Judah said to Israel, his father, Send the boy with me, and let us be up and going, so that we and you and our little ones may not come to destruction. Put him into my care and make me responsible for him: if I do not give him safely back to you, let mine be the sin for ever. Truly, if we had not let the time go by, we might have come back again by now.

Easy English                          Judah said to his father Israel, ‘Send the boy in my care. Then we will get ready and we will go. Then we shall live. If we do not go, we shall all die. That includes you and all our young children. I promise that the boy will be safe. I will be responsible for him. I will be guilty for always, if I do not bring him back to you safely. If we had not waited, we could have gone there. And we could have come back. We could have done it twice.’

Easy-to-Read Version–2001  .

Easy-to-Read Version–2006  Then Judah said to his father Israel, “Let Benjamin go with me. I will take care of him. We have to go to Egypt to get food. If we don’t go, we will all die—including our children. I will make sure he is safe. I will be responsible for him. If I don’t bring him back to you, you can blame me forever. If you had let us go before, we could have already made two trips for food.”

God’s Word                         .

Good News Bible (TEV)         Judah said to his father, “Send the boy with me, and we will leave at once. Then none of us will starve to death. I will pledge my own life, and you can hold me responsible for him. If I do not bring him back to you safe and sound, I will always bear the blame. If we had not waited so long, we could have been there and back twice by now.”

The Message                         Judah pushed his father Israel. “Let the boy go; I’ll take charge of him. Let us go and be on our way—if we don’t get going, we’re all going to starve to death—we and you and our children, too! I’ll take full responsibility for his safety; it’s my life on the line for his. If I don’t bring him back safe and sound, I’m the guilty one; I’ll take all the blame. If we had gone ahead in the first place instead of procrastinating like this, we could have been there and back twice over.”

Names of God Bible               .

NIRV                                      Judah spoke to Israel his father. “Send the boy along with me,” he said. “We’ll go right away. Then we and you and our children will live and not die. I myself promise to keep Benjamin safe. You can blame me if I don’t bring him back to you. I’ll set him right here in front of you. If I don’t, you can put the blame on me for the rest of my life. As it is, we’ve already waited too long. We could have made the trip to Egypt and back twice by now.”

New Simplified Bible              .


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           .

Contemporary English V.       Then Judah said to his father, "Let Benjamin go with me, and we will leave right away, so that none of us will starve to death. I promise to bring him back safely, and if I don't, you can blame me as long as I live. If we had not wasted all this time, we could already have been there and back twice."

The Living Bible                     Judah said to his father, “Send the lad with me and we will be on our way; otherwise we will all die of starvation—and not only we, but you and all our little ones. I guarantee his safety. If I don’t bring him back to you, then let me bear the blame forever. For we could have gone and returned by this time if you had let him come.”

New Berkeley Version           .

New Century Version             Then Judah said to his father Jacob, “Send Benjamin with me, and we will go at once so that we, you, and our children may live and not die. I will guarantee you that he will be safe, and I will be personally responsible for him. If I don’t bring him back to you, you can blame me all my life. If we had not wasted all this time, we could have already made two trips.”

New Life Version                    .

New Living Translation           .


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Then Judah said to his father, IsraEl: 'Send the boy with me and we'll go, so we don't all [starve] to death! 9 I'll be responsible for him, and you can hold me to blame if anything happens to him. If I don't return him and stand him before you, I will be guilty before you through the age. 10 Why, if we hadn't waited, we would already have gone there a second time!'

Beck’s American Translation .

International Standard V        “Send the young man with me,” Judah told his father Israel, “and we’ll get up and go so we can survive and not die—and that includes all of us, you and our families [Lit our defenseless ones; i.e. their wives and children]. I’ll even offer myself to guarantee that I’ll be responsible for him. If I don’t bring him back and present him to you, I’ll personally bear the consequences forever. After all, if we hadn’t delayed, we could have been there and back [Lit. have returned] twice by now!”

Revised Knox Bible                Let the boy go with me, Juda said to his father; let us go and find something to support life with, or we shall all die, and our children with us. I take the boy under my charge and make myself answerable for his safety; never forgive me if I do not bring him back and restore him to you. If there had not been this delay, we might have gone to Egypt and been back again by now.

Today’s NIV                          .

Translation for Translators     Then Judah said to his father Jacob, “Send the boy with me, and we will go immediately, in order that we and you and our children may get grain and not die from hunger. I myself will guarantee that he will return. You can require me to do what I am promising [IDI]. If I do not bring him back to you safely, you can say forever that I am to blame/it was my fault that he did not return to you . If we had not wasted so much time/waited so long , by now we could have gone there and returned two times!”


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Awful Scroll Bible                   Judah was to say to Isra-el, his father: Be sending the boy, we were to rise up and were to depart, even were we to live - were we to die and our children? I was to be surety for him, of my hand was you to require him - am I to have not brought him in, and am to have placed him turned before you? - I am to have been cleared that day. If for we have not delayed, we are to have turned back by this time.

Conservapedia                       Judah said to his father Israel, "Send the lad with me, and we will get up and go. It's life or death for us, and you, and our own little children [Now Judah accepts responsibility.]. I will be his security. You can require him from my hand. If I don't bring him back to you, and set him before you, then I will take the blame for that all my days. Because if we hadn't dallied, we could have gone and come back twice."

Ferrar-Fenton Bible                Then Judah exclaimed to Israel, " Send the lad with me, and I will come up, and return him alive : and if not kill me, myself, as well as my children ! I pledge myself for him ! From my hand seek him if I do not bring him back to you ! then banish me from your face, for I shall have sinned against you all my days. If you had not hesitated, we should already have returned before now.".

God’s Truth (Tyndale)           Then said Juda unto Israel his father: Send the lad with me, and we will rise and go, that we may live and not die: both we, you and also our children. I will be surety for him, and of my hands require him. If I bring him not to you and set him before your eyes, then let me bear the blame for ever. For except we had made this tarrying: by this we had been there twice and come again.

HCSB                                     .

Jubilee Bible 2000                  .

H. C. Leupold                         But Judah in particular said to Israel, his father: Let the lad go along with me, and let us be up and going, that we may keep alive and not die, both we, and thou, and our families. I personally will go bond for him. Demand him at my hand. If I do not bring him back to thee and set him before thy face, I shall count as guilty before thee forever. For if we had not procrastinated so long, surely by this time we could have returned at least twice.

Lexham English Bible            Then Judah said to his father Israel, "Send the boy with me, and let us arise and go, so that we will live and not die--you, we, and our children. I myself will be surety for him. You may seek him from my hand. If I do not bring him back to you and present him before you, then I will stand guilty before you forever. Surely if we had not hesitated by this [time] we would have returned twice."

NIV, ©2011                             Then Judah said to Israel his father, “Send the boy along with me and we will go at once, so that we and you and our children may live and not die. I myself will guarantee his safety; you can hold me personally responsible for him. If I do not bring him back to you and set him here before you, I will bear the blame before you all my life. As it is, if we had not delayed, we could have gone and returned twice.”

NIV – UK                                .

Tree of Life Version                .


Catholic Bibles (those having the imprimatur):

 

Christian Community (1988)  .

The Heritage Bible                 And Judah said to Israel, his father, Send the youth with me, and we will rise up, and walk so that we may live, and not die, both we, and you, and also our little ones. I will be security for him; you may search him out from my hand; if I do not bring him to you, and place him before your face, then let it be sin upon me all days, Because if we had not hesitated, surely now we would have returned this second stroke.

New American Bible (2002)   Then Judah urged his father Israel: "Let the boy go with me, that we may be off and on our way if you and we and our children are to keep from starving to death. I myself will stand surety for him. You can hold me responsible for him. If I fail to bring him back, to set him in your presence, you can hold it against me forever. Had we not dilly-dallied, we could have been there and back twice by now!"

New American Bible (2011)   Then Judah urged his father Israel: “Let the boy go with me, that we may be off and on our way if you and we and our children are to keep from starving to death [Gn 42:37.]. I myself will serve as a guarantee for him. You can hold me responsible for him. If I fail to bring him back and set him before you, I will bear the blame before you forever [Gn 44:32.]. Had we not delayed, we could have been there and back twice by now!”

New Jerusalem Bible             Judah then said to his father Israel, 'Send the boy with me, and let us be off and go, if we are to survive and not die, we, you, and our dependants. I will go surety for him, and you can hold me responsible for him. If I do not bring him back to you and produce him before you, let me bear the blame all my life. Indeed, if we had not wasted so much time we should have been there and back twice by now!'

New RSV                               .

Revised English Bible            Judah said to Israel his father, “Send the boy with me; then we can start at once, and save everyone's life, ours, yours, and those of our children. I shall go surety for him, and you may hold me responsible. If I do not bring him back and restore him to you, you can blame me for it all my life. If we had not wasted all this time, we could have made the journey twice by now.”


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           Y’hudah said to Isra’el his father, “Send the boy with me; and we will make preparations and leave; so that we may stay alive and not die, both we and you, and also our little ones. I myself will guarantee his safety; you can hold me responsible. If I fail to bring him to you and present him to your face, let me bear the blame forever. Except for our lengthy delay, we would have been there again by now.”

exeGeses companion Bible   And Yah Hudah says to Yisra El his father,

Send the lad with me and we rise and go;

so that we live and not die

- both we and you and also our toddlers.

I - I pledge for him;

you require him from my hand

if I bring him not to you and set him facing you

- then I have sinned against you all days:

for had we not lingered,

by this time we had returned this second time.

Hebraic Roots Bible               .

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               Then Judah said to his father Israel, “Send the boy in my care, and let us be on our way, that we may live and not die—you and we and our children. I myself will be surety for him; you may hold me responsible: if I do not bring him back to you and set him before you, I shall stand guilty before you forever. For we could have been there and back twice if we had not dawdled.”

Judaica Press Complete T.    .

Kaplan Translation                 'Send the boy with me,' said Judah to his father Israel. 'Let us set out and get going. Let's live and not die - we, you, and also our children. I myself will be responsible for him. You can demand him from my own hand. If I do not bring him back and have him stand before you, I will have sinned for all time. But if we had not waited so long, we could have been there and back twice by now!'

Orthodox Jewish Bible           And Yehudah said unto Yisroel Aviv, Send na’ar with me, and we will arise and go; that we may live, and not die, both we, and thou, and also our little ones.

I will be surety for him; of my yad shalt thou require an accounting for him; if I bring him not back unto thee, and set him before thee, then let me bear the blame kol hayamim;

For if we had not delayed, surely now we had returned zeh pa’amayim (this second time).

The Scriptures 1998              And Yehuah said to Yisra’ĕl his father, “Send the boy with me, and let us arise and go, and live and not die, both we and you and also our little ones. “I myself shall stand guaranty for him – from my hand you are to require him. If I do not bring him back to you and set him before you, then let me bear the blame forever. “For if we had not delayed, truly by now we could have returned this second time.”


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

The Amplified Bible                Judah said to Israel his father, “Send the young man with me and we will get up and go [buy food], so that we may live and not die [of starvation], we as well as you and our little ones. I will be security (a guarantee) for him; you may hold me [personally] responsible for him. If I do not bring him [back] to you and place him [safely] before you, then let me bear the blame before you forever. For if we had not delayed like this, surely by now we would have returned the second time.”

The Expanded Bible              Then Judah said to his father ·Jacob [LIsrael; 32:28], “Send ·Benjamin [Lthe lad/child] with me, and we will ·go at once [Lrise up and go] so that we, you, and our ·children [little ones] may live and not die. I will ·guarantee you that he will be safe [Lbe a guarantee for him], and I will be personally ·responsible [accountable] for him. If I don’t bring him back to you, ·you can blame me [LI will be condemned before you] all my life. If we had not ·wasted all this time [been delayed], we could have already ·made two trips [returned twice].”

The Geneva Bible                  .

Kretzmann’s Commentary    And Judah said unto Israel, his father, Send the lad with me, and we will arise and go; that we may live, and not die, both we, and thou, and also our little ones. Judah follows up the somewhat timid apology of his brothers with a bold stroke, which was intended to overcome the objections of his father by its suddenness and daring I will be surety for him: of my hand shalt thou require him; if I bring him not unto thee, and set him before thee, then let me bear the blame forever. As his forefather did here, thus did the great descendant of Judah, our Lord Jesus Christ, become surety for us, by offering Himself for us into the very mouth of death. For except we had lingered, surely now we had returned this second time. The delay occasioned by the father's stubborn hesitation was threatening them all with starvation. There was need for quick, energetic action, and only so could they expect a joyful and speedy return.

NET Bible®                             Then Judah said to his father Israel, “Send the boy with me and we will go immediately. Then we will live and not die – we and you and our little ones. I myself pledge security [The pronoun before the first person verbal form draws attention to the subject and emphasizes Judah’s willingness to be personally responsible for the boy.] for him; you may hold me liable. If I do not bring him back to you and place him here before you, I will bear the blame before you all my life [It is not clear how this would work out if Benjamin did not come back. But Judah is offering his life for Benjamin’s if Benjamin does not return.]. But if we had not delayed, we could have traveled there and back [Heb “we could have returned.”] twice by now!”

Syndein/Thieme                     {Judah Stays with the True Issue and Takes Real Responsibility - No False Issues Like - "Kill My Sons' of Reuben}

And Judah kept on saying unto Israel {Jacob} his father, "Send the lad with me, and we will arise {quwm - verb has strong mental/soulish intent meaning} and go {yalak - verb has action connotations} . . . that we may live, and not die. Both we, and you, and also our little ones {their entire family}. I {Judah} will be a guarantee/surety for him {Judah will take the responsibility for Benjamin's safety}. Of my hand shall you require him {an idiom of a personal guarantee} if I bring him not unto you, and set him before you, then let me bear the blame forever. For except we ourselves had lingered, surely now we had returned this second time."

The Voice                               Judah (to Israel, his father): Send the boy with me, and let’s be on our way. It’s the only way we’re going to live through this famine and not die of hunger—you, us, and all of our little ones. I will guarantee his safety. You can hold me personally responsible if I don’t bring him back to you in one piece. If anything happens to him, I am perfectly willing to bear the blame forever. Had we not waited this long already, we could have made the journey twice now and have enough food.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Brenner’s Mechanical Trans....and Yehudah [Praised] said to Yisra'el [He turns El] his father, send the young man with me and we will rise and we will walk and we will live and we will not die, also us, also you, also our children, I will barter him, from my hand you will search him out, if I do not bring him to you and I set him to your face then I will err to you all the days, for if we lingered, given that we now turned back this second time,...

Concordant Literal Version    And saying is Judah to Israel, his father, "Send the youth with me, and we will rise and go, and live and not die, both we, and you and our tots. I will be surety for him. From my hand shall you seek him. Should I not bring him to you and put him before you, then I sin against you all my days. For, were we not obliged to dally, by now we had returned this twice.

Context Group Version          .

Darby Translation                  .

Emphasized Bible                  .

English Standard Version      .

English Standard V. – UK       And Judah said to Israel his father, “Send the boy with me, and we will arise and go, that we may live and not die, both we and you and also our little ones. I will be a pledge of his safety. From my hand you shall require him. If I do not bring him back to you and set him before you, then let me bear the blame for ever. If we had not delayed, we would now have returned twice.”

Evidence Bible                       .

Green’s Literal Translation    .

Jack Ballinger’s translation    .

Modern English Version         And Judah said to Israel his father, “Send the boy with me, and we will arise and go, so that we may live and not die, both we and you, and also our little ones. I will be a surety for him. You may hold me personally responsible for him. If I fail to bring him back to you and set him before you, then let me bear the blame forever. For if we had not delayed, we could have returned twice.”

Modern KJV                           .

NASB                                     .

New European Version          Judah said to Israel, his father, Send the boy with me, and we’ll get up and go, so that we may live, and not die, both we, and you, and also our little ones. I’ll be collateral for him. From my hand will you require him. If I don’t bring him to you, and set him before you, then let me bear the blame forever, for if we hadn’t delayed, surely we would have returned a second time by now.

New King James Version       Then Judah said to Israel his father, “Send the lad with me, and we will arise and go, that we may live and not die, both we and you and also our little ones. I myself will be surety for him; from my hand you shall require him. If I do not bring him back to you and set him before you, then let me bear the blame forever. For if we had not lingered, surely by now we would have returned this second time.”

Owen's Translation                .

Brenner’s Mechanical Trans..

Stuart Wolf                             .

Third Millennium Bible            .

Updated Bible Version 2.11   .

A Voice in the Wilderness      .

Webster’s Bible Translation  .

World English Bible                .

Young's Literal Translation     .

Young’s Updated LT             And Judah says unto Israel his father, “Send the youth with me, and we arise, and go, and live, and do not die, both we, and thou, and our infants. I—I am surety for him, from my hand you will require him; if I have not brought him in unto you, and set him before you—then I have sinned against you all the days; for if we had not lingered, surely now we had returned these two times.”

 

The gist of this passage:     Judah takes responsibility to his father, saying to send Benjamin with him down to Egypt, because without the grain from Egypt, everyone would starve, including all of their little ones. He tells Jacob to hold him responsible.


Genesis 43:8a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend; to decide; to answer

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

Yehûwdâh (יְהוּדָה) [pronounced yehoo-DAW]

possibly means to praise, to be praised; and is transliterated Judah

masculine proper noun/location

Strong’s #3063 BDB #397

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

Yiserâʾêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

God prevails; contender; soldier of God; transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun; God-given name to Jacob; and national name for the Jewish people

Strong’s #3478 & #3479 BDB #975

ʾâb (אָב) [pronounced awbv]

father, both as the head of a household, clan or tribe; ancestor, grandfather; founder, civil leader, military leader; master, teacher

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #1 BDB #3


Translation: So Judah said to Israel, his father,... You may be wondering why Reuben is not speaking up at this point. This is almost exactly what Reuben said a few months earlier. Reuben is pissed off at his father and possibly has not spoken to him for the past several months. He understood the situation—he was there, he and his brothers did nothing wrong—and he was highly frustrated with his father. This is normal when you have a viewpoint which is absolutely right and you know that it is right and still the person who needs to know it flatly denies reality. Reuben had laid it on the line, his father was a hard-headed jerk, so it is possible that Reuben ceased to communicate with him.


We do not know if this is the case, but Judah appears to take his place in a leadership position.


So Judah makes a logical appeal to his father.


Usually, when Jacob is called Israel, there is some improvement or something about him more related to God; but he is being hardheaded at this point. The reason that he is being called Israel here is, his sons are beginning to act with more responsibility and logic, thinking more about the whole of the family (which God intends to preserve).


Preview of coming attractions, Jacob will make the right decision and let Judah take the responsibility for his youngest brother Benjamin. And going down to Egypt is absolutely necessary.


Genesis 43:8b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

shâlach (שָלַח) [pronounced shaw-LAKH]

send, send for [forth, away], dismiss, deploy, put forth, stretch out, reach out

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperative

Strong’s #7971 BDB #1018

naʿar (נַעַר) [pronounced NAH-ģahr]

boy, youth, young man; personal attendant; slave-boy

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #5288 & #5289 BDB #654

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

with, at, near, by, among, directly from

preposition (which is identical to the sign of the direct object) with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong's #854 BDB #85


Translation: ...“Send the boy with me... Judah tells his father to send the boy with him. We do not know Benjamin’s age, but he has to be no less than 20 years old at this time, because of the 20 year time period of Gen. 38, discussed there in greater detail.


Judah is being more forceful here; he is thinking more about the entire family; and he will present an argument that will be hard to refute.


Genesis 43:8c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

qûwm (קוּם) [pronounced koom]

to stand, to rise up, to get up; to establish, to establish a vow, to cause a vow to stand, to confirm or to fulfill a vow

1st person plural, Qal imperfect with the cohortative hê

Strong’s #6965 BDB #877

The cohortative expresses volition. In the English, we often render this with let or may; in the plural, this can be let us. The cohortative is designed for the 1st person, it can express a wish or a desire or purpose or an intent. It is found in conditional statements. Generally there is the hê suffix to indicate this.

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

hâlake (הָלַךְ) [pronounced haw-LAHKe]

to go, to come, to depart, to walk; to advance

1st person plural, Qal imperfect with the cohortative hê

Strong’s #1980 (and #3212) BDB #229

The NET Bible: Net Bible: ...and we will go immediately. Heb “and we will rise up and we will go.” The first verb is adverbial and gives the expression the sense of “we will go immediately.” 


Translation: ...and let us rise up and we will go,... The verb to rise up simply means that they will embark on a course of action. It is not that everyone is laying on the ground and now it is time to stand up and get moving. Some of them may be standing, some might be sitting. However, Judah recognizes that all the brothers must go to Egypt and they must take youngest brother Benjamin with them.


Genesis 43:8d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

châyâh( חָיָה) [pronounced khaw-YAW]

to live, to have life, to revive, to recover health, to be healed, to be refreshed

1st person plural, Qal imperfect

Strong's #2421 & #2425 BDB #310

The NET Bible: After the preceding cohortatives, the prefixed verbal form (either imperfect or cohortative) with the prefixed conjunction here indicates purpose or result.

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

mûwth (מוּת) [pronounced mooth]

to die; to perish, to be destroyed; to be put to death; to die prematurely [by neglect of wise moral conduct]

1st person plural, Qal imperfect

Strong's #4191 BDB #559

gam (גַם) [pronounced gahm]

also, furthermore, in addition to, as well; even, moreover

adverb

Strong’s #1571 BDB #168

ʾănachenûw (אֲנַחְנוּ) [pronounced uh-NAHKH-noo]

we; (sometimes a verb is implied)

1st person plural pronoun

Strong’s #587 BDB #59

gam (גַם) [pronounced gahm]

both...and, furthermore...as well as, also...also, that...so; either...or (but not used disjunctively)

when gam is repeated

Strong’s #1571 BDB #168

ʾattâh (אַתָּה) [pronounced aht-TAW]

you (often, the verb to be is implied)

2nd person masculine singular, personal pronoun

Strong’s #859 BDB #61

gam (גַם) [pronounced gahm]

both...and, furthermore...as well as, also...also, that...so; either...or (but not used disjunctively)

when gam is repeated

Strong’s #1571 BDB #168

ţaph (טַף) [pronounced tahf]

children, little children, little ones, young boys; young people up to the age of 20; families

masculine singular (collective) noun with the 1st person plural suffix

Strong’s #2945 BDB #381


Translation: ...so that we live and not die, both us, you and our little ones. The simple purpose is to keep the entire family alive. Even though Jacob expresses concern for the life of his son Benjamin, every child’s life in their compound is at risk.


I need to fix the translation both...and..., as there are 3 things here.


Genesis 43:8 And Judah said to Israel his father, “Send the boy with me, and we will arise and go, so that we may live and not die, both we and you, also our little ones.


Judah continues to act as the leader, the point man, the one in charge. His reasoning is quite simple: without grain, all of them will die—including Jacob and Benjamin. Therefore, there is no other possible option. Jacob must send the youngest brother along with them as proof that they are all brothers.


You may be thinking, how does this constitute proof? If these were 10 spies, could they not show up with any additional person and pass him off as the youngest brother? Here is the thing: everyone realizes that the prime minister is intelligent and fair. So, if the 9 brothers show up with some random 10th man in tow, Joseph could simply take that man alone and bring him to Simeon, requiring 10th man to be silent. If this is his brother, Simeon would call out his name immediately. My point being, there would be ways to verify the identity of a 10th man to show up with the brothers. Therefore, they must show up with the true Benjamin.


Furthermore, up to this point in time, they have been truthful with Joseph, the Prime Minister (they do not appear to be completely truthful with their father). Any misstep would result in the Prime Minister doubting everything that they had told him; and that could result in all of them being executed.


Obviously, we know that they are not spies and that their story is true; and they know this. It would make no sense to return to Egypt without Benjamin. Doing anything else would risk everyone’s life—and, on top of that, they would not return with the much needed grain.


Genesis 43:9a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾânôkîy (אָנֹכִי) [pronounced awn-oh-KEE]

I, me; (sometimes a verb is implied)

1st person singular personal pronoun

Strong’s #595 BDB #59

ʿârab (עָרַב) [pronounced ģaw-RAHBV]

to mix, to mingle, to intermingle; to take on a pledge, to give in pledge, to exchange; to be sweet, to be pleasing

1st person singular, Qal imperfect with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #6148 & #6149 (& #6147) BDB #786–787

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

yâd (יָד) [pronounced yawd]

generally translated hand

feminine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong's #3027 BDB #388

Yâd as a construct and the min preposition are literally rendered from a hand of; together, they can also mean out of the hand of; out of the power of; from the power of.

bâqash (בָּקַש) [pronounced baw-KAHSH]

to seek, to search, to desire, to strive after, to attempt to get, to require, to demand, to ask, to seek with desire and diligence

2nd person masculine singular, Piel imperfect with the rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #1245 BDB #134


Translation: I will [surely] be a pledge for him; you will require him from my hand. Judah's first words were the personal pronoun in the singular: ʾânôkîy (אָנֹכִי) [pronounced awn-oh-KEE]; occasionally, the accent is on the second syllable] and the 1st person singular, 3rd person masculine suffix, Qal imperfect of ʿârab (עָרַב) [pronounced ģaw-RAHBV] and it means to make a pledge, to give a pledge, to give something as security. Judah, seeing that his father is listening to reason now, continues to speak. Judah understands his father's reticence and is saying whatever he possibly can to persuade his father. He knows that it is working because Jacob has finally stopped talking and is listening.


It is unclear to me that this is a great offer, apart from Judah saying, “Look, this is all on me. If there is a problem, I am to blame.” It is not clear exactly what he is offering besides that, however.


Genesis 43:9b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾîm (אִם) [pronounced eem]

if, though; lo, behold; oh that, if only; when, since, though when (or, if followed by a perfect tense which refers to a past event)

primarily an hypothetical particle

Strong's #518 BDB #49

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

Together, ʾîm lôʾ (לֹא ם ̣א) [pronounced eem low] act as an emphatic affirmative and they mean if not, surely, unless.

bôwʾ (בּוֹא) [pronounced boh]

to take in, to bring [near, against, upon], to come in with, to carry, to cause to come [in], to gather, to bring to pass

1st person singular, Hiphil perfect with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #935 BDB #97

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied) with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #413 BDB #39

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

yâtsag (יָצַג) [pronounced yaw-TSAHG]

to make to stand, to set, to station, to place, to leave, to establish, to let stay

1st person singular, Hiphil perfect with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #3322 BDB #426

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

pânîym (פָּנִים) [pronounced paw-NEEM]

face, faces countenance; presence

masculine plural noun (plural acts like English singular); with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #6440 BDB #815

Together, they literally translate to, to your faces. However, they properly mean before you, before your face, in your presence, in your sight, in front of you. When used with God, it can take on the more figurative meaning in Your judgment.


Translation: If I do not bring him to you and place him before you,... The worst case scenario is, Judah does not bring Benjamin back. Judah is setting up a result if he cannot deliver on his promise.


Genesis 43:9c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

châţâʾ (חָטָא) [pronounced khaw-TAW]

to sin, to miss, to miss the mark, to violate the law, to err; to do wrong, to commit a transgression

1st person singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #2398 BDB #306

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

with a plural noun, it is rendered all of; any of

masculine singular construct with a masculine plural noun

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

yâmîym (יָמִים) [pronounced yaw-MEEM]

days, time of life, lifetime; a specific time period, a year

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

Together, kôl + yâmîym are literally rendered all the days; together, they can also mean in all time, all the time, perpetually, forever, always; henceforth, from hereon in.


Translation: ...then I have sinned regarding you in perpetuity. If this has happened, then I have sinned against you forever, is what Judah is saying. As we will find out, unlike many people who take responsibility, Judah really will assume full responsibility for the well-being of Benjamin.


Genesis 43:9 I will be surety for him. You will require him of my hand. If I do not bring him to you and set him before you, I will be a sinner against you all the days.


Judah also takes full and complete responsibility for the welfare of Benjamin, his younger half brother. Judah places his life before his father for the safety of Benjamin. He assumes full personal responsibility for Benjamin.


At the same time, Judah does not make the ridiculous offer, “And you may kill my 3 sons if I don’t come through.”


Genesis 43:10a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

lûwlêy (לוּלֵי) [pronounced loo-LAY]

otherwise, except that, if not (for), unless

preposition

Strong’s #3884 BDB #530

I have translated these together as, in the alternative in Gen. 43:10.

mâhahh (מָהַהּ) [pronounced maw-HAH]

to delay, to linger, to tarry, to wait; to refuse, to turn back

1st person plural, Hithpalpel imperfect

Strong’s #4102 BDB #554

Gesenius has an alternate spelling for this verb.


Translation: In the alternative, we linger,... I will have to see how others translated these first two words.


In the alternative, they can continue to sit there and argue with one another, while everyone starts. That is the alternative that Judah presents to his taking action, taking responsibility and moving ahead.


Genesis 43:10b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

ʿattâh (עַתָּה) [pronounced ģaht-TAWH]

now, at this time, already

adverb of time

Strong’s #6258 BDB #773

shûwb (שוּב) [pronounced shoobv]

to return, to turn, to turn back, to reminisce, to restore something, to bring back something, to revive, to recover something, to make restitution

1st person plural, Qal perfect

Strong's #7725 BDB #996

zeh (זֶה) [pronounced zeh]

here, this, this one; thus; possibly another

masculine singular demonstrative adjective

Strong’s #2088, 2090 (& 2063) BDB #260

paʿam (פַּעַם) [pronounced PAH-ģahm]

two times, two beats, two feet, two occurrences, two steps; the connotation is the passage of time

feminine dual noun; pausal form

Strong’s #6471 BDB #821


Translation: ...for by now, we could have returned here two times.” We do not know how long this has been under discussion, or whether Judah is speaking as to how they should have properly done this.


This statement gives us a better understanding of the time frame involved here. This indicates that easily, a full year has passed. Just enough food was purchased to get them through a growing season.


Although it cannot be seen in my translation or in almost any other translation, this verse has seven or eight ands in it. When there are no ands, one is moved immediately past all the inconsequential to the important climax. However, here, each phrase is important, said slowly, so that Jacob gets the full impact of the argument. This verse should read, and Judah said to Israel, his father, send the lad with me and we will get up and we will go and we will live and so we will not die; also we and you and our households. Each phrase and each action is important in order to make the points to Jacob.


If Judah is speaking hyperbolically, then he is saying, “Look, in all this time we have been discussing this, we could have gone there and back twice. But now, we just sit around starving.” This would be the sense, if they had been discussing this for a week or so.


Another way to look at this is, the Prime Minister of Egypt gave them a clear directive: return to Egypt with their youngest brother, Benjamin. Since that happened, the brothers could have gone and returned from Egypt twice.


Genesis 43:10 For unless we had lingered, surely now we would have returned the second time.”


Judah is saying, “We have argued this point for such a long time, that we could have been there and back already.” The second time simply refers to this would have been their second trip to Egypt for grain.


No doubt you have been in a discussion like this with your son, telling him to clean up his room. “In all this time we have been talking about it, you could have been done by now.” So, this argument, which appears to us to be taking place over a period of 10 minutes, actually continued over a period of a week or three.


We don’t know how many times the brothers talked with their father Jacob; we do not know all that was said. We do know roughly what Jacob and Judah said to one another; and that is what is recorded here. And we know by this comment that they discussed this for over a lengthy period of time.


——————————



And so says unto them Israel their father, “If so then this you make: you [all] take from the choice fruits of the land in your bags and carry down to the man a present—a little balsam and a little honey, spice and gum, pistachio nuts and almonds. And silver double take in your hand and the silver is returned in a mouth of your bags you will return in your hand perhaps a mistake he; and your brother take. And so you [all] rise up [and] you [all] return unto the man. And so ʾEl Shaddai will give to you [all] compassions to faces of the man and he will send to you [all] your brother [the] other and Benjamin. And I as which [even] I am bereaved I am bereaved.”

Genesis

43:11–14

Israel, their father, said to them, “If [it is] so then prepare this: bring from the choice fruits of the land with your gear and carry down to the man a present—a little balsam and a little honey, spice and gum, pistachio nuts and almonds. Double up on the silver that you take, so that the silver [is] returned in your bags, you will return [it] [lit., in your hand] supposing it [was] a mistake. And take you brother and [now] rise up [and] return to the man. And may ʾEl Shaddai give [all of] you compassion before [this] man, so that he [He?] will send your other brother and Benjamin [both]. And according to what manner I am bereaved, I am bereaved.”

Israel, their father, said to them, “If these are the only choices, then prepare this for the prime minister: put some of the choice fruits of the land with your gear, and carry with you a present for him, a little balsam and a little honey, spice and gum, pistachio nuts and almonds. Also, double up on the silver that you take, so that you may take back the silver that was returned in your bags, supposing that had been a mistake. Also, you may take your brother. So, rise up and return to the prime minister. Also, may ʾEl Shaddai give [all of] you compassion before this man, so that he will send back both Simeon and Benjamin. And, if I am bereaved, then I am bereaved.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so says unto them Israel their father, “If so then this you make: you [all] take from the choice fruits of the land in your bags and carry down to the man a present—a little balsam and a little honey, spice and gum, pistachio nuts and almonds. And silver double take in your hand and the silver is returned in a mouth of your bags you will return in your hand perhaps a mistake he; and your brother take. And so you [all] rise up [and] you [all] return unto the man. And so ʾEl Shaddai will give to you [all] compassions to faces of the man and he will send to you [all] your brother [the] other and Benjamin. And I as which [even] I am bereaved I am bereaved.”

Dead Sea Scrolls                   .

Targum of Onkelos                And Israel their father said to them, If then it is to be, do this: take of what is praiseworthy[18] in the land in your vessels, and carry down to the man an offering; a little gum, and a little honey, storax and ladanum, nuts and almonds; and silver, two for one take in your hands, even the. silver which was returned in the mouth of your bags take back in your hands; perhaps it was an oversight. And take your brother, and arise, return to the man; and God the Almighty give you favour before the man, that he may release to you your other brother and Benjamin. And I, when desolated, shall be desolate!

Targum (Pseudo-Jonathan)   And Israel their father said to them, If it must be so, do this: Take of the praiseworthy things of the land, and put them in your vessels, and carry down the man a present, a little gum [Seraph Ketaph, liquid gum.” Lachrymea arborum, sive herbarum] and a little honey, wax and ladanum [Letom, Arab., Landanon, gum of the cistus.”], the oil of nuts, and the oil of almonds, and money two upon one [JERUSALEM. Double] take in your hands, even the money that was returned in the mouth of your baggage, take back in your hands; perhaps it was done in error. And take Benjamin your brother, and arise, return to the man, and God the Almighty give you mercies before the man, that he may release to you your other brother, and Benjamin: and I, behold, I am now certified by the Holy Spirit that if I am bereaved of Joseph, I shall also be bereaved of Shimeon and of Benjamin. [Jerusalem And I, behold, if I be not bereaved of my son Joseph, so shall I not add to be bereaved of Shimeon and of Benjamin.]

Revised Douay-Rheims         Then Israel said to them: If it must needs be so, do what you will: take of the best fruits of the land in your vessels, and carry down presents to the man, a little balm, and honey, and storax, myrrh, turpentine, and almonds. And take with you double money, and carry back what you found in your sacks, lest perhaps it was done by mistake. And take also your brother, and go to the man. And may my almighty God make him favourable to you; and send back with you your brother, whom he keeps, and this Benjamin: and as for me I shall be desolate without children.

Latin Vulgate                          .

Aramaic ESV of Peshitta        Their father, Yisrael, said to them, "If it must be so, then do this. Take from the choice fruits of the land in your bags, and carry down a present for the man, a little balm, a little honey, spices and myrrh, nuts, and almonds; and take double money in your hand, and take back the money that was returned in the mouth of your sacks. Perhaps it was an oversight. Take your brother also, get up, and return to the man. May El Shaddai give you mercy before the man, that he may release to you your other brother and Benjamin. If I am bereaved of my children, I am bereaved."

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And their father Israel said to them, If it must be so now, then do this: take some of the best fruits of the land in your sacks, and carry down the man a present, a little balm, and a little honey, gum, and myrrh, pistachio nuts, and almonds; And take double money with you; and the money that was brought back in the mouth of your sacks, take it again with you; perhaps it was an oversight; Take also your brother, and arise, and go again to the man; And may God Almighty give you mercy before the man, that he may send away your other brother, and Benjamin with you. And as for me, if I am bereaved of my children, I am bereaved.

Septuagint (Greek)                And Israel, their father, said to them, If it be so, do this; take of the fruits of the earth in your vessels, and carry down to the man presents of gum and honey, and frankincense, and stacte, and turpentine, and walnuts. And take double money in your hands, and the money that was returned in your sacks, carry back with you, lest perhaps, it is a mistake. And take your brother; and arise, go down to the man. And my God give you favour in the sight of the man, and send away your other brother, and Benjamin, for I accordingly as I have been bereaved, am bereaved.

NETS (Greek)                        .

Brenton’s Septuagint             .

 

Significant differences: 


Limited Vocabulary Translations:

 

Bible in Basic English             Then their father Israel said to them, If it has to be so, then do this: take of the best fruits of the land in your vessels to give the man, perfumes and honey and spices and nuts: And take twice as much money with you; that is to say, take back the money which was put in your bags, for it may have been an error; And take your brother and go back to the man: And may God, the Ruler of all, give you mercy before the man, so that he may give you back your other brother and Benjamin. If my children are to be taken from me; there is no help for it.

Easy English                          Then their father, Israel said this to the brothers: ‘Take in your bags some very good things that grow in Canaan. Take a present to the man. Take for him a little *balm, a little honey, *gum, *myrrh, *almonds and other nuts. Take a double amount of money with you. Take back the money that was in the sacks. Perhaps someone put it there by mistake. Take your brother too. Go. Go back to the man. Let God *Almighty be *merciful to you when you see the man. Then the man will send back your other brother and Benjamin. If I lose my children, then I lose my children.’

Easy-to-Read Version–2001  .

Easy-to-Read Version–2006  Then their father Israel said, “If it is really true, take Benjamin with you. But take some gifts to the governor. Take some of the things we have been able to gather in our land. Take him some honey, pistachio nuts, almonds, spices, and myrrh. Take twice as much money with you this time. Take the money that was given back to you after you paid last time. Maybe the governor made a mistake. Take Benjamin, and go back to the man. I pray that God All-Powerful will help you when you stand before the governor. I pray that he will let Benjamin, and also Simeon, come back safely. If not, I will again be sad from losing my children.”

God’s Word                         .

Good News Bible (TEV)         Their father said to them, “If that is how it has to be, then take the best products of the land in your packs as a present for the governor: a little resin, a little honey, spices, pistachio nuts, and almonds. Take with you also twice as much money, because you must take back the money that was returned in the top of your sacks. Maybe it was a mistake. Take your brother and return at once. May Almighty God cause the man to have pity on you, so that he will give Benjamin and your other brother back to you. As for me, if I must lose my children, I must lose them.”

International Children’s B.     Then their father Jacob said to them, “If it has to be that way, then do this: Take some of the best foods in our land in your packs. Give them to the man as a gift: some balm, some honey, spices, myrrh, pistachio nuts and almonds. Take twice as much money with you this time. Take back the money that was returned to you in your sacks last time. Maybe it was a mistake. And take Benjamin with you. Now leave and go to the man. I pray that God All-Powerful will cause the governor to be merciful to you. I pray that he will allow Simeon and Benjamin to come back with you. If I am robbed of my children, then I am robbed of them!”

The Message                         Their father Israel gave in. “If it has to be, it has to be. But do this: stuff your packs with the finest products from the land you can find and take them to the man as gifts—some balm and honey, some spices and perfumes, some pistachios and almonds. And take plenty of money—pay back double what was returned to your sacks; that might have been a mistake. Take your brother and get going. Go back to the man. And may The Strong God give you grace in that man’s eyes so that he’ll send back your other brother along with Benjamin. For me, nothing’s left; I’ve lost everything.”

Names of God Bible               Then their father Israel said to them, “If that’s the way it has to be, then take the man a gift. Put some of the best products of the land in your bags. Take a little balm, a little honey, gum, myrrh, pistachio nuts, and almonds. Take twice as much money with you. You must return the money that was put back in your sacks. Maybe it was a mistake. Take your brother, and go back to the man. May El Shadday make him merciful to you so that he will send your other brother and Benjamin home with you. If I lose my children, I lose my children.”

NIRV                                      Then their father Israel spoke to them. He said, “If that’s the way it has to be, then do what I tell you. Put some of the best things from our land in your bags. Take them down to the man as a gift. Take some lotion and a little honey. Take some spices and myrrh. Take some pistachio nuts and almonds. Take twice the amount of money with you. You have to give back the money that was put in your sacks. Maybe it was a mistake. Also take your brother. Go back to the man at once. May the Mighty God cause him to show you mercy. May the man let your other brother and Benjamin come back with you. And if I lose my sons, I lose them.”

New Simplified Bible              .


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Their father Israel said to them, “If it has to be, then do this. Take in your bags some of the land’s choice produce, and bring it down to the man as a gift: a little medicinal resin, a little honey, gum, resin, pistachios, and almonds. Take twice as much silver with you, and take back the silver returned in the top of your sacks. It might have been a mistake. And take your brother, get ready, and go back to the man. May God Almighty make the man compassionate toward you so that he may send back our other brother and Benjamin with you. But me, if I’m left childless, then I’m left childless.”

Contemporary English V.       Their father said: If Benjamin must go with you, take the governor a gift of some of the best things from our own country, such as perfume, honey, spices, pistachio nuts, and almonds. Also take along twice the amount of money for the grain, because there must have been some mistake when the money was put back in your sacks. Take Benjamin with you and leave right away. When you go in to see the governor, I pray that God All-Powerful will be good to you and that the governor will let your other brother and Benjamin come back home with you. If I must lose my children, I suppose I must.

The Living Bible                     So their father Israel finally said to them, “If it can’t be avoided, then at least do this. Load your donkeys with the best products of the land. Take them to the man as gifts—balm, honey, spices, myrrh, pistachio nuts, and almonds. Take double money so that you can pay back what was in the mouths of your sacks, as it was probably someone’s mistake, and take your brother and go. May God Almighty give you mercy before the man, so that he will release Simeon and return Benjamin. And if I must bear the anguish of their deaths, then so be it.”

New Berkeley Version           .

New Century Version             Then their father Jacob said to them, “If it has to be that way, then do this: Take some of the best foods in our land in your packs. Give them to the man as a gift: some balm, some honey, spices, myrrh, pistachio nuts, and almonds. Take twice as much money with you this time, and take back the money that was returned to you in your sacks last time. Maybe it was a mistake. And take Benjamin with you. Now leave and go to the man. I pray that God Almighty will cause the governor to be merciful to you and that he will allow Simeon and Benjamin to come back with you. If I am robbed of my children, then I am robbed of them!”

New Life Version                    Then their father Israel said to them, "If it must be so, then do this: take some of the best things of the land in your bags. Carry them to the man as a gift. Give him perfume and honey and spices and special things to eat. Take twice as much money with you to take the place of the money that was returned in your bags. It may be that it was a mistake. Take your brother also. Get up, and return to the man. May the All-powerful God give you such favor with the man that he may let your other brother and Benjamin return. If my children are taken from me, I am filled with sorrow."

New Living Translation           So their father, Jacob, finally said to them, “If it can’t be avoided, then at least do this. Pack your bags with the best products of this land. Take them down to the man as gifts—balm, honey, gum, aromatic resin, pistachio nuts, and almonds. Also take double the money that was put back in your sacks, as it was probably someone’s mistake. Then take your brother, and go back to the man. May God Almighty give you mercy as you go before the man, so that he will release Simeon and let Benjamin return. But if I must lose my children, so be it.”


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          And their father IsraEl said to them, 'If that's the case, then do this: Take along the fruit of the land in your sacks. Carry gifts of gum, honey, frankincense, oil of myrrh, turpentine, and walnuts to the man. Also, carry twice as much money – in addition to the money that was put back in your sacks – just in case that was a mistake. Then take your brother along and go down to the man. May my God allow you to find favor in the eyes of that man, so he sends you home with your other brother and BenJamin. For I've been saddened, and I'm very sad now.'

Beck’s American Translation .

International Standard V        Jacob Gives Instructions for the Trip

“If that’s the way it has to be,” their father Israel replied, “then do this: take some of the best produce of the land in your containers and take them to the man as a gift—some resin ointment, some honey, fragrant resins, myrrh, pistachios, and almonds. Also take twice as much money with you so you can return the money that had been replaced in the mouth of your sacks. Maybe it was an accountinge mistake on his part. And be sure to take your brother, too. So get up, return to the man, and may God Almighty cause the man to show compassion toward you. May he send all of you back, including your other brother and Benjamin. Now as for me, if I lose my children, I lose them.”.

Revised Knox Bible                And their father Israel said to them, Since it must be so, have your way. Only, take gifts with you in your packs, the most precious this land yields, a little balm, and honey, and storax and myrrh, and mastic, and almonds. Take a double amount of money with you and restore what you found in your sacks; it may have been an oversight. And so go back to the man, taking your brother with you. May the almighty God I serve secure you his favour, so that he will send back that brother of yours who is now his hostage, and Benjamin as well. Meanwhile, I shall be like a man bereft of children.

Today’s NIV                          .

Translation for Translators     Then their father Jacob said to them, “If there is no other way, do this: Put in your sacks some of the best things that are grown in this land, and take them down to the man as a gift. Take some balm/perfume and honey and spices and myrrh/ointment, some pistachio nuts, and almonds. Take twice as much money as you took the previous time, because you must return the silver that someone put in the tops of your sacks. Perhaps it was a mistake that it was put in your sacks. Take your younger brother and go back to that man. I will pray that God Almighty will cause that man to act mercifully toward you, so that he will let your other brother, as well as Benjamin, come back here with you. But as for me, if my sons are taken from me, then I will not have my sons!”


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Conservapedia                       Their father Israel told them, "If you must, then do this: take some fruit from the pruned trees in the land in your vessels, and bring the man a present of a little balm, and a little honey, and perfume, and labdanum, and pistachio nuts, and almonds. And take twice as much silver in your hand, and take back also the silver that was returned to you in the mouths of your sacks; there must have been some mistake. And take your brother, and get up and return to the man. May God Who Suffices give you compassion in front of the man, so that he will release to you your other brother, and Benjamin. If I am bereaved, then I am bereaved." Jacob accepts the necessity when Judah makes an honest and responsible proposal.

Ferrar-Fenton Bible                Therefore Israel their father said to him, " If it must be, do this ; take some of the productions of this country in your waggons, and go down to the man with a present; — some balsam, and honey, perfumes, and myrrh, nuts and almonds. Also take double money in your hands, and the money that was returned in the mouth of your bags, return with your own hands to him again. Take your brother also, and arise, go back to the man, and may the Almighty God give you mercy before the man, and send your brother back with Benjamin . For if I am to be bereaved, I shall be bereaved."

God’s Truth (Tyndale)           Then their father Israel said unto them: if it must needs be so now: then do thus, take of the best fruits of the land in your vessels, and bring the man a present, a courtesy balm, and a courtesy of honey, spices and myrrh, dates and almonds. And take as much money more with you. And the money that was brought again in your sacks, take it again with you, peradventure it was some oversight.

Take also your brother with you, and arise and go again to the man. And God almighty give you mercy in the sight of the man and send you your other brother and also Ben Jamin, and I will be as a man robbed of his children.

HCSB                                     Then their father Israel said to them, “If it must be so, then do this: Put some of the best products of the land in your packs and take them down to the man as a gift—some balsam and some honey, aromatic gum and resin, pistachios and almonds. Take twice as much money with you. Return the money that was returned to you in the top of your bags. Perhaps it was a mistake. Take your brother also, and go back at once to the man. May God Almighty cause the man to be merciful to you so that he will release your other brother and Benjamin to you. As for me, if I am deprived of my sons, then I am deprived.”

Jubilee Bible 2000                  .

H. C. Leupold                         And Israel, their father, said to them: If that be the case, then do this: take of the choice fruits of the land in your receptacles and take a present down for the man, a little balm, and a little honey, gum, laudanum, pistachio nuts and almonds; and take some more money along, and also the money that was restored in the opening of your sacks, take it back with you; perhaps there was some mistake. Then take your brother, start out and return to the man. And may God Almighty grant you to find favour before the man and restore to you your other brother and Benjamin. But as for me, as I was childless, so have I become childless again.

Lexham English Bible            .

NIV, ©2011                             .

NIV – UK                                .

Tree of Life Version                Then their father Israel said to them, “If it must be so, then do this: take some of the best products of the land in your bags, and bring an offering down to the man—a little balsam and a little honey, gum and myrrh, pistachios and almonds. Also take in your hand a double portion of silver, and bring back in your hand the silver that had been returned in the mouth of your sacks. Perhaps it was a mistake. Take your brother too—now, get up, go back to the man! May El Shaddai grant you mercy before the man, so that he may release your other brother to you, along with Benjamin. As for me, if I am bereaved, I am bereaved.”


Catholic Bibles (those having the imprimatur):

 

Christian Community (1988)  Israel their father said to them, “If it must be so, then do this: take some cho