Genesis 44

Written and compiled by Gary Kukis

Genesis 44:1–34

Judah Offers to Be Benjamin’s Substitute for Punishment


These studies are designed for believers in Jesus Christ only. If you have exercised faith in Christ, then you are in the right place. If you have not, then you need to heed the words of our Lord, Who said, “For God so loved the world that He gave His only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son, so that every [one] believing [or, trusting] in Him shall not perish, but shall be have eternal life! For God did not send His Son into the world so that He should judge the world, but so that the world shall be saved through Him. The one believing [or, trusting] in Him is not judged, but the one not believing has already been judged, because he has not believed in the Name of the only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son of God.” (John 3:16–18). “I am the Way and the Truth and the Life! No one comes to the Father except through [or, by means of] Me!” (John 14:6).


Every study of the Word of God ought to be preceded by a naming of your sins to God. This restores you to fellowship with God (1John 1:8–10). If there are people around, you would name these sins silently. If there is no one around, then it does not matter if you name them silently or whether you speak aloud.


Document Navigation

Preface

Quotations

Outline of Chapter

Charts, Graphics, Short Doctrines

Doctrines Alluded to

Chapters Alluded to

Dictionary of Terms

Introduction and Text

First Verse

Addendum

A Complete Translation

Chapter Word Clouds


Links to the word-by-word, verse-by-verse studies of Genesis (HTML) (PDF) (that is what this document is). This incorporates 2 previous studies done in the book of Genesis. However, much of this material was thrown together without careful editing. Therefore, from time to time, there will be concepts and exegetical material which will be repeated, because there was no overall editing done once all of this material was combined.

 

There is a second, less complete set of weekly lessons of Genesis (HTML) (PDF). Every word of that study can be found in the word-by-word, verse-by-verse studies.

 

This study makes reference to a wide-range of sources. There are quotations from doctrinal teachers, of course; but from Catholic commentaries and from other sources as well. Wherever I found relevant truth, I quoted from it or was inspired by it. Even though it is clear that some churches have a better concept of our reason for being here, that does not mean that there is no truth to be found anywhere else. So, from time to time, I will quote from John Calvin, even though I do not subscribe to 5-point Calvinism; I will quote from some Catholic sources, even though I believe that they are very wrong regarding Mary, the pope, apostolic succession and other such doctrines. The intention is for this to be the most thorough and accurate study of Genesis available anywhere.

 

Also, it is not necessary that you read the grey Hebrew exegesis tables. They are set apart from the rest of the study so that you can easily skip over them (based upon the suggestion of a friend). However, if you ever doubt the translation of a word, phrase or a verse, these translation tables are then available.


Preface:


There are many chapter commentaries on the book of Genesis. This will be the most extensive examination of Genesis 44, where you will be able to examine in depth every word of the original text. Every attempt has been made to make this both a complete and self-contained study. Therefore, all references, vocabulary, and related concepts should be found within this extensive study. Easy access links to more in-depth studies of some vocabulary words, concepts and doctrines are also provided.


Quotations:


Outline of Chapter 44:

 

Introduction

 

         vv.     1–

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Addendum


Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines:

 

         Preface               Quotations

         Introduction         The Prequel of Genesis 44

         Introduction         The Principals of Genesis 44

         Introduction         The Places of Genesis 44

         Introduction         The Patriarchal Timeline for Genesis 44

         Introduction         A Synopsis of Genesis 44

         Introduction 

         Introduction         The New American Bible Summarizes Genesis 44

         Introduction         Dr. Bob Utley’s Translation Table/Subtitles and Paragraphs

         Introduction 

         Introduction 

 

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         v.       2              Why Joseph Places the Silver and the Cup in the Sacks of His Brothers

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         Summary            A Set of Summary Doctrines and Commentary

         Summary 

 

         Addendum 

         Addendum          Why Genesis 44 is in the Word of God

         Addendum          What We Learn from Genesis 44

         Addendum          Josephus’ History of this Time Period

         Addendum          Edersheim Summarizes Genesis 44

         Addendum          B. H. Carroll Summarizes Genesis 44

         Addendum          A Complete Translation of Genesis 44

         Addendum          Word Cloud from a Reasonably Literal Paraphrase of Genesis 44

         Addendum          Word Cloud from Exegesis of Genesis 44


Chapter Outline

 

Charts, Graphics, Short Doctrines

Beginning of Document

Doctrines Covered or Alluded to

Chapters of the Bible Alluded to

Definition of Terms

Introduction and Text

Addendum

www.kukis.org

 

Exegetical Studies in Genesis


Doctrines Covered or Alluded To

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Additional doctrines and links are found in Definition of Terms below.


Chapters of the Bible Alluded To and/or Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

 

 

 

 


Many who read and study this chapter are 1st or 2nd generation students of R. B. Thieme, Jr., so that much of this vocabulary is second nature. One of Bob’s contributions to theology is a fresh vocabulary along with a number of concepts which are theologically new or reworked, yet still orthodox. Therefore, if you are unfamiliar with his work, the definitions below will help you to fully understand all that is being said. Also, I have developed a few new terms and concepts which require definition as well.

In addition, there are other more traditional yet technical theological terms which will be used and therefore defined as well.

Sometimes the terms in the exegesis of this chapter are simply alluded to, without any in-depth explanation of them. Sometimes, these terms are explained in detail and illustrated. A collection of all these terms is found here: (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Definition of Terms

Rebound (Restoration to fellowship with God)

In the New Testament, this is naming your sins to God, so that you are both restored to temporal fellowship with God and are then filled with the Spirit of God. In the Old Testament, naming your sins to God would result in a restoration of fellowship and, in some cases, the empowerment of the Holy Spirit once again (the Holy Spirit was not given to all Old Testament believers). See the Doctrine of Rebound (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Some of these definitions are taken from

http://gracebiblechurchwichita.org/

http://rickhughesministries.org/content/Biblical-Terms.pdf

http://www.gbible.org/index.php?proc=d4d

http://www.wordoftruthministries.org/terms-and-definitions/

http://www.theopedia.com/


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


——————————


An Introduction to Genesis 44


I ntroduction: There is a portion of Genesis which should not have been separated into chapters—Genesis 42–44. Joseph’s brothers had, several chapters back, sold Joseph into slavery. At this time, they had no idea where Joseph was (they probably suspected that he was in Egypt); and no idea if he was still alive or not.


During the most recent years, Joseph had correctly prophesied, based upon dreams that Pharaoh had, 7 good years followed by 7 years of famine. His outstanding character along with his ability to properly interpret dreams, allowed Joseph to eventually rise to the second highest position in Egypt, and in charge of first gathering grain during the years of plenty; and then distributing the grain during the years of famine. Apparently, people from all over that region knew about Egypt’s granaries. So Jacob recognized that they were going to starve during the first year of the famine, so he sent his sons to Egypt to buy grain. He would not let Benjamin, his youngest son, go with them, because he had lost Joseph (Jacob believed that Joseph had been killed by a wild animal, and his sons, who knew better, allowed him to think that).


It is 20 years later, after Joseph was taken to Egypt, and his brothers are sent to Egypt to buy grain—everyone but Benjamin. When they arrive, Joseph knows who they are, but they do not know him. He was the last person they expected to see—particularly as the prime minister of Egypt. So they arrive, propose to buy grain, and Joseph gives them a little bit of a hard time, questions them carefully, and tells them to return with their youngest brother, Benjamin (who is Joseph’s full brother). By the time they get home, they find out that they have the silver in their bags.


When the brothers propose to Jacob, their father, to return with their brother Benjamin, he tells them, “No way.” So, a year or so passes; their grain begins to run out, and it becomes clear that they must return to Egypt to buy more grain. Even though Jacob strongly objects, he realizes that they will starve by doing nothing, and sending all of his sons, including Benjamin, may result in them being able to buy grain without incident.


In Gen. 43, they travel to Egypt, and, even when there seem to be some moments where things might go wrong, at the end of Gen. 43, all of the brothers are eating together in Joseph’s house, none of them yet realizing who Joseph really is.


At the end of Gen. 43, the brothers are eating a wonderful meal at Joseph’s home (not knowing who he is); and Gen. 44 is the next day, as they get their grain and start to leave.


In Gen. 44, the brothers will leave Egypt, but, there will be some problems which occur—primarily manufactured by Joseph. In Gen. 44, Joseph presents his brothers with the ultimate test. He sends them away, and with their sacks filled to the brim with grain. However, not only does Joseph require their silver be added to their sacks, but that his wonderful drinking cup is placed in Benjamin’s sack. Once they had gotten some distance from Joseph’s compound, Joseph sent troops to stop and inquire of the brothers and to search out their stuff. Finding the silver was one thing; but when Joseph’s favorite cup was discovered in Benjamin’s bag, that was the last straw. Or, at least, this is what it would have seemed like to Joseph’s brothers. They realized that they might return to their father, Jacob, without their youngest brother. At that point, something quite remarkable happens.


It is important to understand what has gone before.

The Prequel of Genesis 44

 

Gen. 44 will begin with

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


We need to know who the people are who populate this chapter.

The Principals of Genesis 44

Characters

Commentary

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


We need to know where this chapter takes place.

The Places of Genesis 44

Place

Description

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


The Patriarchal Timeline for Genesis 44


Legend

Birth or death

God speaks with Abraham

Historical incidents (most of which are related to Abraham)

Parenthetical dates (2065 b.c.) simply refer to taking the date assigned by the chronologist and using Scripture to determine the next date.

The entire Abrahamic Timeline (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

The entire Patriarchal Timeline (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

With Abraham, there are continual references to his age, which helps to determine relative dates. There are far fewer references to the ages of Isaac, Jacob and Joseph, which means that there is more guesswork involved in determining dates during their lifetimes.


Brent MacDonald

Age of Abraham

Reese’s Chronology Bible

Scripture

Event/Description

2234 b.c.

 

2097 b.c.

Gen. 11:24

Terah, Abram’s father, is born. Gen 11:24–26 Nahor lived 29 years and fathered Terah. After he fathered Terah, Nahor lived 119 years and fathered other sons and daughters. Terah lived 70 years and fathered Abram, Nahor, and Haran.

 

 

1978 b.c.

Gen. 11:25

Death of Nahor, Abram’s uncle

 

 

1969 b.c.

Gen. 9:28–29

Death of Noah

2164 b.c.

0

1967 b.c.

Gen. 11:26–27

Abraham (Terah’s son) and Lot (Haran’s son) born in Ur of the Chaldeans. Abram would be the 43rd generation from Adam. Gen 11:26 Terah lived 70 years and fathered Abram, Nahor, and Haran.

 

 

1961 b.c.

1963 b.c. (Klassen)

Gen. 11:28

Death of Haran, brother of Abram

Reese occasionally supplies 2 dates in his Chronological Bible; the first is his and the second is Klassen’s.

 

 

1957 b.c.

 

Birth of Sarai

 

 

1927 b.c.

Gen. 11:29–30

Marriage of Abram to Sarai

 

 

1907 b.c.

1927 b.c. (Klassen)

Gen. 11:28, 44

Abram’s family travel from Ur to Haran, although their original intention had been to go to the land of Canaan. Gen 11:28, 44 Haran died in his native land, in Ur of the Chaldeans, during his father Terah's lifetime. Terah took his son Abram, his grandson Lot (Haran's son), and his daughter-in-law Sarai, his son Abram's wife, and they set out together from Ur of the Chaldeans to go to the land of Canaan. But when they came to Haran, they settled there.

 

 

1892 b.c.

Gen. 11:32

Death of Terah, Abram’s father. Gen. 11:32 Terah lived 205 years and died in Haran.

2089 b.c.

75

1892 b.c.

Gen. 12:1–4

Abraham leaves for Promised Land from Haran, after being so instructed by God. Gen 12:4 So Abram went, as the LORD had told him, and Lot went with him. Abram was 75 years old when he left Haran.

Reese actually gives the date of Terah’s death as April 1–4, 1892 b.c. and the date of Abram leaving Haran as April 5, 1892 b.c.

 

 

1891 b.c.

1892 b.c. (Klassen)

Gen. 12:10–20

Abraham & Sarah in Egypt (Goshen, Memphis), return to the Land of Promise (Genesis 12:10-44:1)

 

 

1891 b.c.

Gen. 13:1–4

Abram returns to Bethel in the land of Canaan, returning as a very wealthy man.

 

 

1891 b.c.

1889 b.c. (Klassen)

Gen. 13:5–13

Abram and Lot separate from one another.

 

 

 

Gen. 13:14–17

God renews His covenant with Abram.

 

 

 

Gen. 13:18

Abram moves to the plain of Mamre, which is in Hebron.

 

 

1884 b.c.

1888 b.c. (Klassen)

Gen. 14:5–13

Lot is taken captive.

 

 

 

Gen. 14:14–16

Abram delivers Lot.

 

 

1883 b.c.

Gen. 14:17, 21–24

Abram speaks with the King of Sodom after his victory.

 

 

 

Gen. 14:18–20

Abram’s meeting with Melchizedek, which would be in Salem (Jerusalem).

Reese suggests that this is Shem, a theory which several people have; which theory I reject.

 

 

1882 b.c.

Gen. 15:1–21

God’s covenant with Abram is given in greater detail.

 

85

1882 b.c.

1881 b.c. (Klassen)

Gen. 16:1–14

Sarah gives Hagar, her Egyptian slave girl, to Abram in order to sire a son. Gen 16:3 So Abram's wife Sarai took Hagar, her Egyptian slave, and gave her to her husband Abram as a wife for him. This happened after Abram had lived in the land of Canaan 10 years.

2078 b.c.

86

1881 b.c.

Gen. 16:15–16

Ishmael born to Abraham and Hagar in the land of Canaan. Gen 16:16 Abram was 86 years old when Hagar bore Ishmael to him.

(2065 b.c.)

99

1868 b.c.

Gen. 17:1–8

God renews His covenant with Abram and renames him Abraham. Gen 17:1 When Abram was 99 years old, the LORD appeared to him, saying, "I am God Almighty. Live in My presence and be devout.

(2065 b.c.)

99

(1868 b.c.)

Gen. 17:9–14

Circumcision is given as a sign of the covenant and of Abraham’s faith in his covenant with God. Circumcision represents regeneration (the new birth).

(2065 b.c.)

99

(1868 b.c.)

Gen. 17:15–19

Sarai’s name is changed to Sarah and Isaac, a future son, is promised the Abraham and Sarah. Gen 17:17 Abraham fell to the ground, laughed, and thought in his heart, "Can a child be born to a hundred-year-old man? Can Sarah, a ninety-year-old woman, give birth?"

(2065 b.c.)

99

(1868 b.c.)

Gen. 17:20

Ishmael’s destiny is foretold.

(2065 b.c.)

99

(1868 b.c.)

Gen. 17:21–22

The time that Sarah would give birth is revealed; at a set time in the next year. Gen 17:21 But I will confirm My covenant with Isaac, whom Sarah will bear to you at a set time next year."

(2065 b.c.)

99

(1868 b.c.)

Gen. 17:23–27

Abraham obeys God and circumcises himself and the men with him, responding in faith to God’s mandate. Gen 17:24 Abraham was 99 years old when the flesh of his foreskin was circumcised, and his son Ishmael was 13 years old when the flesh of his foreskin was circumcised.

(2065 b.c.)

 

(1867 b.c.)

Gen. 18:1–15

Jehovah and two angels come to Abraham and promise that Sarah would have a child in a year’s time. Gen 18:10, 14 The LORD said, "I will certainly come back to you in about a year's time, and your wife Sarah will have a son!" Now Sarah was listening at the entrance of the tent behind him. Is anything impossible for the LORD? At the appointed time I will come back to you, and in about a year she will have a son."

(2065 b.c.)

 

(1867 b.c.)

Gen. 18:16–21

The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah is promised.

(2065 b.c.)

 

(1867 b.c.)

Gen. 18:22–33

Abraham intercedes on behalf of Sodom.

(2065 b.c.)

 

(1867 b.c.)

Gen. 19:1–23

The angels visit Lot and warn him of the coming destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah.

2065 b.c.

 

(1867 b.c.)

Gen. 19:24–29

Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboiim, and Bela are destroyed by fire and sulfur and possibly by volcanic eruptions. Reese suggests that this is when the Dead Sea is formed.

 

 

 

Gen. 20:1–18

Abraham lies again about his wife to King Abimelech in Gerar, in southern Judah. Although some believe that this chapter is placed here in Genesis due to thematic elements rather than because it belongs here chronologically, we find Abraham in Gerar in the next chapter, which suggests that this chapter is correctly placed.

2064 b.c.

100

 

Gen. 21:1–7 1Chron. 1:34

Isaac born to Abraham. Isaac would be the 44th generation from Adam. Gen 21:5 Abraham was 100 years old when his son Isaac was born to him.

 

 

1867 b.c.

Gen. 19:30–38

Lot’s daughters bear sons to their father Lot.

 

 

1864 b.c.

Gen. 21:8–13

Conflicts arise between Isaac and Ishmael, Abram’s two sons.

 

 

 

Gen. 21:14–21

Hagar and Ishmael are both cast out, and they wander the desert of Beer-sheba (which is at the edge of southern Judah). Later, they move to the desert of Paran.

 

 

1864–1834 b.c.

Gen. 21:22–34

Abraham makes a covenant with Abimelech, which suggests that Abraham is still in or near Gerar. They will make a covenant in Beer-sheba. We are told that Abraham remains in the land of the Philistines for many days.

 

 

1841–1816 b.c.

Gen. 25:12–16 1Chron. 1:29–44

Ishmael’s children.

 

 

1834 b.c.

1829 b.c. (Klassen)

Gen. 22:1–19

Abraham is told by God to go to the land of Moriah to offer up his son Isaac to God as a sacrifice. This was a 3-day journey away. They then go to Beer-sheba, which could simply indicate that they are returning home to Beer-sheba.

 

 

 

Gen. 22:20–24

Abraham learns of his brother Nahor’s family.

 

137

1830 b.c.

Gen. 23:1–20

The death of Sarah. She dies in Kirjatharba, it is Hebron, in the land of Canaan. Gen 23:1 Now Sarah lived 127 years; these were all the years of her life. She is buried in a cave of the field of Machpelah before Mamre; it is Hebron, in the land of Canaan, purchased by Abraham from the sons of Heth.

 

 

 

Gen. 24:1–67 Gen. 25:20

Isaac (Abraham’s son) and Rebecca. Gen. 25:20 Isaac was 40 years old when he took as his wife Rebekah daughter of Bethuel the Aramæan from Paddan-aram, and sister of Laban the Aramæan. At this time, Isaac is living in the Negev. It is likely that Abraham lived there as well; or near to there.

 

 

1826 b.c.

Gen. 25:1–4 1Chron. 1:32–33

Abraham marries Keturah and they have a family.

2004 b.c.

160

1807 b.c.

Gen. 25:19, 21–26

Jacob & Esau born to Isaac. Gen 25:26 After this, his brother came out grasping Esau's heel with his hand. So he was named Jacob. Isaac was 60 years old when they were born. Therefore, Abraham would be 160 years old.

 

 

 

Gen. 25:5–6

Isaac is the heir of all things that Abraham has (but, most importantly, of the covenant of God with Abraham).

1989 b.c.

175

1792 b.c.

Gen. 25:7–10

Abraham dies. Gen 25:7 This is the length of Abraham's life: 175 years. He is buried in the cave of Machpelah near Mamre, in the field of Nephron (this would be with Sarah).

 

 

1788 b.c.

Gen. 25:17

The death of Ishmael. Gen 25:17 This is the length of Ishmael's life: 137 years. He took his last breath and died, and was gathered to his people.


Bibliography

MacDonald’s timeline is from: http://www.bibleistrue.com/qna/qna63.htm accessed October 11, 2011.

See http://www.bibleistrue.com/qna/qna63dating.htm for his justification of his timeline.

From: http://www.christianshepherd.org/bible_study_guides/abram_to_the_exodus.pdf (Christian shepherd)

The Reese Chronological Bible; KJV translation; Editor: Edward Reese; ©1977 by Edward Reese and Klassen’s dating system ©1975 by Frank R. Klassen; Ⓟ1980 by Bethany House Publishers, South Minneapolis, MN; pp. 18–19, 54–74.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Here is what to expect from Genesis 44:

A Synopsis of Genesis 44

 

 

 

 

Like all chapters of the Word of God, you need more than just the simple plot outline to understand what God wants us to know.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines



 

The New American Bible Summarizes Genesis 44

Joseph’s pressure on his brothers and Judah’s great speech. Judah has the longest speech in the Book of Genesis; it summarizes the recent past (vv. 18–29), shows the pain Joseph’s actions have imposed on their aged father (vv. 30–32), and ends with the offer to take the place of Benjamin as servant of Joseph (vv. 33–34). The role of Judah in the entire story is exceedingly important and is easily underrated: he tries to rescue Joseph (37:26–27), his “going down away from the brothers” is parallel to Joseph’s (chap. 38) and prepares him (as it prepares Joseph) for the reconciliation, his speech in chap. 44 persuades Joseph to reveal himself and be reconciled to his brothers. Here, Judah effectively replaces Reuben as a spokesman for the brothers. Jacob in his testament (chap. 49) devotes the most attention to Judah and Joseph. In one sense, the story can be called the story of Joseph and Judah.

From http://www.usccb.org/bible/genesis/44#01044001-1 accessed July 31, 2016.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Dr. Bob Utley’s Translation Table/Subtitles and Paragraphs

NASB

NKJV

NRSV

TEV

NJB (FOLLOWS MT)

The Brothers Are Brought Back

Joseph's Cup

Joseph Puts His Brothers To a Final Test

The Missing Cup

Joseph's Cup in Benjamin's Sack

Gen.44:1-5

Gen.44:1-5

Gen.44:1-5

Gen.44:1-5

Gen.44:1-2

 

 

 

 

Gen.44:3-5

Gen.44:6-13

Gen.44:6-13

Gen.44:6-13

Gen.44:6-9

Gen.44:6-13

 

 

 

Gen.44:10-13

 

Gen.44:14-17

Gen.44:14-17

Gen.44:14-17

Gen.44:14-15

Gen.44:16

Gen.44:17

Gen.44:14-17

 

Judah Intercedes for Benjamin

 

Judah Pleads for Benjamin

Judah Intervenes

Gen.44:18-34

Gen.44:18-34

Gen.44:18-34

Gen.44:18-23

Gen.44:18-34

 

 

 

Gen.44:24-29

 

 

 

 

Gen.44:30-34

 

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


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Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


As always, 3 separate translations will be produced for each verse. The slavishly literal translation attempts to preserve word order and number, making it more literal than Young’s translation (however, I do not preserve the consistency of the translation that Young does). The moderately literal translation may add or delete a definite article, change the number of a noun to correspond with the English sense of thinking, and the order is often changed in order to better represent our English sentence structure. The paraphrase is an attempt to give a thought-for-thought interpretation of what each verse tells us.


Kukis slavishly literal:

 

Kukis moderately literal:

And so he commands whom [is] over his house, to say, “Fill sacks of the men with food as which he is able [to] carry and place silver of a man in a mouth of his sack. And my cup, a cup of silver, you will place in a mouth of a sack of the youngest, and silver of his grain.” And so he does, as a word of Joseph which he spoke.

Genesis

44:1–2

Joseph [lit., he] commanded the one over his house, saying, “Fill the men’s sack with food, as much as he is able [to] carry, and place [each] man’s silver in the mouth of his sack. You will also place my cup, the silver cup, into the mouth of the sack of the youngest, along with the silver for his grain.” And he did just as Joseph ordered [him].

Kukis not-so-literal paraphrase:

Joseph commanded the one who is over his house, “Fill up the men’s sack with food and grain, as much as they are able to carry, and place each man’s silver into the mouth of the sack. Furthermore, take my silver cup and place that into the sack of the youngest brother, along with the silver for his grain.” Joseph’s servant did just as he was ordered to do.


Here is how others have translated this verse:

 

Ancient texts:                       Note: I compare the Hebrew text to English translations of the Latin, Syriac (= Aramaic) and Greek texts, using the Douay-Rheims translation; George Lamsa’s translation, and Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton’s translation as revised and edited by Paul W. Esposito, respectively. I often update these texts with non-substantive changes (e.g., you for thou, etc.). I often use the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible instead of Brenton’s translation, because it updates the English text.

 

The Septuagint was the earliest known translation of a book (circa 200 b.c.). Since this translation was made before the textual criticism had been developed into a science and because different books appear to be translated by different men, the Greek translation can sometimes be very uneven.

 

When there are serious disparities between my translation and Brenton’s (or the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible), I look at the Greek text of the Septuagint (the LXX) to see if a substantive difference actually exists (and I reflect these changes in the English rendering of the Greek text). I use the Greek LXX with Strong’s numbers and morphology available for e-sword. The only problem with this resource (which is a problem for similar resources) is, there is no way to further explore Greek verbs which are not found in the New Testament. Although I usually quote the Complete Apostles’ Bible here, I have begun to make changes in the translation when their translation conflicts with the Greek and note what those changes are.

 

The Masoretic text is the Hebrew text with all of the vowels (vowel points) inserted (the original Hebrew text lacked vowels). We take the Masoretic text to be the text closest to the original. However, differences between the Masoretic text and the Greek, Latin and Syriac are worth noting and, once in a great while, represent a more accurate text possessed by those other ancient translators.

 

In general, the Latin text is an outstanding translation from the Hebrew text into Latin and very trustworthy (I say this as a non-Catholic). Unfortunately, I do not read Latin—apart from some very obvious words—so I am dependent upon the English translation of the Latin (principally, the Douay-Rheims translation).

 

Underlined words indicate differences in the text.

 

Bracketed portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls are words, letters and phrases lost in the scroll due to various types of damage. Underlined words or phrases are those in the Dead Sea Scrolls but not in the Masoretic text.

 

I will only list the translation from the Dead Sea Scrolls if it exists and if it is different from the Masoretic text.

 

The Targum of Onkelos is actually the Pentateuchal Targumim, which are The Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan Ben Uzziel. On the Pentateuch With The Fragments of the Jerusalem Targum From the Chaldee by J. W. Etheridge, M.A. From http://www.becomingjewish.org/texts/targum/onkelos_genesis.html and first published in 1862.

 

The very fact that we have ancient Greek, Latin, Syriac and Arabic translations of the Bible testifies to its accuracy. There may be a difference word or phrase here or there; the Greek may have a singular where the Hebrew has a plural, but there is no set of doctrines in the Latin Bible which are any different from those found in the Greek Bible or the Syriac Bible. These different cultures when they chose to translate the Bible chose to translate it as accurately as possible. Where human viewpoint would expect to find doctrinal differences between the Bible of the Hebrews, of the Greeks or of the Romans, no such differences exist.


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so he commands whom [is] over his house, to say, “Fill sacks of the men with food as which he is able [to] carry and place silver of a man in a mouth of his sack. And my cup, a cup of silver, you will place in a mouth of a sack of the youngest, and silver of his grain.” And so he does, as a word of Joseph which he spoke.

Dead Sea Scrolls                   It does not appear that anything of Gen. 44 is found in the Dead Sea Scrolls.

Targum (Onkelos)                  And Joseph commanded the steward of his house, saying, Fill the men's bags with corn as much as they can carry, and put each man's money in the mouth of his baggage. And put my cup, the silver cup, in the mouth of the youngest one's baggage, and his purchase money. And he did according to Joseph's word which he spake. Translation for Onkelos and Pseudo-Jonathan by J. W. Etheridge, M.A. (1862).

Targum (Pseudo-Jonathan)   And he commanded Menasheh whom he bad appointed intendant of his house, saying, Fill the men's sacks with corn, as much as they can carry, and put each man's money in the mouth of his bag. And put my cup, the silver cup, in the mouth of the sack of the youngest, and his purchase money. And he did according to the word which Joseph had spoken.

Targum Pseudo Jonathan      .

Latin Vulgate                          And Joseph gave orders to his steward; Fill their sacks with corn, as full as they can hold, and enclose in each man's sack the money he has paid. And when it comes to the youngest, enclose in his sack not only the money he paid for his corn, but my silver cup as well. His command was obeyed; and now morning came, and they were given leave to depart, with their asses. A portion of v. 3 is included for context.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    AND he commanded the steward of his house, saying, Fill the mens sacks with wheat, as much as they can carry, and put every mans money in his sacks mouth. And take my cup, the silver cup, and put it in the sacks mouth of the youngest, with his money for the wheat. And the servant did according to the word that Joseph had spoken.

Septuagint (Greek)                The missing cup. Gn.44.1-17

And Joseph charged the steward of his house, saying, Fill the men's sacks with food, as much as they can carry, and put the money of each in the mouth of his sack. And put my silver cup into the sack of the youngest, and the price of his corn. And it was done according to the word of Joseph, as he said. This is the New Brenton translation from http://www.katapi.org.uk/

NETS (Greek)                        .

Brenton’s Septuagint             .

 

Significant differences: 


Limited Vocabulary Translations:

 

Bible in Basic English             Then he gave orders to the servant who was over his house, saying, Put as much food into the men's bags as will go into them, and put every man's money in the mouth of his bag; And put my cup, my silver cup, in the youngest one's bag, with his money. So he did as Joseph said.

Easy English                          Joseph tests his brothers

Then Joseph gave orders to the *steward of his house. Joseph told him, ‘Fill the men’s sacks with as much food as they can carry. And put each man’s money back at the top of his sack.’ Joseph had a special cup that someone had made from silver. Joseph then told the *steward, ‘Put the cup at the top of the youngest brother’s sack. And put his money there too.’ The *steward did as Joseph ordered.

Easy-to-Read Version–2006  Joseph Sets a Trap

Then Joseph gave a command to his servant. He said, “Fill the men’s sacks with as much grain as they can carry. Then put each man’s money into his sack with the grain. Put the youngest brother’s money in his sack too. But also put my special silver cup in his sack.” So the servant obeyed Joseph.

Easy-to-Read Version–2008  .

International Children’s B.     Joseph Sets a Trap

Then Joseph gave a command to the servant in charge of his house. Joseph said, “Fill the men’s sacks with as much grain as they can carry. And put each man’s money into his sack with the grain. Put my silver cup in the sack of the youngest brother. Also put his money for the grain in that sack.” The servant did what Joseph told him.

God’s Word                         .

Good News Bible (TEV)         The Missing Cup

Joseph commanded the servant in charge of his house, “Fill the men's sacks with as much food as they can carry, and put each man's money in the top of his sack. Put my silver cup in the top of the youngest brother's sack, together with the money for his grain.” He did as he was told.

The Message                         Joseph ordered his house steward: “Fill the men’s bags with food—all they can carry—and replace each one’s money at the top of the bag. Then put my chalice, my silver chalice, in the top of the bag of the youngest, along with the money for his food.” He did as Joseph ordered.

Names of God Bible               Joseph’s Plan to Trap His Brothers

Joseph commanded the man in charge of his house, “Fill the men’s sacks with as much food as they can carry. Put each man’s money in his sack. Then put my silver cup in the youngest brother’s sack along with the money for his grain.” He did what Joseph told him.

NIRV                                      A Silver Cup in a Sack

Joseph told the manager of his house what to do. “Fill the men’s sacks with as much food as they can carry,” he said. “Put each man’s money in his sack. Then put my silver cup in the youngest one’s sack. Put it there along with the money he paid for his grain.” So the manager did what Joseph told him to do.

New Simplified Bible              Later, Joseph told the servant in charge of his house: »Fill the men’s grain sacks with as much as they can hold and put their money in the sacks.

»Also put my silver cup in the sack of the youngest brother.« The servant did as he was told.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Joseph tests his brothers

Joseph gave commands to his household manager: “Fill the men’s sacks with as much food as they’ll hold, and put each man’s silver at the top of his sack. Put my cup, the silver cup, on top of the youngest brother’s sack, together with the silver for his grain.” So he did just as Joseph told him to do.

Contemporary English V.       Later, Joseph told the servant in charge of his house, "Fill the men's grain sacks with as much as they can hold and put their money in the sacks. Also put my silver cup in the sack of the youngest brother." The servant did as he was told.

The Living Bible                     When his brothers were ready to leave, Joseph ordered his household manager to fill each of their sacks with as much grain as they could carry—and to put into the mouth of each man’s sack the money he had paid! He was also told to put Joseph’s own silver cup at the top of Benjamin’s sack, along with the grain money. So the household manager did as he was told.

New Berkeley Version           .

New Century Version             Joseph Sets a Trap

Then Joseph gave a command to the servant in charge of his house. He said, “Fill the men’s sacks with as much grain as they can carry, and put each man’s money into his sack with the grain. Put my silver cup in the sack of the youngest brother, along with his money for the grain.” The servant did what Joseph told him.

New Life Version                    Then Joseph told the man who took care of his house, "Fill the men's bags with as much food as they can carry. And put each man's money in his bag. Put my silver cup in the bag of the youngest, with his money for the grain." And he did what Joseph had told him to do.

New Living Translation           Joseph’s Silver Cup

When his brothers were ready to leave, Joseph gave these instructions to his palace manager: “Fill each of their sacks with as much grain as they can carry, and put each man’s money back into his sack. Then put my personal silver cup at the top of the youngest brother’s sack, along with the money for his grain.” So the manager did as Joseph instructed him.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Thereafter, JoSeph gave instructions to his house manager, saying, 'Fill the men's sacks with as much food as they can carry, and put the money of each one in the top of his sack. Also, put my silver cup in the sack that belongs to the youngest, along with the price of his grain.' And he did exactly as JoSeph said.

Beck’s American Translation .

International Standard V        The Brothers Leave for Canaan

Later, Joseph [Lit. he] commanded his palace manager, “Fill the men’s sacks to full capacity with food and replace each man’s money at the top of the sack. Then place my cup—the silver one—in the top of the sack belonging to the youngest one, along with the money he brought to buy [The Heb. lacks he brought to buy] grain.” So the manager [Lit. So he] did precisely what Joseph told him to do.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       And Joseph gave orders to his steward; Fill their sacks with corn, as full as they can hold, and enclose in each man’s sack the money he has paid. And when it comes to the youngest, enclose in his sack not only the money he paid for his corn, but my silver cup as well. His command was obeyed;...

Today’s NIV                          A Silver Cup in a Sack

Now Joseph gave these instructions to the steward of his house: “Fill the men’s sacks with as much food as they can carry, and put each man’s silver in the mouth of his sack. Then put my cup, the silver one, in the mouth of the youngest one’s sack, along with the silver for his grain.” And he did as Joseph said.

Translation for Translators      Joseph tricked his brothers by having his cup put in Benjamin's sack

When his brothers were ready to return home, Joseph said to the man who was in charge of things in his house, “Fill the sacks of those men with as much grain as they can carry on their donkeys. And put in the top of each man's sack the silver that he paid for the grain. Then put my silver cup in the top of the youngest brother's sack, along with the silver that he paid for the grain.” So the servant did what Joseph told him to do.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Awful Scroll Bible                   He laid charge to he of his house, to the intent: Be filling the men's sacks with food, that which they were able to carry, and be placing each one's silver in the mouth of their sacks. Be putting my cup, the silver cup, in the sack's mouth of the youngest, and his silver for that broken apart. He was to effect to the concerns Joseph is to have declared.

Conservapedia                       He (Joseph) gave these instructions to his household steward: "Fill the men's bags with as much food as they can carry, and place each man's silver into the mouth of his sack. And put my beaker, my silver beaker, into the mouth of the sack belonging to the youngest one, together with the silver he brought to buy food with." And the steward followed Joseph's instructions to the letter.

Ferrar-Fenton Bible                Joseph Discovers Himself to His Brothers

Afterwards he commanded his steward, saying; "Fill the loads of these men with food as much as they are able to carry, and put the money of each on the top of the carts ; and my cup, the cup of silver, place at the top of the load of the youngest, with the money for his corn." So they did as Joseph ordered.

God’s Truth (Tyndale)           And he commanded the ruler of his house saying: fill the mens sacks with food, as much as they can carry, and put every mans money in his bag mouth, and put my silver cup in the sacks mouth of the youngest and his corn money also. And he did as Joseph had said.

HCSB                                     Joseph’s Final Test

Then Joseph commanded his steward: “Fill the men’s bags with as much food as they can carry, and put each one’s money at the top of his bag. Put my cup, the silver one, at the top of the youngest one’s bag, along with his grain money.” So he did as Joseph told him.

Jubilee Bible 2000                  .

H. C. Leupold                         And he gave commandment to the man who was over his household, saying: Fill the sacks of the men with as much food as they will be able to carry away, and place each man’s money in the mouth of his sack. And place my cup, the silver cup, in the mouth of the sack of the youngest as well as the money for his grain. And he did according to the orders that Joseph gave.

Lexham English Bible            Joseph Tests His Brothers

Then he commanded [the one] who [was] over his household, saying, "Fill the sacks of the men [with] food as much as they are able to carry, and put each one's money in the mouth of his sack. And my cup--the cup of silver--you shall put into the mouth of the sack of the youngest, and the money for his grain. And he did according to the word of Joseph that he had commanded.

NIV, ©2011                             A Silver Cup in a Sack

Now Joseph gave these instructions to the steward of his house: “Fill the men’s sacks with as much food as they can carry, and put each man’s silver in the mouth of his sack. Then put my cup, the silver one, in the mouth of the youngest one’s sack, along with the silver for his grain.” And he did as Joseph said.

NIV – UK                                .

Tree of Life Version                Joseph Tests His Brothers

Then he commanded the one over his household saying, “Fill the men’s sacks with as much food as they are able to carry and put money in the opening of each man’s sack. Put my cup, the silver cup, in the opening of the sack of the youngest along with his grain money.” So he did as Joseph told him.


Catholic Bibles (those having the imprimatur):

 

Christian Community (1988)  Joseph’s cup in Benjamin’s sack

Now Joseph gave this order to his steward, “Fill the men’s sacks with as much food as they can carry and put back each man’s silver in the mouth of his sack, and put my cup, the silver cup with the money for the grain in the sack of the youngest.” The steward did as Joseph had directed.

The Heritage Bible                 And he commanded the one over his house, saying, Fill the men’s sacks with food, as much as they are able to carry, and put every man’s silver in his sack’s mouth. And put my cup, the silver cup, in the sack’s mouth of the youngest, and his silver for grain. And he did according to the word which Joseph spoke.

New American Bible (2002)   Then Joseph gave his head steward these instructions: "Fill the men's bags with as much food as they can carry, and put each man's money in the mouth of his bag. In the mouth of the youngest one's bag put also my silver goblet, together with the money for his rations." The steward carried out Joseph's instructions. [1-2] Replacement of the money in the men's bags is probably a redactional addition here, taken from the Yahwist account of the first visit. It is only the goblet in Benjamin's bag, not any replaced money, that plays a part in the rest of the chapter.

New American Bible (2011)   Final Test.

Then Joseph commanded his steward: “Fill the men’s bags with as much food as they can carry, and put each man’s money in the mouth of his bag. In the mouth of the youngest one’s bag put also my silver goblet, together with the money for his grain.” The steward did as Joseph said.

New Jerusalem Bible             Then Joseph instructed his chamberlain as follows: 'Fill these men's sacks with as much food as they can carry, and put each man's money in the mouth of his sack. And put my cup, the silver one, in the mouth of the youngest one's sack as well as the money for his rations.' He did as Joseph had instructed.

New RSV                               .

Revised English Bible            Joseph gave the steward these instructions: “Fill the men's packs with food, as much as they can carry, and put each man's silver at the top of his pack. And put my goblet, the silver one, at the top of the youngest brother's pack along with the silver for the grain.” He did as Joseph had told him.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           Then he ordered the manager of his household, “Fill the men’s packs with food, as much as they can carry, and put each man’s money just inside his pack. And put my goblet, the silver one, just inside the pack of the youngest, along with his grain money.” He did what Yosef told him to do.

exeGeses companion Bible   THE BROTHERS OF YOSEPH DEPART

And he misvahs the steward of his house, saying,

Fill the sacks of the men with food

- as much as they can bear;

and put the silver of every man

in the mouth of his sack.

And put my bowl - the silver bowl,

in the mouth of the sack of the youngest

with his kernel silver.

And he works according to the word Yoseph words:

Hebraic Roots Bible               And he commanded the one over his house, saying, Fill the sacks of the men with food, as much as they are able to carry; and put the silver of each one in the mouth of his sack. And put my cup, the cup of silver, in the mouth of the sack of the youngest, and the silver for his grain. And he did according to Joseph's word, that which he spoke.

Israeli Authorized Version      .

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               Then he instructed his house steward as follows, “Fill the men’s bags with food, as much as they can carry, and put each one’s money in the mouth of his bag. 2Put my silver goblet in the mouth of the bag of the youngest one, together with his money for the rations.” And he did as Joseph told him.

Kaplan Translation                 Joseph's Vindication

Joseph gave his overseer special instructions. 'Fill the men's packs with as much food as they can carry,' he said. 'Place each man's money at the top of his pack.

And my chalice - the silver chalice - place it on top of the youngest one's pack - along with the money for his food.' [The overseer] did exactly as Joseph instructed him. The Kaplan Translation, particularly in Exodus through Deuteronomy, takes note of historic rabbinic opinions.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           And he commanded the ish over Bais Yosef, saying, Fill the sacks of the anashim with ochel, as much as they can carry, and put kesef ish in the mouth of his sack.

And put my cup, gevi’a hakesef (cup of silver), in the mouth of the sack of the katon, and his kesef for shever (grain). And he did according to the davar Yosef had spoken.

The Scriptures 1998              And he commanded the one over his house, saying, “Fill the men’s sacks with food, as they are able to bear, and put each man’s silver in the mouth of his sack.

“And put my cup, the silver cup, in the mouth of the sack of the youngest, and the silver for his grain.” And he did according to the word of Yosĕph which he spoke.


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

The Amplified Bible                The Brothers Are Brought Back

And he commanded the steward of his house, saying, “Fill the men’s sacks with food, as much as they can carry, and put every man’s [grain] money in the mouth of the sack. Put my [personal] cup, the silver cup, in the mouth of the sack of the youngest, with his grain money.” And the steward did as Joseph had told him.

The Expanded Bible              Joseph Sets a Trap

Then Joseph gave a command to the ·servant in charge of [Lone over] his house. He said, “Fill the men’s sacks with as much ·grain [Lfood] as they can carry, and put each man’s ·money [silver] into his sack with the grain. Put my silver ·cup [goblet] in the sack of the ·youngest [smallest] brother, along with his ·money [silver] for the grain.” ·The servant [LHe] did what Joseph told him.

Kretzmann’s Commentary    The Test

And he commanded the steward of his house, saying, Fill the men's sacks with food, as much as they can carry, and put every man's money in his sack's mouth. The feast which Joseph had arranged may have lasted a large part of the afternoon. At its conclusion the chief steward received orders to have the sacks of the strangers filled, but with very good measure. The return of the money in this case did not belong to the test but inasmuch as it was intended to strengthen the general impression.

And put my cup, the silver cup, in the sack's mouth of the youngest, and his corn money. The placing of this cup in Benjamin's sack had the object to concentrate the test upon his person, to bring his person into the foreground. And he did according to the word that Joseph had spoken. Everything having been prepared according to Joseph's plans, the brothers spent the night in the Egyptian city.

NET Bible®                             The Final Test

He instructed the servant who was over his household, “Fill the sacks of the men with as much food as they can carry and put each man’s money in the mouth of his sack. Then put [The imperfect verbal form is used here to express Joseph’s instructions.] my cup – the silver cup – in the mouth of the youngest one’s sack, along with the money for his grain.” He did as Joseph instructed [Heb “and he did according to the word of Joseph which he spoke.”]. When it comes to making an actual material change to the text, the NET Bible® is pretty good about indicating this. Since most of these corrections will be clear in the more literal translations below and within the Hebrew exegesis itself, I will not continue to list every NET Bible® footnote. Language footnotes will be placed in the Hebrew exegesis. Some footnotes will quoted elsewhere in this document.

Syndein/Thieme                     .

The Voice                               After the meal was over, Joseph commanded the steward of his house.

Joseph: Fill the men’s sacks with food—as much as they can carry. Put each man’s money back into the top of his sack. One more thing: I want you to put my personal cup, my silver cup, into the top of the sack of the youngest, along with his money for the grain.

The steward did everything Joseph told him to do.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Brenner’s Mechanical Trans..

Concordant Literal Version    And instructing is Joseph him who is over his household, saying, "Fill the bags of the mortals with food, as much as they can lift, and place the money of each man in the mouth of his bag.

And my beaker, the silver beaker shall you place in the mouth of the bag of the small one with his victual money.And doing is he according to the word which Joseph speaks.

Context Group Version          .

Darby Translation                  .

Emphasized Bible                  .

English Standard Version      .

English Standard V. – UK       Joseph Tests His Brothers

Then he commanded the steward of his house, “Fill the men's sacks with food, as much as they can carry, and put each man's money in the mouth of his sack, and put my cup, the silver cup, in the mouth of the sack of the youngest, with his money for the grain.” And he did as Joseph told him.

Evidence Bible                       .

Green’s Literal Translation    .

Jack Ballinger’s translation    .

Modern English Version         Joseph Detains Benjamin

Then he commanded the steward of his house, saying, “Fill the men’s sacks with food, as much as they can carry, and put every man’s money in the mouth of his sack. Put my cup, the silver cup, in the mouth of the sack of the youngest, along with his grain money.” And he did according to what Joseph had spoken.

NASB                                     The Brothers Are Brought Back

Then he commanded his house steward, saying, “Fill the men’s sacks with food, as much as they can carry, and put each man’s money in the mouth of his sack. Put my cup, the silver cup, in the mouth of the sack of the youngest, and his money for the grain.” And he did as Joseph had told him.

New European Version          Joseph Tries to Convict His Brothers of Their Sin

He commanded the steward of his house, saying, Fill the men’s sacks with food, as much as they can carry, and put each man’s money in his sack’s mouth. Put my cup, the silver cup, in the sack’s mouth of the youngest, with his grain money. He did according to the word that Joseph had spoken.

New King James Version       Joseph’s Cup

And he commanded the steward of his house, saying, “Fill the men’s sacks with food, as much as they can carry, and put each man’s money in the mouth of his sack. Also put my cup, the silver cup, in the mouth of the sack of the youngest, and his grain money.” So he did according to the word that Joseph had spoken.

Owen's Translation                .

Benner’s Mechanical Trans.  ...and he directed the one who is upon his house saying, fill the bags of the men with foodstuff, just as they are able to lift up and set in place the silver of each in the mouth of his bag, and my cup, the silver cup, you will set in place in the mouth of the bag of the small one and the silver of his barley, and he did according to the word of Yoseph [Adding] which he said,...

Ron Snider’s Translation       .

Stuart Wolf’s Translation       .

Third Millennium Bible            A Silver Cup in a Sack

Now Joseph gave these instructions to the steward of his house: “Fill the men’s sacks with as much food as they can carry, and put each man’s silver in the mouth of his sack. Then put my cup, the silver one, in the mouth of the youngest one’s sack, along with the silver for his grain.” And he did as Joseph said.

Updated Bible Version 2.11   .

A Voice in the Wilderness      .

Webster’s Bible Translation  And he commanded the steward of his house, saying, Fill the men's sacks with food, as much as they can carry, and put every man's money in his sack's mouth. And put my cup, the silver cup, in the sack's mouth of the youngest, and his corn money. And he did according to the word that Joseph had spoken.

World English Bible                .

Young's Literal Translation     .

Young's Updated LT              Then he commanded the steward of his house, "Fill the men's sacks with food, as much as they can carry, and put each man's money in the mouth of his sack, and put my cup, the silver cup, in the mouth of the sack of the youngest, with his money for the grain." And he did as Joseph told him.

 

The gist of this passage:     Joseph gives orders to put each man’s money back into his sack and to place his personal cup into Benjamin’s sack.


Genesis 44:1a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

tsâvâh (צָוָה) [pronounced tsaw-VAW]

to commission, to mandate, to appoint; to ordain; to lay charge upon, to give charge to, charge [command, order[; to instruct [as in, giving an order]

3rd person masculine singular, Piel imperfect

Strong's #6680 BDB #845

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, so that, in that; for that, since; which; when, at what time; who, whom; where, wherever; the fact that = how; because that, because; as, like as; yea, even, yea even; until that; then, so [in an apodosis]

relative pronoun; sometimes the verb to be is implied

Strong's #834 BDB #81

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of relative proximity with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

bayith (בַּיִת) [pronounced BAH-yith]

house, residence; household, habitation as well as inward

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #1004 BDB #108


Translation: Joseph [lit., he] commanded the one over his house,... This is an unusual combination of words which we saw before in the previous chapter. The relative pronoun is used more like a simple pronoun referring to someone very specific (in both cases, to the servant who was over Joseph’s house).


Joseph issues a series of commands to this man, who would either see to these tasks himself or make certain that they are taken care of.


Genesis 44:1b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend; to decide; to answer

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

mâlêʾ (מָלֵא) [pronounced maw-LAY]

fill, make full, fill up, fulfill; satisfy; complete, accomplish, confirm

2nd person masculine singular, Piel imperative

Strong's #4390 BDB #569

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʾametachath (אַמְתַּחַת) [pronounced ahm-TAHKH-ahth]

bag, sack; flexible container for grain

feminine plural construct

Strong’s #572 BDB #607

ʾănâshîym (אֲנָשִים) [pronounced uh-NAW-sheem]; also spelled ʾîyshîym (אִישִים) [pronounced ee-SHEEM]

men; inhabitants, citizens; companions; soldiers, followers

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong's #376 BDB #35

ʾôkel (אֹכֶל) [pronounced OH-kehl]

food, grain, meal; prey, meat; provisions

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #400 BDB #38

kaph or ke (כְּ) [pronounced ke]

like, as, according to; about, approximately

preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #453

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced ash-ER]

that, which, when, who, whom; where

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

Together, kaʾăsher (כַּאֲשֶר) [pronounced kah-uh-SHER] means as which, as one who, as, like as, as just; because; according to what manner, in a manner as, when, about when. Back in 1Sam. 12:8, I rendered this for example. In Gen. 44:1, I have translated this, as much as.

yâkôl (יָכֹל) [also yâkôwl (יָכוֹל)] [pronounced yaw-COAL]

to be able, can, to have the ability, to have the power to; to be able to bear; to be able to bring oneself [to do anything]; to be lawful, to be permitted; to be powerful, to prevail

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #3201 BDB #407

nâsâʾ (נָשָׂא) [pronounced naw-SAW]

to lift up, to bear, to carry

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #5375 BDB #669


Translation: ...saying, “Fill the men’s sack with food, as much as he is able [to] carry,... What makes perfect sense is, these young men from Canaan have come to purchase grain, and Joseph tells his servant to give them as much gain as they are able to carry. So, no matter how this was dealt with before, Joseph wanted to make certain that these men had as much as they were able to carry.


Genesis 44:1c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

sîym (שִׂים) [pronounced seem]; also spelled sûwm (שׂוּם) [pronounced soom]

put, place, set; make; appoint

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperative

Strong's #7760 BDB #962

keçeph (כֶּסֶף) [pronounced KEH-sef]

silver, money; silver [as a metal, ornament, color]; shekels, talents

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #3701 BDB #494

ʾîysh (אִיש) [pronounced eesh]

a man, a husband; anyone; a certain one; each, each one, each man, everyone

masculine singular noun (sometimes found where we would use a plural)

Strong's #376 BDB #35

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

peh (פֶּה) [pronounced peh]

mouth [of man, animal; as an organ of speech]; opening, orifice [of a river, well, etc.]; edge; extremity, end

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #6310 BDB #804

ʾametachath (אַמְתַּחַת) [pronounced ahm-TAHKH-ahth]

bag, sack; flexible container for grain

feminine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #572 BDB #607


Translation: ...and place [each] man’s silver in the mouth of his sack. Then Joseph gave a strange directive; Take each man’s silver and put it into his sack.” Joseph had given this order before, and no matter what his servant may have thought of these orders, he carried them out. Joseph did have a master plan, apparently, and his head servant did not concern himself with what that plan was.


At least one translation questioned this, saying that this act was transposed from the last time that it happened, as this is not considered an issue when the men are stopped. My thinking is, Joseph did this before—why would he not do this a second time? It is not an issue the second time, as, only Joseph’s goblet will become an issue.


Genesis 44:2a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

gebîyaʿ (גְּבִיעַ) [pronounced ghehb-EE-ģah]

cup, bowl, chalice

masculine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #1375 BDB #149

gebîyaʿ (גְּבִיעַ) [pronounced ghehb-EE-ģah]

cup, bowl, chalice

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #1375 BDB #149

keçeph (כֶּסֶף) [pronounced KEH-sef]

silver, money; silver [as a metal, ornament, color]; shekels, talents

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3701 BDB #494

sîym (שִׂים) [pronounced seem]; also spelled sûwm (שׂוּם) [pronounced soom]

to put, to place, to set; to make; to appoint

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #7760 BDB #962

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

peh (פֶּה) [pronounced peh]

mouth [of man, animal; as an organ of speech]; opening, orifice [of a river, well, etc.]; edge; extremity, end

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #6310 BDB #804

ʾametachath (אַמְתַּחַת) [pronounced ahm-TAHKH-ahth]

bag, sack; flexible container for grain

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #572 BDB #607

qâţôn (קָטֹן) [pronounced kaw-TOHN]

small, insignificant, unimportant; lesser; a word particularly used for youth, younger

masculine singular adjective used as a substantive; with the definite article

Strong’s #6996 BDB #882


Translation: You will also place my cup, the silver cup, into the mouth of the sack of the youngest,... Then, the most unusual of the orders—Joseph tells his servant to take his very expensive silver cup (possibly a bowl) and to place it in the sack of the youngest brother. This was an odd request, but his servant did what he was told to do.


Genesis 44:2b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

keçeph (כֶּסֶף) [pronounced KEH-sef]

silver, money; silver [as a metal, ornament, color]; shekels, talents

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #3701 BDB #494

shêber (שֵבֶר) [pronounced SHAY-ber]

a breaking, fracture, breach [of a wall]; the breaking open [of a dream], an interpretation or solution [of a dream]; destruction (ruin, shattering) [of a kingdom; of men]; a breaking [of the mind], terror; quarries; a crushing [of corn, grain]; corn, grain [which has been crushed or threshed]

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #7667 & 7668 BDB #991


Translation: ...along with the silver for his grain.” The other brothers brought back double the silver; and Benjamin brought enough silver for the purchase of a bag of grain.


When I first heard this taught, I could not help but think, what is Joseph doing? Is he just messing with his brothers? Is he just doing stuff that is going to cause his brothers to go into crisis mode, so that he, Joseph, can have a chuckle over it? However, there seems to be a clear purpose in all that Joseph is doing.

Why Joseph Places the Silver and the Cup in the Sacks of His Brothers

1.      Bear in mind, none of Joseph’s brothers know who he is, but he knows each one of them.

2.      No doubt, what Joseph is doing here may seem strange.

3.      Furthermore, he will send this same servant out to overtake his brothers and to accuse Benjamin of stealing his silver cup (which they all saw when they shared a meal).

4.      First purpose is to get Benjamin there. So, when his brothers left him previously, Joseph told them in no uncertain terms, “Unless you bring your youngest brother, you will not see my face again.” This means, no selling of grain to his family again. So, the brothers must bring Benjamin; they have no choice.

5.      So, Joseph has his silver cup placed into Benjamin’s bag—how come? Is he just messing with everyone?

6.      No—Joseph is going to remove Benjamin from his brothers and allow him to live in Egypt. Benjamin is his younger brother and Joseph’s only full brother. All of Joseph’s brothers acted against him; but Benjamin was not there, so he could not.

7.      Although Joseph could take revenge against his brothers, he is not going to do that. However, there is no reason for him to embrace his brothers at this time and get all of the family back together. Joseph already knows how his brothers ganged up against him before. He has all the power at this point; but he owes 10 of his brothers nothing.

8.      So, what Joseph sets out to do is to keep Benjamin, to dismiss his other 10 brothers, and possibly to allow for his father to return, because he would have been upset over Benjamin.

9.      So then, why does Joseph place the silver back into the bags of his brothers? Simple—Joseph is gracing out his undeserving brothers. He has seen them; he is moved emotionally; and he is going to give them grace.

10.    However, this does not mean that Joseph necessarily wants his brothers to live there with him. You can be gracious to a person without wanting to become their best friend or next door neighbor.

11.    This plan moves forward seemingly without a hitch; and then Judah does something at the end of this chapter which turns everything upside down.

I am quite interested whether or not any commentators understood what Joseph is doing. What I am writing here may be unique and, on the other hand, it could be the understanding of every Old Testament commentator from the beginning of time.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Genesis 44:2c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʿâsâh (עָשָֹה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWH]

to do, to make, to construct, to fashion, to form, to prepare, to manufacture; accomplish

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #6213 BDB #793

kaph or ke (כְּ) [pronounced ke]

like, as, just as; according to, after; about, approximately

preposition of comparison, resemblance or approximation

No Strong’s # BDB #453

dâbâr (דָּבָר) [pronounced dawb-VAWR]

word, saying, doctrine, thing, matter, command; business, occupation; case; something; manner

masculine singular construct

Strong's #1697 BDB #182

Yôwçêph (יוֹסֵף) [pronounced yoh-SAYF]

he adds, he increases; transliterated Joseph

proper masculine noun

Strong’s #3130 BDB #415

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced ash-ER]

that, which, when, who, whom; where

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

dâbar (דָּבַר) [pronounced dawb-VAHR]

to speak, to talk [and back with action], to give an opinion, to expound, to make a formal speech, to speak out, to promise, to propose, to speak kindly of, to declare, to proclaim, to announce

3rd person masculine singular, Piel perfect

Strong’s #1696 BDB #180


Translation: And he did just as Joseph ordered [him]. The servant went ahead and did exactly what was asked of him. Joseph’s servant is going to do exactly what Joseph asks him to do, even though it ought to be clear that, Joseph is setting up these men—in particular Benjamin—for arrest and prosecution. Joseph’s personal servant will set them up; and then he will go out and detain Benjamin. However, all of the brothers will return to Joseph over this matter.


——————————



 The morning is light and the men were sent away, they and their asses. They had gone out the city they had not gone far off, and Joseph said, to whomever [is] over his house, “Get up; follow after the men and you have overtaken them, and you have said unto them, ‘For why have you [all] requited evil instead of good? Is not this what drinks my adonai and he, divining, divines with it. You [all] have done evil that you [all] have done.’ ”

Genesis

44:3–5

[In] the morning light, then men were sent away, they and their asses. They had gone out of the city, not going far, and Joseph said to [him] who [is] over his house, “Get up [and] follow after the men, and [when] you have overtaken them, you will say to them, ‘Why have you repaid [me with] evil instead of [with] good? Is this not [the cup] that my adonai drinks [from]? And [is this not the cup, that] divining, he divines [from]? You have done evil [in all] that you have done.’ ”

The men were given a send-off in the morning light, and they left with their donkeys. They had not gone far out of the city, when Joseph said to the man over his house, “Get up and follow after those men, and when you have overtaken them, say to them, ‘Why have you repaid me with evil instead of good? Is this not the cup that my lord divines from? In these actions, you have done evil.’ ”


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        The morning is light and the men were sent away, they and their asses. They had gone out the city they had not gone far off, and Joseph said, to whomever [is] over his house, “Get up; follow after the men and you have overtaken them, and you have said unto them, ‘For why have you [all] requited evil instead of good? Is not this what drinks my adonai and he, divining, divines with it. You [all] have done evil that you [all] have done.’ ”

Dead Sea Scrolls                   .

Targum of Onkelos                The morning lightened, and the men were sent away, they and their asses. They had not gone far from the city, when Joseph said to him who was set over his house, Arise, follow after the men, and overtake them, and say to them, Why have you rendered evil for good? Is it not this from which my lord drinketh, and, behold, by which inquiring he inquireth? You have done the thing that is evil.

Targum Pseudo Jonathan      The morning lightened, and the men were sent away, they and their asses. They had not gone far from city, when Joseph said to Measheh whom he had appointed the intendant of his house, Arise, follow after the men, overtake them and say to them, Why have ye returned evil for good ? Is it not that from which my lord drinketh, and by which divining he divineth? That which you have done is evil.

Revised Douay-Rheims         They had left the city and passed on a little further, when Joseph summoned his steward; Bestir yourself, he said, and go in pursuit of these men. When you overtake them, say, This is a poor return to make for the kindness you have received; you have stolen my master's cup, the one from which he drinks, and takes omens; you have done him a great wrong.

Latin Vulgate                          .

Plain English Aramaic Bible   .

Peshitta (Syriac)                    As soon as the morning was light, the men started on their way, together with their asses. And when they were gone out of the city, but not yet far off, Joseph said to the steward, Arise, pursue the men; and when you overtake them, say to them, Why have you returned evil for good? This is the cup from which my lord drinks, and by which indeed he divines. You have done evil in so doing.

Septuagint (Greek)                The morning dawned, and the men were sent away, they and their asses. And when they had gone out of the city, and were not far off, then Joseph said to his steward, Arise, and pursue after the men; and you shall overtake them, and say to them, Why have you returned evil for good? Why have you stolen my silver cup? is it not this out of which my lord drinks? and he divines augury with it; you have accomplished evil in that which you have done.

NETS (Greek)                        .

Brenton’s Septuagint             .

 

Significant differences: 


Limited Vocabulary Translations:

 

Bible in Basic English             And at dawn the men, with their asses, were sent away. And when they had gone only a little way out of the town, Joseph said to the servant who was over his house, Go after them; and when you overtake them, say to them, Why have you done evil in reward for good? Is not this the cup from which my lord takes wine and by which he gets knowledge of the future? Truly, you have done evil.

Easy English                          As soon as daylight came, the *steward sent the brothers off with their *donkeys. The brothers were only a little way out of the city. Then Joseph told his *steward to go. Joseph told him to follow the brothers. He said, ‘Go faster than them, so you catch up with them. And, when you catch up with them, say, “You have done an evil thing, when we behaved well towards you. You have stolen my *lord’s special cup that someone made from silver. My *lord drinks from this cup. He also tries to discover things about the future from it. You did a wrong thing when you stole it.” ’

Easy-to-Read Version–2006  Early the next morning the brothers and their donkeys were sent back to their country. After they had left the city, Joseph said to his servant, “Go and follow the men. Stop them and say to them, ‘We were good to you! So why have you been bad to us? Why did you steal my master’s silver cup? My master drinks from that cup, and he uses it to learn secret things. What you did was wrong!’”

Easy-to-Read Version–2008  .

God’s Word                         At dawn the men were sent on their way with their donkeys. They had not gone far from the city when Joseph said to the man in charge of his house, “Go after those men at once, and when you catch up with them, say to them, ‘Why have you paid me back with evil when I was good to you? Isn’t this the cup that my master drinks from and that he uses for telling the future? What you have done is evil!’”

Good News Bible (TEV)         Early in the morning the brothers were sent on their way with their donkeys. 4 When they had gone only a short distance from the city, Joseph said to the servant in charge of his house, “Hurry after those men. When you catch up with them, ask them, ‘Why have you paid back evil for good? 5 Why did you steal my master's silver cup? It is the one he drinks from, the one he uses for divination. You have committed a serious crime!’”

International Children’s B.     At dawn the brothers were sent away with their donkeys. They were not far from the city when Joseph said to the servant in charge of his house, “Go after the men. When you catch up with them, say, ‘Why have you paid back evil for good? The cup you have stolen is the one my master uses for drinking. And he uses it for explaining dreams. You have done a very wicked thing!’”

The Message                         At break of day the men were sent off with their donkeys. They were barely out of the city when Joseph said to his house steward, “Run after them. When you catch up with them, say, ‘Why did you pay me back evil for good? This is the chalice my master drinks from; he also uses it for divination. This is outrageous!’”

Names of God Bible               .

NIRV                                      When morning came, the men were sent on their way with their donkeys. They hadn’t gone very far from the city when Joseph spoke to his manager. “Go after those men right away,” he said. “Catch up with them. Say to them, ‘My master was good to you. Why have you paid him back by doing evil? Isn’t this the cup my master drinks from? Doesn’t he also use it to find things out? You have done an evil thing.’ ”

New Simplified Bible              When it was light the men took their donkeys and left. They just left the city and were not far off, when Joseph said to the man in charge of his house: »Follow the men and when you overtake them, say to them: ‘Why have you repaid evil for good?

»‘Is this the cup that my master drinks from and that he uses for telling the future? What you have done is evil!’«


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           At dawn, the men and their donkeys were sent off. They had left the city but hadn’t gone far when Joseph said to his household manager, “Get ready, go after the men and catch up with them! Ask them, ‘Why have you repaid hospitality with ingratitude? Isn’t this the cup my master drinks from and uses to discover God’s plans? What you’ve done is despicable.’”

Contemporary English V.       Early the next morning, the men were sent on their way with their donkeys. But they had not gone far from the city when Joseph told the servant, "Go after those men! When you catch them, say, 'My master has been good to you. So why have you stolen his silver cup? Not only does he drink from his cup, but he also uses it to learn about the future. You have done a terrible thing.' "

The Living Bible                     The brothers were up at dawn and on their way with their loaded donkeys.

But when they were barely out of the city, Joseph said to his household manager, “Chase after them and stop them and ask them why they are acting like this when their benefactor has been so kind to them? Ask them, ‘What do you mean by stealing my lord’s personal silver drinking cup, which he uses for fortune-telling? What a wicked thing you have done!’”

New Berkeley Version           .

New Century Version             At dawn the brothers were sent away with their donkeys. They were not far from the city when Joseph said to the servant in charge of his house, “Go after the men. When you catch up with them, say, ‘Why have you paid back evil for good? The cup you have stolen is the one my master uses for drinking and for explaining dreams. You have done a very wicked thing!’”

New Life Version                    Early in the morning the men were sent away with their donkeys. When they had left the city and were not far away, Joseph said to the man who took care of his house, "Get up and follow the men. When you come to them, say to them, 'Why have you returned bad for good? Why have you stolen the silver cup? Is this not my lord's drinking cup that he uses for telling about the future? You have done wrong.' "

New Living Translation           The brothers were up at dawn and were sent on their journey with their loaded donkeys. But when they had gone only a short distance and were barely out of the city, Joseph said to his palace manager, “Chase after them and stop them. When you catch up with them, ask them, ‘Why have you repaid my kindness with such evil? Why have you stolen my master’s silver cup, which he uses to predict the future? What a wicked thing you have done!’”


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Then the next morning, the men and their burros were sent away.

Well, after they left the city (but before they had traveled very far), JoSeph said to his house manager: 'Get up and chase after those men; and when you catch up with them, ask: Why have you returned evil for good why have you stolen my silver cup? Isn't this the [cup] that our lord drinks from and the one that he uses to foretell the future? You've done an evil thing!'

Beck’s American Translation .

International Standard V        Early the next morning, the men were sent on their way, along with their donkeys. They had not traveled far from the city when Joseph ordered his palace manager, “Get up, follow those men, and when you’ve caught up with them, ask them, ‘Why did you repay evil for good? Don’t you have [Lit. Isn’t this] the cup that my master uses to drink from and also uses to practice divination? You’re wrong to have done this.’”

New Advent (Knox) Bible       ...and now morning came, and they were given leave to depart, with their asses. They had left the city and passed on a little further, when Joseph summoned his steward; Bestir thyself, he said, and go in pursuit of these men. When thou overtakest them, say, This is a poor return to make for the kindness you have received; you have stolen my master’s cup, the one from which he drinks, and takes omens; you have done him a great wrong.

Today’s NIV                          .

Translation for Translators     The next morning at dawn the men started on the way home with their donkeys. When they had not gone far from the city, Joseph said to the servant in charge of things in his house, “Pursue those men immediately. When you catch up to them, say to them, ‘We did good things for you! Why have you paid us back by doing something bad to us? You have stolen the cup that my master drinks from [RHQ]! It is the cup that he uses to find out things that nobody knows! What you did was very wicked!’ ”


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Awful Scroll Bible                   As the morning is to have become illuminated, the men are to have been sent out on their donkeys. They are to have led out of the city - are they to have gone far? - Even Joseph was to say to he of his house: Be rising up, be pursuing after the men, you is to have overtaken them, even is to have said: are yous to have requited evil for good? - My lord was to drink, even was to observe an observing of signs of it. Yous are to have fractured in what yous are to have done.

Conservapedia                       As soon as the day broke, the men were sent on their way, they and their donkeys. They had not yet gone very far out of the city when Joseph told his steward, "Rise and pursue those men! When you catch up to them, you say this to them: 'Why have you repaid evil for good? Isn't this the vessel from which my master drinks, and by which he takes the auguries? That was a wicked thing to do.'"

Ferrar-Fenton Bible                At morning-light the men went off with their asses. When they had gone not far from the city, Joseph said to his steward, " Mount and follow those men ; secure them, and say to them, ' Why have you returned evil for good ? Where is that my lord drinks from ? He is very sharp-sighted. He saw what you were doing ! '" So he pursued, and said this to them.

God’s Truth (Tyndale)           And in the morning as soon as it was light, the men were let go with their asses. And when they were out of the city and not yet far away, Joseph said unto the ruler of his house: up and follow after the men and overtake them, and say unto them: wherefore have you rewarded evil for good? is that not the cup of which my lord drinks, and does he not prophesy therein? you have evil done that you have done.

HCSB                                     .

Jubilee Bible 2000                  .

Lexham English Bible            [When] the morning light [came] the men were sent away, they and their donkeys. They went out of the city, [and] had not gone far when Joseph said to [the one] who [was] over his house, "Arise! Pursue after the men and overtake them. Then you shall say to them, 'Why have you repaid evil for good? Is this not that from which my master drinks? Now he himself certainly practices divination with it. You have done evil [in] what you have done.'"

NIV, ©2011                             As morning dawned, the men were sent on their way with their donkeys. They had not gone far from the city when Joseph said to his steward, “Go after those men at once, and when you catch up with them, say to them, ‘Why have you repaid good with evil? Isn’t this the cup my master drinks from and also uses for divination? This is a wicked thing you have done.’ ”

NIV – UK                                .

Tree of Life Version                When the morning dawned, the men were sent off, they and their donkeys. They left the city and did not get far, when Joseph said to the one over his household, “Get up, go after the men. When you catch up to them, say to them, “Why have you repaid evil for good? Isn’t this the one from which my lord drinks? He even uses it especially to discern by divination. What you’ve done is evil!” 6 So he caught up to them and spoke these words to them.


Catholic Bibles (those having the imprimatur):

 

Christian Community (1988)  As soon as it was light next morning the men were sent away with their donkeys. When they had gone but were still not far from the city, Joseph said to his steward, “Go quickly after those men and when you have caught up with them, say this: Why have you re paid good with evil? Isn’t this the cup my master drinks from and uses for divi nation? You have done a wicked thing.”

The Heritage Bible                 The mortal men were sent away at the light of dawn, they and their donkeys. They had gone out of the city, not even a wide distance, and Joseph said to the one over his house, Rise up, run after the men; and reach them, and say to them, Why have you completed evil for good? Is not this in which my lord drinks, and by which whispering spells, he whispers spells? You have done evil in what you have done. This is the only place that whispering spells is attributed to a godly man. Laban did, but I do not consider him godly, Gen 30:27. It is my belief that Joseph spoke it this way in pretense to his brothers to make them think for the present test that he was actually Egyptian.

New American Bible (2002)   At daybreak the men and their donkeys were sent off. They had not gone far out of the city when Joseph said to his head steward: "Go at once after the men! When you overtake them, say to them, 'Why did you repay good with evil? Why did you steal the silver goblet from me? It is the very one from which my master drinks and which he uses for divination. What you have done is wrong.'" Divination: seeking omens through liquids poured into a cup or bowl was a common practice in the ancient Near East; cf ⇒ Genesis 44:15. Even though divination was frowned on in later Israel (⇒ Lev 19:31), it is in this place an authentic touch which the sacred author does not hesitate to ascribe to Joseph, the wisest man in Egypt.

New American Bible (2011)   At daybreak the men and their donkeys were sent off. They had not gone far out of the city when Joseph said to his steward: “Go at once after the men! When you overtake them, say to them, ‘Why did you repay good with evil? Why did you steal my silver goblet? Is it not the very one from which my master drinks and which he uses for divination?* What you have done is wrong.’” Divination: seeking omens through liquids poured into a cup or bowl was a common practice in the ancient Near East; cf. v. 15. Even though divination was frowned on in later Israel (Lev. 19:31), it is in this place an authentic touch which is ascribed to Joseph, the wisest man in Egypt.

New Jerusalem Bible             At daybreak, the men were sent off with their donkeys. They had gone only a little way from the city, when Joseph said to his chamberlain, 'Away now and follow those men. When you catch up with them, say to them, "Why have you repaid good with evil? Is this not what my lord uses for drinking and also for reading omens? What you have done is wrong." '

New RSV                               As soon as the morning was light, the men were sent away with their donkeys. When they had gone only a short distance from the city, Joseph said to his steward, ‘Go, follow after the men; and when you overtake them, say to them, “Why have you returned evil for good? Why have you stolen my silver cup [Gk Compare Vg: Heb lacks Why have you stolen my silver cup?]? Is it not from this that my lord drinks? Does he not indeed use it for divination? You have done wrong in doing this.” ’

Revised English Bible            At first light the brothers were allowed to take their donkeys and set off; but before they had gone very far from the city, Joseph said to his steward, “Go after those men at once, and when you catch up with them, say, ‘Why have you repaid good with evil? Why have you stolen the silver goblet? It is the one my lord drinks from, and which he uses for divination. This is a wicked thing you have done.’”


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           At daybreak the men were sent off with their donkeys; but before they were far from the city Yosef said to his manager, “Up, go after the men; and when you overtake them, say to them, ‘Why have you repaid good with evil? Isn’t this the goblet my lord drinks from, indeed the one he uses for divination? What you have done is evil!’”

exeGeses companion Bible   The morning is light,

and they send the men away

- them and their he burros:

and when they go from the city, not yet far removed,

Yoseph says to his house steward,

Rise! Pursue after the men!

And when you overtake them, say to them,

Why shalam you evil for good?

Is not this from which my adoni drinks?

And in prognosticating, he prognosticates?

You vilify in so working.

Hebraic Roots Bible               At the morning light, the men were sent away, they and their donkeys . They had gone out from the city, not having gone far, and Joseph said to the one over his house, Rise up, pursue the men and overtake them, and say to them, Why have you repaid evil for good? Is this not that in which my master usually drinks in, and surely he divines by it? You have done evil in what you have done.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               With the first light of morning, the men were sent off with their pack animals. They had just left the city and had not gone far, when Joseph said to his steward, “Up, go after the men! And when you overtake them, say to them, ‘Why did you repay good with evil? It is the very one from which my master drinks and which he uses for divination. It was a wicked thing for you to do!’ ”

Judaica Press Complete T.    .

Kaplan Translation                 With the first morning light, the brothers took their donkeys and were sent on their way.  They had just left the city and had not gone far, when Joseph said to his overseer, 'Set out and pursue those men. Catch up with them and say to them, 'Why did you repay good with evil? It's [the cup] from which my master drinks, and he uses it for divination. You did a terrible thing.' This [city] was Memphis, the ancient capital of Egypt. It was also the city where Joseph lived with Potiphar (cf. Tzava'ath Yosef 4:6). It was on the west bank of the Nile, some 12 miles south of the present Cairo, and some 25 miles south of On (Genesis 41:45). In Hebrew, Memphis is known as Moph (Hosea 9:6) or Noph (Isaiah 19:13, Jeremiah 2:16, Ezekiel 30:13, etc.). However, if this was during the time of the Hyksos, the capital might have been Tanis

Orthodox Jewish Bible           As soon as the boker ohr, the anashim were sent away, they and their chamorim. And when they were gone out of the ir, and not yet far off, Yosef said unto the ish over Bais Yosef, Up, follow after the anashim; and when thou dost overtake them, say unto them, Wherefore have ye rewarded ra’ah for torah? Is not this it in which adoni drinketh, and whereby indeed he divineth? Ye have done ra’ah in so doing.

The Scriptures 1998              .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

The Amplified Bible                As soon as the morning was light, the men were sent away, they and their donkeys. When they had left the city, and were not yet far away, Joseph said to his steward, “Get up, follow after the men; and when you overtake them, say to them, ‘Why have you repaid evil [to us] for good [paid to you]? Is this not my lord’s drinking cup and the one which he uses for divination? You have done [a great and unforgivable] wrong in doing this.’”

The Expanded Bible              At dawn the ·brothers [Lmen] were sent away with their donkeys. They were not far from the city when Joseph said to the ·servant in charge of [Lone over] his house, “·Go after [LGet up and pursue] the men. When you catch up with them, say, ‘Why have you paid back evil for good? ·The cup you have stolen is the one [LIs this not what…?] my ·master [lord] uses for drinking and for ·explaining dreams [divination; C perhaps by pouring oil in water as a means of telling the future (called lecanomancy)]. ·You [LIs not what you…?] have done a very wicked thing!’ ”

The Geneva Bible                  .

Kretzmann’s Commentary    As soon as the morning was light, with the earliest dawn, the men were sent away, they and their asses, they were dismissed without any intimation of the surprise in store for them.

And when they were gone out of the city, and not yet far off, Joseph said unto his steward, Up, follow after the men; and when thou dost overtake them (he was to pursue until he did overtake them), say unto them, Wherefore have ye rewarded evil for good? Having been received and feasted by Joseph in such a royal manner, had they been so mean and treacherous as to become guilty of theft? The haste was necessary lest some one of the brothers open his sack and they all return of their own free will.

Is not this it in which my lord drinketh, and whereby indeed he divineth? in order to play his role as Egyptian ruler to the end, Joseph has the steward represent the matter as though he practiced hydromancy, that is, presumed to predict future events from the appearance of the liquid contents of his cup, also to expose hidden things. Ye have done evil in so doing. They were flatly to be accused of the theft, the subsequent discovery of the cup being intended to confirm the impression of Joseph's supernatural wisdom.

NET Bible®                             When morning came [Heb “the morning was light.”], the men and their donkeys were sent off [Heb “and the men were sent off, they and their donkeys.” This clause, like the preceding one, has the subject before the verb, indicating synchronic action.]. They had not gone very far from the city [Heb “they left the city, they were not far,” meaning “they had not gone very far.”] when Joseph said [Heb “and Joseph said.” This clause, like the first one in the verse, has the subject before the verb, indicating synchronic action.] to the servant who was over his household, “Pursue the men at once! [Heb “arise, chase after the men.” The first imperative gives the command a sense of urgency.] When you overtake8 them, say to them, ‘Why have you repaid good with evil? Doesn’t my master drink from this cup [Heb “Is this not what my master drinks from.” The word “cup” is not in the Hebrew text, but is obviously the referent of “this,” and so has been supplied in the translation for clarity.] and use it for divination? [Heb “and he, divining, divines with it.” The infinitive absolute is emphatic, stressing the importance of the cup to Joseph.] You have done wrong [Heb “you have caused to be evil what you have done.”]!’”

Syndein/Thieme                     .

The Voice                               The next morning, as soon as it was light, the men were sent off with their donkeys toward home. But when they had gone only a short distance from the city, Joseph spoke to his steward.

Joseph: Go now, and follow them. When you catch up to them, say to them, “Why have you repaid kindness with evil? My master’s silver cup is missing, and you have it. Isn’t this the cup from which he drinks? Doesn’t he use it for divination, to discover secrets hidden from most men? You have committed evil in doing this.”


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    When the morning is light, the mortals are sent away, they and their asses.

They fare forth, not far from the city, and Joseph says to him who is over his household, "Rise! Pursue after the mortals and overtake them and say to them, `Why do you repay evil for good? Why did you steal my silver beaker?

Is not this that from which my lord drinks? And he, when he augurs, auguring is he in it. Evil do you in what you do'.

Context Group Version          As soon as the morning was light, the men were sent away, they and their donkeys. [ And ] when they were gone out of the city, and were not yet far off, Joseph said to his steward, Get up, follow after the men; and when you overtake them, say to them, Why have you { pl } rewarded evil for good? Isn't this that in which my lord drinks, and by which he indeed uses it for divination? You { pl } have done evil in so doing.

Darby Translation                  In the morning, when it was light, the men were sent away, they and their asses. They were gone out of the city, [and] not [yet] far off, when Joseph said to him who was over his house, Up! follow after the men; and when thou overtakest them, thou shalt say to them, Why have ye rewarded evil for good? Is not this [it] in which my lord drinks, and in which indeed he divines? Ye have done evil [in] what ye have done.

Emphasized Bible                  .

English Standard Version      .

English Standard V. – UK       .

Evidence Bible                       .

Green’s Literal Translation    .

H. C. Leupold                         Morning came and the men were dismissed with their asses. They on their part went forth from the city. They had not yet gone far when Joseph said to the one who was over his house: Up, follow after the men, and when thou hast overtaken them, thou shalt say to them: Why have ye requited evil for good? Is not this that out of which my master drinks? in fact, he practices divination thereby. Ye have done evil in so doing. And he overtook them and spoke these very words.

Jack Ballinger’s translation    .

Modern English Version         As soon as the morning was light, the men were sent away, they and their donkeys. When they were gone out of the city, but not yet far off, Joseph said to his steward, “Get up, follow after the men. When you overtake them, say to them, ‘Why have you rewarded evil for good? Is this not the one from which my lord drinks and uses as he practices divination? You have done evil in doing this.’ ”

Modern KJV                           .

NASB                                     .

New European Version          .

New King James Version       .

Owen's Translation                .

Benner’s Mechanical Trans.  ...the morning light and the men were sent, they and their donkeys, they had gone out of the city, they were not far and Yoseph [Adding] had said to who was upon his house, rise, pursue after the men and you will overtake them and you will say to them why did you make a restitution of dysfunction in place of function, is not this which my lord gulps with, and he greatly divines with, you made dysfunction by what you did,...

Stuart Wolf                             .

Third Millennium Bible            .

Updated Bible Version 2.11   .

A Voice in the Wilderness      .

Webster’s Bible Translation  As soon as the morning was light, the men were sent away, they and their asses. And when they were gone out of the city, and not yet far off, Joseph said unto his steward, Up, follow after the men; and when thou dost overtake them, say unto them, Wherefore have ye rewarded evil for good? Is not this it in which my lord drinketh, and whereby indeed he divineth? ye have done evil in so doing.

World English Bible                .

Young's Literal Translation     .

Young’s Updated LT             The morning is bright, and the men have been sent away, they and their asses— they have gone out of the city—they have not gone far off—and Joseph has said to him who is over his house, “Rise, pursue after the men; and you have overtaken them, and you have said unto them, Why have you [all] recompensed evil for good? Is not this that with which my lord drinketh? and he observes diligently with it; you [all] have done evil in that which you [all] have done.”

 

The gist of this passage:     Joseph’s brothers were sent away, and then, Joseph sends his head servant out after them, to ask them why they repaid evil for good.


Genesis 44:3

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

bôqer (בֹּקֶר) [pronounced BOH-ker]

morning, daybreak, dawn; the next morning

masculine singular noun with a definite article

Strong’s #1242 BDB #133

ʾôwr (רא) [pronounced ohr]

to be light, to become light

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #215 BDB #21

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾănâshîym (אֲנָשִים) [pronounced uh-NAW-sheem]; also spelled ʾîyshîym (אִישִים) [pronounced ee-SHEEM]

men; inhabitants, citizens; companions; soldiers, followers

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong's #376 BDB #35

shâlach (שָלַח) [pronounced shaw-LAKH]

he was sent forth, he had been sent forth; he has been cast away, cast aside; he has been dismissed; he has been let go, set free

3rd person plural, Pual perfect

Strong’s #7971 BDB #1018

hêm (הֵם) [pronounced haym]

they, those; themselves; these [with the definite article]

3rd person masculine plural personal pronoun; sometimes the verb to be is implied

Strong’s #1992 BDB #241

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

chămôwr (חֲמוֹר) [pronounced khuh-MOHR]

ass, male donkey, he-ass, burrow

masculine plural noun with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong’s #2543 BDB #331


Translation: [In] the morning light, then men were sent away, they and their asses. John Owens lists light above as a masculine singular noun. My e-sword KJV (with Strong’s #’s and morphology) lists this as a Qal perfect verb. Obviously, the spelling is nearly identical (or identical; I have not checked), but the understanding of this verse is unchanged—it is the morning when the men are sent away. They are sent away with their asses, of course, because all of the grain is carried on their asses.


Genesis 44:4a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

hêm (הֵם) [pronounced haym]

they, those; themselves; these [with the definite article]

3rd person masculine plural personal pronoun; sometimes the verb to be is implied

Strong’s #1992 BDB #241

yâtsâʾ (יָצָא) [pronounced yaw-TZAWH]

to go [come] out, to go [come] forth; to rise; to flow, to gush up [out]

3rd person masculine plural, Qal perfect

Strong's #3318 BDB #422

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʿîyr (עִיר) [pronounced ģeer]

city, encampment, town; fortified height; a place of walking; a guarded place

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #5892 BDB #746

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

râchaq (רָחַק) [pronounced raw-KHAHK]

to remove, to cause to remove; to go far off, to take far off; to go away far

3rd person masculine plural, Hiphil perfect

Strong’s #7368 BDB #934


Translation: They had gone out of the city, not going far,... This was a little difficult to translate, simply because this could have been rendered they had gone out to the city... However, given that Joseph collected the grain in the various cities (rather than at a single collection point), this would have been one of the first cities that the sons of Jacob had come to. It is also possible that this is the city which was where the selling of grain to foreigners was allowed.


Insofar as we know, there are not a set of cities outside of Egypt. And, the verb allows for this to mean that they have gone out of the city, without requiring the inclusion of the min preposition.


So, before they get very far out, Joseph calls for his servant.


Genesis 44:4b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Yôwçêph (יוֹסֵף) [pronounced yoh-SAYF]

he adds, he increases; transliterated Joseph

proper masculine noun

Strong’s #3130 BDB #415

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend; to decide; to answer

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, so that, in that; for that, since; which; when, at what time; who, whom; where, wherever; the fact that = how; because that, because; as, like as; yea, even, yea even; until that; then, so [in an apodosis]

relative pronoun; sometimes the verb to be is implied

Strong's #834 BDB #81

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of relative proximity with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

bayith (בַּיִת) [pronounced BAH-yith]

house, residence; household, habitation as well as inward

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #1004 BDB #108


Translation: ...and Joseph said to [him] who [is] over his house,... This is Joseph’s primary servant. Just as he was over all of Potiphar’s home at one time, Joseph has a personal servant himself who handles all of the matters at home. On several occasions, he is referred to with exactly this phrase.


Genesis 44:4c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

qûwm (קוּם) [pronounced koom]

stand, rise up, arise, get up

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperative

Strong’s #6965 BDB #877

râdaph (רָדַף) [pronounced raw-DAHF]

pursue, follow after; chase with hostile intent, persecute

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperative

Strong’s #7291 BDB #922

ʾachărêy (אַחֲרֵי) [pronounced ah-kuh-RAY]

behind, after; following; after that, afterwards; hinder parts

preposition; plural form

Strong’s #310 BDB #29

ʾănâshîym (אֲנָשִים) [pronounced uh-NAW-sheem]; also spelled ʾîyshîym (אִישִים) [pronounced ee-SHEEM]

men; inhabitants, citizens; companions; soldiers, followers

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong's #376 BDB #35


Translation:...“Get up [and] follow after the men,... Joseph tells him to get up and go follow after the men. This does not mean that he is laying around with nothing to do and Joseph says, “Hey, servant, I’ve got something for you to do.” It simply is a word which indicates that Joseph wants his servant to spring into action.


Genesis 44:4d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

nâsag (נָשַׂג) [pronounced naw-SAHG]

to reach, to attain, to overtake; to cause to reach; to be able to be secure; to have enough

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil perfect with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong’s #5381 BDB #673

The NET Bible: After the imperative this perfect verbal form with vav consecutive has the same nuance of instruction. In the translation it is subordinated to the verbal form that follows (also a perfect with vav consecutive): “and overtake them and say,” becomes “when you overtake them, say.” 

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend; to decide; to answer

2nd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied) with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #413 BDB #39


Translation: ...and [when] you have overtaken them, you will say to them,... Joseph has not allowed his brothers to get very far; and one person can much more easily catch up to a group carrying a lot of stuff (here it is grain). Certainly, the servant is not going alone; but Joseph only speaks to him.


Given what his brothers have done, Joseph is not going to send only one man. We would assume that a full detail of soldiers were sent out, and this man, who was over Joseph’s household, would be in control.


Genesis 44:4e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

mâh (מָה) [pronounced maw]

what, how, why

interrogative; exclamatory particle

Strong’s #4100 BDB #552

Lâmed + mâh together literally mean for why. They can be rendered why, for what reason, to what purpose, for what purpose, indicating an interrogatory sentence. BDB also offers the rendering lest. Gesenius, perhaps for this passage alone (1Chron. 15:13), offers the rendering on account of [that] which, because that.

shâlêm (  ׂשָלֵם) [pronounced shaw-LAHM

to make secure, to keep safe; to complete (finish); to make good; to restore, to requite, to recompense (pay)

2nd person masculine plural, Piel perfect

Strong’s #7999 BDB #1022

râʿâh (רִַעַה) [pronounced raw-ĢAW]

evil, misery, distress, disaster, injury, iniquity, aberration, that which is morally reprehensible

feminine singular adjective/noun

Strong’s #7451 BDB #949

tachath (תַּחַת) [pronounced TAH-khahth]

underneath, below, under, beneath; instead of, in lieu of; in the place [in which one stands]; in exchange for; on the basis of

preposition of location or foundation

Strong’s #8478 BDB #1065

ţôwbâh (טוֹבָה) [pronounced TOHB-vaw]

welfare, benefit, good, good things

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #2896 BDB #375


Translation: ...‘Why have you repaid [me with] evil instead of [with] good? This is what he is supposed to say to the sons of Jacob: “Why have you repaid me with evil and not with good?” Even though Joseph is apparently selling grain to foreigners, this is not some sort of requirement for him to do so. He could allow large groups of people outside of Egypt to starve. So Joseph has done right by Jacob’s sons (and, presumably, by other groups of men who have come to him).


Genesis 44:5a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

hă (הֲ) [pronounced heh]

interrogative particle which acts almost like a piece of punctuation, like the upside-down question mark which begins a Spanish sentence. The verb to be may be implied. This can be used in an indirect interrogation and translated whether.

Strong’s #none BDB #209

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

Hă lôʾ together expect an affirmative answer and can be translated is not? Let me suggest, this might be understood to mean, is it not true that? Or, isn’t this the case that? Or, is it not obvious that? These two words together present a question with an obvious, self-evident answer. This combination is found in Gen. 4:11 20:5 Job 1:10 Num. 23:26 1Kings 1:11.

zeh (זֶה) [pronounced zeh]

here, this, this one; thus; possibly another

masculine singular demonstrative adjective

Strong’s #2088, 2090 (& 2063) BDB #260

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced ash-ER]

that, which, when, who, whom; where

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

shâthâh (שָתָה) [pronounced shaw-THAW]

to drink [actually or metaphorically]; to drink together [at a banquet]; to feast; to sit

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #8354 BDB #1059

ʾădônîy (אֲדֹנִי) [pronounced uh-doh-NEE]

my Lord, my Master, my Sovereign; my lord [master]; can be used to refer to a possessor, an owner; transliterated Adoni, adoni

masculine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #113 & #136 BDB #10

The difference between this spelling and those which end in –ay or –ây is a vowel point, which would have been added much later by the Massorites. However, there would have been a difference in pronunciation.

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #88


Translation: Is this not [the cup] that my adonai drinks [from]? Joseph’s servant knows where Joseph’s cup is; he placed it there. He knows where all of the silver is; he placed it there.


So, it was early morning when they left; Joseph did not allow them to have much of a head start; and now he has sent his primary servant out to catch up to them. Now, bear in mind, this was the man who placed Joseph’s chalice into Benjamin’s sack. So, he knows that the silver is in the bags and he knows the cup is in Benjamin’s bag, because he put them there himself.


Genesis 44:5b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

hûwʾ (הוּא) [pronounced hoo]

he, it; him, himself as a demonstrative pronoun: that, this (one); same

3rd person masculine singular, personal pronoun; sometimes the verb to be, is implied

Strong’s #1931 BDB #214

nâchash (נָחַש) [pronounced naw-KHAHSH]

to practice divination, to divine; to observe signs or omens; to communicate with demons; to whisper

Piel infinitive absolute

Strong's #5172 BDB #638

The infinitive absolute can act as a noun, a verb or an adverb. It takes the part of a noun, but with another verb (which may or may not be in the same stem), and it intensifies the verb’s meaning, where it functions either as a complement of affirmation, and therefore translated surely or indeed; or it may act as a complement of condition, and therefore be translated at all, freely or indeed. It’s primary use when found before its verb is to strengthen or emphasize. Its use does not simply intensify the meaning of a verb, as would a Piel, but applies an intensification to the entire phrase. Therefore, the infinitive absolute strengthens the note of certain in affirmations and in promises or threats, and of contrast in adversative or concessionary statements, while it reinforces any sense of supposition or doubt or volition present in conditional clauses or questions or wishes. For this reason, it is a characteristic of grammar generally not found in the narrative. This would be used in speech and in letters in order to make a point. The use of the English adverbs indeed, surely, of course, even, really, at all or by the addition of the modals should, could, must, may might catch the nuance, but actually are often unnecessarily strong.

nâchash (נָחַש) [pronounced naw-KHAHSH]

to practice divination, to divine; to observe signs or omens; to communicate with demons; to whisper

3rd person masculine singular, Piel imperfect

Strong's #5172 BDB #638

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #88


Translation: And [is this not the cup, that] divining, he divines [from]? This is a fascinating thing for Joseph to tell his servant to say—that he divines by this cup (or bowl). And this is said emphatically, although we have no instances of this being done. We do know that Joseph was able to interpret dreams and that God spoke to men, possibly even to unbelievers, by means of their dreams (we have the example of Joseph interpreting the dreams of the chief cupbearer and the chief baker). This suggests that Joseph was able to determine God’s will or the future by other methods as well.


Application: Now, I am making these assumptions, based upon what we find here, not based upon any other narrative. However, no matter, there is no indication that the New Testament believer is somehow able to interpret dreams, that are messages from God; nor is the New Testament able to divine the future or God’s will by using a silver chalice. At no time, do we have examples of these gifts spoken of by Paul or by any of the other Apostles. Throughout Scripture, we have to distinguish between the clear directives of God and by imitating people that we read about.


Genesis 44:5c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

râʿaʿ (רָעַע) [pronounced raw-ĢAHĢ]

to make evil, to do evil, to do ill, to cause to do evil, to cause something injurious to be done, to do harm

2nd person masculine plural, Hiphil perfect

Strong’s #7489 BDB #949

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, so that, in that; for that, since; which; when, at what time; who, whom; where, wherever; the fact that = how; because that, because; as, like as; yea, even, yea even; until that; then, so [in an apodosis]

relative pronoun; sometimes the verb to be is implied

Strong's #834 BDB #81

ʿâsâh (עָשָֹה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWH]

to do, to make, to construct, to fashion, to form, to prepare, to manufacture; accomplish

2nd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #6213 BDB #793


Translation: You have done evil [in all] that you have done.’ ” So, this servant is to accuse the sons of Jacob of committing evil; and, he himself is the one who loaded up their bags.


Bear in mind, all of this would have been confusing to the sons of Jacob and they would not have suspected Joseph of doing this to them. That would make very little sense (as Joseph could have done anything to them by virtue of his authority).


This has always struck me as odd that Joseph has done these things to his brothers. Did he still bear some hard feelings? Was he struggling in his own soul with how to deal with his brothers? Did he want them to experience some fear of being placed into an Egyptian prison (and, remember that Simeon has been in prison all of this time, so, no doubt, the first thing the brothers are going to ask him is, “How was it in prison?”


In any case, Joseph will exercise restraint in his actions; he will not place his brothers through the same kind of trouble that they put him through. But he will mess with them. A reasonable question is, did Joseph intend for all of this to happen in the way that it did? Did he want to see what his brothers would do about Benjamin? Would they simply abandon him to Egypt? Or, did Joseph consider, bringing Benjamin into Egypt, sending the brothers away sternly, and keeping Benjamin there, possibly then and only then revealing himself to Benjamin? This latter intention strikes me as what Joseph intended to do. Perhaps, if his brothers were willing to abandon Benjamin, that Joseph might require that their father be brought to him, and then he would work out a way for his father and Benjamin to remain in Egypt.


My thinking is, Joseph is an intelligent man; and he is not just doing some weird things to mess with his brothers’ minds. He has learned, throughout these past 20 years, to depend upon God and not to act impulsively. What he has learned throughout his stay in Egypt is how to be a leader and how now to seek revenge against his own family.


——————————



And so he overtakes them and so he speaks unto them the words the these.

Genesis

44:6

He overtook them [Jacob’s sons] and he spoke to them [according to] these words.

He overtook Jacob’s sons and Joseph’s servants said exactly what Joseph told him to say.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so they overtake and so he speaks unto them the words the these.

Dead Sea Scrolls                   .

Targum of Onkelos                And he overtook them, and spake with them these words.

Targum Pseudo Jonathan      And he overtook them, and spake with them all these words.

Revised Douay-Rheims         The steward obeyed, and as soon as he overtook them, delivered his message by rote.

Latin Vulgate                          .

Plain English Aramaic Bible   .

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And he overtook them, and he spoke to them these same words.

Septuagint (Greek)                And he found them, and spoke to them according to these words.

NETS (Greek)                        .

Brenton’s Septuagint             .

 

Significant differences: 


Limited Vocabulary Translations:

 

Bible in Basic English             .

Easy English                          The *steward went faster than the brothers, so that he caught up with them. He said what Joseph had ordered.

Easy-to-Read Version–2006  So the servant obeyed. He rode out to the brothers and stopped them. The servant said to them what Joseph had told him to say.

Easy-to-Read Version–2008  .

God’s Word                         .

Good News Bible (TEV)         .

International Children’s B.     So the servant caught up with the brothers. He said to them what Joseph had told him to say.

The Message                         He caught up with them and repeated all this word for word.

Names of God Bible               .

NIRV                                      When the manager caught up with them, he told them what Joseph had said.

New Simplified Bible              .


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           .

Contemporary English V.       When the servant caught up with them, he said exactly what Joseph had told him to say.

The Living Bible                     So he caught up with them and spoke to them along the lines he had been instructed.

New Berkeley Version           .

New Century Version             So the servant caught up with the brothers and said to them what Joseph had told him to say.

New Life Version                    So he came to them and spoke these words to them.

New Living Translation           When the palace manager caught up with the men, he spoke to them as he had been instructed.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Well, he caught up with them and said what [JoSeph] told him to say.

Beck’s American Translation .

International Standard V        So he went after them and made that accusation.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       The steward obeyed, and as soon as he overtook them, delivered his message by rote.

Today’s NIV                          .

Translation for Translators     The servant left immediately and when he caught up with them, he told them what Joseph had told him to say..


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Awful Scroll Bible                   They were to overtake them, and were to speak the concern.

Conservapedia                       The steward overtook them and spoke those very words to them.

Ferrar-Fenton Bible                So he pursued, and said this to them.

God’s Truth (Tyndale)           And he overtook them and said the same words unto them.

HCSB                                     .

Jubilee Bible 2000                  .

Lexham English Bible            .

NIV, ©2011                             .

NIV – UK                                .

Tree of Life Version                .


Catholic Bibles (those having the imprimatur):

 

Christian Community (1988)  .

The Heritage Bible                 And he reached them, and he spoke to them these words.

New American Bible (2002)   .

New American Bible (2011)   .

New Jerusalem Bible             .

New RSV                               .

Revised English Bible            When the steward overtook them, he reported his master's words.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           So he caught up with them and said these words to them.

exeGeses companion Bible   .

Hebraic Roots Bible               .

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               .

Judaica Press Complete T.    .

Kaplan Translation                 [The overseer] caught up with them, and repeated exactly those words to them.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           And he overtook them, and he spoke unto them these same devarim.

The Scriptures 1998              .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

The Amplified Bible                .

The Expanded Bible              So ·the servant [Lhe] caught up with ·the brothers [Lthem] and said to them ·what Joseph had told him to say [Lthese words].

The Geneva Bible                  .

Kretzmann’s Commentary    And he overtook them, and he spake unto them these same words, in bold accusation and with well-feigned anger.

NET Bible®                             When the man [Heb “and he”; the referent (the man who was in charge of Joseph’s household) has been specified in the translation for clarity] overtook them, he spoke these words to them.

Syndein/Thieme                     .

The Voice                               So the steward went after them. And when he caught up to them, he repeated the words Joseph told him to say.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And overtaking them is he, and is speaking to them these words.

Context Group Version          .

Darby Translation                  .

Emphasized Bible                  .

English Standard Version      When he overtook them, he spoke to them these words.

English Standard V. – UK       .

Evidence Bible                       .

Green’s Literal Translation    .

H. C. Leupold                         And he overtook them and spoke these very words.

Jack Ballinger’s translation    .

Modern English Version         So he overtook them, and he spoke to them these same words.

Modern KJV                           .

NASB                                     .

New European Version          .

New King James Version       .

Owen's Translation                .

Benner’s Mechanical Trans.  .

Stuart Wolf                             .

Third Millennium Bible            .

Updated Bible Version 2.11   .

A Voice in the Wilderness      .

Webster’s Bible Translation  .

World English Bible                .

Young's Literal Translation     .

Young’s Updated LT             And he overtakes them, and speaks unto them these words.

 

The gist of this passage:     The servant catches up to them and repeats what Joseph told him to say.


Genesis 44:6a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

nâsag (נָשַׂג) [pronounced naw-SAHG]

to reach, to attain, to overtake; to cause to reach; to be able to be secure; to have enough

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil perfect with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong’s #5381 BDB #673

Owens has 3rd person masculine plural, Hiphil imperfect, which I believe is a typo. I have included the correct morphology above. Scholar’s Gateway apparently does not include the suffixes when parsing a verb.


Translation: He overtook them [Jacob’s sons]... Jacob’s sons are not far outside of the city. We have the masculine plural here, because Joseph’s servant went with a small group of men.


Genesis 44:6b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

dâbar (דָּבַר) [pronounced dawb-VAHR]

to speak, to talk [and back with action], to give an opinion, to expound, to make a formal speech, to speak out, to promise, to propose, to speak kindly of, to declare, to proclaim, to announce

3rd person masculine singular, Piel imperfect

Strong’s #1696 BDB #180

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied) with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #413 BDB #39

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

debârîym (דְּבָרִים) [pronounced dawb-vawr-EEM]

words, sayings, doctrines, commands; things, matters, reports

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong's #1697 BDB #182

ʾêlleh (אֵלֶּה) [pronounced ALE-leh]

these, these things

demonstrative plural adjective with the definite article

Strong's #428 BDB #41


Translation: ...and he spoke to them [according to] these words. Joseph’s servant said exactly what Joseph told him to say, despite knowing that these men did not take anything from Joseph.


All of this is going to take Joseph’s brothers by surprise. They will be unprepared for this, as they are essentially honest men. The silver chalice in Benjamin’s bag is completely out of left field.


——————————



And so they say unto him, “For why speaks my adonai as the words the these? Far be it to your servants from doing as the word the that. Observe, silver which we had found in a mouth of our sacks we have returned unto you from a land of Canaan. And how do we steal from a house of your adonai silver or gold? Whomever is found with him from your servants, and so, he has died. And also we will be to my adonai for slaves.”

Genesis

44:7–9

They said to him, “Why does my adonai speaks these words? [It is] an absurdity for your servants to be doing that [sort of] thing. Listen, the silver that we found in the mouth of our sacks, we have returned to you from the land of Canaan. So, how [exactly] do we steal gold or silver from your adonai’s home? Whomever is found with the cup [lit., it], then he will die; and we will be slaves to my adonai.”

They said to him, “Why would my lord say such things? It is absolutely absurd for us to be doing these sorts of things. Listen, we returned the silver that we found in the mouth of our sacks; we brought it to you back from the land of Canaan. So, explain to us just exactly how did we steal gold or silver from your lord’s home? Whomever is found with your lord’s cup will be put to death and we will all become your slaves.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so they say unto him, “For why speaks my adonai as the words the these? Far be it to your servants from doing as the word the that. Observe, silver which we had found in a mouth of our sacks we have returned unto you from a land of Canaan. And how do we steal from a house of your adonai silver or gold? Whomever is found with him from your servants, and so, he has died. And also we will be to my adonai for slaves.”

Dead Sea Scrolls                   .

Targum of Onkelos                And they said, Why does my lord speak these words? Be it far from thy servants to do according to this thing! Behold, the money which we found in the mouth of our baggages we brought to thee again from the land of Kenaan; how then should we steal from the house of thy lord vessels of silver, or vessels of gold? With whomsoever of thy servants it is found, let him die; and we also will be servants to my lord.

Targum Pseudo Jonathan      They said to him, Why does my lord speak words like these ? Far be it from thy servants to do such a thing. Behold, the money which we found in the mouth of our bags we brought to thee again from the land of Kenaan; how then should we steal from thy lord's house vessels of silver, or vessels of gold ? With whomsoever of thy servants it shall be found, let him be guilty of death, and we also will be slaves of thy lord.

Revised Douay-Rheims         What a charge is this, my lord, they answered, to bring against your servants! That we should have been a guilty of such a shameful deed! When we found our money enclosed in the mouths of our sacks, we brought it back to you all the way from Chanaan; is it likely we would rob your master's house of gold or silver? If the cup that is missing should be found in possession of any of us, let him pay for it with his life; and we, too, will be slaves in our lord's service.

Latin Vulgate                          .

Plain English Aramaic Bible   .

Peshitta (Syriac)                    They said to him, Let not our lord speak such words. Far be it from your servants that they should do such a thing; Behold, the money which we found in our sacks mouths we brought back to you from the land of Canaan; how then should we steal from your masters house gold or silver? With whomsoever of your servants it be found, both let him die, and we also will be to our lord servants.

Septuagint (Greek)                And they said to him, Why does our lord speak according to these words? far be it from your servants to do according to this word. If we brought back to you out of the land of Chanaan the money which we found in our sacks, how should we steal silver or gold out of the house of your lord? With whomsoever of your servants you shall find the cup, let him die; and, moreover, we will be servants to our lord.

NETS (Greek)                        .

Brenton’s Septuagint             .

 

Significant differences: 


Limited Vocabulary Translations:

 

Bible in Basic English             And they said to him, Why does my lord say such words as these? far be it from your servants to do such a thing: See, the money which was in the mouth of our bags we gave back to you when we came again from Canaan: how then might we take silver or gold from your lord's house? If it comes to light that any of your servants has done this, let him be put to death, and we will be your lord's servants.

Easy English                          The brothers answered, ‘My *lord should not say such things! We, his servants, would never do that thing. Look! We brought back the money that we found in our sacks. We brought it even from Canaan. So we would not steal gold or silver from your *lord’s house. Let us suppose that you find the cup with someone among us. Then that man shall die. The rest of us will be my *lord’s slaves.’

Easy-to-Read Version–2006  But the brothers said to the servant, “Why does the governor say these things? We wouldn’t do anything like that! We brought back the money that we found in our sacks before. So surely we wouldn’t steal silver or gold from your master’s house. If you find the silver cup in any of our sacks, let that man die. You can kill him, and we will be your slaves.”

Easy-to-Read Version–2008  .

God’s Word                         They answered him, “Sir, how can you say such things? We would never think of doing anything like that! We brought the money we found in our sacks back from Canaan. So why would we steal any silver or gold from your master’s house? If one of us has it, he will die, and the rest of us will become your slaves.”

Good News Bible (TEV)         They answered him, “What do you mean, sir, by talking like this? We swear that we have done no such thing. You know that we brought back to you from the land of Canaan the money we found in the top of our sacks. Why then should we steal silver or gold from your master's house? Sir, if any one of us is found to have it, he will be put to death, and the rest of us will become your slaves.”

International Children’s B.     But the brothers said to the servant, “Why do you say these things? We would not do anything like that! We brought back to you the money we found in our sacks. We brought it back from the land of Canaan. So surely we would not steal silver or gold from your master’s house. If you find that silver cup in the sack of one of us, then let him die. And we will be your slaves.”

The Message                         They said, “What is my master talking about? We would never do anything like that! Why, the money we found in our bags earlier, we brought back all the way from Canaan—do you think we’d turn right around and steal it back from your master? If that chalice is found on any of us, he’ll die; and the rest of us will be your master’s slaves.”

Names of God Bible               .

NIRV                                      But they said to him, “Why do you say these things? We would never do anything like that! We even brought back to you from Canaan the money we found in our sacks. So why would we steal silver or gold from your master’s house? If you find out that any of us has the cup, he will die. And the rest of us will become your slaves.”

New Simplified Bible              They answered him: »What do you mean, Sir, by talking like this? We swear that we have done no such thing.

»You know that we brought back to you from the land of Canaan the money we found in the top of our sacks. Why should we steal silver or gold from your master’s house?

»If you find that one of us has the cup, then kill him. The rest of us will become your slaves.«


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           They replied, “Why does my master talk to us like this? Your servants would never do such a thing. The silver that we found at the top of our sacks, we’ve just brought back to you from the land of Canaan. We didn’t steal silver or gold from your master’s house. Whoever of your servants is found with it will be put to death, and we’ll be my master’s slaves.”

Contemporary English V.       But they replied, "Sir, why do you say such things? We would never do anything like that! We even returned the money we found in our grain sacks when we got back to Canaan. So why would we want to steal any silver or gold from your master's house? If you find that one of us has the cup, then kill him, and the rest of us will become your slaves."

The Living Bible                     “What in the world are you talking about?” they demanded. “What kind of people do you think we are, that you accuse us of such a terrible thing as that? Didn’t we bring back the money we found in the mouth of our sacks? Why would we steal silver or gold from your master’s house? If you find his cup with any one of us, let that one die. And all the rest of us will be slaves forever to your master.”

New Berkeley Version           .

New Century Version             But the brothers said to the servant, “Why do you say these things? We would not do anything like that! We brought back to you from the land of Canaan the money we found in our sacks. So surely we would not steal silver or gold from your master’s house. If you find that silver cup in the sack of one of us, then let him die, and we will be your slaves.”

New Life Version                    And they said to him, "Why does my lord say these things? Your servants would never do such a thing. Remember how we returned to you from the land of Canaan with the money we found in the top of our bags. Why then would we steal silver or gold from your owner's house? If the cup is found with any of your servants, let him be put to death. And the others of us will be your servants."

New Living Translation           “What are you talking about?” the brothers responded. “We are your servants and would never do such a thing! Didn’t we return the money we found in our sacks? We brought it back all the way from the land of Canaan. Why would we steal silver or gold from your master’s house? If you find his cup with any one of us, let that man die. And all the rest of us, my lord, will be your slaves.”


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          And they replied, 'Why is our lord saying such things? Your servants wouldn't do anything like that. If we returned the money to you that we found in our sacks all the way from the land of CanaAn, why would we steal silver or gold from the house of your lord? Whichever of your servants that you find with the cup, let him die, and then we will be our lord's slaves!'

Beck’s American Translation .

International Standard V        Your Excellency,” they replied, “Why do you speak like this? Far be it from your servants to act like this. Look, we brought back to you from the land of Canaan the money that we found at the top of our sacks. How, then, could we have stolen silver or gold from your master’s palace? Go ahead and execute whichever one of your servants is discovered to have it, and we’ll remain as your master’s slaves.”

New Advent (Knox) Bible       What a charge is this, my lord, they answered, to bring against thy servants! That we should have been guilty of such a shameful deed! When we found our money enclosed in the mouths of our sacks, we brought it back to thee all the way from Chanaan; is it likely we would rob thy master’s house of gold or silver? If the cup that is missing should be found in possession of any of us, let him pay for it with his life; and we, too, will be slaves in our lord’s service.

Today’s NIV                          .

Translation for Translators     But one of them replied to him, “Sir, why do you say such things? We are your servants, and we would never do anything like that! We even brought back to you from Canaan land the silver that we found inside the tops of our sacks! So we certainly would not steal silver or gold from your master's house!/Why would we steal silver or gold from your master's house? [RHQ] If you discover that any of us has that cup, you can execute him, and the rest of us will become your slaves.”


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Awful Scroll Bible                   They were to say: Was my lord to declare this concern? - For shame, that your servants are to effect this concern! The silver we are to have come upon in the sack's mouth, we are to have turned back, from the solid grounds of Canaan - were we to steal from our lord's house, silver or gold? - Of your servants it was to be found, he is to have been killed, even we are your servants!

Conservapedia                       They said to him, "Why does my lord say these words? Far be it from your servants to do anything like this! Look! We gave you back the silver that we had found in the mouths of our sacks; we brought it back all the way from Canaan! Now why would we want to steal either silver or gold from your lord's house? Now if you find this beaker with any of your servants, you may have him executed, and we will become my lord's slaves." Silver was the most commonly used money. Gold was reserved for something very precious. More to the point, silver is the metal of redemption, and gold is the metal of royalty.

Ferrar-Fenton Bible                But they replied ; " Why has my lord spoken these words accusing your servants of having done such a thing ? You know we returned to you from the land of Canan the money which we found in the top of our loads. We have not stolen silver or gold from the house of your lord. If it is found with any of your servants, kill him, and we also will be slaves to my lord."

God’s Truth (Tyndale)           And they answered him: wherefore says my lord such words? God forbid that your servants should do so. Behold, the money which we found in our sacks mouths, we brought again unto you, out of the land of Canaan: how then should we steal out of my lords house, either silver or gold? with whosoever of your servants it be found let him die, and let us also be my lords bondmen.

HCSB                                     They said to him, “Why does my lord say these things? Your servants could not possibly do such a thing. We even brought back to you from the land of Canaan the money we found at the top of our bags. How could we steal gold and silver from your master’s house? If any of us is found to have it, he must die, and we also will become my lord’s slaves.”

Jubilee Bible 2000                  .

Lexham English Bible            .

NIV, ©2011                             .

NIV – UK                                .

Tree of Life Version                They said to him, “Why does my lord say such things? Far be it from your servants to do such a thing as this. Look, the money we found in the opening of our bags, we brought back to you from the land of Canaan. So how could we steal silver or gold from your lord’s house? Whoever among your servants is found with it, let him die! And we, we’ll also be my lord’s slaves.”


Catholic Bibles (those having the imprimatur):

 

Christian Community (1988)  They said to him, “Why does my lord speak like that? Far be it from your servants to do such a thing. The money we found in the mouths of our sacks, we brought back to you from the land of Canaan! How then could we have stolen silver or gold from your lord’s house? If one of your servants is found with the object, he will die and we too will become my lord’s slaves.”

The Heritage Bible                 .

New American Bible (2002)   When the steward overtook them and repeated these words to them, they remonstrated with him: "How can my lord say such things? Far be it from your servants to do such a thing! We even brought back to you from the land of Canaan the money that we found in the mouths of our bags. Why, then, would we steal silver or gold from your master's house? If any of your servants is found to have the goblet, he shall die, and as for the rest of us, we shall become my lord's slaves." V. 6 is included for context.

New American Bible (2011)   .

New Jerusalem Bible             .

New RSV                               They said to him, ‘Why does my lord speak such words as these? Far be it from your servants that they should do such a thing! Look, the money that we found at the top of our sacks, we brought back to you from the land of Canaan; why then would we steal silver or gold from your lord’s house? Should it be found with any one of your servants, let him die; moreover, the rest of us will become my lord’s slaves.’

Revised English Bible            But they replied, “My lord, how can you say such things? Heaven forbid that we should do such a thing! Look! The silver we found at the top of our packs we brought back to you from Canaan. Why, then, should we steal silver or gold from your master's house? If any one of us is found with the goblet, he shall die; and, what is more, my lord, the rest of us shall become your slaves.”


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           They said to him, “Why does my lord speak these things? Far be it from your servants to do such a thing! Please remember, the money which we found in the mouths of our sacks we have brought back to you from the land of Canaan. Is it likely then that we would steal silver or gold from your master’s house? With whomever of your servants your master’s cup is found, let him die, and the rest of us will be my lord’s slaves.”

exeGeses companion Bible   And they say to him,

Why words my adoni these words?

Far be it that your servants work

according to this word:

behold, the silver,

we found in the mouths of our sacks,

we returned to you from the land of Kenaan!

Why then steal we silver or gold

from the house of your adoni?

With whomever of your servants you find,

both - he dies and we become servants of my adoni.

Hebraic Roots Bible               .

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               And they said to him, “Why does my lord say such things? Far be it from your servants to do anything of the kind! Here we brought back to you from the land of Canaan the money that we found in the mouths of our bags. How then could we have stolen any silver or gold from your master’s house! Whichever of your servants it is found with shall die; the rest of us, moreover, shall become slaves to my lord.”

Judaica Press Complete T.    .

Kaplan Translation                 They said to him, 'Why do you say such things? Heaven forbid that we should do such a thing! After all, we brought you back the money we found at the top of our packs - all the way from Canaan. How could we steal silver or gold from your master's house? If any of us has it in his possession, he shall die. You can take the rest of us for slaves.'.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           And they said unto him, Wherefore saith adoni these words? Chalilah (far be it) that thy avadim should do according to this thing; Hinei, the kesef, which we found in the mouth of our sacks, we brought back unto thee out of Eretz Kena’an; how then should we be ganavim stealing kesef or zahav out of the bais adonecha? With whomsoever of thy avadim it be found, both let him die, and we also will be avadim of adoni.

The Scriptures 1998              .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

The Amplified Bible                .

The Expanded Bible              But the brothers said to the servant, “Why do ·you [my master/lord] say these things? ·We would not [LFar be it from your servants to] do anything like that! We brought back to you from the land of Canaan the ·money [silver] we found in our sacks. ·So surely we would not [LWhy would we…?] steal silver or gold from your ·master’s [lord’s] house. If ·you find that silver cup in the sack of one of [Lit is found with one of] us, then let him die, and we will be your ·slaves [servants].”

The Geneva Bible                  .

Kretzmann’s Commentary    And they said unto him, Wherefore saith my lord these words? God forbid that thy servants should do according to this thing. In the consciousness of their innocence the brothers repel the charge with horror: Far be it from thy servants, the idea never entered our minds.

Behold, the money which we found in our sacks' mouths we brought again unto thee out of the land of Canaan; this surely was proof of their honesty; how, then, should we steal out of thy lord's house silver or gold?

With whomsoever of thy servants it be found, both let him die, and we also will be my lord's bondmen. That made the denial as vigorous as could be expected from innocent men.

NET Bible®                             They answered him, “Why does my lord say such things [Heb “Why does my lord speak according to these words?”]? Far be it from your servants to do such a thing [Heb “according to this thing.”]! Look, the money that we found in the mouths of our sacks we brought back to you from the land of Canaan. Why then would we steal silver or gold from your master’s house? If one of us has it [Heb “The one with whom it is found from your servants.” Here “your servants” (a deferential way of referring to the brothers themselves) has been translated by the pronoun “us” to avoid confusion with Joseph’s servants.], he will die, and the rest of us will become my lord’s slaves!”

Syndein/Thieme                     .

The Voice                               Joseph’s Brothers: Why would my lord accuse us of something like this? We, your servants, would never do such a thing! Remember the money we found at the top of our sacks after our first trip? We brought it back to you from the land of Canaan. Why then would we steal silver or gold from your lord’s house this time? If you find his cup with any one of us, let that man be put to death, and the rest of us will become my lord’s servants.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    .

Context Group Version          And they said to him, Why does my lord speak such words as these? Far be it from your slaves that they should do such a thing. Look, the money, which we found in our sacks' mouths, we brought again to you out of the land of Canaan: how then should we steal out of your lord's house silver or gold? With whoever of your slaves it is found, let him die, and we also will be my lord's slaves.

Darby Translation                  .

Emphasized Bible                  .

English Standard Version      .

English Standard V. – UK       .

Evidence Bible                       .

Green’s Literal Translation    .

H. C. Leupold                         .

Jack Ballinger’s translation    .

Modern English Version         They said to him, “Why does my lord say these words? Far be it from your servants that they should do such a thing. Look, we brought back to you from the land of Canaan the money that we found in the top of our sacks. Why then would we steal silver or gold from your lord’s house? Whichever of your servants is found with it shall die, and the rest of us will become my lord’s slaves.”

Modern KJV                           .

NASB                                     They said to him, “Why does my lord speak such words as these? Far be it from your servants to do such a thing. Behold, the money which we found in the mouth of our sacks we have brought back to you from the land of Canaan. How then could we steal silver or gold from your lord’s house? With whomever of your servants it is found, let him die, and we also will be my lord’s slaves.”

New European Version          .

New King James Version       .

Owen's Translation                .

Benner’s Mechanical Trans.  ...and they said to him, why does my lord speak according to these words, far be it for your servants to do in this manner, look, the silver which we found in the mouth of our bags we returned to you from the land of Kena'an [Lowered], why then would we steal silver or gold from the house of your lord, whoever be found with him out of your servants then he will die and we will also exist for my lord for servants,...

Stuart Wolf                             .

Third Millennium Bible            .

Updated Bible Version 2.11   .

A Voice in the Wilderness      .

Webster’s Bible Translation  And they said unto him, Wherefore saith my lord these words? God forbid that thy servants should do according to this thing: Behold, the money, which we found in our sacks' mouths, we brought again unto thee out of the land of Canaan: how then should we steal out of thy lord's house silver or gold? With whomsoever of thy servants it be found, both let him die, and we also will be my lord's bondmen.

World English Bible                .

Young's Literal Translation     .

Young’s Updated LT             And they say unto him, “Why does my lord speak according to these words? far be it from your servants to do according to this word; lo, the money which we found in the mouth of our bags we brought back unto you from the land of Canaan, and how do we steal from the house of your lord silver or gold? With whomsoever of your servants it is found, he has died, and we also are to my lord for servants.”

 

The gist of this passage:     The brothers reason with Joseph’s servant. They say that they found the silver in their bags and they brought it back. Why would they steal from Joseph? Then they propose that the person with the cup will be executed and they will be Joseph’s servants.


Genesis 44:7a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend; to decide; to answer

2nd person masculine plural, Qal perfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied) with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #413 BDB #39

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

mâh (מָה) [pronounced maw]

what, how, why

interrogative; exclamatory particle

Strong’s #4100 BDB #552

Lâmed + mâh together literally mean for why. They can be rendered why, for what reason, to what purpose, for what purpose, indicating an interrogatory sentence. BDB also offers the rendering lest. Gesenius, perhaps for this passage alone (1Chron. 15:13), offers the rendering on account of [that] which, because that.

dâbar (דָּבַר) [pronounced dawb-VAHR]

to speak, to talk [and back with action], to give an opinion, to expound, to make a formal speech, to speak out, to promise, to propose, to speak kindly of, to declare, to proclaim, to announce

3rd person masculine singular, Piel imperfect

Strong’s #1696 BDB #180

ʾădônîy (אֲדֹנִי) [pronounced uh-doh-NEE]

my Lord, my Master, my Sovereign; my lord [master]; can be used to refer to a possessor, an owner; transliterated Adoni, adoni

masculine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #113 & #136 BDB #10

The difference between this spelling and those which end in –ay or –ây is a vowel point, which would have been added much later by the Massorites. However, there would have been a difference in pronunciation.

kaph or ke (כְּ) [pronounced ke]

like, as, just as; according to, after; about, approximately

preposition of comparison, resemblance or approximation

No Strong’s # BDB #453

debârîym (דְּבָרִים) [pronounced dawb-vawr-EEM]

words, sayings, doctrines, commands; things, matters, reports

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong's #1697 BDB #182

ʾêlleh (אֵלֶּה) [pronounced ALE-leh]

these, these things

demonstrative plural adjective with the definite article

Strong's #428 BDB #41


Translation: They said to him, “Why does my adonai speaks these words? My translation might be a bit less formal than the way that they responded to Joseph’s servant. A more colloquial way of expressing this would be, “How can you say this, my lord?”


The fact that it says, they answered again suggests that several of these brothers spoke, each one adding to what another one said. It is presented as a single quotation (extending from v. 7 to v. 9), but it is probably an edited compilation of the words of 3 or more brothers.


They are probably emotional when giving this reaction; but they will have good and solid logic to back up how they feel.


Genesis 44:7b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

châlîylâh (חָלִילָה) [pronounced khaw-LEE-law]

far be it [from me or you], to profane [something], a profanity!, a blasphemy!

adverb, substantive, interjection

Strong’s #2486 BDB #321

Châlîylâh might be updated to no way, impossible, ridiculous, absurd, that’s wrong, that’s so wrong, it’s wrong, you’re completely mistaken.

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʿebâdîym (עְבָדִים) [pronounced ģeb-vaw-DEEM]

slaves, servants; underlings; subjects; slavery, bondage, servitude; this can mean military men, soldiers in the plural

masculine plural noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5650 BDB #713

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʿâsâh (עָשָֹה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWH]

to do, to make, to construct, to fashion, to form, to prepare, to manufacture; accomplish

Qal infinitive construct

Strong's #6213 BDB #793

kaph or ke (כְּ) [pronounced ke]

like, as, just as; according to, after; about, approximately

preposition of comparison, resemblance or approximation

No Strong’s # BDB #453

dâbâr (דָּבָר) [pronounced dawb-VAWR]

word, saying, doctrine, thing, matter, command; business, occupation; case; something; manner

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #1697 BDB #182

zeh (זֶה) [pronounced zeh]

here, this, this one; thus; possibly another

masculine singular demonstrative adjective; with the definite article

Strong’s #2088, 2090 (& 2063) BDB #260

Put this in lexicon.

This is translated variously:


Translation: [It is] an absurdity for your servants to be doing that [sort of] thing. Their language is probably less combative and more respectful than my translation here. Some Bibles have God forbid; and I abhor that translation, as neither of those words are found; and it strikes me as borderline blasphemy to use that phrase.


The brothers say, “It is positively absurd for you to think that we have done what you have accused us of.” Interestingly enough, Joseph’s servant realizes this, as he placed the silver and the cup into their sacks.


Genesis 44:8a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

hên (הֵן) [pronounced hayn]

lo!, behold, observe, look, look here, get this, listen, listen up

demonstrative adverb/interjection

Strong’s #2005 BDB #243

keçeph (כֶּסֶף) [pronounced KEH-sef]

silver, money; silver [as a metal, ornament, color]; shekels, talents

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #3701 BDB #494

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced ash-ER]

that, which, when, who, whom; where

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

mâtsâʾ (מָצָא) [pronounced maw-TSAW]

to attain to, to find, to detect, to happen upon, to come upon, to find unexpectedly, to discover; to meet (encounter)

1st person plural, Qal perfect

Strong’s #4672 BDB #592

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

peh (פֶּה) [pronounced peh]

mouth [of man, animal; as an organ of speech]; opening, orifice [of a river, well, etc.]; edge; extremity, end

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #6310 BDB #804

ʾametachath (אַמְתַּחַת) [pronounced ahm-TAHKH-ahth]

bag, sack; flexible container for grain

feminine plural noun with the 1st person plural suffix

Strong’s #572 BDB #607


Translation: Listen, the silver that we found in the mouth of our sacks,... A brother points out, “Listen, we did find some silver in the mouth of our sacks.” However, what they did afterwards ought to be a testimony to their honesty.


Genesis 44:8b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

shûwb (שוּב) [pronounced shoobv]

to cause to return, to bring, to be caused to turn back mentally, reminisce, to return something, to restore, to bring back, to send back, to regain, to recover, to make restitution, reconsider, think again, to be caused to return

1st person plural, Hiphil perfect

Strong's #7725 BDB #996

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied) with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #413 BDB #39

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular construct

Strong's #776 BDB #75

Kenaʿan (כְּנַעַן) [pronounced keNAH-ģahn]

which possibly means merchant and is transliterated Canaan

masculine proper noun; territory; pausal form

Strong’s #3667 BDB #488


Translation: ...we have returned to you from the land of Canaan. “We brought this silver back to you, all the way from Canaan.” They did not keep the silver; they did not hide the fact that they had this silver. This should be recognized as them being honest.


Genesis 44:8c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêyk (אֵי) [pronounced ayche]; ʾêykâh (אֵיכָה) [pronounced ā-KAW]

how; in what manner; where

interrogative adverb; also used as an exclamation

Strong’s #349 BDB #32

BDB’s complete set of meanings: 1) how? (interrogative adverb); 2) how! (in lamentation) (interjection); 3) expression of satisfaction (interjection). There are 3 alternate spellings for this word.

gânab (גָּנַב) [pronounced gaw-NAHBV]

to steal, to take away by theft; to deceive

1st person plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #1589 BDB #170

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

bayith (בַּיִת) [pronounced BAH-yith]

house, residence; household, habitation as well as inward

masculine singular construct

Strong's #1004 BDB #108

ʾâdôwn (אָדוֹן) [pronounced aw-DOHN]

lord, master, owner, superior, sovereign

masculine singular noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #113 BDB #10

keçeph (כֶּסֶף) [pronounced KEH-sef]

silver, money; silver [as a metal, ornament, color]; shekels, talents

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #3701 BDB #494

ʾôw (אוֹ) [pronounced oh]

or, or rather, otherwise, also, and; if, perchance; except, or else; whether, not the least

disjunctive conjunction

Strong's #176 BDB #14

zâhâb (זָהָב) [pronounced zaw-HAWBV]

gold; a measure of weight [related to gold]; [figuratively used for] brilliance, splendor

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #2091 BDB #262


Translation: So, how [exactly] do we steal gold or silver from your adonai’s home? The brothers are pointing out that it would be illogical for them to have stolen anything from Joseph’s home. If they returned the silver that was in their bags in the first place, would it makes sense that they would then steal from Joseph?


The problem is, this servant has been given specific orders from Joseph and logic is not going to sway him.


Genesis 44:9a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, so that, in that; for that, since; which; when, at what time; who, whom; where, wherever; the fact that = how; because that, because; as, like as; yea, even, yea even; until that; then, so [in an apodosis]

relative pronoun; sometimes the verb to be is implied

Strong's #834 BDB #81

mâtsâʾ (מָצָא) [pronounced maw-TSAW]

to acquire, to be found, to be detected, to be discovered, to be present, to exist

3rd person masculine singular, Niphal imperfect

Strong’s #4672 BDB #592

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

with, at, near, by, among, directly from

preposition (which is identical to the sign of the direct object); with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #854 BDB #85

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʿebâdîym (עְבָדִים) [pronounced ģeb-vaw-DEEM]

slaves, servants; underlings; subjects; slavery, bondage, servitude; this can mean military men, soldiers in the plural

masculine plural noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5650 BDB #713

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

mûwth (מוּת) [pronounced mooth]

to die; to perish, to be destroyed; to be put to death; to die prematurely [by neglect of wise moral conduct]

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #4191 BDB #559


Translation: Whomever is found with the cup [lit., it], then he will die;... Then one of them makes a pledge. They are accused of stealing the silver chalice of Joseph; then they themselves are suggesting that the thief be executed.


The brothers appear to be quite confidence of their honesty.


Genesis 44:9c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

gam (גַם) [pronounced gahm]

also, furthermore, in addition to, even, moreover

adverb

Strong’s #1571 BDB #168

Together, the wâw conjunction and the gam particle might mean and also, together with, along with, joined with, and, furthermore, and furthermore.

ʾănachenûw (אֲנַחְנוּ) [pronounced uh-NAHKH-noo]

we; (sometimes a verb is implied)

1st person plural pronoun

Strong’s #587 BDB #59

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

1st person plural, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾădônîy (אֲדֹנִי) [pronounced uh-doh-NEE]

my Lord, my Master, my Sovereign; my lord [master]; can be used to refer to a possessor, an owner; transliterated Adoni, adoni

masculine singular noun with the 1st person plural suffix

Strong’s #113 & #136 BDB #10

The difference between this spelling and those which end in –ay or –ây is a vowel point, which would have been added much later by the Massorites. However, there would have been a difference in pronunciation.

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʿebâdîym (עְבָדִים) [pronounced ģeb-vaw-DEEM]

slaves, servants; underlings; subjects; slavery, bondage, servitude; this can mean military men, soldiers in the plural

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #5650 BDB #713


Translation: ...and we will be slaves to my adonai.” And then one of them adds: “And you can make us your slaves.” This is much more of a one for all and all for one attitude than the brothers had before. Someone from the brothers says this, and not one of them says, “Hey, wait a minute...”


——————————



And so he says, “Furthermore now, as your words, so he [is]. Whomever is found with him will be for me a slave. And you all will be acquitted.”

Genesis

44:10

So he said, “Therefore, as your words, so it [will be]. Whomever is found with the cup [lit., it] will be my slave. [The rest of] you will be cleared.”

The servant of Joseph responded, “Therefore, just as you spoke, so it will be. Whomever is found with the cup will become my slave. The rest of you can go free.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so he says, “Furthermore now, as your words, so he [is]. Whomever is found with him will be for me a slave. And you all will be acquitted.”

Dead Sea Scrolls                   .

Targum of Onkelos                And he said, According to your words, so let it be. With whomsoever it is found, he shall be my servant, but you will be acquitted.

Targum Pseudo Jonathan      And he said, According to your words let it be. With whomsoever it is found he shall be my slave, but you shall be innocent.

Revised Douay-Rheims         I accept this test of yours, said he; the man in whose possession it is found, shall be my slave, and the rest of you go clear.

Latin Vulgate                          .

Plain English Aramaic Bible   .

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And he said to them, Now also let it be according to your words; he with whom it is found shall be my servant; and the rest of you shall be blameless.

Septuagint (Greek)                And he said, Now then it shall be as you say; with whomsoever the cup shall be found, he shall be my servant, and you shall be clear.

NETS (Greek)                        .

Brenton’s Septuagint             .

 

Significant differences: 


Limited Vocabulary Translations:

 

Bible in Basic English             Then he said, Far be it from me to do so: but the man who had my cup will be my servant; and you may go back to your father in peace.

Easy English                          Joseph said, ‘I could never do that. Only the man in whose hand you found the cup will become my slave. You other men can go in peace to your father.’.

Easy-to-Read Version–2001  .

Easy-to-Read Version–2006  The servant said, “I agree, except that only the man who is found to have the cup will be my slave. The others will be free.”

God’s Word                         .

Good News Bible (TEV)         .

International Children’s B.     .

The Message                         The steward said, “Very well then, but we won’t go that far. Whoever is found with the chalice will be my slave; the rest of you can go free.”

Names of God Bible               .

NIRV                                      “All right, then,” he said. “As you wish. The one found to have the cup will become my slave. But the rest of you will not be blamed.”

New Simplified Bible              »Good!« the man replied. »I would do what you have said. But only the one who has the cup will become my slave. The rest of you can go free.«


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           He said, “Fine. We’ll do just as you’ve said. Whoever is found with it will be my slave, and the rest of you will go free.”

Contemporary English V.        "Good!" the man replied, "I'll do what you have said. But only the one who has the cup will become my slave. The rest of you can go free."

The Living Bible                     “Fair enough,” the man replied, “except that only the one who stole it will be a slave, and the rest of you can go free.”

New Berkeley Version           .

New Century Version             .

New Life Version                    .

New Living Translation           “That’s fair,” the man replied. “But only the one who stole the cup will be my slave. The rest of you may go free.”


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          So [JoSeph's house manager] told them: 'May it be just as you've said. The one who is found with the cup will be my slave… but the rest of you can go free.'

Beck’s American Translation .

International Standard V        “Agreed,” he responded. “Just as you’ve said, the one who is found to have it in his possession will become my slave, and the rest ofe you will be innocent.”

New Advent (Knox) Bible       I accept this test of yours, said he; the man in whose possession it is found, shall be my slave, and the rest of you go clear.

Today’s NIV                          .

Translation for Translators     The man replied, “Okay, I will do what you say. But the one who has the cup will not be executed. Instead, he will become my slave, and the rest of you may return home.”


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Awful Scroll Bible                   He was to say: You all's concern is to be just: He whom it was to be found is my servant, and yous are to be innocent.

Conservapedia                       The steward said, "All right, I'll take your words on that. With whomever the beaker is found, that man will be my slave, and the rest of you will be held innocent."

Ferrar-Fenton Bible                And he replied, " It shall be as you say ; Therefore with whoever of you it is, he shall be my slave, and you shall be innocent."

God’s Truth (Tyndale)           Now therefore according unto your words, he with whom it is found, shall be my servant: but ye, shall be harmless.

HCSB                                     The steward replied, “What you have said is right, but only the one who is found to have it will be my slave, and the rest of you will be blameless.”

Jubilee Bible 2000                  .

Lexham English Bible            .

NIV, ©2011                             “Very well, then,” he said, “let it be as you say. Whoever is found to have it will become my slave; the rest of you will be free from blame.”

NIV – UK                                .

Tree of Life Version                .


Catholic Bibles (those having the imprimatur):

 

Christian Community (1988)   “Very well then,” he said, “it will be as you say. The one who is found to have the cup will become my master’s slave; the rest of you will go free.”

The Heritage Bible                 .

New American Bible (2002)   But he replied, "Even though it ought to be as you propose, only the one who is found to have it shall become my slave, and the rest of you shall be exonerated."

New American Bible (2011)   But he replied, “Now what you propose is fair enough, but only the one who is found to have it shall become my slave, and the rest of you can go free.”

New Jerusalem Bible             'Very well, then, it shall be as you say,' he replied, 'the one on whom it is found shall become my slave, but the rest of you can go free.'

New RSV                               He said, ‘Even so; in accordance with your words, let it be: he with whom it is found shall become my slave, but the rest of you shall go free.’

Revised English Bible            He said, “Very well; I accept what you say. Only the one in whose possession it is found will become my slave; the rest will go free.”


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           And the steward said, “Now let it be as you say; he with whom the cup is found will be my slave, but the rest of you shall be blameless.”

exeGeses companion Bible   .

Hebraic Roots Bible               .

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               He replied, “Although what you are proposing is right, only the one with whom it is found shall be my slave; but the rest of you shall go free.”

Judaica Press Complete T.    .

Kaplan Translation                 'It should be as you declare,' he replied. 'But only the one with whom it is found will be my slave. The rest will be able to go free.'

Orthodox Jewish Bible           And he said, Now also let it be according unto your devarim; he with whom it is found shall be to me eved; and ye shall be nekiyim (blameless).

The Scriptures 1998              .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

The Amplified Bible                .

The Expanded Bible              ·The servant [LHe] said, “·We will do [It will be] as you say, but only the man who has taken the cup will become my ·slave [servant]. The rest of you ·may go free [will be innocent].”

Kretzmann’s Commentary    And he said, Now also let it be according unto your words; he with whom it is found shall be my servant; and ye shall be blameless. The chief steward accepted their proposal, but with the modification which agreed with Joseph's object in the trial, namely, to find out how the brothers were disposed toward Benjamin, especially now that he had been honored so signally by Joseph.

NET Bible®                             He replied, “You have suggested your own punishment! [Heb “Also now, according to your words, so it is.” As the next statement indicates, this does mean that he will do exactly as they say. He does agree with them the culprit should be punished, but not as harshly as they suggest. Furthermore, the innocent parties will not be punished.] The one who has it will become my slave [Heb “The one with whom it is found will become my slave.”], but the rest of [The words “the rest of” have been supplied in the translation for clarification and for stylistic reasons.] you will go free.”

Syndein/Thieme                     .

The Voice                               Steward: Let it be as you say, but I’ll be more lenient: whoever is found to possess the cup will become my servant. The rest of you will be considered innocent and may go free.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And saying is he, "Even now, according to your words, so be it. The man with whom the beaker shall be found, he becomes my servant, and you shall be innocent.

Context Group Version          And he said, Now also let it be according to your { pl } words: he with whom it is found shall be my slave; and you { pl } shall be innocent.

Darby Translation                  .

Emphasized Bible                  .

English Standard Version      He said, “Let it be as you say: he who is found with it shall be my servant, and the rest of you shall be innocent.”

English Standard V. – UK       .

Evidence Bible                       .

Green’s Literal Translation    And he said, Now also let it be according to your words; with whomever it is found with him, he shall become a slave to me, and you shall be innocent.

H. C. Leupold                         And he said: Even though now this is to be settled according to your words, yet only he with whom it is found shall be my servant, whereas ye shall be innocent.

Jack Ballinger’s translation    .

Modern English Version         .

Modern KJV                           .

NASB                                     .

New European Version          He said, Now also let it be according to your words: he with whom it is found will be my bondservant; and you will be blameless.

New King James Version       .

Owen's Translation                .

Benner’s Mechanical Trans.  ...and he said, let it be according to your words, so he who be found with him will exist for me a servant and you will exist as innocent ones,...

Stuart Wolf                             .

Third Millennium Bible            .

Updated Bible Version 2.11   And he said, Now also let it be according to your + words: he with whom it is found will be my slave; and you + will be innocent.

A Voice in the Wilderness      .

Webster’s Bible Translation  .

World English Bible                He said, “Now also let it be according to your words. He with whom it is found will be my slave; and you will be blameless.”

Young's Literal Translation     .

Young’s Updated LT             And he says, “Now, also, according to your words, so it is; he with whom it is found becomes my servant, and you [all] are acquitted.”

 

The gist of this passage: 


Genesis 44:10a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend; to decide; to answer

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

gam (גַם) [pronounced gahm]

also, furthermore, in addition to, as well; even, moreover

adverb

Strong’s #1571 BDB #168

Gam has five primary usages. ➊ It is used to denote in addition to or a continuation of or an adding to a previous thought or point. It is often rendered also. ➋ Gam can be used as an intensifier (even) and is sometimes used this way with a negative. ➌ Gam can be used to make a sentence emphatic (yea, indeed, truly) or it can simply be used to give considerable emphasis to the next word. ➍ It can be rendered even if when followed by an imperfect verb. ➎ Finally, it can be rendered as an adverb—however, but—but usually followed by a negative particle.

BDB gives these meanings: also, even, indeed, moreover, yea; also, moreover (giving emphasis); neither, neither...nor (with negative); even (for stress); indeed, yea (introducing climax); also (of correspondence or retribution); but, yet, though (adversative); even, yea, yea though (with ‘when’ in hypothetical case).

ʿattâh (עַתָּה) [pronounced ģaht-TAWH]

now, at this time, already

adverb of time

Strong’s #6258 BDB #773

Not sure if this ought to be a grouped pair of particles or if this is poor grammar.

kaph or ke (כְּ) [pronounced ke]

like, as, just as; according to, after; about, approximately

preposition of comparison, resemblance or approximation

No Strong’s # BDB #453

debârîym (דְּבָרִים) [pronounced dawb-vawr-EEM]

words, sayings, doctrines, commands; things, matters, reports

masculine plural noun with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #1697 BDB #182

kên (כֵּן) [pronounced kane]

so, therefore, thus; then, afterwards; upright, honest; rightly, well; [it is] so, such, so constituted

properly, an active participle; used primarily as an adverb

Strong's #3651 BDB #485

hûwʾ (הוּא) [pronounced hoo]

he, it; him, himself as a demonstrative pronoun: that, this (one); same

3rd person masculine singular, personal pronoun; sometimes the verb to be, is implied

Strong’s #1931 BDB #214


Translation: So he said, “Therefore, as your words, so it [will be]. Joseph’s servant has agreed with what they have proposed. In fact, he has backed off on the severity of the sentence somewhat—and very likely, this is because of what Joseph has ordered him to say. In other words, there was likely a lengthier discussion with Joseph than we are privy to in the text.


Genesis 44:10b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, so that, in that; for that, since; which; when, at what time; who, whom; where, wherever; the fact that = how; because that, because; as, like as; yea, even, yea even; until that; then, so [in an apodosis]

relative pronoun; sometimes the verb to be is implied

Strong's #834 BDB #81

mâtsâʾ (מָצָא) [pronounced maw-TSAW]

to acquire, to be found, to be detected, to be discovered, to be present, to exist

3rd person masculine singular, Niphal imperfect

Strong’s #4672 BDB #592

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

with, at, near, by, among, directly from

preposition (which is identical to the sign of the direct object); with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #854 BDB #85

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʿebed (עֶבֶד) [pronounced ĢEB-ved]

slave, servant; underling; subject

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #5650 BDB #713


Translation: Whomever is found with the cup [lit., it] will be my slave. So, rather than execute the person with the cup, he will become Joseph’s slave’s slave.


We know that this will be Benjamin.


Genesis 44:10c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾattem (אַתֶּם) [pronounced aht-TEM]

you all, you guys, you (often, the verb to be is implied)

2nd person masculine plural, personal pronoun

Strong’s #859 BDB #61

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

nâqîy (נָקִי) [pronounced naw-KEE]

acquitted, clean, cleared, free from [guilt, obligations, punishment], unpunished, guiltless, innocent

masculine singular adjective

Strong’s #5355 BDB #667

The NET Bible: The Hebrew word נָקִי (naqi) means “acquitted,” that is, free of guilt and the responsibility for it. The rest of you will be free. Joseph’s purpose was to single out Benjamin to see if the brothers would abandon him as they had abandoned Joseph. He wanted to see if they had changed.

I disagree with the NET Bible here. I don’t think that Joseph was seeing what his brothers would do. He had forgiven them, but that does not mean that he was ready to resume a nice, happy household with them once again. By this, he is separating Benjamin out from the rest of them. My guess is, Joseph did not even consider whether or not his brothers had changed over the years. This was a non-issue to him. My educated guess is, he determined to keep Benjamin, and would have expected for his father to make the trip down to Egypt. What the other brothers did was not as important to him.


Translation: [The rest of] you will be cleared.” It is highly unlikely that the servant is going off-script here. What makes sense is, this is exactly what Joseph told the servant to say. He simply used the words of brothers in order to pivot to Joseph’s orders. He may seem like he is being benevolent, but it is likely that this is Joseph’s orders.


Although Joseph could have complete and total revenge upon his brothers, he apparently chose not to.


——————————



And so they hasten and so they bring down a man his sack to the ground. And so they open a man his sack. And so he searches—with the older he begins and with the young he finishes. And so he finds a cup in a bag of Benjamin. And so they tear their garments. And so loads a man upon his ass and so they return to the city.

Genesis

44:11–13

They act quickly and each man lowers his sack to the ground and then opens his sack. Joseph’s servant [lit., he] carefully searches [their stuff], beginning with [the bag of] the eldest and finishing with [the bag of] the youngest. He found [Joseph’s] cup in Benjamin’s bag. Consequently, Joseph’s brothers [lit., they] tore their clothing [in utter despair]. Then each man loaded up his ass and they [all] returned to the city.

They acted quickly and each man lowered his sack to the ground. Joseph’s servant carefully search through their bags, starting with the oldest and working down to the youngest. He found Joseph’s cup in Benjamin’s bag, causing Joseph’s brothers to tear their clothing in despair. Then they loaded up their donkeys and returned to the city.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so they hasten and so they bring down a man his sack to the ground. And so they open a man his sack. And so he searches—with the older he begins and with the young he finishes. And so he finds a cup in a bag of Benjamin. And so they tear their garments. And so loads a man upon his ass and so they return to the city.

Dead Sea Scrolls                   .

Targum of Onkelos                And they made haste, and brought down every man his baggage to the ground; and every man opened his baggage. And he searched, beginning with the greatest and finishing with the least; and the chalice was found in the baggage of Benjamin. And they rent their clothes, and laded every man his ass, and returned to the city.

Targum Pseudo Jonathan      And they made haste, and brought down each man his sack upon the ground, and every man opened his sack. And he searched beginning with Reuben, and ending with Benjamin. And the cup was found in Benjamin's sack. And they rent their clothes; but the strength of fortitude was given to them ; and they laded every man his ass, and returned to the city.

Revised Douay-Rheims         So, with all haste, they lowered their sacks to the ground, and began opening them one by one. And he began with the eldest, and examined each in turn, till at last he found the cup in Benjamin's sack.

And now they tore their garments about them, loaded their asses again, and went back to the city.

Latin Vulgate                          .

Plain English Aramaic Bible   .

Peshitta (Syriac)                    Then they speedily took down every man his sack to the ground, and opened every man his sack. And they searched, beginning with the eldest and ending with the youngest; and the cup was found in Benjamins sack. And they tore their clothes, and loaded every man his ass, and returned to the town.

Septuagint (Greek)                And they hasted, and took down every man his sack on the ground, and they opened every man his sack. And he searched, beginning from the eldest, until he came to the youngest; and he found the cup in Benjamin's sack. And they rent their garments, and laid each man his sack on his ass, and returned to the city.

NETS (Greek)                        .

Brenton’s Septuagint             .

 

Significant differences: 


Limited Vocabulary Translations:

 

Bible in Basic English             Then every man quickly got his bag down and undid it. And he made a search, starting with the oldest and ending with the youngest; and the cup was in Benjamin's bag. Then in bitter grief they put the bags on the asses again and went back to the town.

Easy English                          Then every man quickly lifted his sack and he put it on the ground. Each man opened his sack. The *steward searched. He started with the oldest brother and he finished with the youngest one. The *steward found the cup in Benjamin’s sack. Then the brothers tore their clothes. Each man loaded his *donkey and they all went back to the city.

Easy-to-Read Version–2006  The Trap Is Sprung; Benjamin Is Caught

Then every brother quickly opened his sack on the ground. The servant started looking in the sacks. He started with the oldest brother and ended with the youngest. He found the cup in Benjamin’s sack. The brothers were very sad. They tore their clothes to show their sadness. They put their sacks back on the donkeys and went back to the city.

Easy-to-Read Version–2008  .

God’s Word                         Each one quickly lowered his sack to the ground and opened it. Then the man made a thorough search. He began with the oldest and ended with the youngest. The cup was found in Benjamin’s sack. When they saw this, they tore their clothes in grief. Then each one loaded his donkey and went back into the city.

Good News Bible (TEV)         .

International Children’s B.     Then every brother quickly lowered his sack to the ground and opened it. The servant searched the sacks, going from the oldest brother to the youngest. He found the cup in Benjamin’s sack. The brothers tore their clothes to show they were sad. Then they put their sacks back on the donkeys. And they returned to the city.

The Message                         They outdid each other in putting their bags on the ground and opening them up for inspection. The steward searched their bags, going from oldest to youngest. The chalice showed up in Benjamin’s bag.

They ripped their clothes in despair, loaded up their donkeys, and went back to the city.

Names of God Bible               .

NIRV                                      .

New Simplified Bible              Each of the brothers quickly put his sack on the ground and opened it. Joseph’s servant started searching the sacks. They began with the one that belonged to the oldest brother. When he came to Benjamin’s sack, he found the cup. This upset the brothers so much that they began tearing their clothes in sorrow. Then they loaded their donkeys and returned to the city.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           .

Contemporary English V.       Each of the brothers quickly put his sack on the ground and opened it. Joseph's servant started searching the sacks, beginning with the one that belonged to the oldest brother. When he came to Benjamin's sack, he found the cup. This upset the brothers so much that they began tearing their clothes in sorrow. Then they loaded their donkeys and returned to the city.

The Living Bible                     .

New Berkeley Version           .

New Century Version             Then every brother quickly lowered his sack to the ground and opened it. The servant searched the sacks, going from the oldest brother to the youngest, and found the cup in Benjamin’s sack. The brothers tore their clothes to show they were afraid. Then they put their sacks back on the donkeys and returned to the city.

New Life Version                    .

New Living Translation           They all quickly took their sacks from the backs of their donkeys and opened them. The palace manager searched the brothers’ sacks, from the oldest to the youngest. And the cup was found in Benjamin’s sack! When the brothers saw this, they tore their clothing in despair. Then they loaded their donkeys again and returned to the city.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          11 And each man quickly took down his sack and put it on the ground. Then they each opened their sacks, 12 and he began his search, starting from the eldest to the youngest… and he found the cup in BenJamin's sack. 13 Well, they all started ripping their clothes. Then each man put his sack back on his burro, and they all returned to the city, 14 where Judah and his brothers went to see JoSeph while he was [still at home]. A portion of v. 14 is included for context.

Beck’s American Translation .

International Standard V        So they quickly dismounted, unloaded their sacks onto the ground, and each one of them opened his own sack. The palace manager [Lit. Then he] searched for the cup, beginning with the oldest brother’s sack and ending with the youngest brother’s sack, and there it was!—in Benjamin’s sack. At this, they all tore their clothes [I.e., a response of despair], reloaded their donkeys, and returned to the city.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       So, with all haste, they lowered their sacks to the ground, and began opening them one by one. And he began with the eldest, and examined each in turn, till at last he found the cup in Benjamin’s sack.

And now they tore their garments about them, loaded their asses again, and went back to the city.

Today’s NIV                          .

Translation for Translators     Each of the men quickly lowered his sack down from the donkey to the ground and opened it. Then the servant started to search for the cup in each sack. He started with the oldest brother's sack and ended with the youngest one's sack. And he found the cup in Benjamin's sack and showed it to them. The brothers tore their clothes because they were so dismayed. They loaded the sacks on the donkeys again and returned to the city.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Awful Scroll Bible                   They were to hasten and let down, each one, his sack to the solid grounds, and was to open each one his sack. He was to search, and is to have begun at the oldest, and is to have finished at the youngest, and the cup was found in Benjamin's sack. They were to rend their clothes, and they were to load each one his donkey, and were to turn back to the city.

Conservapedia                       .

Ferrar-Fenton Bible                Then they hastened and each one unloaded his load, and he searched beginning at the eldest to the youngest, and found the cup in Benjamin's load . Then they tore their garments, and mounted each man his ass and returned to the city.

God’s Truth (Tyndale)           And at once every man took down his sack to the ground, and every man opened his sack. And he searched, and began at the eldest and left at the youngest. And the cup was found in Ben Jamins sack. Then they rent their clothes, and laded every man his ass and went again unto the city.

HCSB                                     .

Jubilee Bible 2000                  Then they made haste, and each one took his sack down to the ground, and each one opened his sack. And he searched and began at the eldest and finished at the youngest; and the cup was found in Benjamin’s sack. Then they rent their clothes, and each one laded his ass, and they returned to the city.

Lexham English Bible            .

NIV, ©2011                             Each of them quickly lowered his sack to the ground and opened it. Then the steward proceeded to search, beginning with the oldest and ending with the youngest. And the cup was found in Benjamin’s sack. At this, they tore their clothes. Then they all loaded their donkeys and returned to the city.

NIV – UK                                .

Tree of Life Version                .


Catholic Bibles (those having the imprimatur):

 

Christian Community (1988)  .

The Heritage Bible                 And they flowed like liquid, and every man descended his sack to the ground, and every man opened his sack. And he searched; he began at the oldest, and ended with the youngest, and the cup was found in Benjamin’s sack. And they tore their clothes, and every man loaded his donkey, and turned back to the city.

New American Bible (2002)   .

New American Bible (2011)   .

New Jerusalem Bible             Each of them quickly lowered his sack to the ground, and each opened his own. He searched, beginning with the eldest and ending with the youngest, and found the cup in Benjamin's sack. Then they tore their clothes, and when each man had reloaded his donkey they returned to the city.

New RSV                               Then each one quickly lowered his sack to the ground, and each opened his sack. He searched, beginning with the eldest and ending with the youngest; and the cup was found in Benjamin’s sack. At this they tore their clothes. Then each one loaded his donkey, and they returned to the city.

Revised English Bible            Each quickly lowered his pack to the ground and opened it, and when the steward searched, beginning with the eldest and finishing with the youngest, the goblet was found in Benjamin's pack. At this they tore their clothes; then one and all they loaded their donkeys and returned to the city.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           Then each hurried to put his pack down on the ground, and each one opened his pack. He searched, starting with the oldest and ending with the youngest; and the goblet was found in the pack belonging to Binyamin. At this, they tore their clothes from grief. Then each man loaded up his donkey and returned to the city.

exeGeses companion Bible   And hastily

they lower the sack of every man to the earth

and open the sack of every man:

and he searches and begins at the greatest

and finishes at the youngest:

and find the bowl in the sack of Ben Yamin:

and they rip their clothes

and every man loads his he burro

and returns to the city.

Hebraic Roots Bible               And they hurried, and each one brought down his sack to the earth. And each one opened his sack. And he searched, with the oldest first, and with the youngest last, and the cup was found in the sack of Benjamin. And they tore their clothes; and they each one loaded his donkey and returned to the city.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               So each one hastened to lower his bag to the ground, and each one opened his bag. He searched, beginning with the oldest and ending with the youngest; and the goblet turned up in Benjamin’s bag. At this they rent their clothes. Each reloaded his pack animal, and they returned to the city.

Judaica Press Complete T.    .

Kaplan Translation                 Each one quickly lowered his pack to the ground, and they all opened their packs. [The overseer] inspected each one, beginning with the oldest and ending with the youngest. The chalice was found in Benjamin's pack. [The brothers] tore their clothes in grief. Each one reloaded his donkey, and they returned to the city.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           Then they speedily took down every ish his sack to the ground, and opened every ish his sack. And he searched, and began at the gadol (eldest), and ended at the katon (youngest); and the gevi’a (cup, goblet) was found in the sack of Binyamin. Then they tore their garments, and loaded every ish his chamor, and returned to the ir.

The Scriptures 1998              .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

The Amplified Bible                Then every man quickly lowered his sack to the ground and each man opened his sack [confident the cup would not be found among them]. The steward searched, beginning with the eldest and ending with the youngest, and the cup was found in Benjamin’s sack. Then they tore their clothes [in grief]; and after each man had loaded his donkey again, they returned to the city.

The Expanded Bible              Then every brother quickly lowered his sack to the ground and opened ·it [L their sack]. ·The servant [L He] searched the sacks, ·going from [starting with] the oldest brother to [L and ending with] the ·youngest [smallest], and found the ·cup [goblet] in Benjamin’s sack. The brothers tore their clothes [C a sign of mourning; they were afraid for Benjamin’s life]. Then they ·put their sacks back on [L loaded] the donkeys and returned to the city.

The Geneva Bible                  .

Kretzmann’s Commentary    Then they speedily, as their outraged feelings of innocence demanded, took down every man his sack to the ground, and opened every man his sack. They were absolutely certain that the cup would not be found.

And he, the chief steward, searched, and began at the eldest, and left at the youngest, partly to hide his own share in the scheme, partly to make the climax all the more effective. And the cup was found in Benjamin's sack. This was an outcome which not one of them had expected, their feeling of relief having grown as one sack after another had not yielded the cup.

Then they rent their clothes, and laded every man his ass, and returned to the city. They were overcome with terror, fear, and grief, and it was with a feeling of the greatest dejection that they turned back to the city which they had left with such light hearts a few hours before.

NET Bible®                             So each man quickly lowered [Heb “and they hurried and they lowered.” Their speed in doing this shows their presumption of innocence.] his sack to the ground and opened it. Then the man [Heb “and he”; the referent (the man who was in charge of Joseph’s household) has been specified in the translation for clarity.] searched. He began with the oldest and finished with the youngest. The cup was found in Benjamin’s sack! They all tore their clothes! Then each man loaded his donkey, and they returned to the city.

Syndein/Thieme                     .

The Voice                               Then they all moved quickly, retrieved their sacks, lowered them to the ground, and opened them so the steward could see what was inside them. He searched each sack, beginning with the eldest son and ending with the youngest; at last, the cup was found in Benjamin’s sack. When the brothers saw this, they tore their clothes in anguish. They knew what had to happen. They had no choice but to load their donkeys and return to the city.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And hasting are they, and letting each man's bag down to the earth, and opening are they each man, his bag. And searching is he, starting with the greatest and finishing with the small. And found is the beaker in the bag of Benjamin. And tearing are they their garments, and lading is each man his bag on his ass, and returning are they to the city.

Context Group Version          Then they hurried, and took down every man his sack to the ground, and opened every man his sack. And he searched, [ and ] began at the eldest, and left off at the youngest: and the cup was found in Benjamin's sack. Then they tore their clothes, and loaded every man his donkey, and returned to the city.

Darby Translation                  .

Emphasized Bible                  So they hastened and took down each man his sack to the ground,—and opened each man his sack. Then made he thorough search, with the eldest, he began, and with the youngest, he ended,—and the cup was found in the sack of Benjamin! And they rent their mantles,—and laded each man his ass, and returned to the city.

English Standard Version      .

English Standard V. – UK       .

Evidence Bible                       .

Green’s Literal Translation    .

H. C. Leupold                         So they made haste, every man of them, and set their sacks on the ground, and they opened every man his sack. And he made the search—with the eldest he began, with the youngest he finished—and the cup was found in Benjamin’s sack. And they rent their garments, and each man reloaded his ass, and they returned to the city.

Jack Ballinger’s translation    .

Modern English Version         Then every man hurriedly took down his sack to the ground, and every man opened his sack. He searched, beginning with the oldest and ending with the youngest. The cup was found in Benjamin’s sack. Then they tore their clothes, and every man loaded his donkey and returned to the city.

Modern KJV                           .

NASB                                     .

New European Version          Then they hurried, and each man took his sack down to the ground, and each man opened his sack. He searched, beginning with the eldest, and ending at the youngest. The cup was found in Benjamin’s sack. Then they tore their clothes, and each man loaded his donkey, and returned to the city.

New King James Version       .

Owen's Translation                .

Benner’s Mechanical Trans.  .

Stuart Wolf                             .

Third Millennium Bible            .

Updated Bible Version 2.11   .

A Voice in the Wilderness      .

Webster’s Bible Translation  Then they speedily took down every man his sack to the ground, and opened every man his sack. And he searched, and began at the eldest, and left at the youngest: and the cup was found in Benjamin's sack. Then they rent their clothes, and laded every man his ass, and returned to the city.

World English Bible                .

Young's Literal Translation     .

Young’s Updated LT             And they hasten and take down each his bag to the earth, and each opens his bag; and he searches—at the eldest he has begun, and at the youngest he has completed—and the cup is found in the bag of Benjamin; and they rend their garments, and each lades his ass, and they turn back to the city.

 

The gist of this passage:     Jacob’s sons willingly consent to a search, but the servant of Joseph, going through all of their bags, finds Joseph’s silver cup in Benjamin’s bag.


Genesis 44:11a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

mâhar (מָחַר) [pronounced maw-HAHR]

to hasten, to hurry, to hustle, to make haste, to rush; its transitive use is to prepare quickly, to bring quickly, to do quickly

3rd person masculine plural, Piel imperfect

Strong’s #4116 BDB #554

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

yârad (יָרַד) [pronounced yaw-RAHD]

to cause to go down, to cause to come down, to bring down, to lead down

3rd person masculine plural, Hiphil imperfect

Strong’s #3381 BDB #432

ʾîysh (אִיש) [pronounced eesh]

a man, a husband; anyone; a certain one; each, each one, each man, everyone

masculine singular noun (sometimes found where we would use a plural)

Strong's #376 BDB #35

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʾametachath (אַמְתַּחַת) [pronounced ahm-TAHKH-ahth]

bag, sack; flexible container for grain

feminine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #572 BDB #607

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earthward (all or a portion thereof), on [toward, upon] the earth [ground]; on [upon, toward] the land [territory, country, continent; ground, soil]

feminine singular noun with the directional hê

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: They act quickly and each man lowers his sack to the ground... Joseph’s brothers had not done anything wrong. They quickly responded to the order of Joseph’s servant and lowered their sacks to the ground.


Genesis 44:11b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

pâthach (פָּתַח) [pronounced paw-THAHKH]

to open, to open up; to let loose [as in, to draw (a sword]; to begin, to lead in

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #6605 BDB #834 (& #836)

ʾîysh (אִיש) [pronounced eesh]

a man, a husband; anyone; a certain one; each, each one, each man, everyone

masculine singular noun (sometimes found where we would use a plural)

Strong's #376 BDB #35

ʾametachath (אַמְתַּחַת) [pronounced ahm-TAHKH-ahth]

bag, sack; flexible container for grain

feminine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #572 BDB #607


Translation: ...and then opens his sack. Each man opened his sack. You can see that I left out each man in the translation, as it carries over from the previous phrase.


Because they had done nothing wrong, no one was concerned about what would be found in the sacks.


Genesis 44:12a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

châphas (חָפַשׂ) [pronounced khaw-FAHS]

to search, to search for, to seek, to search through

3rd person masculine singular, Piel imperfect

Strong’s #2664 BDB #344


Translation: Joseph’s servant [lit., he] carefully searches [their stuff],... For the most part, in this encounter, he refers to Joseph’s servant and they refer to Joseph’s brothers. In the English, we often will make specific references from time to time in a narrative.


Joseph’s servant, probably traveling with a small military contingent, searches through their bags.


Genesis 44:12b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

gâdôwl (גָּדוֹל) [pronounced gaw-DOHL]

large, great or mighty [in power, nobility, wealth; in number, or magnitude and extent], loud; elder, older, important, distinguished; vast, unyielding, immutable, significant, astonishing

masculine singular adjective with a definite article

Strong’s #1419 BDB #152

When used as a substantive, as here, gâdôwl means a great [mighty, noble] man; the oldest (eldest).

châlal (חָלַל) [pronounced khaw-LAHL]

to begin, to start

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil perfect

Strong's #2490 BDB #320


Translation: ...beginning with [the bag of] the eldest... As he has probably been ordered to do, he begins with the bag of the oldest brother and works his way down the line.


Genesis 44:12c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

qâţân (קָטָן) [pronounced kaw-TAWN]

small, young, unimportant, insignificant

masculine singular adjective; with the definite article

Strong’s #6996 BDB #881

kâlâh (כָּלָה) [pronounced kaw-LAWH]

to complete, to finish; to prepare; to come to an end; to consume, to waste, to destroy, to annihilate; to make pine away

3rd person masculine singular, Piel perfect

Strong's #3615 BDB #477


Translation: ...and finishing with [the bag of] the youngest. He finally comes to the bag of the youngest.


What is not said in this part of the narrative, but what logically happened is, each sack contained the man’s silver, so that would have been revealed in each sack. However, that was not an issue to the servant and so it is not mentioned. There is only one item which concerns him, and that is the silver chalice.


Genesis 44:12d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

mâtsâʾ (מָצָא) [pronounced maw-TSAW]

to acquire, to be found, to be detected, to be discovered, to be present, to exist

3rd person masculine singular, Niphal imperfect

Strong’s #4672 BDB #592

gebîyaʿ (גְּבִיעַ) [pronounced ghehb-EE-ģah]

cup, bowl, chalice

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #1375 BDB #149

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʾametachath (אַמְתַּחַת) [pronounced ahm-TAHKH-ahth]

bag, sack; flexible container for grain

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #572 BDB #607

Bineyâmin (בִּנְיָמִן) [pronounced bin-yaw-MIN]

transliterated Benjamin, it means son of [my] right hand

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1144 BDB #122


Translation: He found [Joseph’s] cup in Benjamin’s bag. In the final sack, he found Joseph’s chalice, his silver cup. No one was expecting this, apart from Joseph’s servant, who put it there in the first place.


Genesis 44:13a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

qâraʿ (קָרַע) [pronounced kaw-RAHĢ]

to bend, to tear apart; to tear out, to tear away; to cut in pieces [with a knife]; to cut out; to tear with words [i.e, to curse]

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #7167 BDB #902

sîmelâh (שִׂמְלָה) [pronounced sime-LAW]

[covering, outer] garments, clothing, clothes

feminine plural noun with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong’s #8071 BDB #971


Translation: Consequently, Joseph’s brothers [lit., they] tore their clothing [in utter despair]. The brothers are very upset, and they tear their clothing, which is a sign of despair.


Genesis 44:13b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʿâmaç (עָמַס) [pronounced ģaw-MAHS]

to carry a burden, to carry a load, to take up, to lift up; it is especially used for a load which is lifted up onto a horse or mule

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #6006 BDB #770

ʾîysh (אִיש) [pronounced eesh]

a man, a husband; anyone; a certain one; each, each one, each man, everyone

masculine singular noun (sometimes found where we would use a plural)

Strong's #376 BDB #35

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of relative proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

chămôwr (חֲמוֹר) [pronounced khuh-MOHR]

ass, male donkey, he-ass, burrow

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #2543 BDB #331


Translation: Then each man loaded up his ass... They have been caught red-handed, so they return peaceably to Egypt. They load up their donkeys.


Genesis 44:13c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

shûwb (שוּב) [pronounced shoobv]

to return, to turn, to turn back, to reminisce, to restore something, to bring back something, to revive, to recover something, to make restitution

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong's #7725 BDB #996

ʿîyr (עִיר) [pronounced ģeer]

city, encampment, town; fortified height; a place of walking; a guarded place

feminine singular noun with the definite article and the directional hê

Strong's #5892 BDB #746

The directional hê (properly, the directive hê) is the âh (הַ] ending to a noun, usually found after a verb of motion. This is called the directive hê or the hê locale, which often indicates direction and puts somewhat of an adverbial spin on the noun. Essentially, it answers the question where? The pronunciation of the word does not change. The directional hê indicates the direction in which something moves. It is often used with the noun heaven and the most literal rendering in the English would be heavenward. We can also indicate the existence of the hê directional by supplying the prepositions to or toward.


Translation: ...and they [all] returned to the city. They return to the city, which confirms the translation of an earlier verse, when they have not traveled far from the city.


Although there is no discussion of this, recall that Joseph’s servant had said, “He who is found with it shall be my servant, and the rest of you shall be innocent.” (v. 10b; ESV) So, logically, all of the brothers, save Benjamin, could have taken their grain and returned to Canaan. They do not do this. All of them saddle up to return to Egypt. This is the first surprise. There is nothing in the text which appears to require that they do this.


——————————



And so comes Judah and his brothers to a house of Joseph and he [is] still there. And so they fall to his faces ground-ward.

Genesis

44:14

So Judah and his brothers came to Joseph’s house and he [is] still there. They fall on the ground before him.

Therefore, Judah and his brothers returned with Joseph’s servant to Joseph’s house, and Joseph is still there. They fall on the ground before him.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so comes Judah and his brothers to a house of Joseph and he [is] still there. And so they fall to his faces ground-ward.

Dead Sea Scrolls                   .

Targum of Onkelos                And Jehuda entered and his brothers into Joseph's house, for he was still there; and they fell before him on the ground.

Targum Pseudo Jonathan      And Jehuda and his brethren entered into Joseph's house. He was yet there ; and they fell before him on the ground.

Revised Douay-Rheims         Joseph was awaiting them there, and Juda led his brethren into Joseph's presence, where they all bowed face to the earth before him.

Latin Vulgate                          .

Plain English Aramaic Bible   .

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And Judah and his brothers came to Josephs house; for he was still there; and they fell before him on the ground.

Septuagint (Greek)                And Judas and his brethren came in to Joseph, while he was yet there, and fell on the ground before him.

NETS (Greek)                        .

Brenton’s Septuagint             .

 

Significant differences: 


Limited Vocabulary Translations:

 

Bible in Basic English             So Judah and his brothers came to Joseph's house; and he was still there: and they went down on their faces before him.

Easy English                          .

Easy-to-Read Version–2001  .

Easy-to-Read Version–2008  .

God’s Word                         .

Good News Bible (TEV)         .

International Children’s B.     .

The Message                         Joseph was still at home when Judah and his brothers got back. They threw themselves down on the ground in front of him.

Names of God Bible               Judah and his brothers arrived at Joseph’s house while Joseph was still there. Immediately, they bowed with their faces touching the ground.

NIRV                                      Joseph was still in the house when Judah and his brothers came in. They threw themselves down on the ground in front of him.

New Simplified Bible              .


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           .

Contemporary English V.       When Judah and his brothers got there, Joseph was still at home. So they bowed down to Joseph, who asked them, "What have you done? Didn't you know I could find out?" V. 15 is included for context.

The Living Bible                     .

New Berkeley Version           .

New Century Version             When Judah and his brothers went back to Joseph’s house, Joseph was still there, so the brothers bowed facedown on the ground before him.

New Life Version                    .

New Living Translation           Joseph was still in his palace when Judah and his brothers arrived, and they fell to the ground before him.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Then each man put his sack back on his burro, and they all returned to the city, where Judah and his brothers went to see JoSeph while he was [still at home].

Then they fell to the ground before him, and JoSeph asked them: 'What have you done? Didn't you realize that a man like me can see the future?' Vv. 13b & 15 are included for context.

American English Bible          .

Beck’s American Translation .

International Standard V        Joseph Confronts His Brothers

Joseph was waiting for them back at his palace when his brothers returned. They fell to the ground in front of him, and Joseph asked them, “Why did you do this? Don’t you know that I’m an expert at divination?” V. 15 is included for context.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       Joseph was awaiting them there, and Juda led his brethren into Joseph’s presence, where they all bowed face to the earth before him.

Today’s NIV                          .

Translation for Translators     Back in Egypt, Joseph said that only the one who stole his cup would be his slave

When Judah and his older and younger brothers entered Joseph's house, Joseph was still there. The servant told Joseph what had happened. Then the brothers threw themselves down on the ground in front of Joseph.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Awful Scroll Bible                   Judah, and his brothers, were coming in to Joseph's house, and they were to fall turned before him, onto the solid grounds.

Conservapedia                       Judah and his brothers came to Joseph's house, and he was still there. They fell with their faces to the ground in front of him.

Ferrar-Fenton Bible                When Judah and his brothers came to Joseph's house, and were again brought in, they fell on their faces to the ground.

God’s Truth (Tyndale)           And Juda and his brethren came to Josephs house, for he was yet there, and they fell before him on the ground.

HCSB                                     .

Jubilee Bible 2000                  .

Lexham English Bible            And Judah and his brothers came to the house of Joseph--now he [was] still there--they fell before him to the ground.

NIV, ©2011                             .

NIV – UK                                .

Tree of Life Version                .


Catholic Bibles (those having the imprimatur):

 

Christian Community (1988)  .

The Heritage Bible                 .

New American Bible (2002)   .

New American Bible (2011)   When Judah and his brothers entered Joseph’s house, he was still there; so they flung themselves on the ground before him.

New Jerusalem Bible             .

New RSV                               .

Revised English Bible            Joseph was still in the house when Judah and his brothers arrived, and they threw themselves on the ground before him.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           .

exeGeses companion Bible   And Yah Hudah and his brothers

come to the house of Yoseph for he is yet there:

and they fall at his face on the earth.

Hebraic Roots Bible               .

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               When Judah and his brothers reentered the house of Joseph, who was still there, they threw themselves on the ground before him.

Judaica Press Complete T.    .

Kaplan Translation                 When Judah and his brothers came to Joseph's palace, he was still there. They threw themselves on the ground before him.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           And Yehudah and his achim came to Bais Yosef; for he was yet there; and they fell before him on the ground.

The Scriptures 1998              .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

The Amplified Bible                .

The Expanded Bible              When Judah and his brothers ·went back to [arrived at] Joseph’s house, Joseph was still there, so ·the brothers bowed facedown [Lthey fell] on the ground before him.

The Geneva Bible                  .

Kretzmann’s Commentary    Verses 14-34

Judah's Heroic Behavior

And Judah and his brethren came to Joseph's house; for he was yet there, having waited for their return. Judah is now the leader among the brothers, a position which was later confirmed to him. And they fell before him on the ground, in speechless terror and abject surrender. This showed the spirit which now lived in them, as well as the fact that they had not permitted Benjamin to return alone and that they willingly placed themselves under the direction of Judah.

NET Bible®                             So Judah and his brothers [Judah and his brothers. The narrative is already beginning to bring Judah to the forefront.] came back to Joseph’s house. He was still there [The disjunctive clause here provides supplemental information.], and they threw themselves to the ground before him.

Syndein/Thieme                     .

The Voice                               Judah and his brothers all came to Joseph’s house while he was still there, and they fell to the ground in front of him.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And coming are Judah and his brothers to Joseph's house, and he is still there. And falling are they before him to the earth.

Context Group Version          .

Darby Translation                  .

Emphasized Bible                  .

English Standard Version      .

English Standard V. – UK       .

Evidence Bible                       .

Green’s Literal Translation    And Judah and his brothers came to Joseph's house, and he was still there. And they fell before him to the earth.

H. C. Leupold                         .

Jack Ballinger’s translation    .

Modern English Version         When Judah and his brothers came to Joseph’s house, he was still there; and they fell to the ground before him.

Modern KJV                           .

NASB                                     .

New European Version          .

New King James Version       .

Owen's Translation                .

Benner’s Mechanical Trans.  .

Stuart Wolf                             .

Third Millennium Bible            .