א

  ב
  ג
 ד
  ה
 ו
 ז
  ח
 ט
י
 כ
 ל
 מ



Common Words and Prepositions

ʾâdôwn (ןד ָא) lord

ʾechâd (ד ָח א) one

ʾal (ל-א) ; a negation

ʾel (לא) unto

ʾake ( ַא)

ʾîm (ם ̣א) (hypothetical particle)

ʾânîy (אָנִי) = I, me

 

 

 

 

 

ʾăsher (relative pronoun)

ʾîysh (שי ̣א) = man

ʾîshshâh (ה ָֹ ̣א); wife, woman

 

ʾeth (ת∵א) preposition

ʾeth (ת∵א) direct object

bêyth preposition

bôwʾ (א) [pronounced boh] to go, to come

bêyn (ןי ֵ)

gam

Interrogative hă

hâyâh

hinnêh (הִנֵּה)

wâw consecutive

kaph preposition ke ( ׃)

kîy (י.כ)

kên (כֵּן)

kôl (כֹּל)

wâw conjunction

lâmed preposition

lôʾ (אֹל), the negative

măqqē´f

min (מ) preposition

mâh (ה ָמ) [interrogative]

mîy (מִי) [pronounced mee]


Word Charts

4100Bôwsh Chart

 

Châlats (ץ ַל ָח)

 

 


Various Charts

 

 

 

 

Various Levitical Offerings


Hebrew Dictionary and Vocabulary


Note to myself I did not begin this until Ex. 38:15 & 23; I had to split this into two parts during Job 4, 12/97


I will try to be consistent and pronounce ו as w but  as v-v; and ב as bv and  as b (not that this is totally accurate; I am shooting for consistency here).


However, I ran into a bit of a conundrum when determining how to relay the pronunciation to the reader. Do you give the pronunciation as cake or as kayk (or kāk)? Do we go with ode, ohd, or ōd? Whereas, most of the time I strive for some sort of consistency (even where there really is none originally), with the pronunciations, I have decided to go with a common English word (e.g., cake) where appropriate, letters without diacritical markings wherever possible, and diacritical markings where I see no other alternative.


The masculine of an adjective might refer to the moral or philosophical ramifications and the feminine gender might refer to the consequences of the word.


In a parenthetical reference, like (Job 9:7), the word does not occur in this verse, it is just being contrasted with the word actually found in this verse. Bolded references will be used when the word gets a full treatment in that verse (I didn’t begin this until Joshua 6). Joshua 2:3 6:2 10:8

 

*will mean that all references are listed here.

 

Preface: The problem with most lexicons is they tend to focus more upon this is how we have always translated this word; we find it in this passage used in this way and that passage translated that way. These lexicons often do not search for a consistent rendering of any given word; nor do they always examine the Scripture with the intent of narrowing down the number of ways an ancient Hebrew word can be brought into the English. Furthermore, there are some words which have one meaning outside of Scripture, but took on a technical theological meaning when used in Scripture (a good English equivalent of this is the word rapture; which means one thing originally in the secular world (ecstatic joy or delight) and has come to mean something related, but different in the world of theology (it refers to the time when the Lord will descend from heaven with a shout and the dead in Christ will rise first; then we who are alive with join Him and be forever in the heavenlies). A reasonable Hebrew example is kâphar (ר ַפ ָ), which means to cover but has come to take on the more technical translation of atone when found in Scripture (however, in this case, I think the literal meaning is best left in Scripture).


I have followed the order of Brown, Driver and Briggs, the reason being that they group the cognates together, which makes it easier to confirm some meanings.


This is a list of words covered in reasonable detail in my exegesis of the Old Testament:


1.      א       ʾAleph [pronounced AW-lef] (1) Written ʾ and not pronounced

 

1.       Letter:

2.       Masculine_noun: which means freshness, fresh green. The first prepositional phrase is in its freshness, translated by Young as in its budding; this is the only time this word occurs, although we find a very similar word in Exodus for young ears of barley; so the idea of youngness is implied. Freshness, budding = Strong’s #3 BDB #1.

3.       Masculine_noun: ʾâbîyb (אָבִיב) [pronounced aw-BEEB] which means fresh, young ears [of barley, corn]; [the month of] Abib; transliterated Abib. Job 8:12; young ears of barley = Strong’s #24 BDB #1. Deut. 16:1

ʾâbîyb (אָבִיב) [pronounced aw-BEEB

fresh, young ears [of barley, corn]; the month of ear-forming, of greening of crop, of growing green Abib, the month of exodus and Passover (March or April), [the month of] Abib; transliterated Abib

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #24 BDB #1

Obviously, the name of this month is tied to the produce of that month.

4.       Verb: ʾâbad (אָבַד) [pronounced awb-VAHD], which means to be lost, to lose oneself, to wander; to perish, to be destroyed; to be ready to perish, to be wretched [miserable or unfortunate]. It means to perish (Lev. 26:38 Esther 4:16 Joel 1:11); to lose (1Sam. 9:3). This verb is usually rendered to perish, and finding it in 1Sam. 9:3 where it clearly means to lose gives us a better understanding of its nuance. in the Piel it means to destroy (Num. 33:52 Deut. 12:2–3); in the Hiphil it means to cause to languish, to cause the destruction of, to put to death (Num. 24:19 Joshua 7:7). Strong's #6 BDB #1. Lev. 23:30 Num. 33:52 Deut. 4:26 7:24 22:3 26:5 Joshua 7:7 23:15 Judges 5:31 1Sam. 9:3, 20 Job 3:3 11:20 14:19 18:17 20:7 2Sam. 1:27 Job 3:1 Psalm 2:12 10:16 21:10 41:5 68:2 73:27 83:17 142:4 146:4 Prov. 1:32 10:28

ʾâbad (אָבַד) [pronounced awb-VAHD]

to be lost, to lose oneself, to wander; to perish, to be destroyed; to be ready to perish, to be wretched [miserable or unfortunate]

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #6 BDB #1

ʾâbad (אָבַד) [pronounced awb-VAHD]

the ones being lost; the lost ones; those perishing or ready to perish

masculine plural, Qal active participle

Strong's #6 BDB #1

ʾâbad (אָבַד) [pronounced awb-VAHD]

to lose, to determine as lost, to give up as lost; to cause wander, to disperse; to cause to perish, to destroy; to lay waste

3rd person masculine singular, Piel imperfect

Strong's #6 BDB #1

ʾâbad (אָבַד) [pronounced awb-VAHD]

to destroy, to cut off

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect

Strong's #6 BDB #1

5.       Masculine_noun: which means destruction. Strong’s #8 BDB #2.

6.       Feminine_noun: ʾăbêdâh (הֲבֵדָה) [pronounced ub-vay-DAW], which means lost thing, something which was lost. Strong’s #9 BDB #2. Deut. 22:3

ʾăbêdâh (הֲבֵדָה) [pronounced ub-vay-DAW]

lost thing, something which was lost, missing item

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #9 BDB #2

7.       Masculine_noun: which means destruction. Strong’s #12 & #13 BDB #2.

8.       Feminine_noun: ʾăbaddôwn (אֲבַדּוֹן) [pronounced ub-ahd-DOHN], which means destruction, ruin, perishing, abyss; and is transliterated ʾAbaddôn. Possibly a proper noun. The place of ruin in Sheol; a place of the lost dead. Strong’s #11 BDB #2. The Doctrine of Sheol

9.       Verb1: ʾâbâh (אָבָה) [pronounced aw-BVAWH], which means to be willing, to consent. It is a verb always found with a negative (except in Job 1:19 39:9). In the Qal perfect, it generally means would; in the Qal imperfect it means consent, yield, willing. Strong’s #14 BDB #2. Gen. 24:5 Deut. 1:26 2:30 13:8 29:20 Judges 11:17 19:25 20:13b 1Sam. 15:9 22:17 26:23 31:4 2Sam. 2:21 6:10 12:17 13:14, 16, 25 14:29 23:16 1Chron. 11:18 Psalm 81:11 Prov. 1:10, 25 6:35

ʾâbâh (אָבָה) [pronounced awb-VAWH]

to be willing, to consent

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #14 BDB #2

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

ʾâbâh (אָבָה) [pronounced awb-VAWH]

to be willing, to consent

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #14 BDB #2

ʾâbâh with the negative means to choose not to, not to be willing to, to be unwilling to, to refuse consent, to refuse, to refuse to do.

10.     Adjective: ʾebeyôn (ןי׃בא) [pronounced ebve-YOHN], which means destitute, in want, needy, poor, bankrupt. Strong’s #34 BDB #2. The Doctrine of the Poor and the Needy 1Sam. 2:8 Job 5:16 Psalm 12:5

ʾebeyôn (ןי׃בא) [pronounced ebve-YOHN]

destitute, in want or need [of food, clothing, shelter, money], needy, poor, bankrupt

masculine singular noun/adjective

Strong’s #34 BDB #2

This second word can also be applied to those without the means to secure their own salvation; they are the slaves on the slave market of sin, unable to purchase their own freedom. This does not mean that they are spiritually destitute or spiritually bankrupt, per se; but simply lack the inherent means to secure a place with God and to grow spiritually.

11.     Masculine_noun: which means reed, papyrus. The kind of ships mentioned here is also a mystery. However, Gesenius matches the word with reed, bullrush, papyrus, from an Arabic use of the same word. Although there is not 100% agreement, this is the most likely renderings. Strong’s #16 BDB #3. Job 3:26

12.     Verb2: which means to decide, he who decides. Strong’s #none BDB #3.

13.     Masculine_noun: ʾâb (אָב) [pronounced awbv], which means father, both as the head of a household or the head of a clan. Therefore, it can refer to a grandfather or great grandfather. However, it can also mean founder, civil leader or military leader. Strong’s #1 BDB #3. Gen. 2:24 4:20 9:18 10:21 11:28 12:1 15:15 17:4 19:31, 37 20:12 22:7 24:7, 38 26:3, 15 27:6 28:1, 13 29:9 31:1, 3, 42 32:9 33:19 34:4 35:18 36:9 37:1 38:11 41:51 42:13, 29 43:2 44:17 45:3 46:1, 34 47:1, 3 48:1, 15 49:2, 29 50:1 Exodus 2:16 3:6, 13 4:5 Deut. 1:8, 21 4:1, 31, 37 5:3, 9, 16 21:12, 18 22:15, 29 Joshua 14:1 Judges 1:14 2:1, 10 9:1 17:10 Ruth 4:17a 1Sam. 2:25 9:3, 20 10:2, 12 12:6, 15 14:1, 51 17:15, 25 18:18 19:2 20:1 22:1 23:17 24:11, 21 2Sam. 2:32 6:21 7:12 13:5 14:9 15:34 16:3 17:8, 10, 23 19:28 21:14 24:17 1Kings 1:6, 21 2:10 3:3 5:1 6:12 7:14, 51 8:1, 15, 21, 34 1Chron. 8:10, 29 12:17, 28 15:12 Psalm 68:5 89:26 95:9 103:13 106:6 Prov. 1:8 3:12 4:1 6:20 10:1

ʾâb (אָב) [pronounced awbv]

father, both as the head of a household, clan or tribe; ancestor, grandfather; founder, civil leader, military leader; master, teacher

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #1 BDB #3

ʾâbôwth (אָבוֹת) [pronounced awb-VOOTH]

fathers, ancestors, both as the heads of households, clans or tribes; founders, civil leaders, military leaders

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #1 BDB #3

14.     Masculine_proper_noun: ʾĂbîy-ʿAlebôwn (אֲבִי־עַלְבוֹן) [pronounced ab-ee-al-BONE], which means God is my father, father of strength, valiant; transliterated Abialbon, Abi-lebon. Strong’s #45 BDB #3. 2Sam. 23:31

ʾĂbîy-ʿAlebôwn (אֲבִי־עַלְבוֹן) [pronounced ab-ee-al-BONE]

God is my father, father of strength, valiant; transliterated Abialbon, Abi-lebon

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #45 BDB #3

Read ʾĂbîyʾel (אֲבִיאֶל) [pronounced ub-vee-EL], which means El (God) is [my] father. Strong’s #22 BDB #3.

15.     Masculine_proper_noun: ʾĂbîyʾel (אֲבִיאֶל) [pronounced ub-vee-EL], which means El (God) is [my] father. An ancestor of Saul’s. Strong’s #22 BDB #3. 1Sam. 9:1 14:51 1Chron. (8:29) 11:32

ʾĂbîyʾel (אֲבִיאֶל) [pronounced ub-vee-EL]

El (God) is [my] father; transliterated Abiel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #22 BDB #3

16.     Masculine_proper_name: which means my father has gathered and is transliterated . Strong’s #23&43 BDB #4.

17.     Feminine_proper_noun: ʾĂbîygâyil (אֲבִיגָיִל) [pronounced ab-vee-GAW-yil], which means my father is joy and is transliterated Abigal. There are two spellings of this name. Strong’s #26 BDB #4. 1Sam. 25:3 27:3 2Sam. 2:2 3:3 17:25

ʾĂbîygâyil (אֲבִיגָיִל) [pronounced ab-vee-GAH-yil]

my father is joy (or, joyous); or my father’s joy; and is transliterated Abigail

feminine singular proper noun

Strong’s #26 BDB #4

18.     Masculine_proper_noun: which means my father is judge and is transliterated . Strong’s #27 BDB #4.

19.     Masculine_proper_noun: ʾĂbîydâʿ (אֲבִידָע) [pronounced ub-ee-DAWĢ], which means my father knows, my father took knowledge and is transliterated Abida, Abidah. Strong’s #28 BDB #4. Gen. 25:4

ʾĂbîydâʿ (אֲבִידָע) [pronounced ub-ee-DAWĢ]

my father knows, my father took knowledge and is transliterated Abida, Abidah

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #28 BDB #4

20.     Masculine_proper_noun: ʾĂbîyyâh (הָ̣בֲא) [pronounced ub-vee-YAW], which means Yah is [my] father and is transliterated Abijah. Strong’s #29 BDB #4. 1Sam. 8:2

ʾĂbîyyâh (הָ̣בֲא) [pronounced ub-vee-YAW]

Yah is [my] father; transliterated Abijah

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #29 BDB #4

21.     Masculine_proper_noun: which means he is my father and is transliterated . Strong’s #30 BDB #4.

22.     Masculine_proper_noun: which means my father is majesty and is transliterated . Strong’s #31 BDB #4.

23.     Masculine_proper_noun: which means my father is might and is transliterated . Masculine and feminine. Strong’s #32 BDB #4.

24.     Masculine_proper_noun: which means my father is goodness and is transliterated . Strong’s #36 BDB #4.

25.     Masculine_proper_noun: ʾĂbîyţâl (לָטי.בֲא) [pronounced uhb-ee-TAWL], which means my father is [the] dew; father of dew and is transliterated Abital. Strong’s #37 BDB #4. 2Sam. 3:4

ʾĂbîyţâl (לָטי.בֲא) [pronounced uhb-ee-TAWL]

my father is [the] dew; father of dew and is transliterated Abital

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #37 BDB #4

26.     Masculine_proper_noun: ʾăbîymâʾêl (אֲבִימָאֵל) [pronounced ub-vee-maw-ALE], which means my father is El; father of Mael; and is transliterated Abimael. Strong’s #39 BDB #4. Gen. 10:28

ʾăbîymâʾêl (אֲבִימָאֵל) [pronounced ub-vee-maw-ALE]

my father is El; father of Mael; and is transliterated Abimael

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #39 BDB #4

27.     Masculine_proper_noun: ʾĂbiymeleke (אֲבִימֶלֶךְ) [pronounced ub-vee-MEH-lek], which means my father is king. Abimelech should never have been the ruler of Israel; if anyone should have been in that time period, it was his father. So, every time you read his name in the next chapter, when he rules over Israel, keep in mind, it isn’t him, but his father who should be king. Strong’s #40 BDB #4. Gen. 20:2 21:22 26:1 Judges 8:31 9:intro 2Sam. 11:21 1Chron. 18:16 Psalm 34:inscription

ʾĂbiymeleke (אֲבִימֶלֶךְ) [pronounced ub-vee-MEH-lek]

my father is Melek, my father is king; transliterated Abimelech

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #40 BDB #4

Barnes suggests father of the king, but I believe that to be incorrect.

28.     Masculine_proper_noun: ʾăbîynâdâb (בָדָני.בֲא) [pronounced ub-vee-naw-DAWB], which means my father is noble and is transliterated Abinadab. Strong’s #41 BDB #4. 1Sam. 7:1 16:8 17:13 31:2 2Sam. 6:3

ʾĂbîynâdâb (בָדָני.בֲא) [pronounced ub-vee-naw-DAWB]

my father is noble and is transliterated Abinadab

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #41 BDB #4

29.     Masculine_proper_noun: ʾĂbîynôʿam (ם-עֹני.בֲא) [pronounced ub-vee-noh-ĢAHM], which means my father is a delight; father of pleasantness; transliterated Abinoam. Father of Barak. Strong’s #42 BDB #4. Judges 4:6

ʾĂbîynôʿam (ם-עֹני.בֲא) [pronounced ub-vee-noh-ĢAHM]

my father is a delight; father of pleasantness; transliterated Abinoam

masculine singular, proper noun

Strong’s #42 BDB #4

30.     Masculine_proper_noun: ʾĂbîynêr (אֲבִינֵר) [pronounced ub-vee-NAYR], which means my father is Ner or my father is a lamp, and is transliterated Abner. Strong’s #74 BDB #4. 1Sam. 14:50 17:55 20:25 26:5 2Sam. 2:8 3:6 1Kings 2:5

ʾĂbenêr (אֲבְנֵר) [pronounced ubve-NAYR]

my father is Ner or my father is a lamp, and is transliterated Abner

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #74 BDB #4

ʾĂbîynêr (אֲבִינֵר) [pronounced ub-vee-NAYR]

my father is Ner or my father is a lamp, and is transliterated Abner

masculine proper noun (alternate spelling)

Strong’s #74 BDB #4

31.     Masculine_proper_noun: ʾĂbîyʿezer (אֲבִיעֶזֶר) [pronounced ub-vee-ĢEH-zer], which means father of help, my father is helpful, helpful; and is transliterated Abiezer. Strong’s #44 BDB #4. 2Sam. 23:27 1Chron. 11:28

ʾĂbîyʿezer (אֲבִיעֶזֶר) [pronounced ub-vee-ĢEH-zer]

father of help, my father is helpful, helpful; and is transliterated Abiezer

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #44 BDB #4

32.     Masculine_proper_noun: ʾăbîyrâm (אֲבִירָם) [pronounced upb-vee-RAWM], which means [the] Exalted One is my father and is transliterated Abiram. Strong’s #48 BDB #4. Psalm 106:17

ʾĂbîyrâm (אֲבִירָם) [pronounced upb-vee-RAWM]

[the] Exalted One is my father and is transliterated Abiram

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #48 BDB #4

33.     Masculine_proper_noun: ʾAberâm (אַבְרָם) [pronounced abv-RAWM], which means father of elevation, exalted father; and is transliterated Abram. Strong’s #87 BDB #4. Gen. 11:26 12:1 13:1 14:12 15:1 16:1 17:1

ʾAberâm (אַבְרָם) [pronounced abv-RAWM]

father of elevation, exalted father; and is transliterated Abram

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #87 BDB #4

34.     Masculine_proper_noun: ʾAberâhâm (אַבְרָהָם) [pronounced ahbve-raw-HAWM], which means father of a multitude, chief of a multitude; transliterated Abraham. Strong’s #85 BDB #4. Gen. 17:5 18:6 19:27 20:1 21:2 22:1 23:2 24:1 25:1 26:1, 15 28:4 31:42, 53 32:9 35:12 48:15 49:30 50:13 Exodus 2:24 3:6 Deut. 1:8 34:4 1Chron. 16:13 Psalm 47:9

ʾAberâhâm (אַבְרָהָם) [pronounced ahbve-raw-HAWM]

father of a multitude, chief of a multitude; transliterated Abraham

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #85 BDB #4

35.     Feminine_proper_noun: ʾĂbîyshag (אֲבִישַג) [pronounced ub-ee-SHAHG], which means my father is a wanderer, father of error [blundering]; transliterated Abishag, Avishag. Strong’s #49 BDB #4.

ʾĂbîyshag (אֲבִישַג) [pronounced ub-ee-SHAHG]

my father is a wanderer, father of error [blundering]; transliterated Abishag, Avishag

feminine singular proper noun

Strong’s #49 BDB #4

36.     Masculine_proper_noun: which means my father is rescue; my father is opulence; transliterated . Strong’s #50 BDB #4.

37.     Masculine_proper_noun: which means my father is a wall; transliterated . Strong’s #51 BDB #4.

38.     Masculine_proper_noun: ʾăbîyshay (אֲבִישַי) [pronounced ub-vee-SHAH-ee], which means my father is Jesse and is transliterated Abishai. Strong’s #52 BDB #5. 1Sam. 26:6 2Sam. 2:18, 24 10:10 16:9 18:2 19:21 20:6 21:17 23:18 1Chron. 11:20 18:12

ʾĂbîyshay (אֲבִישַי) [pronounced ub-vee-SHAH-ee]

my father is Jesse and is transliterated Abishai

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #52 BDB #5

bên (בֵּן) [pronounced bane]

son, descendant

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

Tserûwyâh (צְרוּיָה) [pronounced tzeroo-YAW]

transliterated Zeruiah

feminine singular proper noun

Strong’s #6870 BDB #863

39.     Masculine_proper_noun: ʾĂbîyshâlôwm (אֲבִישָלוֹם) [pronounced ub-ee-shaw-LOHM], which means my father is peace and is transliterated . Strong’s #53 BDB #5. 2Sam. 3:3 13:2, 20 14:1, 23 15:1 16:8 17:1 18:5 19:1 20:6 1Kings 1:6 2:7

ʾĂbîyshâlôwm (אֲבִישָלוֹם) [pronounced ub-ee-shaw-LOHM]

my father is peace and is transliterated Absalom

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #53 BDB #5

An alternate form of this word is ʾAbeshâlôwm (אַבְשָלוֹם) [pronounced ahbe-shaw-LOHM].

40.     Masculine_proper_noun: ʾebeyâthâr (אֶבְיָתָר) [pronounced ebe-yaw-THAWR], which means the Great One is father; my father is great and is transliterated Abiathar. Strong’s #54 BDB #5. 1Sam. 22:20 23:6 30:7 2Sam. 8:17 15:24 17:15 19:11 20:25 1Kings 1:7 2:22 4:4 1Chron. 15:11

ʾEbeyâthâr (אֶבְיָתָר) [pronounced ebe-yaw-THAWR]

the Great One is father; my father is great; transliterated Abiathar

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #54 BDB #5

41.     Interjection: which means oh! [an exclamation of pain]. Strong’s #17 BDB #5.

42.     Feminine_noun: which means slaughter. Probably an error in Ezra 21:20.* Strong’s #19 BDB #5.

43.     Verb: which means to turn?. In the Hiphil, it means to roll, to roll up. Strong’s #55 BDB #5.

44.     Verb: ʾâbal (אָבַל) [pronounced aw-BVAHL], which means to mourn, lament. In the Hithpael, it means to act like a mourner, to go through the motions and ceremonies of mourning, to mourn. Strong’s #56 BDB #5. Gen. 37:34 1Sam. 6:19 15:35 16:1 2Sam. 13:37 14:2 19:1 Job 14:22

ʾâbal (אָבַל) [pronounced awb-VAHL]

mourn, lament, go through the motions and ceremonies of mourning

Hithpael participle

Strong’s #56 BDB #5

ʾâbal (אָבַל) [pronounced awb-VAHL]

to be languid, to walk with one’s head down; to mourn, to lament

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #56 BDB #5

ʾâbal (אָבַל) [pronounced awb-VAHL]

to cause to mourn, to make a lament

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil perfect

Strong’s #56 BDB #5

ʾâbal (אָבַל) [pronounced awb-VAHL]

to mourn, to act like a mourner, to go through the motions a ceremonies of mourning

3rd person masculine singular, Hithpael perfect

Strong’s #56 BDB #5

Generally speaking, the Qal is found in poetry and the Hithpael in prose.

45.     Masculine_noun: ʾêbel (אֵבֶל) [pronounced AY-behl], which means mourning [for the dead]; the rites of mourning; mourning clothing; a period of mourning. Strong’s #60 BDB #5. Gen. 27:41 50:10 Deut. 34:8 2Sam. 11:27 14:2 19:2

ʾêbel (אֵבֶל) [pronounced AY-behl]

mourning [for the dead]; the rites of mourning; mourning clothing; a period of mourning

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #60 BDB #5

46.     Adjective1: ʾâbêl (אָבֵל) [pronounced awb-VAYL], which means mourning. Strong’s #57 BDB #5. Gen. 37:35

ʾâbêl (אָבֵל) [pronounced awb-VAYL]

mourning

adjective

Strong’s #57 BDB #5

47.     Feminine_noun2/proper noun: ʾâbêl (אָבֵל) [pronounced awb-VAYL], which ostensibly means meadow. Our problem is that Strong’s #58 BDB #5. 1Sam. 6:18 2Sam. 20:14

ʾÂbêl (אָבֵל) [pronounced awb-VAYL]

meadow; village; mourning transliterated Abel

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #58 BDB #5

ʾÂbêl only occurs twice (Judges 11:33 and 1Sam. 6:18) and both times the reading is disputed (its homonym is found several times, and has ample cognate evidence for the meaning mourning). It is also used as a proper noun in 2Sam. 20:18.*

ʾÂbêl (אָבֵל) [pronounced awb-VAYL]

vanity, breath, vapor; meadow; village; mourning transliterated Abel

feminine singular proper noun; location

Strong’s #59 BDB #5

BDB: 1) city in northern Israel near Bethmaachah

2) the place where the ark rested in the field of Joshua at Bethshemesh

48.     Proper_noun/location: 1Kings 4:12

ʾÂbêl (אָבֵל) [pronounced awb-VAYL]

meadow; village; mourning transliterated Abel

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #58 BDB #5

mechôwlâh (מְחוֹלָה) [pronounced mekhoh-LAW]

dances, dancing (which usually accompanies and celebrates a victory of some sort)

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #4246 BDB #298

This is understood by most to be a single proper noun: ʾÂbêl mechôwlâh (מְחוֹלָה אָבֵל) [pronounced aw-VAYL-mekh-oh-LAW], which means, meadow of dances, village of dancing; transliterated Abel-Mecholah, Abel-meholah. Strong’s #65 BDB #5.

49.     Location: Strong’s #63 BDB #6.

50.     Proper_noun/location: which means vineyard-meadow; transliterated . Strong’s #64 BDB #6.

51.     Proper_noun/location: which means dance-meadow; transliterated . Strong’s #65 BDB #6.

52.     Proper_noun/location: ʾâbêl_mitsrayim (מִצְרַיִם_אָבֵל) [pronounced aw-BALE-mits-RAH-yim] which means meadow of Egypt; transliterated Abel Mizraim, Abel-Mitsrajim. Strong’s #67 BDB #6. Gen. 50:11*

ʾÂbêl Mitsrayim (מִצְרַיִם אָבֵל)

[pronounced aw-BALE-mits-RAH-yihm]

meadow of Egypt; transliterated Abel Mizraim, Abel-Mitsrajim

Proper noun/location

Strong’s #67 BDB #6

BDB: [A] place east of the Jordan (perhaps “as fertile as Egypt”).

53.     Adverb: ʾăbâl (אֲבָל) [pronounced uhb-AWL], which means, truly, indeed, verily, surely; this adverb has corrective power, as in: but, however, howbeit; on the contrary, contrariwise, nay rather (negative). Strong’s #61 BDB #6. Gen. 17:19 42:21 2Sam. 14:5 1Kings 1:43

ʾăbâl (אֲבָל) [pronounced uhb-AWL]

 truly, indeed, verily, surely; this adverb has corrective power, as in: but, however, howbeit; on the contrary, contrariwise, nay rather (negative)

adverb

Strong’s #61 BDB #6

54.     Masculine_proper_noun: Strong’s #179 BDB #6.

55.     Masculine_noun3: which means camel. Strong’s #none BDB #6.

56.     Feminine_noun: ʾeben (אֶבֶן) [pronounced EHB-ven], which means stone. It is found over 250 times in the Old Testament and is consistently translated stone with few exceptions; stones were used for weights and carried around in a bag to use possibly with a scale (see Prov. 11:1 16:11). Also in the masculine. Strong's #68 BDB #6. Gen. 2:12 11:3 28:11 29:2 31:45 35:14 49:24 Lev. 20:27 (changed slightly) Deut. 4:13, 28 5:22 17:5 21:21 22:24 1Sam. 4:1b 6:14, 18 7:12 14:33 17:40 20:19 25:37 2Sam. 5:11 12:30 14:26 16:6 18:17 20:8 1Kings 1:9 5:17 6:7, 18 7:9 8:9 1Chron. 12:2 Zech. 12:3

ʾeben (אֶבֶן) [pronounced EHB-ven]

a stone [large or small] [in its natural state, as a building material]; stone ore; used of tablets, marble, cut stone; used of a tool or weapon; a precious stone, gem; rock; a weight of the balance

feminine singular noun

Strong's #68 BDB #6

BDB gives a very long lists of definitions: 1) stone (large or small); 1a) common stone (in natural state); 1b) stone, as material; 1b1) of tablets; 1b2) marble, hewn stones; 1c) precious stones, stones of fire; 1d) stones containing metal (ore), tool for work or weapon; 1e) weight; 1f) plummet (stones of destruction) also made of metal; 1g) stonelike objects, eg hailstones, stony heart, ice; 1h) sacred object, as memorial Samuel set up to mark where God helped Israel to defeat the Philistines; 1i) (simile); 1i1) sinking in water, motionlessness; 1i2) strength, firmness, solidity; 1i3) commonness; 1j) (metaphorically); 1j1) petrified with terror; 1j2) perverse, hard heart.

57.     Proper_noun: ʾEben (ןבא) [pronounced EHB-ven], which means stone and is transliterated Eben. It is found over 250 times in the Old Testament and is consistently translated stone. Strong's #68 BDB #6. Because of the definite article, this word would not be a construct. Then we have the definite article again followed by the masculine singular noun ʿêzer (רזֵע) [pronounced ĢAY-zer], which means help. Strong’s #5828 BDB #740. This gives us: ...beside the stone the help... Since this cannot be a construct relationship, our other option is that this is a proper noun, which is what this appears to be, and it is transliterated either Ebenezer or Eben-ezer. Strong’s #72 BDB #7. 1Sam. 4:1b 5:1 7:12

ʾEben (ןבא) [pronounced EHB-ven]

stone, rock and is transliterated Eben

proper masculine noun with the definite article (meaning that it is not a construct here)

Strong's #68 BDB #6

ʿêzer (עֵזֶר) [pronounced ĢAY-zer]

help and is transliterated Ezer

proper masculine noun with the definite article

Strong’s #72 BDB #7

Together, these are transliterated either Ebenezer or Eben-ezer. The definite articles are ignored in the transliteration.

58.     Not_sure: Strong’s #72 BDB #7.

59.     Masculine_noun: ʾôben (אֹבֶן) [pronounced OH-behn], which means wheel, disc. Strong’s #70 BDB #7. Exodus 1:15

ʾôben (אֹבֶן) [pronounced OH-behn]

wheel, disc

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #70 BDB #7

ʾâbenâyim (אָבְנָיִם) [pronounced awbv-NAW-yihm]

potter’s wheel(s), bearing stool, midwife’s stool

masculine dual noun

Strong’s #70 BDB #7

The dual noun suggests that there are two wheels, two stools, or a pair of something here.

60.     Not_sure: Strong’s #71 BDB #7.

61.     Not_sure: Strong’s #73 BDB #7.

62.     Not_sure: Strong’s #74 BDB #7.

63.     Verb: ʾâbaç (אָבַס) [pronounced aw-BAHS], which means fed, fattened. Strong’s #75 BDB #7. 1Kings 4:23

ʾâbaç (אָבַס) [pronounced aw-BAHS]

fed, fattened

masculine plural, Qal passive participle

Strong’s #75 BDB #7

64.     Masculine_noun: ʾêbûwç (סב̤א) [pronounced ay-BOOCE], which means crib, manger, feeding trough. Strong’s #18 BDB #7. (2Sam. 5:11)

ʾêbûwç (סב̤א) [pronounced ay-BOOCE]

crib, manger, feeding trough

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #18 BDB #7

65.     Masculine_noun: which means granary. Strong’s #3965 BDB #7.

66.     Not_sure: Strong’s #76 BDB #7.

67.     Proper_noun/location: which means ; transliterated . Strong’s #77 BDB #7.

68.     Proper_noun: ʾibvetsân (ןָצ ב ̣א) [pronounced ibv-TSAWN], which is very similar to a city in Issachar. However, we have no idea what the root stands for, if anything. Strong’s #78 BDB #7. Judges 12:8

69.     Masculine_noun: which means dust. Strong’s #80 BDB #7.

70.     Feminine_noun: which means powders. Probably a collective noun. SOS 3:6.* Strong’s #81 BDB #7.

71.     Verb: ʾâbaq (הָבַק) [pronounced aw-BAHK], which means to wrestle, to grapple; to get dirty. Strong’s #79 BDB #7. Gen. 32:24

ʾâbaq (הָבַק) [pronounced aw-BAHK]

to wrestle, to grapple; to get dirty

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #79 BDB #7

ʾâbaq (הָבַק) [pronounced aw-BAHK]

wrestling, grappling, being wrestled with; getting dirty

Niphal infinitive construct with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #79 BDB #7

72.     Masculine_noun: ʿêber (אֵבֶר) [pronounced ay-BEHR], which means wing, feather, pinion [or a bird; dove, eagle]; figuratively of a Babylonian king. Strong’s #83 BDB #7. Psalm 55:6

ʿêber (אֵבֶר) [pronounced ay-BEHR]

wing, feather, pinion [or a bird; dove, eagle]; figuratively of a Babylonian king

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #83 BDB #7

Although this is a singular noun, it sounds more sensible to use the plural form in the English.

73.     Feminine_noun: ʾeberâh (הָרב∵א) [pronounced ehbe-RAW], which means feather, wing; pinion [of bird (ostrich, eagle, dove) of God (metaphorically)]. Strong’s #84 BDB #7. Psalm 68:13

ʾeberâh (הָרב∵א) [pronounced ehbe-RAW]

feather, wing; pinion [of bird (ostrich, eagle, dove) of God (metaphorically)]

feminine plural noun with the 3rd person feminine singular suffix

Strong’s #84 BDB #7

74.     Verb: which means to fly. Strong’s #82 BDB #7.

75.     Adjective: which means strong. Strong’s #46 BDB #7. Gen. 49:24 Psalm 132:2

ʾabîyr (אָבִיר) [pronounced aw-BEER]

strong, mighty, a Mighty One

adjective; also used as a substantive

Strong’s #46 BDB #7

I don’t believe that this is any different than the adjective below. Although there is a difference in the pronunciation, the vowel points are the only things which differentiate these two words. This form is often found with the proper noun Jacob and these nouns are both exclusively found in poetry (Jeremiah and Isaiah are written in Hebrew poetry).

76.     Adjective: ʾabbîyr (רי ̣ ַא) [pronounced ahb-BEER], which means mighty, valiant, mighty ones. This certainly refers to Sisera’s horses, or to Sisera’s cavalry. Strong’s #47 BDB #7. Judges 5:22 1Sam. 21:7 Psalm 78:25

ʾabbîyr (רי ̣ ַא) [pronounced ahb-BEER]

mighty, valiant, mighty one; bull; powerful; noble; chief

adjective; also used as a substantive

Strong’s #47 BDB #7

It could be interpreted, by Psalm 103:20, as angels. This same word is applied to ordinary man (Judges 5:22 Lam. 1:15 Jer. 46:15), to animals (Psalm 22:13), to princes (Psalm 58:31), to nobles (Job 24:22). This adjective is used for bulls (Psalm 22:12), horses (Jer. 8:16 47:3 50:11) and everywhere else to men.

77.     Verb: ʾaberêk (אַבְרֵ) [pronounced ahb-RAKE], which means, bow [the knee]. Strong’s #86 BDB #7. Gen. 41:43*

ʾaberêk (אַבְרֵ) [pronounced ahb-RAKE]

 bow [the knee]; bow your head; prostrate yourself

probably a verb:

Strong’s #86 BDB #7

This appears to be an Egyptian word whose meaning is dubious. This word occurs only here and apparently has no cognates.

78.     Masculine_proper_noun: ʾÂgêʾ (אָגֵא) [pronounced aw-GAY], which means, I will increase; transliterated Age, Agee. Strong’s #89 BDB #8. 2Sam. 23:11

ʾÂgêʾ (אָגֵא) [pronounced aw-GAY]

 I will increase; transliterated Age, Agee

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #89 BDB #8

79.     Masculine_proper_noun: ʾăgâg (גָגֲא) [pronounced uh-GAWG], which means violent? and is transliterated Agag. Strong’s #90 BDB #8. 1Sam. 15:8

ʾăgâg (גָגֲא) [pronounced uh-GAWG]

which possibly means violent and is transliterated Agag

proper masculine noun

Strong’s #90 BDB #8

80.     Adjective_gentis: Strong’s #91 BDB #8.

81.     Feminine_noun: ăguddâh (הָֻגֲא) [pronounced uh-good-DAW], which means a bunch, a bundle, a band. Ex. 12:22 2Sam. 2:25 Isa. 58:6 Amos 9:6.* Strong’s #92 BDB #8. The Doctrine of Fasting (Isa. 58:6) 2Sam. 2:25

ăguddâh (הָֻגֲא) [pronounced uh-good-DAW]

a bunch, a bundle, a band; unit, troop, group

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #92 BDB #8

82.     Masculine_noun: which means nuts. Strong’s #93 BDB #8.

83.     Masculine_noun: which means a drop. Strong’s #96 BDB #8.

84.     Masculine_proper_noun/location: Strong’s #97 BDB #8.

85.     Verb: which means to be troubled, to be sad. Strong’s #none BDB #8.

86.     Masculine_noun: ʾăgam (ם ַג ֲא) [pronounced uh-GAHM], which means pool, pond. It also means troubled. Strong’s #98 BDB #8.

87.     Adjective: which means sad. Strong’s #99 BDB #8.

88.     Masculine_noun1: ʾagemôn (ןֹמג-א) [pronounced age-MOHN], which means a reed, a rush, a bullrush. Strong’s #100 BDB #8. The Doctrine of Fasting (Isa. 58:5)

89.     Masculine_noun2: ʾagemôn (ןֹמג-א) [pronounced age-MOHN], which means pot, cauldron. Job 41:20.* Strong’s #100 BDB #8. Ancient Jewish Cooking Vessels

90.     Verb: which means to be circular, to be round. Strong’s #none BDB #8.

91.     Masculine_noun: which means a bowl, a basin. Strong’s #101 BDB #8.

92.     Masculine_noun: which means a band, an army. Strong’s #102 BDB #8.

93.     Verb1: ʾâgar (אָגַר) [pronounced aw-gahr], which means to gather. Strong’s #103 BDB #8. Prov. 6:8 10:5

ʾâgar (אָגַר) [pronounced aw-gahr]

to gather

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #103 BDB #8

ʾâgar (אָגַר) [pronounced aw-gahr]

gathering

Qal active participle

Strong’s #103 BDB #8

94.     Masculine_proper_noun: which means hireling; gatherer; transliterated . Strong’s #94 BDB #8.

95.     Verb2: ʾâgar (אָגַר) [pronounced aw-gahr], which means to pay, to hire. Strong’s #none BDB #8.

96.     Feminine_noun: ʾăgôwrath (ת-רגֲא) [pronounced uh-goh-RAHTH], which means payment, coin, piece. Strong’s #95 BDB #8. 1Sam. 2:36*

ʾăgôwrath (ת-רגֲא) [pronounced uh-goh-RAHTH]

payment, coin, piece

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #95 BDB #8

This noun occurs only here and has sparse (but some) cognate evidence for its meanings. Barnes suggests that this word is associated with the Gerah, which is the smallest Hebrew coin, being the twentieth part of a shekel. In other words, the smallest sum of money is asked for, revealing the absolute poverty of the begging ones formerly from the priestly line.

97.     Feminine_noun: which means letter. Strong’s #107 BDB #8.

98.     Verb: ʾâdab (ב-דָא) [pronounced aw-DABV], which means to grieve, to pine away. This word is found only here and has no real cognates. This means that this meaning is a reasonable guess. Strong’s #109 BDB #9. 1Sam. 2:33*

ʾâdab (ב-דָא) [pronounced aw-DABV]

to grieve, to pine away

Hiphil infinitive construct

Strong’s #109 BDB #9

This word is found only here and has no real cognates. This means that this meaning is a reasonable guess. However, what probably occurred is a transposition of letters and the word which should be here is dâʾab (דַּאַב).

99.     Masculine_proper_noun: ʾAdebeʾel (אַדְבְּאֶל) [pronounced ahd-beh-ALE], which means chastisement, chastened of God; transliterated Adbeel, Abdal. Strong’s #110 BDB #9. Gen. 25:13

ʾAdebeʾel (אַדְבְּאֶל) [pronounced ahd-beh-ALE]

chastisement, chastened of God; transliterated Adbeel, Abdal

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #110 BDB #9

100.   Masculine_proper_noun: which means ; transliterated . Strong’s #112 BDB #9.

101.   Masculine_proper_noun: which means ; transliterated . Strong’s #118 BDB #9.

102.   Verb: which means to make, to produce. Strong’s #none BDB #9.

103.   Masculine_noun: ʾâdâm (אָדָם) [pronounced aw-DAWM], which means a man, a human being, mankind, Adam. It can be the proper name for Adam, another name for man or a name for the human race, e.g., human being, mankind. In both instances, ʾâdâm can be in the singular and preceded by a definite article. Individual man with a definite article: Gen. 2:7–8; without a definite article: Gen. 2:5. Mankind with a definite article: Gen. 1:26 6:1, 5, 6 Num. 5:6. Strong's #120 BDB #9. Gen. 2:5 3:8, 17 4:1 5:1 7:21 8:21 9:5 11:5 Ex. 4:11 Lev. 24:17 Deut. 4:28 5:24 20:19 Judges 16:7 18:7 1Sam. 15:29 16:7, 1 17:32 25:29 26:19 2Sam. 7:14 23:3 24:14 1Kings 4:31 8:39 1Chron. 16:21 Job 7:20 20:4 21:4 24:9 Psalm 21:10 32:2 56:12 57:4 40:11 62:9 64:6 68:18 73:5 89:47 105:14 118:6 146:3 Prov. 3:4 6:12 8:4

ʾâdâm (אָדָם) [pronounced aw-DAWM]

a man, a human being, mankind; transliterated Adam

masculine singular noun

Strong's #120 & #121 BDB #9

The word the Adam can mean man, mankind, humankind, men, human beings.

ʾÂdâm (אָדָם) [pronounced aw-DAWM], without a definite article, is also used as a proper noun, for the first man and for a city. Strong’s #121 BDB #9.

104.   Feminine_noun: ʾădâmâh (אֲדָמָה) [pronounced uh-daw-MAWH], which means ground, soil, dirt, earth, tillable earth, land, surface of the earth. Strong's #127 BDB #9. (cp Strong’s #776 BDB #75). Gen. 1:25 2:5 3:17 4:2, 10 5: (2), 29 6:1, 20 7:3 8:8 9:2 12:3 19:25 28:14 47:18, 19 Ex. 3:5 Deut. 4:15–18 5:16 11:21 21:1, 23 1Sam. 4:12 20:15 2Sam. 1:2 9:10 12:16 14:7 15:32 17:12 1Kings 7:46 8:34 Job (14:8) Psalm 105:35 146:4

ʾădâmâh (אֲדָמָה) [pronounced uh-daw-MAWH]

ground, soil, dirt, earth, tillable earth, land, surface of the earth

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #127 BDB #9

105.   Proper_noun_location: city in Naphtali. Strong’s #128 BDB #10.

106.   Proper_noun_location: ʾAdemâh (אַדְמָה) [pronounced ahd-MAW], which means, red earth; earthy; transliterated Admah. A vale in Siddim. Strong’s #126 BDB #10. Gen. 10:19 14:2

ʾAdemâh (אַדְמָה) [pronounced ahd-MAW]

 red earth; earthy; transliterated Admah

feminine singular, proper noun/location

Strong’s #126 BDB #10

107.   Proper_noun_location: a pass in Naphtali. Strong’s #129 & 5346 BDB #10.

108.   Verb: which means to be red, to be ruddy. Strong’s #119 BDB #10.

109.   Adjective: ʾâdôm (אָדֹם) [pronounced aw-DOME], which means red, ruddy, reddish-brown (chestnut). Strong’s #122 BDB #10. Gen. 25:30

ʾâdôm (אָדֹם) [pronounced aw-DOME]

red, ruddy, reddish-brown (chestnut)

masculine singular adjective with the definite article

Strong’s #122 BDB #10

110.   Feminine_noun: which means carnelian, redness. Strong’s #124 BDB #10.

111.   Masculine_noun: which means name of a condiment. I would guess that it is reddish in color and probably cinnamon or paprika. Strong’s #124 BDB #10.

112.   Masculine_noun: ʾĚdôwm (אֱדוֹם) [pronounced eh-DOHM]; also ʾĚdôm (אֱדֹם) [pronounced eh-DOHM, which means reddish and is transliterated Edom, Edomites. Strong’s #123 BDB #10. Gen. 25:30 32:3 36:1, 9 Judges 5:4 1Sam. 14:47 2Sam. 6:10 8:(12–13)

ʾĚdôwm (אֱדוֹם) [pronounced eh-DOHM]; also ʾĚdôm (אֱדֹם) [pronounced eh-DOHM

reddish; and is transliterated Edom, Edomites

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #123 BDB #10

113.   Gentilic_adjective: which means reddish and is transliterated Edomite. Strong’s #130 BDB #10. 1Sam. 21:7 22:9 Psalm 52 inscription

ʾădôwmîy (אֲדוֹמִי) [pronounced uh-doh-MEE]

reddish; and is transliterated Edomite; also Syrian

gentilic adjective

Strong’s #130 BDB #10

114.   Adjective: which means reddish. Strong’s #125 BDB #10.

115.   Adjective: ʾademôwnîy (אַדְמוֹנִי) [pronounced ade-moh-NEE], which means red, ruddy. Strong’s #132 BDB #10. Gen. 25:25 1Sam. 16:12 17:42*

ʾademôwnîy (אַדְמוֹנִי) [pronounced ade-moh-NEE]

red, ruddy

masculine singular adjective

Strong’s #132 BDB #10

Gary Everett: Gesenius says the Hebrew word “red” (אַדְמוֹנִי) (H132) means, “red, i.e. red-haired.”  It is only found in Gen. 25:25 1Sam. 16:12 17:42 (the latter two are a reference to a young David).

116.   Proper_noun_location: Strong’s #131 BDB #10.

117.   Masculine_proper_noun: which means unrestrained and is transliterated . Strong’s #133 BDB #10.

118.   Verb: which means to make firm, to fasten, to strengthen. Meaning is disputed. Strong’s #none BDB #10.

119.   Masculine_noun: which means base, pedestal. Strong’s #134 BDB #10.

120.   Masculine_noun: ʾâdôwn (אָדוֹן) [pronounced aw-DOHN], the word we often know as adonai; and this word means lord, master, owner, superior, sovereign. It is a word used of both man and God; and here of God. It is not necessarily a term referring to God, and can be used as a simple term of respect. Affixed to this is the 1st person suffix; which gives us my lord. If Gideon were English, he would have said, “My dear sir.” In Psalm 73:20, (Judges 6:15, 22 16:28), the word is in the plural with a first person singular suffix, making it ʾădônây (אֲדֹנָי) [pronounced uh-doh-NAY]. When it comes to the plural, we can either interpret this as referring to the Trinity or as an intensification of the noun. In the plural, when applied to man, refers to all of his superiors. For a slave, this is just about everyone in his periphery. Strong’s #113 BDB #10. The Doctrine of the Names of God Textual Criticism of the Old Testament Gen. 15:2 19:2 24:9 31:35 32:4, 18 33:8 39:2 40:1 42:10 43:20 44:8 45:8 Ex. 4:10 Deut. 3:24 Joshua 3:11, 5:14 Judges 1:5 3:25 4:18 6:13, 15, 22 16:28 Ruth 2:13 1Sam. 1:15 16:16 20:38 22:12 24:6 25:10, 24, 27 26:15 29:4 30:13 2Sam. 2:5 3:21 7:18 9:9 11:11 12:8 13:32 14:9 16:3, 4 18:28 19:19 20:6 24:3 1Kings 1:2, 33 2:26 3:10 8:53 1Chron. 12:19 Job 3:19 Psalm 2:4 8:1 44:23 51:15 54:4 57:9 59:11 62:12 68:11, 19 73:20, 28 90:1 105:21 110:1 114:7 136:3 Isa. 7:14

ʾâdôwn (אָדוֹן) [pronounced aw-DOHN]

lord, master, owner, superior, sovereign

masculine singular noun with the 1st person plural suffix

Strong’s #113 BDB #10

ʾădônîym (אֲדֹנִים) [pronounced uh-doh-NEEM]

lords, masters; Lord, Master, Sovereign; lord, master; can be understood as the plural excellence, which has the same significance as the singular

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #113, #114 & #136 BDB #10

ʾădônîy (אֲדֹנִי) [pronounced uh-doh-NEE]

my Lord, my Master, my Sovereign; my lord [master]; can be used to refer to a possessor, an owner; transliterated Adoni, adoni

masculine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #113 & #136 BDB #10

The difference between this spelling and those which end in –ay or –ây is a vowel point, which would have been added much later by the Massorites. However, there would have been a difference in pronunciation.

Several translations render my lord the king as your majesty (see CEV, GNB, God’s Word™, and NSB for 1Kings 1:2).

I need to fix this, going back to 2Sam. 6 and before; and and later.

ʾădônây (אֲדֹנָי) [pronounced uh-doh-NAY]

Lord (s), Master (s), my Lord (s), Sovereign; my lord [master]; can refer to the Trinity or to an intensification of the noun; transliterated Adonai, adonai

masculine plural noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #113 & #136 BDB #10

There are actually 3 forms of this word: ʾădônây (אֲדֹנָי) [pronounced uh-doh-NAY]; ʾădônay (אֲדֹנַי) [pronounced uh-doh-NAY]; and ʾădônîy (אֲדֹנִי) [pronounced uh-doh-NEE].

This is a form of Strong’s #113, where there are three explanations given for the yodh ending: (1) this is a shortened form of the plural ending, usually written -îym (נִים) [pronounced eem], an older form of the pluralis excellentiæ (the plural of excellence), where God’s sovereignty and lordship are emphasized by the use of the plural; (2) this is the actual, but ancient, plural of the noun, which refers to the Trinity; or (3) this is the addition of the 1st person singular suffix, hence, my Lord (the long vowel point at the end would distinguish this from my lords).

There are points of grammar which speak to the options above, but not so that we may unequivocally choose between the three. (1) When we find ʾădônay (אֲדֹנָי) [pronounced uh-doh-NAH] (note the difference of the vowel ending), it always means my lords. (2) Jehovah calls Himself ʾădônây (אֲדֹנָי) [pronounced uh-doh-NAY] in Job 28:28 Isa. 8:7; however, many of the Job manuscripts read Yehowah and 8 ancient Isaiah manuscripts read Yehowah instead. This suggests, that either ancient Scribes were confused about this form of Adonai or that they simply substituted Adonai for Yehowah, which was not an abnormal practice (in oral readings, the ancient Tetragrammaton was not spoken, but Lord was said instead). And even If every manuscript read Adonai, then we may also reasonably conclude that one member of the Trinity is addressing another member of the Trinity (although the idea of God saying my Lord would be theologically confusing, even if addressing another member of the Trinity; although Jesus did refer to God the Father as our Father).

Almost every single translator renders this Lord, the Lord, or Adonai. On occasion, however, this is rendered my Lord.

121.   Proper_noun_location: in Babylonia. Strong’s #135 BDB #11.

122.   Proper_noun/location: which means ; transliterated . Identical to above? Strong’s #114 BDB #11.

123.   Masculine_proper_noun: which means lord of something and is transliterated lord of Bezek. Strong’s #137 BDB #11. Judges 1:5

ʾădônîy (י̣נֹדֱא) [pronounced uh-doh-NEE]

lord, master, owner, superior, sovereign

masculine singular noun with the 1st person plural suffix

Strong’s #113 BDB #10

Bezeq (ק∵ז∵) [pronounced BEH-zehk]

lightning, lightning flash; and is transliterated Bezek

proper noun; location

Strong’s #966 BDB #103

Together, these are treated as a proper noun: Adoni-Bezek, and listed as Strong’s #137 BDB #11.

124.   Masculine_proper_noun: which means Lord of righteousness; my Lord is righteousness and is transliterated . Strong’s #139 BDB #11.

125.   Masculine_proper_noun: ʾĂdônîyyâh (אֲדֹנִיָּה) [pronounced uh-doh-nee-YAW,uhd-ohn-ee-YAW], which means my Lord is Yahweh; transliterated Adonijah. Strong’s #138 BDB #11. 2Sam. 3:4 1Kings 1:5 2:13

ʾĂdônîyyâh (אֲדֹנִיָּה) [pronounced uh-doh-nee-YAW or uhd-ohn-ee-YAW]

my Lord is Yahweh; transliterated Adonijah

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #138 BDB #11

The alternate spelling is ʾĂdônîyyâhûw (אֲדֹנִיָּהוּ) [pronounced uh-doh-nee-YAW-hoo or uhd-ohn-ee-YAW-hoo].

126.   Masculine_proper_noun: which means my Lord has arisen and is transliterated . Strong’s #140 BDB #12.

127.   Masculine_proper_noun: ʾĂdônîyrâm (אֲדֹנִירָם) [pronounced uhd-oh-nee-RAWM], which means my Lord is exalted; lord of height; transliterated Adoniram. Strong’s #141 BDB #12. 1Kings 4:6 5:14

ʾĂdônîyrâm (אֲדֹנִירָם) [pronounced uhd-oh-nee-RAWM]

my Lord is exalted; lord of height; transliterated Adoniram

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #141 BDB #12

128.   Masculine_proper_noun: ʾĂdôrâm (אֲדֹרָם) [pronounced ud-oh-RAWM], which means my Lord is exalted; transliterated Adoram. A corrupted form of above. Strong’s #151 BDB #12. 2Sam. 20:24

ʾĂdôrâm (אֲדֹרָם) [pronounced ud-oh-RAWM]

my Lord is exalted; transliterated Adoram

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #151 BDB #12

129.   Verb: which means to be wide, to be great, to be high, to be noble. Strong’s #142 BDB #12.

130.   Masculine_noun: ʾeder (ר∵ד∵א) [pronounced ahd-DEER], which means glory, magnificence. Strong’s #145 BDB #12. Not used yet

131.   Proper_noun/location: which means two hills; transliterated . Strong’s #115 BDB #12.

132.   Masculine_proper_noun: which means noble; transliterated . Strong’s #146 BDB #12.

133.   Adjective: ʾaddiyr (רי ̣ַא) [pronounced ahd-DEER], which means majestic, powerful, magnificent, glorious. Strong’s #117 BDB #12. [Synonym: Strong’s #1935 BDB #217] Judges 5:13, 25 1Sam. 4:8 Psalm 8:1 136:18


ʾaddiyr (רי ̣ַא) [pronounced ahd-DEER]

majestic, powerful, magnificent, glorious

masculine plural adjective with the definite article

Strong’s #117 BDB #12

That’s the short version. According to Gesenius, this means ➊ large, very great, mighty (Psalm 93:4 Isa. 33:21); ➋ powerful when used of kings and kingdoms (1Sam. 4:8 Psalm 136:18 Ezek. 32:18); ➌ prince, leader, chief, noble (when used as a substantive); ➍ magnificent, illustrious, glorious (Psalm 8:2); and, ➎ noble (when applied in a moral sense, as in Psalm 16:3).

134.   Feminine_noun: ʾaddereth (אַדֶּרֶת) [pronounced ad-DEH-reth], which means, cloak, overcoat, garment [made of fur or fine material], mantle, robe; glory, splendor, magnificence. It is translated garment, mantle, robe, goodly and glory in the KJV. It appears to be a cloak, not unlike our overcoat. The implication is that this is a very nice overcoat. Strong’s #155 BDB #12. Gen. 25:25 Joshua 7:21


ʾaddereth (אַדֶּרֶת) [pronounced ad-DEH-reth]

 cloak, overcoat, garment [made of fur or fine material], mantle, robe; glory, splendor, magnificence

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #155 BDB #12

135.   Masculine_proper_noun: which means 12th Babylonian month; transliterated . Strong’s #143 BDB #12.

136.   Masculine_proper_noun: which means Adar is prince; transliterated . Strong’s #152 BDB #12.

137.   Verb: ʾâhêb (אָהֵב) [pronounced aw-HAYVB], which means to love. As a Qal active participle, it means lovers (we should not have a 1990’s take on this, however). Strong’s #157 BDB #12. Gen. 22:2 24:67 25:28 27:4 29:18 34:3 37:3 44:20 Deut. 4:37 5:10 21:15 Judges 5:31 1Sam. 1:5 16:21 18:3, 20 20:17 2Sam. 1:23 12:24 13:1, 4, 15 19:6 1Kings 3:3 5:1 Psalm 33:5 34:12 52:3 99:4 146:8 Prov. 1:22 3:12 4:6 8:17 9:8

ʾâhêb (אָהֵב) [pronounced aw-HAYVB]

to desire, to breathe after; to love; to delight in; human love [for another] [familial, sexual]; human love [desire, appetite] for [food, drink, sleep, wisdom]; human love [for, to God]; God’s love [toward men, people of Israel, righteousness]; to like

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #157 BDB #12

ʾâhêb (אָהֵב) [pronounced aw-HAYVB]

desire, breathe after; love; delight in; have human love [for another] [familial, sexual]; have human love [desire, appetite] for [food, drink, sleep, wisdom]; have human love [for, to God]

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperative

Strong’s #157 BDB #12

ʾâhêb (אָהֵב) [pronounced aw-HAYVB]

lovers; friends; those who are desired or loved, the ones loving

masculine plural, Qal active participle

Strong’s #157 BDB #12

ʾâhêb (אָהֵב) [pronounced aw-HAYVB]

lover; friend; one who is desired or loved; a person that one delights in

masculine singular, Qal active participle

Strong’s #157 BDB #12

ʾâhêb (אָהֵב) [pronounced aw-HAYVB]

the one loved; the woman desired; possibly the one preferred

feminine singular, Qal passive participle

Strong’s #157 BDB #12

ʾâhêb (אָהֵב) [pronounced aw-HAYVB]

lovers; friends; those who are desired or loved; people that one delights in; those who love; those who delight in

masculine plural, Qal active participle

Strong’s #157 BDB #12

ʾâhêb (אָהֵב) [pronounced aw-HAYVB]

desiring, breathing after; loving; delighting in

Qal active participle

Strong’s #157 BDB #12

ʾâhêb (אָהֵב) [pronounced aw-HAYVB]

to be loved; amiable

3rd person masculine singular, Niphal imperfect

Strong’s #157 BDB #12

ʾâhêb (אָהֵב) [pronounced aw-HAYVB]

lovely, loveable

Niphal participle

Strong’s #157 BDB #12

ʾâhêb (אָהֵב) [pronounced aw-HAYVB]

a friend; a lover [often in the bad sense of idolatry]

Piel participle

Strong’s #157 BDB #12

138.   Masculine_noun: ʾăhâbîym (אֲהָבִים) [pronounced uh-hawb-EEM], which means love, affection; loves, amours. Only in the plural. Strong’s #158 BDB #13. Prov. 5:19

ʾăhâbîym (אֲהָבִים) [pronounced uh-hawb-EEM]

love, affection; loves, amours

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #158 BDB #13

This word is only found in the plural.

139.   Masculine_noun: which means a loved (or, beloved) object. Strong’s #159 BDB #13. Prov. 7:18*

ʾôhâb (אֹהָבִ) [pronounced oh-HAWB]

love, object of love; used especially of illicit, licentious love, lovers

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #159 BDB #13

ʾôhâbîym (אֹהָבִים) [pronounced oh-hawb-EEM]

love, loves; lovers, paramours, amours; especially of illicit, licentious loves and lovers

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #159 BDB #13

Many ancient translations understood this to mean, embrace, sexual embrace. This word only occurs here in Prov. 7:18.

140.   Feminine_noun: ʾahăbâh (אַהָבָה) [pronounced ah-hub-VAW], which means love. For some reason, this is often translated like a verb. Strong’s #160 BDB #13. Gen. 29:20 1Sam. 20:17 2Sam. 1:26 13:15 Prov. 5:19 10:12

ʾahăbâh (אַהָבָה) [pronounced ah-hub-VAW]

[human] love; sexual desire

feminine singular noun often translated like a verb

Strong’s #160 BDB #13

141.   Proper_noun: ʾÔhad (אֹהַד) [pronounced OH-hahd], which means, united, unity; transliterated, Ohad. Strong’s #161 BDB #113. Gen. 46:10

ʾÔhad (אֹהַד) [pronounced OH-hahd]

united, unity; transliterated, Ohad

masculine singular, proper noun

Strong’s #161 BDB #113

142.   Proper_noun: Judges 3:16

ʾÊhûwd (דה̤א) [pronounced ay-HOOD]

I will give thanks; I will be praised; undivided, united; transliterated Ehud

masculine singular, proper noun

Strong's #164 BDB #13

Possibly equivalent to Strong’s #161 BDB #13 and/or Strong’s #261 BDB #26.

143.   Interjection: ʾăhâhh ( ָה ֲא) [pronounced uh-HAWH], which is somewhat onomatopoetic; it is as much a cry of sadness as it is a word. The KJV render it as Ah! or as alas. Gesenius calls it an interjection of lamentation simply from the sound of it. It comes from a word which means to grieve, to mourn. The only contemporary interjection which comes to mind was oh dear, which is better than what I found in Roget’s Thesaurus. That being unsuitable, I would almost rather transliterate it. Strong’s #162 BDB #13. Joshua 7:7 Judges 6:22 11:35

144.   Proper_noun/location: which means ; transliterated . Strong’s #163 BDB #13.

145.   Adverb: which means where. Strong’s #165 BDB #13.

146.   Verb: which means to settle down; to be inhabited. Strong’s #none BDB #13.

147.   Masculine_noun: ʾohel (אֹהֶל) [pronounced OH-hel] is translated tent, tabernacle, house; and it refers to the temporary dwelling of Abraham and Sarah (Gen. 18), the temporary dwellings of Jacob and his wives when on the road (Gen. 31), to the Tent or Tabernacle of God (Ex. 33). This appears to either be a temporary residence (and hence, not too well-built or designed) or an inferior type residence to the use of house above. Strong's #168 BDB #13. (?) [see also Strong's #4908 BDB #1015]. Gen. 4:20 9:21, 27 12:8 13:3 18:1, 6 24:67 25:27 26:25 31:24 33:19 35:21 Deut. 1:27 5:30 16:7 Judges 4:11 19:9 1Sam. (1:9) 2:22 4:10 13:2 15:1 17:54 2Sam. 6:17 16:22 18:17 19:8 20:1, 22 1Kings 1:39 2:28 8:4, 66 1Chron. 6:32 (chart) 15:1 Job 5:24 21:28 Psalm 52:5 61:4 106:25 118:15

ʾohel (אֹהֶל) [pronounced OH-hel]

tent, tabernacle, house, temporary dwelling

masculine singular noun with a 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #168 BDB #13

148.   Verb: ʾâhal (אָהַל) [pronounced AW-hahl], which means to tent, to pitch a tent, to [re] move a tent [from place to place]. Strong’s #167 BDB #14. Gen. 13:12

ʾâhal (אָהַל) [pronounced AW-hahl]

to tent, to pitch a tent, to [re] move a tent [from place to place]

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #167 BDB #14

149.   Verb2: which means to be clear, to shine. Hiphil Strong’s #166 BDB #14.

150.   Feminine_proper_noun: ʾâchălîybâmâh (אָחֲלִיבָמָה) [pronounced oh-hohl-ee-baw-MAW], which means tent of the high place; transliterated Aholibamah, Oholibamah. Strong’s #173 BDB #14. Out of order here! Gen. 36:2

ʾâchălîybâmâh (אָחֲלִיבָמָה) [pronounced oh-hohl-ee-baw

tent of the high place; transliterated Aholibamah, Oholibamah

feminine singular proper noun

Strong’s #173 BDB #14

151.   Masculine_noun: ʾăhâlîym (אֲהָלִים) [pronounced uh-haw-LEEM], which means aloes, an odoriferous Indian tree. Strong’s #174 BDB #14. Prov. 7:17

ʾăhâlîym (אֲהָלִים) [pronounced uh-haw-LEEM]

aloes, an odoriferous Indian tree

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #174 BDB #14

There appears to also be a feminine plural spelling.

152.   Masculine_proper_noun: ʾAhărôn (אַהֲרֹן) [pronounced ah-huh-ROHN], which means nothing and is transliterated Aaron. Strong’s #175 BDB #14. The Doctrine of Aaron Ex. 4:14 1Sam. 12:6 1Chron. 12:27 15:4 Psalm 99:6 105:26 106:16 118:3 133:2

ʾAhărôn (אַהֲרֹן) [pronounced ah-huh-ROHN]

transliterated Aaron

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #175 BDB #14

153.   Conjunction: ʾô (א) [pronounced oh], which means or, or rather, otherwise, also, and. It is rendered at least (Gen. 24:55), if (Lev. 26:41), otherwise (2Sam. 18:13), also (Prov. 30:31), and (SOS 2:7 3:5) and then (Ezek. 21:10). This usually is translated or and sometimes or, rather (when a preference is implied). Here, another fundamental option is covered, so I have translated this or [if]. Strong's #176 BDB #14. Gen. 24:49, 55 31:43 44:8 Ex. 4:11 Lev. 26:41 Deut. 4:16 17:2 22:1 1Sam. 2:14 13:19 14:6 20:2, 10 21:3 22:15 26:10 29:3 2Sam. 2:21 3:35 17:9 18:13 1Kings 8:46 Job 3:15, 16 13:22 16:2

ʾôw (אוֹ) [pronounced oh]

or, or rather, otherwise, also, and; if, perchance; except, or else; whether, not the least

disjunctive conjunction

Strong's #176 BDB #14

When there are two things being considered, this word often implies that the second thing is the better choice.

Gesenius and Thenius take this to mean if perchance and Keil and Delitzsch do agree that it may be taken that way in some passages (although K & D don’t believe that ʾô should be so understood in this passage). Keil and Delitzsch: This is evidently incorrect; for even though there are certain passages in which א may be so rendered, it is only where some other case is supposed [apparently within the same sentence], and therefore the meaning or still likes at the foundation. These questions of David were suggested by a correct estimate of the circumstances, namely, that Saul’s suspicions would leave him to the conclusion that there was some understanding between Jonathan and David, and that he would take steps in consequence to prevent Jonathan from making David acquainted with the result of his conversation with Saul.

When ʾôw is doubled, it means ...whether...or...

154.   Masculine_noun: ʾôwb (בא) [pronounced owbv] which means two things: a water bottle or a skin-bottle; and, medium, familiar spirit, ventriloquist demon, or one who speaks through a person (it is often translated medium for that reason). This means to mumble; in that way, it can mean a water bottle or a skin-bottle, because of the way it sounds; it is always in the plural in this case. It also is a reference to the ventriloquist demon, one who speaks through a person (it is often translated medium for that reason). Because of its speaking quality, it is often translated a familiar spirit in the KJV. The plural form is ʾôbôwth (תבֹא) [pronounced ohb-VOHTH]. We find this in Lev. 20:6, 27 Deut. 18:11 1Sam. 28:3, 7–9 2Kings 21:6 23:24 1Chron. 10:13 2Chron. 33:6 Job 32:19 Isa. 8:19 19:3 29:4. This is a demon which usually possesses a person and speaks through that person (this can all be seen in the 1Sam. 28 passage). Strong's #178 BDB #15. The Doctrine of Tongues (Isa. 8:19) Lev. 19:31 Deut. 18:11 1Sam. 28:3, 7, 8 1Chron. 10:13

ʾôwb (בא) [pronounced ohbv]

a water bottle or a skin-bottle; a medium, ventriloquist demon, familiar spirit, demon spirit, one who speaks through a person

masculine singular noun

Strong's #178 BDB #15

You may wonder what’s the connection between a water bottle and a medium? The connection is that one thing is filled up with another. A wine skin is filled with wine; a medium is filled with a demonic spirit. Now, you may wonder about this ventriloquist demon thing, so let me quote directly from Gesenius: [the] LXX almost always render by ἐγγαστριμύθοι, ventriloquists, and correctly; because ventriloquists among the ancients commonly abused this art of inward speaking for magical purposes.

155.   Verb: which means to be curved, to be bent, to burden, to oppress. Strong’s #none BDB #15.

156.   Masculine_noun: which means brand, fire brand. Strong’s #181 BDB #15.

157.   Feminine_plural_noun: ʾôwdôth (אוֹדֹת) [pronounced oh-DOHTH], which means cause, reason for; the occasion of; causes, circumstances; properly turnings. The BDB definition is cause. The KJV renders it because, concerning, sake, cause. Gesenius tells us that it properly means turnings, and therefore causes, circumstances. This phrase is found twice, first with the 1st person suffix and then with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix. We will render this concerning my circumstances and concerning your circumstances. Strong’s #182 BDB #15. Gen. 21:11, 25 26:32 Joshua 14:6 2Sam. 13:16

ʾôwdôth (אוֹדֹת) [pronounced oh-DOTH]

cause, reason for; the occasion of; causes, circumstances; properly turnings

feminine plural noun

Strong’s #182 BDB #15

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

ʾôwdôth (אוֹדֹת) [pronounced oh-DOTH]

cause, reason for; the occasion of; causes, circumstances; properly turnings

feminine plural construct

Strong’s #182 BDB #15

Together, ʿal ʾôwdôth (אוֹדֹת עַל) [pronounced ģahl-oh-DOTH] mean on account of the causes, on account of; because of; concerning; on the occasion of; concerning the circumstances of; about. With the 1st person singular suffix, for my sake.

Joshua 14:6 has 4 words strung together, which mean for these very causes that.

 

 

 

 

158.   Masculine_noun: ʾêyd (אֵיד) [pronounced ayd], which means a burden or a load [by which one is crushed], a heavy misfortune, distress, calamity. Strong’s #343 BDB #15. 2Sam. 22:19 Job 18:12 21:17, 30 Prov. 1:26 6:15

ʾêyd (אֵיד) [pronounced ayd]

a burden or a load [by which one is crushed], a heavy misfortune, distress, calamity

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #343 BDB #15

159.   Masculine_noun: ʾêd (אֵד) [pronounced ayd], which means mist, [water] vapor. Strong’s #108 BDB #15. Gen. 2:6

ʾêd (אֵד) [pronounced ayd]

mist, [water] vapor

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #108 BDB #15

160.   Verb: which means to betake oneself to a place to live, to be tenderly inclined. Strong’s #none BDB #15.

161.   Masculine_noun: ʾîy (אִי) [pronounced ee], which means sea coast, region, border; habitable land; inhabited land; maritime land. There is a form of this word which means island(s), but that is not found in Jer. 47:4. My thinking is that the plural of this noun indicates several coasts, meaning that we are speaking of an island. It is a feminine noun in Isa. 23:2. The singular versus plural could have been better fleshed out. Strong’s #339 BDB #15. The Doctrine of the Philistines (Judges 14:4) Gen. 10:5

ʾîy (אִי) [pronounced ee]

sea coast; region, border; habitable land; inhabited land; maritime land

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #339 BDB #15

ʾîy (אִי) [pronounced ee]

sea coasts; islands; regions, borders; habitable land; inhabited land; maritime land

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #339 BDB #15

162.   Compound noun/preposition: ʾôdôth (תֹדא) [pronounced oh-DOHTH], which means causes, circumstances. (Strong’s #182 BDB #15); preceded by the preposition ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ahl], and means upon, beyond, against (Strong’s #5921 BDB #752). Together, they mean because of, concerning. Judges 6:7

163.   Proper_masculine_noun: which means [is] a land of palms; transliterated . Strong’s #385 BDB #16.

164.   Verb: ʾâvâh (אָוָה) [pronounced aw-WAWH] and it means to desire, to crave, to lust. Strong’s #183 BDB #16. Deut. 5:21 1Sam. 2:16 2Sam. 3:21 23:15 1Chron. 11:17 Psalm 106:14

ʾâvâh (אָוָה) [pronounced aw-WAWH]

to desire, to wish for, to crave, to lust

3rd person masculine plural, Piel imperfect

Strong’s #183 BDB #16

ʾâvâh (אָוָה) [pronounced aw-WAWH]

to desire, to crave [for oneself], to lust [after]

3rd person masculine plural, Hithpael imperfect

Strong’s #183 BDB #16

This verb is only found in the Piel (intensive) stem and in the Hithpael, which is the reflexive intensive stem. Here they certainly craved and desired, but the idea is that they worked themselves up over it. That is, they intensified their own desires and lusts. When combined with its substantive cognate, it means to burn with desire, to lust after, to greatly desire.

165.   Masculine_noun: which means desire. Strong’s #176 BDB #16.

166.   Feminine_noun: ʾavvâh (הָ -א) [pronounced ahv-VAW], which means desire, lust; pleasure, will. Interestingly enough, this is not found in the New Englishman’s Hebrew Concordance of the Old Testament, except perhaps as another spelling for Strong’s #176. ʾavvâh can be found in Deut. 12:15, 20, 21 18:6 1Sam. 23:20 Jer. 2:24 Hosea 10:10. Strong’s #185 BDB #16. 1Sam. 23:20

ʾavvâh (הָ -א) [pronounced ahv-VAW]

desire, lust; pleasure, will

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #185 BDB #16

167.   Proper_masculine_noun: which means desire; transliterated . Strong’s #189 BDB #16.

168.   Masculine_noun: which means desire. Only in plural in Psalm 40:9.* Strong’s #3970 BDB #16.

169.   Feminine_noun: taʾăvâh (תַּאֲוָה) [pronounced tah-uh-VAW], which means desire, lust. This word can be used in a good way (longing, that which is longed for) or in a bad. Strong’s #8378 BDB #16. Gen. 3:6 Psalm 10:3, 17 20:2 106:14 Prov. 10:24

taʾăvâh (תַּאֲוָה) [pronounced tah-uh-VAW]

desire, wish, longing, lust; the thing desired, the object of lust; delight; delicate; honor; ornament

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #8378 BDB #16

170.   Feminine_noun: Gen. 49:26

taʾăvâh (תַּאֲוָה) [pronounced tah-uh-VAW]

boundary, limit (meaning is uncertain)

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #8379 BDB #16

This is equivalent to Strong’s #8378 BDB #16, which means desire, wish, longing, lust; the thing desired, the object of lust; delight; delicate; honor; ornament.

171.   Verb: ʾâvâh (אָוָה) [pronounced aw-WAWH] which means to desire, to crave, to lust. (Strong's #183 BDB #16). Taʾăvâh (ה ָו ֲא ַ) [pronounced tah-av-WAW] is a desire, a craving, a wish, that which is desired. This latter word is not found in Exodus and makes its first appearance in the Bible in Num. 11:4, 34 34:10 Job 23:13 This is the word used of the desire of David for water in 2Sam. 23:15. Strong's #8378–8379 BDB #16. My reasonable guess is that châmad (Strong's #2530) is a something desirable seen from the outside and that ʾâwâh is the festering lust for it on the inside. Num. 11:4 Deut. 5:21 Psalm 78:29 (n) which is the verb and which is the noun? Check references here.

172.   Feminine_noun: ʾôwth (אוֹת) [pronounced oath], which means sign, token, pledge, assurance; these are things which are the visible assurances of God’s work; in the hands of a prophet or an Apostle, these signs were their credit cards, as Thieme use to put it; they revealed that they could draw from God’s account. Strong’s #226 BDB #16. Gen. 1:14 4:15 9:12 17:11 Ex. 3:12 4:8 Deut. 4:34 34:11 Joshua 2:12 Judges 6:17 1Sam. 2:34 10:7, 9 14:10 Job 21:29 Psalm 105:27 Isa. 7:14

ʾôwth (אוֹת) [pronounced oath]

sign, a distinguishing mark; token, pledge; remembrance; assurance; a miraculous sign; an omen, a warning

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #226 BDB #16

173.   Proper_masculine_noun: which means woe?; transliterated . Strong’s #186 BDB #17.

174.   Interjection: ʾôwy (יא) [pronounced ohy], which means woe! alas! oh! It is onomatopoetic; a passionate cry of grief or despair. It is an impassion expression of grief and desire (although I can picture a Shakespearean actor crying out, “Oh wretchedness, oh despair” such language would sound trite today). Today, we have this same word used, and it is transliterated oy, and it conveys a lot less emotion. Prior to this, this word has only been found in Num. 21:29 24:23. Strong’s #188 BDB #17. 1Sam. 4:7

ʾôwy (יא) [pronounced ohy]

woe! alas! oh! ʾôwy is onomatopoetic; it is a passionate cry of grief or despair

Interjection

Strong’s #188 BDB #17

175.   Masculine_noun: which means jackal. Strong’s #338 BDB #17.

176.   Feminine_noun: ʾayyâh (הָ-א) [pronounced ah-YAW], which means hawk, falcon, kite. Strong’s #344 BDB #17.

177.   Masculine_proper_noun: ʾAyyâh (אַיָּה) [pronounced ah-YAW], which means hawk, falcon; transliterated Aiah. Strong’s #345 BDB #17. Gen. 36:24 2Sam. 3:7 21:8

ʾAyyâh (אַיָּה) [pronounced ah-YAW]

hawk, falcon; transliterated Aiah, Ajah

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #345 BDB #17

178.   Masculine_proper_noun: which means man of Merodach; transliterated Maruduk?. Strong’s #192 BDB #17.

179.   Adjective: ʾěvîyl (אֱוִיל) [pronounced ehv-EEL], which means foolish; [speaking] of one who despises wisdom; of one who mocks when guilty; of one who is quarrelsome; of one who is licentious; a fool; lacking in piety. The adjective for foolish which acts here as a substantive. This refers to a person who is unteachable—it doesn’t matter if it is presented hypothetically or whether this person is disciplined severely in order to make a point. Strong’s #191 BDB #17. Job 5:2 Prov. 1:7 7:22 10:8, 21

ʾěvîyl (אֱוִיל) [pronounced ehv-EEL]

foolish; [speaking] of one who despises wisdom; of one who mocks when guilty; of one who is quarrelsome; of one who is licentious; a fool; lacking in piety

masculine singular adjective acting as a substantive

Strong’s #191 BDB #17

ʾěvîlîym (אֱוִילִים) [pronounced ehv-ee-LEEM]

fools; those who despise wisdom; mockers of truth and the good;; those who are quarrelsome; fools who are lacking in piety

masculine plural adjective acting as a substantive

Strong’s #191 BDB #17

180.   Adjective: which means foolish. Zech. 11:15.* Strong’s #196 BDB #17.

181.   Feminine_noun: ʾivveleth (אִוֶּלֵת) [pronounced ihv-VEH-lehth], which means folly, foolishness; impiety; perhaps power, preeminence. Strong’s #200 BDB #17. Prov. 5:23

ʾivveleth (אִוֶּלֵת) [pronounced ihv-VEH-lehth]

folly, foolishness; impiety; perhaps power, preeminence

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #200 BDB #17

182.   Verb: which means to be in front of, to lead. Strong’s #none BDB #17.

183.   Masculine_noun1: ʾûwl (לא) [pronounced ool], whose meaning is not so simple. First of all, the word is found only in 2Kings 24:15 and Psalm 73:4; however, it is a part of several words which indicates strength, power and/or pre-eminence. Somehow, it is traced back to an unused root which means to roll. According to Gesenius, it is used in the singular to mean body, belly, abdomen; and in the plural to refer to powerful ones, men of power, leaders. BDB also assigns it two meanings for the two passages, indicating that in the instance of the Psalms, it actually means their front, their prominent part. Strong’s #193 BDB #17. Psalm 73:4

184.   Masculine_noun2: which means leading man, noble. Strong’s #193 BDB #17.

185.   Masculine_noun: ʾulâm (אֻלָם) [pronounced oo-LAWM], which means porch, vestibule [attached to the main building]. Strong’s #197 BDB #17. 1Kings 6:3 7:6

ʾulâm (אֻלָם) [pronounced oo-LAWM]

porch, vestibule [attached to the main building]

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #197 BDB #17

Also spelled ʾûwlâm (אוּלָם) [pronounced oo-LAWM].

186.   Masculine_noun: ʾayil (אַיִל) [pronounced AH-yil], which means ram. Strong’s #352 BDB #17. Gen. 15:9 22:13 31:38 32:14 1Sam. 15:22 1Chron. 15:26

ʾayil (אַיִל) [pronounced AH-yil]

ram; ram (as food; as a sacrifice); a ram’s skin (skin dyed red, for tabernacle)

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #352 BDB #17

187.   Masculine_noun2: which means projecting pillar, pilaster. Several sets of meanings. Strong’s #352 BDB #18. 1Kings 6:31

ʾayil (אַיִל) [pronounced AH-yil]

the projecting ledge surrounding a door at the top and sides [often with two columns]; ornamental projections on a building [may include pillars, palm trees]

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #352 BDB #18

This is consonantly identical to the word for ram and for strength, strong man. This term and meaning may have come from the projection of ram’s horns and a similar architectural feature. Strong’s #352 BDB #17–18

188.   Masculine_noun3: which means leader, chief. Strong’s #352 BDB #18. (Psalm 89:6)

ʾêyl (אֵיל) [pronounced āyil]

strong man, leader, chief; a strong, robust tree [e.g., an oak, terebinth, palm]

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #352 BDB #18

ʾêylîym (אֵילִים) [pronounced āyil-EEM]

mighty ones, leaders, nobles of a state

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #352 BDB #17

This is consonantly identical to the word for ram; projecting ledge [architectural term]; and identical to the word for a strong, robust tree.

189.   Masculine_noun4: which means terebinth. See above. Strong’s #352 BDB #18.

190.   Location: Strong’s #364 BDB #18. Gen. 15:6

ʾÊyl (אֵיל) [pronounced āyil]

strong man, leader, chief; a strong, robust tree [e.g., an oak, terebinth, palm]; transliterated El

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #352 BDB #18

Pâʾrân (פָּארָן) [pronounced paw-RAWN]

(possibly) boughs; abounding in foliage [or caverns]; and is transliterated Paran

proper noun/location

Strong’s #6290 BDB #803

Together, these make up the location known as El Paran. Strong’s #364 BDB #18.

According to BDB: El-paran = “palm of Paran.” [It is a] town and harbour at tip of Gulf of Aqaba on the Red Sea.

191.   Proper_noun/location: which means terebinth; transliterated . Strong’s #362 BDB #18.

192.   Feminine_noun1: ʾêlâh (אֵלָה) [pronounced ā-LAW], which means oak, terebinth; tree. Strong’s #424 BDB #18. Gen. 35:4 2Sam. 18:9

ʾêlâh (אֵלָה) [pronounced ā-LAW]

oak, terebinth; tree

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #424 BDB #18

193.   Proper_noun2: ʾêlâh (אֵלָה) [pronounced ā-LAW], which means terebinth and is transliterated Elah. This is listed in BDB as a masculine proper noun, but it has the ה ending and the exact same word is called a feminine noun above. Strong’s #425 BDB #18. Gen. 36:41

ʾÊlâh (אֵלָה) [pronounced ā-LAW]

terebinth, oak; and is transliterated Elah

proper noun

Strong’s #425 (= #424) BDB #18

194.   Proper_noun2: ʾêlâh (אֵלָה) [pronounced ā-LAW], which means terebinth and is transliterated Elah. This is listed in BDB as a masculine proper noun, but it has the ה ending and the exact same word is called a feminine noun above. Strong’s #424 BDB #18. 1Sam. 17:2 21:9

ʾÊlâh (אֵלָה) [pronounced ā-LAW]

terebinth, oak; and is transliterated Elah

proper noun/location

Strong’s #424 BDB #18

195.   Feminine_noun: ʾêlôwn (אֵלוֹן) [pronounced AY-loan], which means oak, terebinth, tall tree, a strong and hardy tree; a plain; possibly a hill. Strong’s #436 BDB #18. Gen. 12:6 13:18 14:13 18:1 Judges 4:11 9:6, 37 1Sam. 10:3

ʾêlôwn (אֵלוֹן) [pronounced AY-lohn]

oak, terebinth, tall tree, a strong and hardy tree; plain; hill?

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #436 BDB #18

My BDB identifies this as a feminine singular noun, but it is apparently a masculine singular noun (BDB in e-sword and Gesenius).

196.   Masculine_proper_noun: ʾÊlôwn (אֵלוֹן) [pronounced AY-loan], which means oak, terebinth, tall tree, a strong and hardy tree; a plain; transliterated Elon. Strong’s #356 BDB #19. Gen. 26:34 36:2 46:14

ʾÊlôwn (אֵלוֹן) [pronounced AY-loan]

oak, terebinth, tall tree, a strong and hardy tree; a plain; transliterated Elon

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #356 BDB #19

197.   Proper_noun/location: ʾÊlôwn (אֵלוֹן) [pronounced AY-loan], which means oak, terebinth, tall tree, a strong and hardy tree; a plain; transliterated Elon. Strong’s #356 BDB #19.

198.   Proper_noun/location: 1Kings 4:9*

ʾÊylôn bêyth chânân (חָנָן בֵּית אֵילוֹן) [pronounced ay-LONE bayth-khaw-NAWN]

oak (grove) of (the) house of grace; transliterated Elon of Bethchananoak, Elon-beth-hanan

masculine singular noun/location

Strong’s #358 BDB #19 (from Strong’s #356, 1004, and 2603)

199.   Gentilic_adjective: which means , transliterated . Strong’s #440 BDB #19.

200.   Proper_noun/location: ʾÊylath (אֵילַת) [pronounced ay-LAHTH], which means trees, a grove [of palms]; transliterated Elath, Eloth. Strong’s #359 BDB #19. Deut. 6:8

ʾÊylath (אֵילַת) [pronounced ay-LAHTH]

trees, a grove [of palms]; transliterated Elath, Eloth

proper singular noun/location:

Strong’s #359 BDB #19

This is also spelled ʾÊylôth (אֵילֹת) [pronounced ay-LOHTH]. BDB says it is a port on the north-east arm of the Red Sea.

201.   Masculine_noun: which means porch. Strong’s #361 BDB #19.

202.   Masculine_noun: ʾayâl (אַיָל) [pronounced ah-YAWL], which means hart, stag, deer. Strong’s #354 BDB #19. 1Kings 4:23

ʾayâl (אַיָל) [pronounced ah-YAWL]

hart, stag, deer

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #354 BDB #19

Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge: Dr. Shaw understands ayil as the name of the genus, including all the species of the deer kind, whether they are distinguished by round horns, as the stag, or by flat ones, as the fallow deer, or by the smallness of the branches, as the roe.

203.   Feminine_noun: ʾayyâlâh (אַיָּלָה) [pronounced ahy-yaw-LAW], which means hind, doe; wild she-goat. Strong’s #355 BDB #19. Gen. 49:21 2Sam. 22:34 Psalm 29:9 Prov. 5:19

ʾayyâlâh (אַיָּלָה) [pronounced ahy-yaw-LAW]

hind, doe; wild she-goat; mountain ram

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #355 BDB #19

ʾayeleth (אַיֶלֶת) [pronounced ahy-yeh-LEHTH]

hind, doe, deer

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #365 BDB #19

Although the spelling is slightly different, this appears to be identical to Strong’s #355 BDB #19. Also, the BDB in e-sword appears to have a slightly different spelling than what I find in the text.

204.   Masculine_proper_noun: ʾayyâlôwn (ןלָ-א) [pronounced ay-yaw-LOHN], which means deer-field and is transliterated Aijalon. Strong’s #357 BDB #19. Judges 1:35 1Sam. 14:31

ʾayyâlôwn (ןלָ-א) [pronounced ay-yaw-LOHN]

deer-field and is transliterated Aijalon

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #357 BDB #19

205.   Feminine_proper_noun: Strong’s #195 BDB #19.

206.   Adverb/conjunction: ʾûwlay (אוּלִַי) [pronounced oo-LAHY], which means perhaps, peradventure. Strong’s #194 BDB #19. Gen. 16:2 18:24 24:5 27:12 32:20 43:12 1Sam. 6:5 9:6 14:6 2Sam. 14:15 16:12 Job 1:5

ʾûwlay (אוּלִַי) [pronounced oo-LAHY]

perhaps, unless, suppose; if peradventure

adverb/conjunction

Strong’s #194 BDB #19

207.   Adverbial_conjunction: ʾûwlâm (אוּלָם) [pronounced oo-LAWM], which means but, but indeed, yet, however; it is a very strong adversative. Although sprinkled throughout the historical books (e.g., Gen. 28:19 48:19 Ex. 9:16 1Kings 20:23), ʾûwlâm is found primarily in the book of Job* (1:11 2:5 5:8 11:5 12:7 13:3–4 14:18 17:10 33:1). Strong’s #199 BDB #19. Gen. 28:19 48:19 Judges 18:29 1Sam. 20:3 25:34 Job 1:11 2:5 5:8 11:5 12:6 13:4 14:18 17:10

ʾûwlâm (אוּלָם) [pronounced oo-LAWM]

but, but indeed, yet, however

a very strong adverbial adversative

Strong’s #199 BDB #19

208.   Masculine_noun: ʾâven (אָוֶן) [pronounced AW-ven], which means iniquity, misfortune which results from iniquity. BDB suggests trouble, sorrow, wickedness. Barnes suggests that this first refers to nothingness, vanity, vain and empty things (Isa. 41:29 Zech. 10:2); to falsehood, deceit (Psalm 36:4 Prov. 17:4) or to unworthiness, wickedness, iniquity (Job 36:21 Isa. 1:13). The latter seems to be the most common understanding of the word. This word is first found in Gen. 35:18. Rachel named her second and last son, whom giving birth to took her life, Ben-oni—son of whatever this word means. In context, although most of the KJV renders this word iniquity; there is nothing in context which would indicate that. The context is that it was a difficult labor and that she died as a result of it. This could be seen as son of my pain. And, on the other hand, it is possible that she was speaking of her impending death as a result of her iniquity, which is unspecified. In Num. 23:21, this word could go either way—it could mean pain, misfortune or it could mean iniquity. This word next occurs in 1Sam. 15:23, after Saul did not kill all of the population of the sons of Amalek and the prophet Samuel is dressing him down: “For rebellion is as the sin of divination and insubordination is as iniquity and idolatry. Because you have rejected the word of Yehowah, He has also rejected you from [being] king.” Other than the book of Genesis, the oldest linguistic uses of this word come from the book of Job, where this word is found several times (Job 4:8 5:6 11:11, 14 15:35 21:19 22:15 etc.). Throughout Job, the word seems to mean iniquity, rather than misfortune. The only possibly problem is Job 5:6, which could refer more to the misfortune resulting from iniquity. Then what about Gen. 35:18? The key to that verse is Jacob changes the son’s name. If his name had been son of my sorrow; then such a name would be apropos, as it would reflect his sorrow due to the loss of Rachel, his one wife of four that he loved. However, if the son was named son of my iniquity; then it would be human nature for Jacob to put aside his wife’s dying wishes, and rename his son son of my right hand. Barnes says something about this meaning nothingness or vanity, but I don’t buy that. As we have seen, iniquity can refer to a lifestyle of wrongdoing, the guilt from those acts or to the resultant misfortune and punishment. Strong's #205 BDB #19. The Doctrine of Fasting (Isa. 58:9b) [Num. 23:21 Deut. 26:14 Job 5:6 11:11, 14 15:35 18:12 21:19 Psalm 90:10—I changed the spelling from a w to a v] 1Sam. 15:23 Psalm 7:14 10:7 41:6 55:3, 10 56:7 59:2, 5 54:2 Prov. 6:12, 18 10:29

ʾâven (אָוֶן) [pronounced AW-ven]

iniquity, misfortune which results from iniquity, trouble, adverse circumstances; idolatry; emptiness, vanity, falsehood, fraud

masculine singular noun

Strong's #205 BDB #19

209.   Masculine_noun: which means toil. Strong’s #8383 BDB #20.

210.   Masculine_noun: ʾôwn (אוֹן) [pronounced ohn], which means strength, power, vigor; substance, wealth; faculty, ability. Strong’s #202 BDB #20. Gen. 49:3 Deut. 21:17 Job 18:7, 12 20:10 Psalm 105:36

ʾôwn (אוֹן) [pronounced ohn]

strength, power, vigor; substance, wealth; faculty, ability

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong’s #202 BDB #20

211.   Masculine_proper_noun: Strong’s #203 BDB #20.

212.   Proper_noun/location: which means ; transliterated . Strong’s #207 BDB #20.

213.   Masculine_proper_noun: ʾÔwnâm (אוֹנָם) [pronounced oh-NAWM], which means vigorous; transliterated Onam. Strong’s #208 BDB #20. Gen. 36:23

ʾÔwnâm (אוֹנָם) [pronounced oh-NAWM]

vigorous; transliterated Onam

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #208 BDB #20

214.   Masculine_proper_noun: ʾÔwnân (אוֹנָן) [pronounced oh-NAWN], which means strong; transliterated Onan. Strong’s #209 BDB #20. Gen. 38:4 46:12

ʾÔwnân (אוֹנָן) [pronounced oh-NAWN]

strong; transliterated Onan

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #209 BDB #20

215.   Proper_noun/location: which means ; transliterated . Strong’s #210 BDB #20.

216.   Masculine_proper_noun/location: ʾôwphîyr (אוֹפִיר) [pronounced oh-FEER], which means reducing to ashes; transliterated Ophir. Strong’s #211 BDB #20. Gen. 10:29

ʾôwphîyr (אוֹפִיר) [pronounced oh-FEER]

reducing to ashes; transliterated Ophir

masculine singular proper noun/location

Strong’s #211 BDB #20

There are at least two other spellings of this noun; also, there is a lot of verbiage on this noun in BDB.

217.   Verb: ʾûwts (אוּץ) [pronounced oots], which means, to urge, to press, to hasten, to hurry [along]; to press anyone on, to be pressed, to confine, to make haste. In most of the 10 times that this word is found in Scripture, it means to hasten, to cause to hasten, to hurry, to hurry along, to festinate. The only time this is a difficult translate is in Joshua 17:15. Various translators give this the renderings in Joshua 17:15 as hath been narrow (Young); is too narrow (NASB, Owen); is too small (NIV); are too confined (NKJV); and you are their near neighbors in the hill country of Ephraim (REB), which Bible footnotes here that the actual Hebrew is obscure here. This would account for the odd translation here. Strong’s #213 BDB #21. Gen. 19:15 Joshua 10:13 17:15

ʾûwts (אוּץ) [pronounced oots]

to urge, to press, to hasten, to hurry [along]; to press anyone on, to be pressed, to confine, to make haste

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #213 BDB #21

In most of the 10 times that this word is found in Scripture, it means to hasten, to cause to hasten, to hurry, to hurry along, to festinate. The only time this is a difficult translate is in Joshua 17:15. Various translators give this the renderings in Joshua 17:15 as hath been narrow (Young); is too narrow (NASB, Owen); is too small (NIV); are too confined (NKJV); and you are their near neighbors in the hill country of Ephraim (REB), which Bible footnotes here that the actual Hebrew is obscure here. This would account for the odd translation here.

ʾûwts (אוּץ) [pronounced oots]

to urge, to insist, to press [upon], to hasten, to hurry [along]

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect

Strong’s #213 BDB #21

218.   Verb: ʾôwr (רא) [pronounced ohr], which means to be light, to become light. In the Hiphil , it means to bring light, to cause to be light, to enlighten. Strong’s #215 BDB #21. Gen. 1:15 44:3 1Sam. 14:27 2Sam. 2:32 Psalm 19:8 105:39 118:27 Prov. 4:18

ʾôwr (רא) [pronounced ohr]

to be light, to become light

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #215 BDB #21

ʾôwr (רא) [pronounced ohr]

being light, becoming light, lighting; shining

Qal active participle

Strong’s #215 BDB #21

ʾôwr (רא) [pronounced ohr]

to bring light, to cause to be light, to make light; to make shine; to enlighten; to refresh [gladden]; to kindle

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect

Strong’s #215 BDB #21

ʾôwr (רא) [pronounced ohr]

to be illuminated,

to become lighted up, to become light

3rd person masculine singular, Niphal imperfect

Strong’s #215 BDB #21

219.   Masculine_noun: ʾôwr (אוֹר) [pronounced ohr], which means light. This is used for moonlight, sunlight and morning light. It is in the feminine in a couple passages. Strong’s #216 BDB #21. The Doctrine of Fasting (Isa. 58:8) Gen. 1:3 Judges 19:26 1Sam. 14:36 25:34, 36 29:10 2Sam. 17:22 23:4 Job 3:9 17:12 Psalm 44:3 56:13 89:15 148:3 Prov. 4:18 6:23

ʾôwr (אוֹר) [pronounced ohr]

light [of the moon, of stars]; morning light, day-break, dawn; light [of life; of one’s face]; light [of prosperity, of Bible doctrine, of Jehovah]

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #216 BDB #21

220.   Feminine_noun1: which means light. Strong’s #216 BDB #21.

221.   Feminine_noun2: which means herb. Strong’s #216 BDB #21.

222.   Masculine_noun: ʾÛwr (אוּר) [pronounced oor], which means brightness of fire, flame; transliterated Ur. Equivalent to Strong’s #218. Strong’s #217 BDB #22.

ʾÛwr (אוּר) [pronounced oor]

brightness of fire, flame; transliterated Ur

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #217 BDB #22

BDB: [Ur is] a city in southern Babylonia, city of the Chaldeans, centre of moon worship, home of Abraham’s father, Terah, and departure point for the Abraham’s migration to Mesopotamia and Canaan.

223.   Masculine_plural_noun: which means region of light, East Is. Strong’s #217 BDB #22.

224.   Masculine_noun: ʾûwrîym [םי.רא) [pronounced oo-REEM], which means lights; revelations and is transliterated Urim. Strong’s #224 BDB #22.

ʾûwrîym [םי.רא) [pronounced oo-REEM]

lights; revelations and is transliterated Urim

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #224 BDB #22

This is the plural of Strong’s #217 BDB #22.

225.   Masculine_proper_noun: ʾÛwr (אוּר) [pronounced oor], which means brightness of fire, flame; transliterated Ur. Strong’s #218 BDB #22. Gen. 11:28 1Chron. 11:35

ʾÛwr (אוּר) [pronounced oor]

brightness of fire, flame; transliterated Ur

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #218 BDB #22

226.   Masculine_proper_noun: ʾÛwrîy (אוּרִי) [pronounced oo-REE], which means flame, fiery; transliterated Uri. Strong’s #221 BDB #22. 1Kings 4:19

ʾÛwrîy (אוּרִי) [pronounced oo-REE]

flame, fiery; transliterated Uri

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #221 BDB #22

227.   Masculine_proper_noun: ʾÛwrîyʾêl (ל̤אי .רא) [pronounced oo-ree-ALE], which means flame of El; my light is El, God is my light, flame of God; transliterated Uriel. Strong’s #222 BDB #22. 1Chron. 15:5

ʾÛwrîyʾêl (ל̤אי .רא) [pronounced oo-ree-ALE]

flame of El; my light is El, God is my light, flame of God; transliterated Uriel

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #222 BDB #22

228.   Masculine_proper_noun: ʾÛwrîyyâh (אוּרִיָּה) [pronounced oo-ree-YAW], which means flame of Yah; my light is Yah and is transliterated Uriah. Strong’s #223 BDB #22. 2Sam. 12:9 23:39 1Chron. 11:41

ʾÛwrîyyâh (אוּרִיָּה) [pronounced oo-ree-YAW]

flame of Yah; my light is Yah and is transliterated Uriah

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #223 BDB #22

Also spelled ʾÛwrîyyâhûw (אוּרִיָּהוּ) [pronounced oo-ree-YAW-hoo].

229.   Masculine_proper_noun: which means flame of Yahweh; my light is Yahweh and is transliterated . Strong’s #223 BDB #22.

230.   Masculine_proper_noun: Yâʾîyr (יָאִיר) [pronounced yaw-EER], which means, he enlightens or one giving light; and is transliterated Jair. This is simply Jair’s name. Strong’s #2971 BDB #22. Deut. 3:14 Judges 10:4

Yâʾîyr (יָאִיר) [pronounced yaw-EER]

 he enlightens or one giving light; and is transliterated Jair

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #2971 BDB #22

231.   Gentilic_adjective: Yâʾîrîy (יָאִרִי) [pronounced yaw-ee-REE], which means he enlightens; the one giving light; and is transliterated Jairite. Strong’s #2972 BDB #22. 2Sam. 20:26

Yâʾîrîy (יָאִרִי) [pronounced yaw-ee-REE]

he enlightens; the one giving light; and is transliterated Jairite

masculine singular, gentilic adjective with the definite article

Strong’s #2972 BDB #22

232.   Masculine_noun: mâʾôwr (מָאוֹר) [pronounced maw-OHR], which means luminary, light, light-bearer, lamp, lamp-stand; metaphorically for the light of the eyes; therefore, bright, cheerful. E-sword has a feminine spelling and I am not certain if the plural is much different from the singular in meaning. Strong’s #3974 BDB #22. Gen. 1:14, 16

mâʾôwr (מָאוֹר) [pronounced maw-OHR]

luminary, light, light-bearer, lamp, lamp-stand; metaphorically for the light of the eyes; therefore, bright, cheerful

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #3974 BDB #22

233.   Feminine_noun: which means light hole. Strong’s #3975 BDB #22.

234.   Proper_noun_location: ʾÛwr (אוּר) [pronounced oor], which means brightness of fire, flame; transliterated Ur. which means light, flame; and is transliterated Ur. The meaning may not apply, as this is not a Jewish word per se. Strong’s #218 BDB #22.

235.   Verb: ʾûwth (אוּת) [pronounced ooth], which means to consent, to give assent, to agree [to]. Strong’s #225 BDB #22. Gen. 34:15

ʾûwth (אוּת) [pronounced ooth]

to consent, to give assent, to agree [to]

3rd person masculine plural, Niphal imperfect

Strong’s #225 BDB #22

236.   Adverb: ʾâz (אָז) [pronounced awz], which means then, at that time, in that case (when following an if or though), now, as things are; that being so. This adverb also gives us logical progression or logical sequence, so it means in that case, now as things are, that being so, then. The latter rendering is particularly apropos as the apodosis of a conditional, which is how it functions here. ʾâz is also used in cases where the historian either wishes to introduce contemporaneous facts, that do not carry forward the main course of the history, or loses sight for the time of the strictly historical sequence and simply takes note of the occurrence of some particular event. Strong’s #227 BDB #23. The Doctrine of Fasting (Isa. 58:8) Gen. 4:26 12:6 13:7 24:41 39:5 49:4 Ex. 4:10 Deut. 4:41 29:20 Joshua 1: 8:30 10:12 Judges 5:8, 19 13:21 1Sam. 6:3 20:12 2Sam. 2:27 15:34 19:6 21:17 23:14 1Kings 3:16 8:1 1Chron. 15:2 16:7 Job 3:13 9:31 11:15 13:20 Psalm 2:5 51:19 56:9 Prov. 1:28 2:5 3:23 8:22

ʾâz (אָז) [pronounced awz]

then, after that, at that time, in that case (when following an if or though), now, as things are; that being so, therefore, because of that

a temporal/resultant adverb

Strong’s #227 BDB #23

min (מִן) [pronounced mihn]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʾâz (אָז) [pronounced awz]

then, after that, at that time, in that case (when following an if or though), now, as things are; that being so, therefore, because of that

a temporal/resultan