Deuteronomy 22

 

Deuteronomy 22:1–30

Building and Farming Codes, Marriage and Adultery Laws


These studies are designed for believers in Jesus Christ only. If you have exercised faith in Christ, then you are in the right place. If you have not, then you need to heed the words of our Lord, Who said, “For God so loved the world that He gave His only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son, so that every [one] believing [or, trusting] in Him shall not perish, but shall be have eternal life! For God did not send His Son into the world so that He should judge the world, but so that the world shall be saved through Him. The one believing [or, trusting] in Him is not judged, but the one not believing has already been judged, because he has not believed in the Name of the only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son of God.” (John 3:16–18). “I am the Way and the Truth and the Life! No one comes to the Father except through [or, by means of] Me!” (John 14:6).


Every study of the Word of God ought to be preceded by a naming of your sins to God. This restores you to fellowship with God (1John 1:8–10). If there are people around, you would name these sins silently. If there is no one around, then it does not matter if you name them silently or whether you speak aloud.


Sometime ago, I did a verse-by-verse exegesis of the books of the Pentateuch, and, in my opinion, did not really give these books the full treatment that they deserved. Here, I am going back and redoing the book of Deuteronomy. All of the information from that previous study will be included in here and this study will eventually supplant the shorter study of the book of Deuteronomy (HTML) (PDF). From time to time, there will be concepts and exegetical material which will be repeated, because I do not always do a good job in the end editing this material.

 

Links to the completed chapters of Deuteronomy are found here (HTML) (PDF). This chapter is a part of that study.

 

One more thing: it is not necessary that you read the grey Hebrew exegesis tables. They are set apart from the rest of the study so that you can easily skip over them. Footnote However, if you ever doubt a translation of a phrase or a verse, these translation tables will tell you exactly where that translation came from.


This should be the most extensive examination of Deut. 22 available, where you will be able to examine in depth every word of the original text.


Joe Hill, Horns: "He paused, twisting his goatee, considering the law in Deuteronomy that forbade clothes with mixed fibers. A problematic bit of Scripture. A matter that required thought. "Only the devil wants man to have a wide range of lightweight and comfortable styles to choose from," he murmured at last, trying out a new proverb. "Although there may be no forgiveness for polyester. On this one matter, Satan and the Lord are in agreement." Footnote

 

Posted by pandemic, a yahoo question:

"If within the city a man comes upon a maiden who is betrothed, and has relations with her, you shall bring them both out of the gate of the city and there stone them to death: the girl because she did not cry out for help though she was in the city, and the man because he violated his neighbors wife."

Additional Details

The part that I find is not very defensible is that if the woman is raped she must also be killed as well, that is the part I want to hear a defense for. Footnote



Outline of Chapter 22:

 

Introduction

 

         Part I:             Guidelines given by Moses to a New Nation

         vv.     1–4           Regard for Private Property is Expected

         vv.     5            Cross-dressing

         vv.     6–7           Conservation in Nature

         v.       8            Building Code

         vv.     9–10         Farming Recommendations

         vv.    11–12         Clothing Recommendations

 

         Part II:            Morality Laws for a New Nation

         vv.    13–27         Marriage, Adultery, Virginity Laws

         vv.    28–29         Shotgun Marriages

         vv.     30            Incest Restrictions

 

Addendum


Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines:

 

         Introduction         The Prequel of Deuteronomy 22

         Introduction         The Principals of Deuteronomy 22

         Introduction         A Synopsis of Deuteronomy 22

         Introduction         The Outline/Summary of Matthew Henry

         Introduction         Things the Bible bans (graphic)

         Introduction         The Law Against J-Walking Invalidates Laws Against Murder

 

         v.       4              Summary of Being a Good Neighbor

         v.       8              Parapet (graphic)

         v.      11              CGG.org on Wearing Clothing of Mixed Fibers

         v.      11              TMana on mixing materials

         v.      14              The Marriage Interlude

         v.      14              An Overview of Deuteronomy 22:13–21

         v.      19              Reasons why all of the Mosaic Law is not to be applied to our day and time

         v.      21              How to Understand the Mores of the Mosaic Law Today

         v.      21              The Myriad of Ways that 2013 United States is in Trouble

         v.      23              Moral Values in the Time of Moses

         v.      27              The Moses Analogy of Rape and Murder

         v.      27              Consider all pertinent factors in a trial

         v.      28              A dishonest graphic

         v.      28              A Second Dishonest Graphic

         v.      29              Shotgun Wedding (graphic)

         v.      29              Why Deuteronomy 22:28–29 does not Require that a Woman to Marry her Rapist

 

         Addendum          What We Learn from Deuteronomy 22

         Addendum          Liberal Distortions of the Bible

         Addendum          Another Dishonest Graphic

         Addendum          United States Law is Based upon God’s Covenant with Israel

         Addendum          A Complete Translation of Deuteronomy 22

         Addendum          Word Cloud of Deut. 22 from the Kukis “Not So Literal” Translation

         Addendum          Word Cloud of the Exegesis of Deuteronomy 22


Chapter Outline

 

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines

Forward

Doctrines Covered and Alluded to

Chapters of the Bible Alluded To

Psalms Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Other Chapters of the Bible Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Definition of Terms

Introduction

Text

Addendum

www.kukis.org

 

Exegetical Studies in Deuteronomy


Doctrines Covered

Doctrines Alluded To

 

God and the Poor; Is God Really a Liberal?

Homosexuality

Jesus is not a Liberal

 

Liberalism, Conservatism and Christianity

Was Jesus a Liberal?

Women of the Old Testament

 

 

 

 


Chapters of the Bible Alluded To

 

 

The Book of Ruth

 


Psalms Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

 

 

 

 


Other Chapters of the Bible Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Leviticus 19

 

 

 


Many who read and study this chapter are 1st or 2nd generation students of R. B. Thieme, Jr., so that much of this vocabulary is second nature. One of Bob’s contributions to theology is a fresh vocabulary along with a number of concepts which are theologically new or reworked, yet still orthodox. Therefore, if you are unfamiliar with his work, the definitions below will help you to fully understand all that is being said. In addition to this, I will use a number of other more traditional technical theological terms which will be used and therefore defined as well.

Definition of Terms

Angelic Conflict

The angelic conflict is the result of prehistoric creatures being in opposition to God. It began with the independence and rebellion of the one who was the Messiah's angel, Satan, and it continues throughout human history until the end of the Millennium. The angelic conflict answers many basic questions about life, such as - "Why was man created? Why sin? Why is there chaos on earth? Why is there so much suffering? Why did our Lord Jesus Christ have to go to the cross?" Footnote

Rebound (Restoration to fellowship with God)

In the New Testament, this is naming your sins to God, so that you are both restored to temporal fellowship with God and are then filled with the Spirit of God. In the Old Testament, naming your sins to God would result in a restoration of fellowship and, in some cases, the empowerment of the Holy Spirit once again (the Holy Spirit was not given to all Old Testament believers).

Scar Tissue on the Soul

Scar tissue of the soul is also called hardness of the heart, the uncircumcised heart, and stubbornness of heart. It is a divine judgment of the soul that restricts capacity for life and love. Unlike divine discipline that produces temporary suffering with no lasting side effects, scar tissue of the soul leaves a debilitating loss of capacity for life or love. However, since it is part of the soul's immaterial essence like emotion, it has no known physical properties. However, it does restrict the capacity of the soul. It blocks Spiritual light, which leads to affinity to the Cosmic System as well as soulish and physical ailments. Psychosis and psychopathic personality are examples of scar tissue of the soul. Although behavior can be altered by psychotherapy and psychiatric drugs, the only cure for such problems is the divine solution, which requires Rebound and application of Bible Doctrine. Footnote

Some of these definitions are taken from

http://gracebiblechurchwichita.org/?page_id=1556

http://www.bibledoctrinechurch.org/?subpages/GLOSSARY.shtml

http://rickhughesministries.org/content/Biblical-Terms.pdf

http://www.gbible.org/index.php?proc=d4d

http://www.wordoftruthministries.org/termsanddefs.htm

http://www.realtime.net/~wdoud/topics.html

http://www.theopedia.com/


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An Introduction to Deuteronomy 22


I ntroduction: Deut. 22 continues with Moses’ very long teachings to his people where he sets up laws for them in addition to the laws found in the books of Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers. Some of these laws are new; and some of them are repetitious. However, they carry, for the Jews, the same force as what God said on Mount Sinai to Moses.


Deut. 22 is filled with even more various and sundry laws than chapter 21, as you can see by the outline above. We will find out that we are our brother’s keeper and Moses will explore rape, marriage and pre-marital sex. God’s laws apply to social law as well as to criminal law. One of the reasons for the chapter split between chapters 21 and 22 is that the bulk of Deut. 21 is criminal law; the bulk of Deut. 22 is civil law and social concerns.


The big picture is that the Ten Commandments were reiterated and covered in more detail in Deut. 5–7; the religious and national regulations in Deut. 8–21; and now until Deut. 26, regulations concerning domestic and personal relations are covered. The big picture in this chapter is that Moses will make it very clear that we have a responsibility to our brothers (fellow Israelites in context) and then the remainder of the chapter will illustrate that very thing. That is, we are given ways not to treat our fellow countryman.


Moses deals with a variety of topics in this chapter: how to treat the possessions of fellow Jews with respect and concern, cross-dressing, building codes, farming guidelines; one lengthy discussion of marriage and virginity and the law, which includes one very lengthy example as well as several shorter examples which involve capital punishment; and finally, a reference to incest (which Jewish Bibles place with the next chapter).


Although I can certainly explain most of these passages, one topic at a time, explaining how Moses put these together in his own mind is a whole other thing. Did he come with notes? Remember, not only did people not have iPads back then, but they did not have note cards, pencil and paper. Moses did have writing material, which was probably velum—we know this because God told him to write His words down. But would a person have written down things as we do on note cards prior to giving a presentation? Did Moses simply think about these things over the past 30 or so years, and then just began to teach?


As has been discussed in other places, man did not evolve physically and mentally, but man has devolved, physically, mentally, morally and spiritually. There was a time when those who wanted to could learn the entire books of Job and Genesis, and that was their Bible for their entire life. What I mean by learn is, they memorized both of these books. I, on the other hand, often have trouble remembering what I wrote and studied yesterday. I have re-read writings that I have done and surprised myself on occasion.


Quite obviously, these things that Moses said were written down. Did he write them down? Did Caleb and Joshua compare what they remembered and write them down? Are we getting this exactly as Moses said it, including the order and context of each law?


In any case, if this is how Moses presented the material, his concept of organization and mine are quite different. Or did he put in divers topics side-by-side in order to keep his audience listening and paying attention? The book of Deuteronomy does give us a great deal to speculate about.


Although I have done a short exegetical study of the book of Deuteronomy (about 670 pages), I wanted to go back and cover this particular chapter, as it has become part of a dishonest pro-gay marriage graphic spread across the internet. This graphic says that gay marriage ought to be recognized by the state and the federal government, and one of the reasons is, the Bible allows for a rapist to marry his victim, citing this chapter of the Bible. That is simply false. However, it takes a longer explanation to deal with this assertion of a biased graphic. The reason that this is important is, most of the other examples of alternate types of marriages found in the Bible were simply things which people did—they did not have God’s seal of approval. However, in this example, it appears, in some translations, that a man can wait out in some hiding place for woman and rape her; and, if he likes her, he can demand that she be given to him as his wife. That is a very weird point of view, and the Biblical scholar might be interested in whether or not this is God’s idea of marriage. So, for that reason, this chapter of Deuteronomy is being exegeted long before I even begin work again on this book as a whole.


Included in this chapter are comments about the mixing of different types of cloth in clothing (Deut. 22:11). This is often mentioned in pro-gay and liberal websites. The argument goes something like this: “You don’t believe in gay marriage because of the Bible? Well, do you wear a cotton blend shirt? If you do, you have violated Biblical standards right there, buddy.” The idea is, you either give up on all your old, outmoded ideas about homosexual relations or you clear out 90% of the clothes in your closet.


Superficially, it may appear that these ideas have merit; however, when these passages are carefully examined, that is not the case. However, unlike those who attack the Bible and chapters like this, there is no simple bumper sticker sized answer for the false assertions which are out there.


It is important to understand what has gone before.

The Prequel of Deuteronomy 22

Moses led two groups of Jews out of Egypt—adult slaves and their children (age 20 and below). Although these people, after being led out of Egypt and seeing many signs and miracles, they still rejected God’s provision and God’s direction. God told them to go into the land from the south and take it, and they refused, being afraid of the giants in the land.


God took them further away from the Land of Promise, and they cooled their heels in the desert area between Israel and Egypt for the next 38½ years. During this time, all of the adults—Gen X—died the sin unto death (Moses, Joshua and Caleb being the notable exceptions); and their children—the Generation of Promise—came of age out in the desert.


Moses was going to lead these young men into the desert except that he made a terrible mistake at the very end, striking a rock in order to get water, when God told him to merely speak to the rock (this destroyed the concept of type and antitype—Moses was to strike one rock one time, and that would produce the living waters for the children of Israel—Ex. 17). Instead, Moses, upset with the people, struck a second rock for water (Num. 20), and for that reason, he was unable to bring the children of Israel into the Land of Promise.


Most of the book of Deuteronomy is a set of sermons delivered by Moses to the children of Israel before they cross over into the Land of Promise.


What is really remarkable with the book of Deuteronomy is, in Exodus through Numbers, Moses is very careful to distinguish between God speaking and him speaking. However, when we come to the book of Deuteronomy, Moses speaks to the people of Israel with divine authority. That is, the laws, code, and regulations found in the book of Deuteronomy have the same authority as do the laws given directly from God.

This prequel is identical to the one found in Deut. 21.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


We need to know who the people are who populate this chapter.

The Principals of Deuteronomy 22

Characters

Commentary

Moses

Moses is speaking throughout this chapter to the people of Israel.

The people of Israel

There are two generations of Israelites: those who were adults when they left Egypt and those who were children when leaving Egypt. The adults, also called Gen X, had almost all died out the sin unto death prior to this point; and only their children (who are now adults) remained.

 


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Here is what to expect from Deuteronomy 22:

A Synopsis of Deuteronomy 22

Moses covers a variety of laws and customs in this chapter.

First thing is, Moses says that the people of Israel must exercise impersonal love toward other Israelites. If a fellow citizen has lost an animal or an article of clothing, you become responsible to take care of the lost item and to return it to your countryman. Deut. 22:1–4

Moses prohibits cross-dressing. V. 5

Moses uses the example of find a mother bird in a nest to explain conservation of natural resources. Vv. 6–7

Moses gives on building code, which is all about safety. Vv. 7–8

Moses talks about how certain incompatible things ought not to be mixed together, such as seed which is planted; an ox and a donkey should not be yoked together; and one does not mix the fabric of cotton and wool together (although a woolen fringe or some sort is allowed for cotton clothes). Vv. 9–12

For all intents and purposes, these are codes of conduct for a new people in a new land—for a people who really have no experience farming or building or conserving.

Up to this point, there are no penalties suggested or implied for transgressing any of these codes. Only cross-dressing is spoken of as an abomination to God. However, what follows in the rest of the chapter are laws connected to tough punishment: non-virgins who marry (passing themselves off as virgins); those who commit adultery before a marriage, and rapists are all to be executed.

The first is the example of a wife whose husband hates her. If he accuses her of not being a virgin when married (and there is no time frame attached to this), two things can happen: he can be beaten and fined for making a false accusation; or, if she was not a virgin upon marriage, she can be executed. Vv. 13–21

If a woman is betrothed to be married, but she sleeps with a man before she consummates the marriage: (1) she and the man who commit this act are both executed if this occurs in a populated area (indicating that she remained quiet during the act and was therefore not raped); (2) if this occurs out in the country, only the man is executed, because her calling out would not have brought a savior to her. Vv. 22–27

If an unmarried man and woman have sex, the man can be forced to marry this woman, and to pay her father (rather than to receive a dowry from the bride’s father). This is mistakenly spoken of as a man raping a woman and then marrying her. Vv. 28–29

Finally, a man is not to have relations with his father’s wife or to take her in marriage, as this is like exposing the nakedness of his father. V. 30

Like all chapters of the Word of God, you need more than just the simple plot outline to understand what God wants us to know.

Moses covers two topics in this chapter: he gives his sage advice to a new nation, speaking to them about things which normally they would have learned from their fathers or mothers (but their fathers and mothers have all died the sin unto death); secondly, Moses gives them a set of morality laws related to virginity, adultery and marriage, which very tough penalties attached.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines

 

Or, as the Pulpit Commentary summarizes: Regulations regarding cattle strayed or things lost, the apparel of the sexes, the taking of birds, and the construction of houses. Confusions to be avoided. Fringes to be made on vestments. Punishment of wife-slander, adultery, rape, fornication, incest. Footnote


I like to include the outline of another exegete.

The Outline/Summary of Matthew Henry

The laws of this chapter provide,

I.       For the preservation of charity and good neighbourship, in the care of strayed or fallen cattle (Deut. 22:1–4).

II.      For the preservation of order and distinction, that men and women should not wear one another's clothes (Deut. 22:5), and that other needless mixtures should be avoided (Deut. 22:9–11).

III.     For the preservation of birds (Deut. 22:6, Deut. 22:7).

IV.     Of life (Deut. 22:8).

V.      Of the commandments (Deut. 22:12).

VI.     Of the reputation of a wife abused, if she were innocent (Deut. 22:13–19), but for her punishment if guilty (Deut. 22:20, Deut. 22:21).

VII.    For the preservation of the chastity of wives (Deut. 22:22). Virgins betrothed (Deut. 22:23–27), or not betrothed (Deut. 22:28, Deut. 22:29).

VIII.   And, lastly, against incest (Deut. 22:30).

From Matthew Henry, Commentary on the Whole Bible; from e-Sword, Deut. 22 chapter comments.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


8thingsbiblebans.jpg

One of the reasons that I exegeted this chapter of Deuteronomy is I have seen two passages in particular distorted by liberals (particularly by the gay political movement). The Bible indicates that homosexual acts are sinful. So those who are against the Bible have searched the Bible out to find anything that the Bible bans or supports which seems silly. In this chapter, it appears to some that God is banning cotton/polyester blend clothing, but that He supports the idea of a rapist getting to marry his victim. These points of view are always expressed in a bumper sticker fashion, so if you simply read the message and take it as being truthful, then you will be caused to question what is in the Bible. “If God doesn’t like cotton/polyester blends shirts, then do I have to burn most of my wardrobe?” Or, “Is the God of the Bible so really anti-female that, if a rapist rapes a women, he can then turn around and negociate a marriage with this woman?” Quite obviously, both ideas seems to be rather extreme, and that is what the anti-Bible person wants you to believe—that the Bible is extreme and irrelevant to today. Two of those topics will be covered in this chapter, and you will see, the claims made by anti-Bible and/or pro-gay websites are not really telling you the whole truth.


The graphic Things the Bible bans was taken from “I am bored’s” selection of photos (accessed August 26, 2013). This particular graphic is found in a different form on many, many websites. The intent of a graphic like this is to make you think that the Bible is capricious and arbitrary. It is as if the writers of the Bible just decided to ban stuff for no reason.


The idea some are trying to get across is, the Bible bans homosexual activity, but then, it also bans cotton and polyester blend clothing. Since the ban of cotton/polyester blend clothing seems pretty silly, then maybe a ban on homosexual acts is silly as well. What they ignore is, there was actually a reason to recommend clothing not be made of cotton and wool (and no one was taken to court or fined or executed for making such a blend of material—see Deut. 22:11); while homosexual acts are taught to be wrong in both the Old and New Testaments; and those caught in a homosexual act in the nation of Israel were to be executed. See the Doctrine of Homosexuality (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).


A modern-day analogy to the gay marriage advocates would be to suggest that the law against murder is silly because if you walk across the street to greet your neighbor, you are breaking the j-walking law.

The Law Against J-Walking Invalidates Laws Against Murder

1.      I am setting up an analogy here: saying that the Bible’s ban of cotton/polyester blend clothing suggests that the Bible has a lot of silly bans in it (such as, the ban against homosexual acts); is like saying that laws against murder today are invalid because we also have laws that say we cannot simply walk across our neighborhood street in order to greet our neighbor (without breaking the law).

2.      First of all, the Bible does not ban cotton/polyester blend clothing.

3.      Secondly, although Moses suggests cotton and wool not be mixed together in the same article of clothing, he gives an exception to this, and there is no penalty for disregarding this clothing code. It is simply a common sense approach to making clothes without using materials with are incompatible with one another (wool and cotton in their original states are incompatible).

4.      This is far different from Moses’ ban on homosexual acts, which includes execution for those caught in the act, as well as a New Testament condemnation.

5.      Now for the analogy: every city has a ban on j-walking. This is not the same thing as walking across your neighborhood street to say hello to your neighbor across the street. No one is going to give you a ticket for the latter; and when receiving a ticket for the former, it is usually a fairly low-level beef.

6.      Saying that walking from your yard across the street to say hello to your neighbor is j-walking, is analogous to saying that the Bible bans cotton/polyester blend clothing. In fact, the Bible does not ban cotton/polyester clothing; and in fact, you can walk across your street to say hello to your neighbor.

7.      Having laws on the books against j-walking does not invalidate laws against murder. Misinterpreting or misrepresenting the laws against j-walking does not somehow make the laws against murder invalid.

8.      So, when graphics like the one above are presented, not only are the graphic artists dishonest with regards to the things banned, but they are also dishonest with respect to how these bans were understood. No one was going to be fined or executed for eating pork, associating with a woman who is having her period or wearing a cotton/polyester blend shirt.

This is a brilliant analogy, even if I do say so myself. : )

Unfortunately, a dishonest graphic like the one above can have more effect on the casual reader than an explanation for what the Bible really says. Pointing this out to a liberal or gay activist who has posted such a graphic will not cause them to remove it. They do not care about truth; they care about changing minds and influencing political and philosophical opinions. Whether this is done honestly or not is never an issue to them. It is the changing of the other person’s mind which is the greater good; if this is done by using a little dishonesty, well then, so be it.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines

 

Barnes summarizes Deut. 21:10–22:30: The regulations which now follow in the rest of this and throughout the next chapter bring out the sanctity of various personal rights and relations fundamental to human life and society. Footnote


A fact which is ignored in pretty much every commentary I have read is, these people to whom Moses is speaking have never farmed before; they have not built a house before. They do not have their parents there to show them how to farm because their parents are dead. Their parents, Gen X, all died the sin unto death (with the exception of Moses, Joshua and Caleb). Therefore, from time to time, there will be some things which seem elementary to some of us, but which things are necessary for a people who were raised as the sons and daughters of slaves to understand.

 

A second fact which is ignored: Moses was brought up to be the future pharaoh when he was raised in the palace of Egypt. This means that he would have had an extensive background not on in Egyptian law, but in the laws of all the peoples in Egypt’s vicinities. As an adult, he has spent nearly 40 years in the desert with this hard-headed people hearing their complaints and judging disagreements and criminal actions which occurred (Ex. 18:13–24). Footnote The book of Deuteronomy very much reflects these two factors.


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Part I:               Guidelines given by Moses to a New Nation


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Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Regard for Private Property is Expected


Kukis slavishly literal:

 

Kukis moderately literal:

You will not see an ox of your brother or his sheep thrust aside and you have hidden yourself from them. Returning, you will return them to your brother.

Deuteronomy

22:1

You will not observe your brother’s ox or his sheep going astray while you ignore them. You will indeed return them to your brother.

Kukis not so literal:

If you observe your brother’s ox or sheep wandering loose, you will not ignore this; you will certainly gather them up and return them to your brother.


Here is how others have translated this verse:

 

Ancient texts:                       Note: I compare the Hebrew text to English translations of the Latin, Syriac and Greek texts, using the Douay-Rheims translation Footnote ; George Lamsa’s translation, and Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton’s translation as revised and edited by Paul W. Esposito, respectively. I often update these texts with non-substantive changes (e.g., you for thou, etc.). I often use the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible instead of Brenton’s translation, because it updates the English text.

 

The Septuagint was the earliest known translation of a book (circa 200 b.c.). Since this translation was made before the textual criticism had been developed into a science and because different books appear to be translated by different men, the Greek translation can sometimes be very uneven.

 

When there are serious disparities between my translation and Brenton’s (or the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible), I look at the Greek text of the Septuagint (the LXX) to see if a substantive difference actually exists (and I reflect these changes in the English rendering of the Greek text). I use the Greek LXX with Strong’s numbers and morphology available for e-sword. The only problem with this resource (which is a problem for similar resources) is, there is no way to further explore Greek verbs which are not found in the New Testament. Although I usually quote the Complete Apostles’ Bible here, I have begun to make changes in the translation when their translation conflicts with the Greek and note what those changes are.

 

The Masoretic text is the Hebrew text with all of the vowels (vowel points) inserted (the original Hebrew text lacked vowels). We take the Masoretic text to be the text closest to the original. However, differences between the Masoretic text and the Greek, Latin and Syriac are worth noting and, once in a great while, represent a more accurate text possessed by those other ancient translators.

 

In general, the Latin text is an outstanding translation from the Hebrew text into Latin and very trustworthy (I say this as a non-Catholic). Unfortunately, I do not read Latin—apart from some very obvious words—so I am dependent upon the English translation of the Latin (principally, the Douay-Rheims translation).

 

Underlined words indicate differences in the text.

 

Bracketed portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls are words, letters and phrases lost in the scroll due to various types of damage. Underlined words or phrases are those in the Dead Sea Scrolls but not in the Masoretic text.

 

I will only list the translation from the Dead Sea Scrolls if it exists and if it is different from the Masoretic text.

 

The Targum of Onkelos is actually the Pentateuchal Targumim, which are The Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan Ben Uzziel. On the Pentateuch With The Fragments of the Jerusalem Targum From the Chaldee by J. W. Etheridge, M.A. Some of my sources have become dead sites. Currently, this is taken from: http://www.becomingjewish.org/texts/targum/onkelos_deuteronomy.html and first published in 1862.


Ancient texts:

 

Targum (trans. By Cook)        You will not see your brother”s ox or his lamb going astray, and estrange your knowledge from them; you will certainly restore them to him.

Latin Vulgate                          You will not pass by if you see your brother”s ox, or his sheep go astray: but you will bring them back to your brother.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        You will not see an ox of your brother or his sheep thrust aside and you have hidden yourself from them. Returning, you will return them to your brother.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    YOU shall not see your brothers ox or his sheep go astray, and disregard them; but you shall surely bring them back to your brother.

Septuagint (Greek)                When you see the calf of your brother or his sheep wandering in the way, you shall not overlook them; you shall by all means turn them back to your brother, and you shall restore them to him.

 

Significant differences:           The Hebrew seems to use an unusual verb here which must have this alternative meaning. The English translation of the Latin, Syriac and Greek translate the second verb to go astray, to wander.

 

On the third verb, some of the English translations moved the negative from the first verb to the third verb (which I did in my not-so-literal translation). It smooths out the English somewhat.

 

Both problems suggest some peculiarities in the Hebrew (not necessarily that anything is actually wrong, however).


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Rules for property and mixtures

Don't just watch your fellow Israelite's ox or sheep wandering around and do nothing about it. You must return the animal to its owner.

Contemporary English V.       If you see a cow or sheep wandering around lost, take the animal back to its owner.

Easy English                          Rules for life

You may see the cow or sheep of your brother (another *Israelite) that is running away. Then you must catch it. Do not look away from it. Take it back to him.

Easy-to-Read Version            “If you see that your neighbor’s cow or sheep is loose, you must not ignore it. You must be sure to take it back to its owner.

Good News Bible (TEV)         "If you see an Israelite's cow or sheep running loose, do not ignore it; take it back.

The Message                         If you see your kinsman's ox or sheep wandering off loose, don't look the other way as if you didn't see it. Return it promptly.

New Berkeley Version           “You shall not see the ox or sheep of your brother straying away and do nothing about it; you shall certainly bring it back to your brother.

New Century Version             If you see your fellow Israelite's ox or sheep wandering away, don't ignore it. Take it back to its owner.

New Life Version                    "If you see your brother's bull or sheep walking away, do not pretend that you do not see them. Be sure to return them to your brother.

New Living Translation           "If you see your neighbor's ox or sheep or goat wandering away, don't ignore your responsibility [Hebrew don't hide yourself; similarly in 22:3.]. Take it back to its owner.

The Voice

The next group of laws deals generally with the theme of property: what to do with livestock (whether it's yours or someone else's), what kind of clothes to make and wear, how to build a house, how to grow crops. But this theme is defined so broadly to embrace all these laws that they are likely also gathered together by the same mnemonic principle as the previous group.

 

Moses: If you see your neighbor's ox or sheep wandering away, don't ignore it. Bring the animal back to its owner.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          'Whenever you see your brother's calf or sheep wandering loose in the road, don't ignore it; you must lead it back to your brother and give it to him.

Beck’s American Translation Lost and Found

“When you see another Israelite’s ox or sheep that’s lost, don’t go away without helping. Be sure to take it back to him.

Christian Community Bible     Give back what you find

If you find the lost ox or sheep of your brother, do not pretend that you did not see it, but bring it back to its owner.

God’s Word                         If you see another Israelite's ox or sheep out where it doesn't belong, don't pretend that you don't see it. Make sure you take it back.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       If thou seest ox or sheep that belongs to thy fellow-Israelite going astray, do not hurry past; take it back to its owner, if he is a neighbour of thine, and known to thee. If not, shelter it thyself till he enquires, and restore it. V. 2 is included for context.

New American Bible              "You shall not see your kinsman's ox or sheep driven astray without showing concern about it; see to it that it is returned to your kinsman.

New American Bible (R.E.)    Concern for the Neighbor.

You shall not see your neighbor's ox or sheep going astray and ignore it; you must bring it back. Ex 23:4-5.

NIRV                                      Suppose you see your neighbor's ox or sheep wandering away. Then don't act as if you didn't see it. Instead, make sure you take it back to him.

New Jerusalem Bible             'If you see your brother's ox or one of his sheep straying, you must not disregard it: you must take it back to your brother.

Today’s NIV                          If you see someone else's ox or sheep straying, do not ignore it but be sure to take it back to its owner.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      Never see your brother's bull or his yearling outcast, and evade them: ||Return|| them to your brother.

Bible in Basic English             If you see your brother's ox or his sheep wandering, do not go by without helping, but take them back to your brother.

The Expanded Bible              If you see your ·fellow Israelite's [relative's; brother's] ox or sheep wandering away, don't ignore it. Take it back to ·its owner [your relative/brother; Ex. 23:4-5].

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 You shall not see the ox or sheep of your neighbor straying, and hide it from him. You shall drive them back to your neighbor.

NET Bible®                             Laws Concerning Preservation of Life

When you see [Heb "you must not see," but, if translated literally into English, the statement is misleading.] your neighbor's [Heb "brother's" (also later in this verse). In this context it is not limited to one's siblings, however; cf. NAB "your kinsman's."] ox or sheep going astray, do not ignore it [Heb "hide yourself."]; you must return it without fail [The Hebrew text uses the infinitive absolute for emphasis, which the translation indicates with the words "without fail."] to your neighbor. When it comes to making an actual material change to the text, the NET Bible® is pretty good about indicating this. Since most of these corrections will be clear in the more literal translations below and within the Hebrew exegesis itself, I will not continue to list every NET Bible® footnote.

NIV, ©2011                             If you see your fellow Israelite's ox or sheep straying, do not ignore it but be sure to take it back to its owner.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           "You are not to watch your brother's ox or sheep straying and behave as if you hadn't seen it; you must bring them back to your brother.

exeGeses companion Bible   THE TORAH ON SUNDRY MATTERS

See not the ox or the lamb of your brother driven,

and conceal yourself from them:

in returning, return them to your brother:...

Judaica Press Complete T.    You shall not see your brother's ox or sheep straying, and ignore them. Rather, you shall return them to your brother.

Kaplan Translation                 Returning Lost Articles

If you see your brother's ox or sheep going astray, you must not ignore them. You must return them to your brother. See Exodus 23:4. The Kaplan Translation, particularly in Exodus through Deuteronomy, takes note of historic rabbinic opinions.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           Thou shalt not see thy brother's shor or his seh go astray, and ignore them; thou shalt in any case bring them back unto thy brother.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                You shall not see your brother's ox or his sheep being driven away or stolen, and hide yourself from [your duty to help] them; you shall surely take them back to your brother.

Concordant Literal Version    You shall not see your brother's bull or his flockling or any domestic beast of his wandering away and then obscure yourself from them. You shall restore, yea restore them to your brother.

English Standard V. – UK       Various Laws

"You shall not see your brother's ox or his sheep going astray and ignore them. You shall take them back to your brother.

The updated Geneva Bible    You will not see your brothers ox or his sheep go astray, and hide thyself from them [As though your did not see it.]: you will in any case bring them again unto your brother.

NASB                                     Sundry Laws

"You shall not see your countryman's [Lit brother, and so through v 4] ox or his sheep straying away, and pay no attention to them [Lit hide yourself from them]; you shall certainly bring them back to your countryman.

New RSV                               You shall not watch your neighbour's ox or sheep straying away and ignore them; you shall take them back to their owner.

World English Bible                You shall not see your brother's ox or his sheep go astray, and hide yourself from them: you shall surely bring them again to your brother.

Young’s Updated LT             “You will not see the ox of your brother or his sheep driven away, and have hidden thyself from them, you will certainly turn them back to your brother.

 

The gist of this verse:          If you see the animals of a fellow citizen wandering about, return them to that person; do not ignore them.


Deuteronomy 22:1a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

râʾâh (רָאָה) [pronounced raw-AWH]

to see, to look, to look at, to view, to behold; to observe; to perceive, to understand, to learn, to know

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #7200 BDB #906

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

shôwr (שוֹר) [pronounced shohr]

an ox, a bull, a head of cattle

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #7794 BDB #1004

ʾâch (אָח) [pronounced awhk]

brother, half-brother; kinsman or close relative; one who resembles

masculine singular noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #251 BDB #26

ʾôw (אוֹ) [pronounced oh]

or, or rather, otherwise, also, and; if, perchance; except, or else; whether, not the least

conjunction

Strong's #176 BDB #14

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

seh (שֶׂה) [pronounced seh]

one of a flock, a lamb, a sheep, a goat; young sheep, young goats; collectively for a flock

masculine singular noun with a 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #7716 BDB #961

nâdach (נָדַח) [pronounced naw-DAHKH]

one who is banished, the one cast away [cast down], the one who is expelled [driven away] the one thrust [away, aside]

masculine plural, Niphal participle

Strong's #5080 BDB #623


Translation: You will not observe your brother’s ox or his sheep going astray... We have an interesting figure of speech here called an anastrophe [pronounced a-NAS-tro-phree]—this is where the word order is unusual or has been transposed. I have translated the verse literally with the negative associated with the word see. However, it is obvious that we are examining the situation where the person does see the animal wandering about loose. What they are not to do is they are not to hide themselves from the incident—i.e., they are not to ignore the escaped beast.

 

Jamieson, Fausset and Brown: "Brother" is a term of extensive application, comprehending persons of every description; not a relative, neighbor, or fellow countryman only, but any human being, known or unknown, a foreigner, and even an enemy (Ex. 23:4). Footnote


The second verb, the Niphal participle of nâdach (נָדַח) [pronounced naw-DAHKH] is somewhat of a problem. You will notice that in the definitions, it appears that something has been banished, expelled or thrust out. There is a very helpful tool in situations like this: The Englishman’s Hebrew Concordance of the Old Testament, by George V. Wigram. What is does is give me every occurrence of every Niphal use of nâdach (there are 20, and most of these are participles). Given the context, there is no indication that any of his brother’s flock have been driven away from the rest; however, this is the only way that this word is used elsewhere (Deut. 30:4 2Sam. 14:13–14 Neh. 1:2 etc.). This could mean several different things: (1) nâdach has this other rare usage; (2) Moses is suggesting that someone or something drove this animal away from the herd; or (3) there is an error in the text. All of the other words in this verse, with the exception of the next verb, are very common words, occurring hundreds of times in the Old Testament.


The situation is, you are about your daily business, and you come across an ox or a sheep or whatever kind of animal that belongs to a brother. This would not be a person’s literal brother, but it refers to a fellow Israelite (as they all have the genes of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob).


Something that ought to be pointed out: what Moses is saying here is not limited to finding exactly one ox or exactly one sheep. You might find two lambs; there may be three wolverines that escape from your friend’s wolverine farm. You might find his wallet on the street. Moses gives but two examples; however, there is no reason to confine it only to those two examples.


Application: Quite obviously, today, the chances of you running across the sheep or oxen of someone who lives two streets over are practically nil. However, finding the wallet of someone else is very possible. Finding another person’s possession will happen to pretty much everyone. It might be a school book, a purse, a DVD, a checkbook, a cellphone; a mishandled delivery of a letter. Therefore, this applies to you. What Moses says about returning this ox or sheep also applies to you as well.


Sheep going astray is actually an important concept at least twice more in Scripture. When speaking prophetically of the Messiah as the Suffering Servant, Isaiah writes, All we like sheep have gone astray; we have each one turned to his own way; and Jehovah made meet in Him the iniquity of all of us (Isa. 53:6; Green’s Literal translation). Peter quotes a portion of this passage, applying it to the Jews who had wandered away from their Savior: For you were "as sheep going astray," but now you turned back to the Shepherd and Overseer of your souls. (1Peter 2:25; Isa. 53:6; Green’s Literal translation)


Jesus also uses a sheep going astray in one of His more famous parables: What man of you having a hundred sheep, and losing one of them, does not leave the ninety nine in the deserted place and go after the lost one until he finds it? And finding it, he puts it on his shoulders, rejoicing. And coming to the house, he calls together the friends and neighbors, saying to them, Rejoice with me, for I have found my sheep that had been lost. I say to you that so is joy in Heaven over one sinner repenting, than over ninety nine righteous ones who have no need of repentance (Luke 15:4–7; Green’s Literal translation).


So, even though Moses is just giving a simple example about private property and impersonal love toward one’s neighbor, the idea of a sheep wandering off, and the idea of looking for one’s lost sheep is fundamental in the passages quoted.


Deuteronomy 22:1b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʿâlam (עָלַם) [pronounced ģaw-LAHM]

to hide oneself, to hide one’s eyes, to turn oneself away from; to intentionally neglect or ignore

2nd person masculine singular, Hithpael perfect

Strong’s #5956 BDB #761

In the Hiphil, it is often used in conjunction with eyes or ears, and it can mean to hide one’s eyes from which means to disregard. In hiding the ear, it is similar to our expression to turn a deaf ear (Lam. 3:56). Here, it is found in the Hithpael stem (the intensive, reflexive stem). My guess is that this might be a shorthand idiom meaning essentially the same as turning a deaf ear to or simply disregarding. Strong’s #5956 BDB #761.

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #4480 BDB #577


Translation: ...while you ignore them. The verb here is ʿâlam (עָלַם) [pronounced ģaw-LAHM], which means to hide, to conceal. In the Hiphil, it is often used in conjunction with eyes or ears, and it can mean to hide one’s eyes from which means to disregard. In hiding the ear, it is similar to our expression to turn a deaf ear (Lam. 3:56). Here, it is found in the Hithpael stem (the intensive, reflexive stem). My guess is that this might be a shorthand idiom meaning essentially the same as turning a deaf ear to or simply disregarding. Strong’s #5956 BDB #761.


Now, you see this animal running loose and you know that it belongs to a fellow Israelite. Now the implication is, you are on your own business; you are doing your own thing; you are on the way to an appointment; you are busy yourself. Because of your own schedule, your first impulse is to be on your way to do what needs to be done, and to ignore the animal (which represents both food and wealth in the ancient world).


Moses does not simply tell you to ignore your first instinct; he is adamant about it.


Deuteronomy 22:1c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

shûwb (שוּב) [pronounced shoobv]

to cause to return, to bring, to be caused to turn back mentally, reminisce, to return something, to restore, to bring back, to send back, to regain, to recover, to make restitution, reconsider, think again, to be caused to return

Hiphil infinitive absolute

Strong's #7725 BDB #996

When a verb is doubled, this is the Hebrew mode of expressing intensity, repetition, or emphasis.

The infinitive absolute has four uses: ➊ when found alone, it sometimes acts as an English gerund, so that we may add ing to the end of the verb; ➋ When found directly before its verbal cognate, it serves to intensify or strengthen the action or the meaning of the verb which follows; ➌ When it follows its cognate verb, it emphasizes the duration or the continuation of the verbal idea; and, ➍ it is sometimes used as a substitute for a finite verb form. Footnote

A Qal infinitive absolute is a verb which can act like noun, a verb or an adverb. Generally it takes the place of a noun and serves to intensify meanings. When it is found before the finite verb of the same root, it emphasizes the certainty or the decisiveness of the verbal idea of the root. Footnote When used as a complement of affirmation, it may be rendered surely, indeed, definitely; and when it is a complement of improbability and condition, we render it at all, freely, indeed. The Qal infinitive absolute can also serve as an adverbial complement; or, as a verb, it can replace finite verbs, imperatives, participles, and the infinitive constructs. Footnote

shûwb (שוּב) [pronounced shoobv]

to cause to return, to bring, to be caused to turn back mentally, reminisce, to return something, to restore, to bring back, to send back, to regain, to recover, to make restitution, reconsider, think again, to be caused to return

2nd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #7725 BDB #996

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾâch (אָח) [pronounced awhk]

brother, half-brother; kinsman or close relative; one who resembles

masculine singular noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #251 BDB #26


Translation: You will indeed return them to your brother. The doubling of the verb intensifies or strengthens the meaning of the main verb. We would add the words definitely, surely, indeed.


You are your brother’s keeper. Footnote You do not get to ignore a situation like this or act as though you did not see the wandering ox. Moses gives them no choice—they must return the beast to its owner. Here, brother refers to a fellow Jew, which is why the NASB renders this as countryman. Whereas brother in our dispensation means one who is spiritually related to us—that is, they are believers as well; it refers to a fellow Jew in the Age of Israel.


This circumstance does not necessarily mean someone with whom you are on good terms with. “If you meet your enemy’s ox or his donkey wandering away, you will without fail, return it to him. If you see the donkey of one who hates you lying under its load, you will refrain from leaving it to him. You will, without fail, release [the load] with him.” (Ex. 23:4–5). Fair compassionate treatment from you toward all is expected by God. Personal property under the law is such a fundamental right that Israelites were enjoined by God to protect and preserve the property of others. When they came upon the property of another, they were to act as an conservator of sorts, doing whatever was necessary to protect the property of a fellow Jew. “And just as you want men to do to you, do to them in the same way.” (Luke 6:31). “Therefore, whatever you want others to do for you, you too do so for them, for this is the Law and the Prophets.” (Matt. 7:12). Our Lord says that this is a summation of the Law and the Prophets, in terms of our relationship to man. If the missing item was yours, you would want it to be return quickly to you. Therefore, you are to do the same for a fellow Israelite. In our dispensation, we are to do that toward anyone, whether friend or enemy (which does not represent a change from the Age of Israel).


When examining the Mosaic Law, we should bear in mind that, some things which Moses said did not come with a penalty; that he was merely urging one to do the right thing. This is what we find here. One might call this the original Good Samaritan Law, except that there are no penalties attached for disobeying it. Moses is simply saying that this is the right thing to do.

 

J. Vernon McGee: In my day we have heard a great deal about a good neighbor policy. God had a good neighbor policy for His people in that day. I remember during Franklin Roosevelt’s administration when he came out with the “good neighbor policy,” all the pundits and reporters acclaimed it as something brand new. They hailed Roosevelt as a sort of Messiah and thought he had come up with something wonderful. May I say to you that the good neighbor policy is as old as Moses—actually much older than Moses. It goes back to the very throne of God in eternity. He is the One who says we are to adopt a good neighbor policy, and it is to be demonstrated in our everyday life. Footnote


Over and over again, the Bible teaches that life is not just about us; and that we should be cognizant of the situations and circumstances of others. This does not mean that this will prevent us from being cheated or taken advantage of. That will happen from time to time. This does not mean that you make bad business decisions; but this does mean that you take others into consideration when you make a decision. Along these same lines, Jesus said, “Do to others as you would have them do to you.” Moses here gives simply a specific instance of following these words of Jesus.


Let me also point out that much of what is found in the book of the Law are things which are good for a nation; things which are good for a people. This ought to be our thinking in dealing with others simply because it is better for our nation that we do this. This might be seen as part of the morality of divine establishment laws.


We have had a recent example of this, which should have drawn people of the United States together. It has been shown that certain groups apply for an official status received poor treatment at the hands of the IRS. These were TEA party type groups and groups which support the intent of the original founders (I write this in 2013). This is a point where liberals, despite the difference of ideology, should have stood up with these conservatives and said, “This is wrong. You cannot ask groups who they associate with, whom they vote for or what do they pray about. We would not want a conservative administration doing this to us, and a liberal administration should not use the government bureaucracy to attack you in this way.” Instead, all of the liberals I knew, first went with the official story that it was just a few rogue agents; then went with the official story that everyone got targeted like this; and then they justified what was being done (stuff they had denied previously). Rather than first consider, maybe the IRS is targeting people with the wrong political ideology; and if so, that is completely wrong.


This is but one example of many where we as a nation are further and further divided by politics, which is the opposite of what Jesus was saying; and the opposite of what Moses is saying here. Moses says here that you look after the interests of your neighbor.


——————————


And if [is] not near your brother, and you do not know him, and you will transport him unto a midst of your house and he is with you until a seeking of your brother [for] him; and you have returned him to him.

Deuteronomy

22:2

But if your brother [is] not nearby and you do not know where he is [lit., you do not know him], then you will transport it [the wandering animal] to the midst of your house and it will be with you until your brother seeks [for] it; then you will return it to him.

If the lost animal is before you, but you do not know where your brother is, then you will take the animal to your own house and keep him there until you know that your brother is seeking it; and then you will return the animal to him.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                But if knowledge of your brother is not yours, if you know him not, you will bring it into your house, and it will be supported by you till the time that you have sought out your brother, and you will restore it to him.

Latin Vulgate                          And if your brother be not nigh, or you know him not: you will bring them to your house, and they will be with you until your brother seek them, and receive them.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And if [is] not near your brother, and you do not know him, and you will transport him unto a midst of your house and he is with you until a seeking of your brother [for] him; and you have returned him to him.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And if your brother is not near you, or if you do not know him, then you shall bring it to your own house, and it shall be with you until your brother seeks after it, and you shall restore it to him again.

Septuagint (Greek)                And if your brother is not near you, or if you do not know him, you shall bring it into your own house; and it shall be with you until your brother shall seek them, and you shall restore them to him.

 

Significant differences:           The targum appears to repeat the same thought twice in the two first phrases.

 

The 4th phrase is somewhat different in the targum, but that seems to be the implication of the Hebrew.

 

The final verb ought to be restore rather than receive (as found in the English translation of the Latin).


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           If the owner doesn't live nearby, or you don't know who owns the animal, then you must take care of it. It should stay with you until your fellow Israelite comes looking for it, at which point you must return it to him.

Contemporary English V.       If the owner lives too far away, or if you don't know who the owner is, take the animal home with you and take care of it. The owner will come looking for the animal, and then you can give it back.

Easy English                          Perhaps the man does not live near you. Perhaps you do not know him. Then take the animal to your home and keep it safe. When the man comes to look for it, give it to him.

Easy-to-Read Version            If the owner does not live near you or if you don’t know who it belongs to, then you may take the cow or sheep to your house. And you may keep it with you until the owner comes looking for it. Then you must give it back to him.

Good News Bible (TEV)         But if its owner lives a long way off or if you don't know who owns it, then take it home with you. When its owner comes looking for it, give it to him.

The Message                         If your fellow Israelite is not close by or you don't know whose it is, take the animal home with you and take care of it until your fellow asks about it. Then return it to him.

New Berkeley Version           If your brother does not live in your immediate neighborhood, or if you do not know him, then you must take the ox or sheep to your own place and keep it with you until your brother looks for it; then you must restore it to him.

New Century Version             If the owner does not live close to you, or if you do not know who the owner is, take the animal home with you. Keep it until the owner comes looking for it; then give it back.

New Life Bible                        If your brother is not home, or if you do not know who he is, then bring the animal to your house. Keep it there until your brother looks for it. Then return it to him.

New Living Translation           If its owner does not live nearby or you don't know who the owner is, take it to your place and keep it until the owner comes looking for it. Then you must return it.

The Voice                               If the owner lives far from you, or if you don't know whose animal it is, bring it back to your house and take care of it until the owner comes looking for it, and then return it to the Israelite.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          However, if your brother doesn't live near you and you don't know [who owns the animal]; you must take it home with you and keep it until your brother comes searching for it, then give it back to him.

Beck’s American Translation If the other Israelite doesn’t live near you and you don’t know him, take it home with you. It should stay with you until our fellow Israelite comes to claim it; then give it back to him.

Christian Community Bible     If your brother does not live near you, or you do not know to whom the animal belongs, you shall keep it in your house until its owner comes looking for it. Then you shall return it to him.

God’s Word                         If the owner doesn't live near you or you don't know who owns it, take the animal home with you. Keep it until the owner comes looking for it. Then give it back.

New American Bible (R.E.)    If this neighbor does not live near you, or you do not know who the owner may be, take it to your own house and keep it with you until your neighbor claims it; then return it.

NIRV                                      Your neighbor might not live near you. Or you might not know who he is. Then take the animal home with you. Keep it until he comes looking for it. Then give it back.

New Jerusalem Bible             And if he is not close at hand or you do not know who he is, you must take it home with you and keep it by you until your brother comes to look for it; you will then return it to him.

New Simplified Bible              »If you are not acquainted with your brother, or you just do not know him, then you should bring it home to your house. Keep it with you until your brother looks for it. Then you should give it to him.

Today’s NIV                          If the owner does not live near you or if you do not know who owns it, take it home with you and keep it until the owner comes looking for it. Then give it back.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      If your brother is not near to you, and you do not know him, gather it amidst you and your house to be with you until your brother requests it and return it to him.

Bible in Basic English             If their owner is not near, or if you are not certain who he is, then take the beast to your house and keep it till its owner comes in search of it, and then you are to give it back to him.

The Expanded Bible              If ·the owner [your relative/brother] does not live close to you, or if you do not know who the owner is, take the animal home with you. Keep it until ·the owner [your relative/brother] comes looking for it; then give it back.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 But if you cannot find your neighbor in your vicinity, or do not know him, then you shall preserve them in your own premises; but if it occurs afterwards that your neighbor enquires for them from you, then return them to him.

NET Bible®                             If the owner [Heb "your brother" (also later in this verse).] does not live [Heb "is not." The idea of "residing" is implied.] near you or you do not know who the owner is [Heb "and you do not know him."], then you must corral the animal [Heb "it"; the referent (the ox or sheep mentioned in v. 1) has been specified in the translation for clarity.] at your house and let it stay with you until the owner looks for it; then you must return it to him.

New Heart English Bible        If your brother isn't near to you, or if you do not know him, then you shall bring it home to your house, and it shall be with you until your brother seek after it, and you shall restore it to him.

NIV – UK                                If they do not live near you or if you do not know who owns it, take it home with you and keep it until they come looking for it. Then give it back.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           If your brother is not close by, or you don't know who the owner is, you are to bring it home to your house; and it will remain with you until your brother asks for it; then you are to give it back to him.

exeGeses companion Bible   ...and if your brother is not near you

or if you know him not,

then gather it midst your own house

and it is with you until your brother seeks after it:

and restore it to him.

Kaplan Translation                 If your brother is not near you, or if you do not know who [the owner is], you must bring [the animal] home and keep it until your brother identifies it, whereupon you must return it to him.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           And if thy brother be not near unto thee, or if thou know him not, then thou shalt bring it unto thine own bais, and it shall be with thee until thy brother seek after it, and thou shalt restore it to him again.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                And if your brother [the owner] is not near you or if you do not know who he is, you shall bring the animal to your house and it shall be with you until your brother comes looking for it; then you shall restore it to him.

Context Group Version          And if your brother is not near to you, or if you don't know him, then you shall bring it home to your house, and it shall be with you until your brother seeks after it, and you shall restore it to him.

English Standard Version      And if he does not live near you and you do not know who he is, you shall bring it home to your house, and it shall stay with you until your brother seeks it. Then you shall restore it to him.

The updated Geneva Bible    And if your brother [be] not near [Showing that brotherly affection must be shown, not only to those who dwell near to us, but also to those who are far off. ] unto you, or if you know him not, then you will bring it unto your own house, and it will be with you until your brother seek after it, and you will restore it to him again.

Green’s Literal Translation    And if your brother is not near you, and you do not know him, then you shall surely bring it home to your house; and it shall be with you until your brother inquires of it; and you shall restore it to him.

NASB                                     If your countryman is not near you, or if you do not know him, then you shall bring it home to your house, and it shall remain with you until your countryman looks for it; then you shall restore it to him.

New RSV                               If the owner does not reside near you or you do not know who the owner is, you shall bring it to your own house, and it shall remain with you until the owner claims it; then you shall return it.

World English Bible                If your brother isn't near to you, or if you don't know him, then you shall bring it home to your house, and it shall be with you until your brother seek after it, and you shall restore it to him.

Young’s Updated LT             And if your brother is not near unto you, and you have not known him, then you have removed it unto the midst of your house, and it has been with you till your brother seek it, and you have given it back to him.

 

The gist of this verse:          If you do not know to whom the beast belongs, or that person lives too far away, then you bring it back to your own home and take care of it. When the owner looks for it, then you return it to the owner.


Deuteronomy 22:2a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾîm (אִם) [pronounced eem]

if, though; lo, behold; oh that, if only; when, since, though when (or, if followed by a perfect tense which refers to a past event)

primarily an hypothetical particle

Strong's #518 BDB #49

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

qârôb (קָרֹב) or qârôwb (קָרוֹב) [pronounced kaw-ROBV]

near [in place or time], contiguous, imminent, within a short pace; short, shortness; near in relation, intimate acquaintance; that which is familiar to us; one who brings aide to another; soon, presently

masculine adjective; can be used as a substantive

Strong’s #7138 BDB #898

ʾâch (אָח) [pronounced awhk]

brother, half-brother; kinsman or close relative; one who resembles

masculine singular noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #251 BDB #26


Translation: But if your brother [is] not nearby... In the example that Moses gives, there is the problem that your brother is not anywhere nearby. You cannot run up the block, find your brother (i.e., your fellow citizen), and tell him that you have found his sheep (or ox or whatever).


This is a pretty open-ended problem. Your brother, the owner of the sheep, is nowhere nearby. Maybe he is out of town, off the grid; or maybe you do not know exactly where he lives.


Application: You have come across something which clearly belongs to someone else. That person is not right there to return it to.


Deuteronomy 22:2b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

yâdaʿ (יָדַע) [pronounced yaw-DAHĢ]

to know, to perceive, to acquire knowledge, to become acquainted with, to know by experience, to have a knowledge of something; to see; to learn; to recognize [admit, acknowledge, confess]

2nd person masculine singular, Qal perfect with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #3045 BDB #393


Translation: ...and you do not know where he is [lit., you do not know him],... In the English, our disjunction or can mean an inclusive or an exclusive disjunction. In an inclusive disjunction, A or B means A could be true, B could be true or A and B could be true. If only A is true or B is true, it is called an exclusive disjunction. The common conjunction of Hebrew here appears to function here as an exclusive disjunction—that is, you either know who the animal belongs to and they do not live anywhere near you, or you have no clue as to who the animal belongs to.


Likely, the intent here is, you have come across something that is not yours, but clearly belongs to someone else, but maybe you do not know who that person is. Or, and this is by way of application, you know who is belongs to, but they are nowhere around.


Not knowing the person or knowing where he lives does not change the response in this situation. The animal belongs to him; minor difficulties in locating the owner do not change that.


Deuteronomy 22:2c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾâçaph (אָסַף) [pronounced aw-SAHF]

to collect, to relocate, to transfer, to transport, to gather (together), to gather and remove, to remove

2nd person masculine singular, Qal perfect with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #622 BDB #62

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

tâveke (תָּוֶ) [pronounced taw-VEKE]

midst, among, middle

masculine singular construct

Strong's #8432 BDB #1063

bayith (בַּיִת) [pronounced BAH-yith]

house, residence; household, habitation as well as inward

masculine singular noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #1004 BDB #108


Translation: ...then you will transport it [the wandering animal] to the midst of your house... The verb here is ʾâçaph (אָסַף) [pronounced aw-SAHF], and this word means to gather, remove, got. This word appears to be used when things which were in one place have now been moved to another. Therefore, we could also use the words transfer, relocate, transport. Strong's #622 BDB #62.


The animal which you have found cannot be left to just wander. You are told here to take this thing home. That thing which belongs to someone else is now under your care and safekeeping until you can run down the rightful owner to return it.


Taking this animal to the midst of your house does not mean that you determine the exact middle of your home and place the animal there. The idea is, this animal is now under your care, so you must see to its needs and comfort. You feed it and give it water. The midst thing just indicates that you just don’t haul it home and put it in a pen or whatever; you take care of it until the owner is located.


The whole idea is, you treat this animal as if it is yours—although the midst of the house phrase suggests that you might treat this animal even a bit better. And you do for the animal as you would like a neighbor to do for your wandering animal. As Jesus said: Therefore, all things, whatever you desire that men should do to you, so also you should do to them; for this is the Law and the Prophets (Matt. 7:12; Green’s Literal translation).


Deuteronomy 22:2d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

ʿîm (עִם) [pronounced ģeem]

with, at, by, near; like; from

preposition of nearness and vicinity with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5973 BDB #767

ʿad (עַד) [pronounced ģahd]

as far as, even to, up to, until

preposition

Strong’s #5704 BDB #723

dârash (דָּרַש) [pronounced daw-RASH]

to seek, to make inquiries concerning, to consult, to investigate, to study, to follow, to inquire; to require

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #1875 BDB #205

The infinitive construct can serve in any nominal capacity: subject, predicate, object of a preposition. Footnote The infinitive construct is one of the two infinitives found in the Hebrew language without reference to person, gender or number. The short explanation is that the lâmed plus the infinitive construct can introduce a purpose clause, a result clause or a temporal clause. It can act as a noun or a gerund in any syntactic position. The subject or agent will generally follow an infinitive construct. The subject can be separated from the infinitive by the object or by other intervening words, breaking the construct relation and the infinitive construct acts primarily as a verb. When placed before an object, an infinitive construct generally acts like a verb, particularly when preceded by lâmed.

ʾâch (אָח) [pronounced awhk]

brother, half-brother; kinsman or close relative; one who resembles

masculine singular noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #251 BDB #26

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

him; untranslated mark of a direct object; occasionally to him, toward him

sign of the direct object affixed to a 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #853 BDB #84


Translation: ...and it will be with you until your brother seeks [for] it;... If you do not know exactly who the sheep or ox belongs to, you will hold onto it and take care of it; until you see some neighbor post a “Sheep Missing; contact Charley Brown” poster on the nearest telephone pole with his cellphone number.


Here is also a place where you use your head. Let’s say this is someone you know, but they live too far away for you to bring the animal to them. Well, you do not have to wait until they advertise or make it known that they have lost the animal; if you know where the animal should go, then you make arrangements to get the animal to them as quickly as possible. The option spoken of here applies to the owner whom you do not know.


Moses is following up on the possibility that you do not know who the owner is. Again, this might be a cellphone, a checkbook, a misdelivered letter, or whatever. You do what is necessary to figure out who the owner is. If you cannot figure that out, then you wait until you hear about someone looking for that lost item.


I found a cellphone on a golf course once. Having no idea how to determine who the phone belonged to, I simply dialed the last number on the phone and asked them if they knew whose phone was calling them. The owner was located and his wife picked up the phone within an hour.


Quite obviously, you do not use a cellphone which you found to call everyone that you know in Brazil or the Philippines.


Deuteronomy 22:2e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

shûwb (שוּב) [pronounced shoobv]

to cause to return, to bring, to be caused to turn back mentally, reminisce, to return something, to restore, to bring back, to send back, to regain, to recover, to make restitution, reconsider, think again, to be caused to return

2nd person masculine singular, Hiphil perfect with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #7725 BDB #996

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510


Translation: ...then you will return it to him. When you have figured out to whom the missing item belongs, you then return it to them. You don’t ask for a reward; and you do not hint for a reward. There are a few rare instances where a reward is appropriate, but that ought to be initiated only by the person with the lost item. If you return a wallet stuffed with hundred dollar bills, it is up to the owner whether to give you a reward or not—and if they don’t, then you don’t worry about it. It was not yours; it belongs to someone else; and that is the long and short of it.


Here you find the roaming animal; you cannot just allow it to roam because you do not recognize who it belongs to or you know, but they live a tremendous distance away. You must take the animal in as if it were your own and care for it. It does not matter if you know the owner or not. There are certainly minor issues to deal with. If the animal has come from a distance, it would make sense to return the animal whether or not the owner contacted you in particular. Although Moses does not go into any great detail, there is no implication that it is your if the owner does not look for it but you know who the owner is. However, in the case where you do not know the owner, then you don’t have much choice but to wait until someone announces that they are missing one of their animals.


Application: The Bible is very big on personal property. Here, you have come across property which belongs to someone else and you are told by Moses to return that property to its rightful owner. The final commandment says, “You will not covet.” That is, you do not nurture a desire for this or that which your neighbor owns. In your life, more than half the people that you meet have a nicer home, nicer car, nicer boat, larger bank account, a better entertainment system, etc. than you have. That is theirs. You have no rights to it. It is not up to you to try to even things out through some wealth distribution scheme. That is anti-Biblical and anti-establishment.


——————————


And so you will do to his ass and so you will do to his garment and so you will do to any lost thing of your brother which is lost from him and you have found her. You will not be able to hide yourself.

Deuteronomy

22:3

And you will do the same thing for his ass, his outer garment or any missing item which your brother has lost, but you have found [lit., And so you will do to his ass and so you will do to his garment and so you will do to any lost thing of your brother which is lost from him and you have found her]. You are not allowed [lit., not able] to neglect [any of these things].

You will do the exact same thing whether you have found your neighbor’s ass, overcoat, cellphone, wallet, or whatever. You may not neglect dealing with a valuable possession that you come across.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                So will you do with his ass, with his garment, and with any lost thing of your brother’s. If you find, it is not lawful for you to hide it from him; you will cry it, and restore it.

Jerusalem targum                  And so shalt thou do with his ass, and with his robe.

Latin Vulgate                          You will do in like manner with his ass, and with his raiment, and with every thing that is your brother’s, which is lost: if you find it, neglect it not as pertaining to another.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so you will do to his ass and so you will do to his garment and so you will do to any lost thing of your brother which is lost from him and you have found her. You will not be able to hide yourself.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    In like manner shall you do with his ox and with his ass, and so with his garment; and so shall you do with anything which your brother has lost, and you have found; it is unlawful for you to delay in restoring it.

Septuagint (Greek)                Thus shall you do to his donkey, and thus shall you do to his garment, and thus shall you do to everything that your brother has lost; whatsoever things have been lost by him, and you have found, you shall not have power to overlook.

 

Significant differences:           The Jerusalem targum is considerably shorter and the Targum of Onkelos has an additional two phrases (common for targums). The Syriac appears to add a few extra words.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Do the same thing in the case of a donkey. Do the same thing in the case of a piece of clothing. Do the same thing in the case of anything that your fellow Israelite loses and you end up finding. You are not allowed to sit back and do nothing about it.

Contemporary English V.       That's what you should do if you find anything that belongs to someone else. Do whatever you can to help, whether you find a cow or sheep or donkey or some clothing.

Easy English                          You must do the same thing if you find a *donkey or some clothes or anything else. Do not look away from it.

Easy-to-Read Version            You must do the same thing when you find your neighbor’s donkey, your neighbor’s clothes or anything else your neighbor loses. You must help your neighbor.

Good News Bible (TEV)         Do the same thing if you find a donkey, a piece of clothing, or anything else that an Israelite may have lost.

The Message                         Do the same if it's his donkey or a piece of clothing or anything else your fellow Israelite loses. Don't look the other way as if you didn't see it.

New Life Bible                        Do the same with his donkey, or his coat, or anything lost by your brother. If you find what he has lost, you must help him.

New Living Translation           Do the same if you find your neighbor's donkey, clothing, or anything else your neighbor loses. Don't ignore your responsibility.

The Voice                               Do the same thing with a donkey or a garment or anything else a neighbor might lose. If you find it, don't ignore it; take care of it until the owner comes looking for it.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          That's what you must do for his burro, his clothing, or anything else that your brother has lost. don't overlook anything!

Beck’s American Translation Do the same with his donkey, his clothes, or any article that he loses and you find—you must not refuse to help.

Christian Community Bible     Do the same with his ass, his clothes, or with anything lost by your brother that you happen to find. Do not pretend not to notice them.

God’s Word                         Do the same if you find a donkey, some clothes, or anything else that another Israelite may have lost. Don't pretend that you don't know what to do.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       And so with an ass or with a garment or any other lost thing that belongs to thy fellow-Israelite; do not leave them where thou findest them, as if it did not concern thee.

New American Bible              You shall do the same with his ass, or his garment, or anything else which your kinsman loses and you happen to find; you may not be unconcerned about them.

NIRV                                      Do the same thing if you find his donkey, coat or anything he loses. Don't act as if you didn't see it.

New Jerusalem Bible             'You must do the same with his donkey, the same with his cloak, the same with anything that your brother loses and that you find; you must not disregard it.

Today’s NIV                          Do the same if you find someone's donkey or cloak or anything else they have lost. Do not ignore it.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      So do with his ass, and so do with his raiment. So do with any-thing lost by your brother which vanished from him. You find and you do: you can not evade it.

Bible in Basic English             Do the same with his ass or his robe or anything which has gone from your brother's keeping and which you have come across: do not keep it to yourself.

The Expanded Bible              Do the same thing if you find a donkey or ·coat [cloak; garment] or anything someone lost. Don't just ignore it.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 You shall also do the same with his ass, and the same to his clothing, and the same with everything lost by your neighbor, —which he has lost and you have found. You shall not use them secretly.

NET Bible®                             You shall do the same to his donkey, his clothes, or anything else your neighbor [Heb "your brother" (also in v. 4).] has lost and you have found; you must not refuse to get involved [Heb "you must not hide yourself."].


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           You are to do the same with his donkey, his coat or anything else of your brother's that he loses. If you find something he lost, you must not ignore it.

exeGeses companion Bible   Thus you work with his he burro;

and thus you work with his clothes;

and with all that is lost of your brother

which he lost and you found, work likewise:

you cannot conceal yourself.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               You shall do the same with his ass; you shall do the same with his garment; and so too shall you do with anything that your fellow loses and you find: you must not remain indifferent.

Kaplan Translation                 You must do the same to a donkey, an article of clothing, or anything else that your brother loses and you find. You must not ignore it.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           In like manner shalt thou do with his chamor; and so shalt thou do with his raiment; and with all lost things of thy brother's, which he hath lost, and thou hast found, shalt thou do likewise; thou mayest not ignore it.

The Scriptures 1998              “And so you do with his donkey, and so you do with his garment, and so you do with whatever your brother loses, which he has lost and you have found. You are not allowed to hide yourself.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                And so shall you do with his donkey or his garment or with anything which your brother has lost and you have found. You shall not hide from [your duty concerning] them.

Concordant Literal Version    So shall you do with his donkey, so shall you do with his garment, and so shall you do with every loss of your brother which is being lost by him, when you find it. You shall not be able to obscure yourself.

English Standard Version      And you shall do the same with his donkey or with his garment, or with any lost thing of your brother's, which he loses and you find; you may not ignore it.

The updated Geneva Bible    In like manner will you do with his ass; and so will you do with his raiment; and with all lost thing of your brothers, which he has lost, and you have found, will you do likewise: you may not hide thyself. You are bound to do much more for your neighbour.

NASB                                     Thus you shall do with his donkey, and you shall do the same with his garment, and you shall do likewise with anything lost by your countryman, which he has lost and you have found. You are not allowed to neglect [Lit hide yourself] them.

New RSV                               You shall do the same with a neighbour's donkey; you shall do the same with a neighbour's garment; and you shall do the same with anything else that your neighbour loses and you find. You may not withhold your help.

Webster’s Bible Translation  In like manner shalt thou do with his ass; and so shalt thou do with his raiment; and with all lost things of thy brother's, which he hath lost, and thou hast found, shalt thou do likewise: thou mayest not hide thyself.

Young’s Updated LT             And so you will to his ass, and so you will to his garment, and so you will to any lost thing of your brother’s, which is lost by him, and you have found it; you are not able to hide yourself.

 

The gist of this verse:          The same thing is true of any lost item by a neighbor. You are not allowed to simply ignore it.


Deuteronomy 22:3a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

kên (כֵּן) [pronounced kane]

so, therefore, thus; then, afterwards; upright, honest; rightly, well; [it is] so, such, so constituted

properly, an active participle; used primarily as an adverb

Strong's #3651 BDB #485

ʿâsâh (עָשָֹה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWH]

to do, to make, to construct, to fashion, to form, to prepare, to manufacture

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #6213 BDB #793

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

chămôwr (חֲמוֹר) [pronounced khuh-MOHR]

ass, male donkey, he-ass, burrow

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #2543 BDB #331


Translation: And you will do the same thing for his ass,... I have taken a few liberties with the translation here, but will give the more literal rendering a few sections down.


As I applied earlier, this is not limited to only the things which Moses mentioned earlier. Moses now makes this point himself. This applies to anything that your brother (fellow Israelite) has lost or misplaced.


Deuteronomy 22:3b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

kên (כֵּן) [pronounced kane]

so, therefore, thus; then, afterwards; upright, honest; rightly, well; [it is] so, such, so constituted

properly, an active participle; used primarily as an adverb

Strong's #3651 BDB #485

ʿâsâh (עָשָֹה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWH]

to do, to make, to construct, to fashion, to form, to prepare, to manufacture

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #6213 BDB #793

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

sîmelâh (שִׂמְלָה) [pronounced sime-LAW]

[covering, outer] garment, mantle, clothing, cloth

feminine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #8071 BDB #971


Translation: ...his outer garment... All things which belong to your neighbor continue to belong to him. The Bible teaches just the exact opposite of finders keepers.


In many ways, this is a further application of the tenth commandment, you will not covet anything which is your neighbor’s. Whatever you happen to find—even if you really, really like it—belongs to the original owner.


Deuteronomy 22:3c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

kên (כֵּן) [pronounced kane]

so, therefore, thus; then, afterwards; upright, honest; rightly, well; [it is] so, such, so constituted

properly, an active participle; used primarily as an adverb

Strong's #3651 BDB #485

ʿâsâh (עָשָֹה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWH]

to do, to make, to construct, to fashion, to form, to prepare, to manufacture

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #6213 BDB #793

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

ʾăbêdâh (הֲבֵדָה) [pronounced ub-vay-DAW]

lost thing, something which was lost; missing item

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #9 BDB #2

E-sword presents this as a form of the cognate verb instead.

ʾâch (אָח) [pronounced awhk]

brother, half-brother; kinsman or close relative; one who resembles

masculine singular noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #251 BDB #26

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun; sometimes the verb to be is implied

Strong's #834 BDB #81

ʾâbad (אָבַד) [pronounced awb-VAHD]

to be lost, to lose oneself, to wander; to perish, to be destroyed; to be ready to perish, to be wretched [miserable or unfortunate]

3rd person feminine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #6 BDB #1

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #4480 BDB #577


Translation: ...or any missing item which your brother has lost,... Moses makes certain that his audience understands that he is speaking of anything which belongs to your neighbor. Although we began with some specific examples, Moses is making it clear that return of property is not limited to those particular items.


It does not matter if you are close to your neighbor, if you like them, dislike them; or don’t know them—what is theirs is theirs.


To state this another way, private property is important in Scripture. We are given the privilege of ownership throughout our lives.


Deuteronomy 22:3d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

mâtsâʾ (מָצָא) [pronounced maw-TSAW]

to attain to, to find, to detect, to happen upon, to come upon, to find unexpectedly, to discover; to meet (encounter)

2nd person masculine singular, Qal perfect with the 3rd person feminine singular suffix

Strong’s #4672 BDB #592


Translation: ...but you have found [lit., And so you will do to his ass and so you will do to his garment and so you will do to any lost thing of your brother which is lost from him and you have found her]. Her refers to the item which you have found—whatever it happens to be.


Deuteronomy 22:3e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

yâkôl (יָכֹל) [also yâkôwl (יָכוֹל)] [pronounced yaw-COAL]

to be able, can, to have the ability, to have the power to; to be able to bear; to be able to bring oneself [to do anything]; to be lawful, to be permitted; to be powerful, to prevail

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #3201 BDB #407

With the negative, this means cannot, to be unable to, to lack the ability to, to be powerless to, to lack permission to, to lack the power to.

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʿâlam (עָלַם) [pronounced aw-LAHM]

to hide oneself, to hide one’s eyes, to turn oneself away from; to intentionally neglect or ignore

Hithpael infinitive construct

Strong’s #5956 BDB #761

The infinitive construct can serve in any nominal capacity: subject, predicate, object of a preposition. Footnote The infinitive construct is one of the two infinitives found in the Hebrew language without reference to person, gender or number. The short explanation is that the lâmed plus the infinitive construct can introduce a purpose clause, a result clause or a temporal clause. It can act as a noun or a gerund in any syntactic position. The subject or agent will generally follow an infinitive construct. The subject can be separated from the infinitive by the object or by other intervening words, breaking the construct relation and the infinitive construct acts primarily as a verb. When placed before an object, an infinitive construct generally acts like a verb, particularly when preceded by lâmed.


Translation: You are not allowed [lit., not able] to neglect [any of these things]. When you see anything which apparently has been lost to a neighbor, for whatever reason, it is your duty to restore that to your neighbor (brother is how he is spoken of here).


The phrase you are not able to hid yourself is equivalent to our you will not look the other way. You cannot ignore this and you cannot choose to not become involved. Because you and the personal property have run into one another, you are automatically involved. You do not have a choice. That property becomes your responsibility.


The addition of this verse means that we are talking more than just humane treatment of animals. With only vv. 1–3a, a case could be made that the animal is cared for and returned out of compassion for the animal. The Bible does not teach cruelty to animals. However, the point here is the ownership of the animal, not just the welfare of the beast. Certainly, the animal is to be treated well, but it is also to be returned.


The philosophy of animal rights activists is a logical outgrowth of evolutionary thinking. If we are here by chance accident, man descending eventually from non-organic molecules, with animals being branches of our evolution, then logically we are no better than flies, fleas or monkeys. We have no more value than they. We are simply what we are by random chance; and the same is true for them.


However, the animal rights activists cannot go to God’s Word for support. For it is written in the Law of Moses, “You will not muzzle to ox while he is threshing.” God is not concerned about oxen is He? [No, that is not the point].” (1Cor. 9:9 Deut. 25:4). Early on in man’s history, immediately after the flood, the eating of animals was allowed. We have even seen distinctions made between which animals could be eaten and which could not in the book of Numbers. So, the overriding principle here is personal property, not the care of animals.


Application: We all have more than just a right to own property. Even when our property wanders off, we misplace it, etc., it still belongs to us. Similarly, when you see such items of value which obviously belong to someone else, that is their property. Just because they misplaced it, does not make it any less theirs. And the Israelites were more than required to not steal it—they were required to see that it gets back to its rightful owner.


Application: A sign of the breakdown of society (with regards to the laws of divine establishment) is no longer recognizing private property. Thieves on the street take whatever they like; and thieves in government take as much money as they can, and call you greedy if you think you should hold onto some of it.


In general, you look out for the welfare of those around you. That was in part what the story about the good Samaritan was all about (Luke 10:30–36). You do this in an intelligent way—in the United States, when someone is in trouble, usually several people will stop to give aid. Of course, you allow the person with the proper skills to deliver the proper aid. You may stop for a woman who has a flat tire, but if you have never changed a tire before, then you might use the flashing lights on your parked car to give her cover while someone else actually changes the tire.


In this passage, Moses lays out a specific scenario, but we are to be intelligent to give it a wider application; and to obviously update it to our own time and place. We simply take the principles found here—respect for private property, honesty, concern for other people, treating their property even better than we treat out own—and then use those principles to guide us.


——————————


You will not see an ass of your brother or his ox fallen in the way and you have hidden yourself from them; but raising up, you will raise with him.

Deuteronomy

22:4

[If] you see your brother’s ass or his ox falling along the way, do not neglect them, but you will definitely raise [them] up with him.

If you see that one of your neighbor’s animals has taken a fall into a ditch, do not neglect to help him; get out there with your neighbor and help raise the animals out of the ditch.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                You will not see your brother’s ass nor his ox thrown on the way, and turn your eyes from them; you will verily lift it up for him.

Jerusalem targum                  You will forgive what may be in your heart against him, you will deliver and lead it.

Latin Vulgate                          If you see your brother’s ass or his ox to be fallen down in the way, you will not slight it, but will lift it up with him.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        You will not see an ass of your brother or his ox fallen in the way and you have hidden yourself from them; but raising up, you will raise with him.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    You shall not see your enemy’s ass or his ox fallen down by the way, and turn away your eyes from them; but you shall surely help him to lift them up again.

Septuagint (Greek)                You shall not see the donkey of your brother, or his calf, fallen in the way; you shall not overlook them, you shall surely help him to raise them up.

 

Significant differences:           The Jerusalem targum has a completely different thought. The Syriac has the word enemy rather than brother.

 

The Onkelos targum has a different phrase than to hide yourself from them; but that phrase is probably the idiomatic meaning. We find the same approach in the Syriac and in the Latin.

 

The Greek and the Latin carry the negative to the third verb, which is reasonable.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Don't just watch your fellow Israelite's donkey or ox fall down in the road and do nothing about it. You must help your fellow Israelite get the animal up again.

Contemporary English V.       Oxen and donkeys that carry heavy loads can stumble and fall, and be unable to get up by themselves. So as you walk along the road, help anyone who is trying to get an ox or donkey back on its feet.

Easy English                          Perhaps you see your brother's animal. It has fallen on the road. Do not look away from it. You must help your brother to lift it up.

Good News Bible (TEV)         "If an Israelite's donkey or cow has fallen down, don't ignore it; help him get the animal to its feet again.

The Message                         If you see your fellow's donkey or ox injured along the road, don't look the other way. Help him get it up and on its way.

New Berkeley Version           You shall not see you’re your brother’s donkey or his ox fallen by the roadside and be unconcerned about it; you will certainly help him lift it up. Injunction to be a good neighbor; we are our brothers’ keepers.

New Century Version             If you see your fellow Israelite's donkey or ox fallen on the road, don't ignore it. Help the owner get it up.

New Life Bible                        If you see your brother's donkey or his ox fallen down by the road, do not pretend that you do not see them. Be sure to help him lift them up again.

New Living Translation           "If you see that your neighbor's donkey or ox has collapsed on the road, do not look the other way. Go and help your neighbor get it back on its feet!

The Voice                               If you see your neighbor's donkey or ox has fallen down in the roadway, don't ignore it. Help that person get the animal back on its feet.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          And if you see your brother's burro or ox fallen on the road, don't pass it by; be sure to help him get it back on its feet.

Beck’s American Translation “If you see another Israelite’s donkey or ox lying on the road, don’t go away without helping. Be sure to help him lift it up.”

Christian Community Bible     If you see the ass of your brother or his ox fall down by the way, do not pretend not to notice it, but help your brother lift the animal up.

God’s Word                         If you see another Israelite's donkey or ox lying on the road, don't pretend that you don't see it. Make sure you help him get it back on its feet.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       If his ox or his ass falls down by the wayside, do not hurry past; help him to lift it up again.

New American Bible              You shall not see your kinsman's ass or ox foundering on the road without showing concern about it; see to it that you help him lift it u.

New American Bible (R.E.)    You shall not see your neighbor's donkey or ox fallen on the road and ignore it; you must help in lifting it up.

NIRV                                      Suppose you see your neighbor's donkey or ox that has fallen down on the road. Then don't act as if you didn't see it. Help him get it up on its feet again.

New Jerusalem Bible             'If you see your brother's donkey or ox fall over on the road, you must not disregard it, but must help your brother get it on its feet again.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      Never evade seeing your brother's ass or his bull fallen by the way. ||Raise|| it!

Bible in Basic English             If you see your brother's ox or his ass falling down on the road, do not go by without giving him help in lifting it up again.

The Expanded Bible              If you see your ·fellow Israelite's [relative's; brother's] donkey or ox fallen on the road, don't ignore it. Help the owner get it up.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 You shall not see the ass or the ox of your neighbor that has fallen on the road, and hide yourself from them. Going to the spot, you shall lift them up for him.

NET Bible®                             When you see [Heb "you must not see." See note at 22:1.] your neighbor's donkey or ox fallen along the road, do not ignore it [Heb "and (must not) hide yourself from them."]; instead, you must be sure [The Hebrew text uses the infinitive absolute for emphasis, which the translation indicates with "be sure."] to help him get the animal on its feet again [Heb "help him to lift them up." In keeping with English style the singular is used in the translation, and the referent ("the animal") has been specified for clarity.].

NIV, ©2011                             If you see your fellow Israelite's donkey or ox fallen on the road, do not ignore it. Help the owner get it to its feet.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           "If you see your brother's donkey or ox collapsed on the road, you may not behave as if you hadn't seen it; you must help him get them up on their feet again.

exeGeses companion Bible   See not the he burro of your brother

and his ox fall by the way

and conceal yourself from them:

in raising, raise them.

Judaica Press Complete T.    You shall not see your brother's donkey or his ox fallen under its load on the road, and ignore them. Rather, you shall pick up the load with him.

Kaplan Translation                 The Fallen Animal

If you see your brother's donkey or ox fallen [under its load] on the road, you must not ignore it. You must help him pick up [the load].

Orthodox Jewish Bible           Thou shalt not see thy brother's chamor or his shor fall down by the road, and ignore them; thou shalt surely help him to lift them up again.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                You shall not see your brother's donkey or his ox fall down by the way, and hide from [your duty concerning] them; you shall surely help him to lift them up again.

Concordant Literal Version    You shall not see your brother's donkey or his bull or any domestic beast of his fallen on the road and obscure yourself from them. You shall raise, yea raise them with him.

NASB                                     You shall not see your countryman's donkey or his ox fallen down on the way, and pay no attention to them [Lit hide yourself from them]; you shall certainly help him to raise them up.

New RSV                               You shall not see your neighbour's donkey or ox fallen on the road and ignore it; you shall help to lift it up.

World English Bible                You shall not see your brother's ass or his ox fallen down in the highway, and hide yourself from them. Lifting you shall help him lift it up.

Young’s Updated LT             “You will not see the ass of your brother, or his ox, falling in the way, and have hid yourself from them; you will certainly raise them up with him.

 

The gist of this verse:          If a neighbor’s beast of burden tups over, or dumps its load, you are to help him take care of the matter.


Deuteronomy 22:4a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

râʾâh (רָאָה) [pronounced raw-AWH]

to see, to look, to look at, to view, to behold; to observe; to perceive, to understand, to learn, to know

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #7200 BDB #906

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

chămôwr (חֲמוֹר) [pronounced khuh-MOHR]

ass, male donkey, he-ass, burrow

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #2543 BDB #331

ʾâch (אָח) [pronounced awhk]

brother, half-brother; kinsman or close relative; one who resembles

masculine singular noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #251 BDB #26

ʾôw (אוֹ) [pronounced oh]

or, or rather, otherwise, also, and; if, perchance; except, or else; whether, not the least

conjunction

Strong's #176 BDB #14

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

shôwr (שוֹר) [pronounced shohr]

an ox, a bull, a head of cattle

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #7794 BDB #1004

nâphal (נָפַל) [pronounced naw-FAHL]

those falling, those lying; those who have died a violent death, ones who are brought down

masculine plural, Qal active participle

Strong's #5307 BDB #656

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

dereke (דֶּרֶך׃) [pronounced DEH-reke]

way, distance, road, path; journey, course; direction, towards; manner, habit, way [of life]; of moral character

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #1870 BDB #202

With the bêyth preposition, this means in the way, along the way [road], near the road, by the way, on [your] journey.


Translation: [If] you see your brother’s ass or his ox falling along the way,... I’ve added the hypothetical here, and moved the negative to the next phrase, to adhere more closely to the English. This seems to be a related thought to what the previous 3 verses were, but not exactly the same thing. This time, you see one of the animals of a fellow Israelite falling into a ditch of some sort. Or they are carrying a load, and they fall over or get into a ditch. The animals spoken of here are beasts of burden (that is, they are utilized by man to do certain work tasks).


Deuteronomy 22:4b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʿâlam (עָלַם) [pronounced aw-LAHM]

to hide oneself, to hide one’s eyes, to turn oneself away from; to intentionally neglect or ignore

2nd person masculine singular, Hithpael perfect

Strong’s #5956 BDB #761

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #4480 BDB #577


Translation: ...do not neglect them,... I moved the negative for the first phrase to this phrase, which is accurate in the English, but not an exact translation by any means.


Moses says here that you cannot neglect these animals.


Again, think in terms of principle. It is highly unlikely that, in year 2013, you will see an ox or a donkey which has fallen along the way. It is more likely that you come across someone along the road who has lost items out of his truck or off of his trailer; or someone’s shopping cart gets in a rut or has turned on its side.


The principle is, these things belong to your neighbor; they are valuable to your neighbor; and therefore, you treat them with value as well, as if they are yours—but they continue to belong to your neighbor.


The Jews took many of these laws and recommendations and became very specific about them, and added ideas like, “If this happens, then this is the exact action you should take.” However, the idea is, we take the principles that we pick up in these first four verses and apply them in general.


Deuteronomy 22:4c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

qûwm (קוּם) [pronounced koom]

to cause to raise up, to cause to stand, to establish, to fulfill; to uphold, to perform [a testimony, a vow, a commandment, a promise]

Hiphil infinitive construct

Strong’s #6965 BDB #877

qûwm (קוּם) [pronounced koom]

to cause to raise up, to cause to stand, to establish, to fulfill; to uphold, to perform [a testimony, a vow, a commandment, a promise]

2nd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect

Strong’s #6965 BDB #877

ʿîm (עִם) [pronounced ģeem]

with, at, by, near; like; from

preposition of nearness and vicinity with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5973 BDB #767


Translation:...[but] you will definitely raise [them] up with him. The doubling of the verb here, as we saw before, indicates that this is something that you will certainly do.


Here is an animal which has fallen, perhaps under a heavy load, or a rut in the road or a combination of the two. This is going to require some work to right the animal. You cannot walk by your brother in these circumstances and ignore the situation. Even if this is your enemy, you cannot ignore the situation. Recall Ex. 23:5: “If you see the donkey of one who hates you lying under its load, you will refrain from leaving it to him. You will, without fail, release [the load] with him.” God required the Israelite to assist any fellow Israelite.


The Judaica Press Complete Tanach may give a better sense of this verse: You shall not see your brother's donkey or his ox fallen under its load on the road, and ignore them. Rather, you shall pick up the load with him. The animals just don’t tup over. However, these are beasts of burden, often carrying a load upon them. They may shift and the load may fall; or they may step on something uneven in the road and possibly fall themselves. So it is not just the animal that the good Samaritan is righting, but the load the beast is carrying as well. Interestingly enough, this is the only translation which seemed to put this spin on the meaning, which seems correct.


There are many instances when our help should be given to others, as well. We find people stranded, with flat tires or dead batteries. This does not mean to be foolish and risk your life; but it means you are to lend a helping hand. This is the gift of some believers and God gives them many opportunities to assist others. You may be in some sort of a service organization or in a bureaucracy, and there are those who are frustrated and come to you for help—you can give them the response, I’m sorry, but that is just our policy and there is nothing I can do to help you; or you can help them (when it is possible and when it does not violate mandates from above). The applications here are endless. There is more help needed in this world than there are hours in a day. However, by application, this is part of our life as a believer in Jesus Christ.


From here to the remainder of this chapter, the information given is almost more illustrative of the principles of vv. 1–4 than a separate set of regulations. The building codes, the strict punishment for adultery and rape, all deal with the Israelite’s treatment of his fellow countryman. God’s Laws illustrate our responsibility toward our fellow believers and fellow countrymen.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Deut. 22:1–4 "You shall not see your brother's ox or his sheep going astray and ignore them. You shall take them back to your brother. And if he does not live near you and you do not know who he is, you shall bring it home to your house, and it shall stay with you until your brother seeks it. Then you shall restore it to him. And you shall do the same with his donkey or with his garment, or with any lost thing of your brother's, which he loses and you find; you may not ignore it. You shall not see your brother's donkey or his ox fallen down by the way and ignore them. You shall help him to lift them up again.”

Summary of Being a Good Neighbor

1.      What is being required here of the people of Israel is a good neighbor policy.

2.      Notice that there is an injunction here to be a good neighbor; but there is no punishment for failing in this regard. However, if you have an item which belongs to your neighbor, regardless of how you have it, that can be considered stealing and you can be punished for that.

3.      What belongs to your neighbor continues to belong to your neighbor, despite his misfortune of losing something.

4.      In other words, this verse recognizes the concept of private property. What your neighbor owns belongs to him and not to you. This is true even if he misplaces an item or one of his animals wanders off.

5.      The Ten Commandments back this up in two particular commandments: Do not steal and Do not covet. At no time does the Bible disregard the ability of man, during his lifetime, to possess whatever he accumulates on this earth.

6.      This law is not just applied to neighbors which you like, but to neighbors which you do not like as well. Ex. 23:4–5

7.      In the final verse, Moses encourages the Israelites to help those who need help.

8.      Jesus explains this same principle in Luke 10:25–37 And behold, a lawyer stood up to put Him to the test, saying, "Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?" He said to him, "What is written in the Law? How do you read it?" And he answered, "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength and with all your mind, and your neighbor as yourself." And He said to him, "You have answered correctly; do this, and you will live." But he, desiring to justify himself, said to Jesus, "And who is my neighbor?" Jesus replied, "A man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and he fell among robbers, who stripped him and beat him and departed, leaving him half dead. Now by chance a priest was going down that road, and when he saw him he passed by on the other side. So likewise a Levite, when he came to the place and saw him, passed by on the other side. But a Samaritan, as he journeyed, came to where he was, and when he saw him, he had compassion. He went to him and bound up his wounds, pouring on oil and wine. Then he set him on his own animal and brought him to an inn and took care of him. And the next day he took out two denarii and gave them to the innkeeper, saying, 'Take care of him, and whatever more you spend, I will repay you when I come back.' Which of these three, do you think, proved to be a neighbor to the man who fell among the robbers?" He said, "The one who showed him mercy." And Jesus said to him, "You go, and do likewise." (ESV modified)

         1)      We take from this narrative the same principles as are being taught in Deut. 22:1–4.

         2)      However, there is more to this story, which must be read into it. The lawyer is first of all putting Jesus to the test and he is seeking to justify himself.

         3)      Therefore, the back story is, Jesus has just given him something to ponder which he has not done. It is very likely that this man has been in a similar situation, and he behaved like the priest and the Levite; he did not do with the Samaritan did.

         4)      It would not be out of the question for this narrative to have been an actual incident which involved this lawyer.

9.      Rom. 15:1 is a passage which can have both a temporal and spiritual meaning: Now those of us who are strong [spiritually] should put up with [or, help] the failings of [spiritually] weak people, and not [simply] do what pleases ourselves. (AUV–NT) Temporally, we can understand this to mean, if God has blessed us with success, then we have a responsibility to the less successful; and spiritually, if we are spiritually strong, then we should not use our spiritual maturity only for ourselves. Paul labored hard for those who needed to be correctly taught (2Cor. 12:15).

10.    Deut. 22:1–4 or any other passage which deals with relationships between neighbors, is not some push for socialism, as these verses clearly recognize the concept of private property. Under socialism, if the state decides that it wants something, it takes it. Moses is not saying this at all. The state is not involved here even slightly (which is true of much of the Mosaic Law).

11.    If a politician suggests that the poor are being deprived or given a short shrift because the rich are not taxed enough, there none of that sort of being a good neighbor being invoked here. The politician simply wants more control over the money of the rich man (see below). He believes that he can better spend that money than the rich; and that we ought to agree that the money should be taken out of the pocket of the rich man and go to the politician.

12.    Being a good neighbor, being your brother’s keeper, looking out for the interests of others are things which you do personally; these are not things that the government is charged with doing.

As you see, much of the Mosaic Law is not law, in the sense that, you will be placed in jail or given stripes for not adhering to it; these are examples from which principles of thoughtfulness can be derived.

So that there is no misunderstanding, the Bible does put some of the burden of the poor and the helpless upon the state. In Israel, there was a 3.3% yearly tax (actually, a 10% tax collected every 3 years) which was specifically to be applied to the poor. Private individuals had a responsibility themselves—in that day and time, they were not to harvest the corners of their fields, allowing them to remain for the poor to come and harvest for themselves. This is very different from the United States spending $1 trillion yearly in various welfare benefits (food stamps, section 8 housing, welfare, Obamaphones, etc.). We now have an economy where some people have learned how to work the system so that they do not have to work.

Going off on this same tangent, Israel, a nation under God, taxed its people a flat tax of 23.3%/year. However, 10% of that tax went to the Levites and upkeep of the Tabernacle (later, the Temple). We back out that 10%, do not charge churches property taxes, and that gives us the ideal tax of 13.3% per year, with a quarter of that going to the poor. Somewhere in that range would be the ideal income tax for a nation and would result in the most productive nation on earth.


——————————


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Cross-dressing


Is not a manufactured item of a man upon a woman; and will not put on a man a garment of a woman; for an abomination of Yehowah your Elohim all doers of these things.

Deuteronomy

22:5

An item manufactured for a man is not [to be put] upon a woman; and a man should not put on the garments of a woman—the one doing these things [is] an abomination to Yehowah your Elohim.

If something has been designed for a man, then it is not for a woman; similarly a man should not put on garments of a woman—the one doing these things is an abomination to Jehovah your God.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Dead Sea Scrolls                   A woman sh[all] not wear [a man’s clothing], nor shall a man pu[t on] a woman’s garment [4QDeut. And 4QpaleoDeut MT SP have alternate forms of this word], for whoever [does these things] is an abomination to the Lord your God.

Targum of Onkelos                Neither fringed robes nor tephillin which are the ornaments of a man shall be upon a woman; neither shall a man shave himself so as to appear like a woman; for every one who does so is an abomination before the Lord thy God.

Latin Vulgate                          A woman shall not be clothed with man's apparel, neither shall a man use woman's apparel: for he that does these things is abominable before God.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        Is not a manufactured item of a man upon a woman; and will not put on a man a garment of a woman; for an abomination of Yehowah your Elohim all doers of these things.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    A woman shall not wear any garment that pertains to a man, neither shall a man put on a woman’s garments; for whosoever does these things is an abomination in the sight of the LORD your God.

Septuagint (Greek)                The clothing of a man shall not be on a woman, neither shall a man put on a woman's dress; for everyone that does these things is an abomination to the Lord your God.

 

Significant differences:           The Hebrew is rather clunky when given a direct word-for-word translation into the English; so what we find in the English as a translation from the Latin, Greek and Syriac is a smoother version. The targum of Onkelos specifies some male things, which this passage does not specify (the targums did a fair amount of interpretation).

 

The targum also has a phrase about shaving which is quite different from the Hebrew.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       Women must not pretend to be men, and men must not pretend to be women [Or " wear men’s clothing. . . wear women’s clothing."]. The LORD your God is disgusted with people who do that.

Easy English                          A woman must not wear the clothes of a man. A man must not wear the clothes of a woman. For the *Lord your God hates people who do this.

Easy-to-Read Version            “A woman must not wear men’s clothes. And a man must not wear women’s clothes. That is very disgusting to the Lord your God.

New Berkeley Version           “A woman shall not wear men’s clothing nor shall a man put on a woman’s dress; for anyone doing such things is abhorrent to the Lord your God. This prohibition had religious significance, since pagan practices involved such exchanges.

The Voice                               A woman must not wear men's clothing, and men must not put on women's garments. The Eternal your God is horrified when anyone does this.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          'A woman should never wear men's clothing, nor should a man wear women's clothing. For, through the ages, such a thing has been considered disgusting by Jehovah your God.

Beck’s American Translation Men’s and Women’s Clothes

“A woman shouldn’t wear a man’s things, and a man shouldn’t wear a woman’s clothes, because the LORD your God is disgusted with anyone who does these things.”

Christian Community Bible     A woman must not wear a man’s clothing, nor a man the clothing of a woman, because whoever does such a thing deserves the reprobation of Yahweh.

God’s Word                         A woman must never wear anything men would wear, and a man must never wear women's clothes. Whoever does this is disgusting to the LORD your God.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       A woman must not wear man's clothes, or a man go clad like a woman; all such doings are hateful to God.

New American Bible              "A woman shall not wear an article proper to a man, nor shall a man put on a woman's dress; for anyone who does such things is an abomination to the LORD, your God.

New American Bible (R.E.)    Various Precepts.

A woman shall not wear a man's garment, nor shall a man put on a woman's clothing; for anyone who does such things is an abomination to the LORD, your God. Deut. 7:25-26.

NIRV                                      A woman must not wear men's clothes. And a man must not wear women's clothes. The Lord your God hates it when anyone does that.

New Simplified Bible              »A woman must not wear man's clothing or a man women’s clothing. The person who does these things is an abomination to Jehovah your God.

Revised English Bible            No woman may wear an article of man’s clothing—nor may a man put on woman’s dress; for those who do these things are abominable to the Lord your God.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      A fellow's articles are never over a woman, and no fellow clothes in a woman's raiment, for all that do these are- an abomination to Yahweh your God.

Bible in Basic English             It is not right for a woman to be dressed in man's clothing, or for a man to put on a woman's robe: whoever does such things is disgusting to the Lord your God.

The Expanded Bible              A woman must not wear men's ·clothes [apparel; items], and a man must not wear women's clothes. The Lord your God ·hates [detests] anyone who does that.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 A woman shall not wear a man’s dress; and a man shall not dress like a woman, for your Ever-living God abhors all who do thus.

NET Bible®                             A woman must not wear men's clothing [Heb "a man's clothing."], nor should a man dress up in women's clothing, for anyone who does this is offensive [The Hebrew term תּוֹעֵבָה (to’evah, “offense”) speaks of anything that runs counter to ritual or moral order, especially (in the OT) to divine standards. Cross-dressing in this covenant context may suggest homosexuality, fertility cult ritual, or some other forbidden practice.] to the Lord your God.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           "A woman is not to wear men's clothing, and a man is not to put on women's clothing, for whoever does these things is detestable to ADONAI your God.

exeGeses companion Bible   Neither bear the instruments of the mighty

upon a woman,

nor the mighty enrobe that of the woman:

for all who work thus

are abhorrence to Yah Veh your Elohim.

Kaplan Translation                 Transvestism

No male article [Clothing (Septuagint). But this also includes weapons (Nazir 59a), and, according to some, tefillin and tzitzith (Targum Yonathan; cf. Eruvin 96a; Orach Chaim 38:3 in Hagah).] shall be on a woman, and a man shall not wear a woman's garment. Whoever does such practices is revolting to God your Lord.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           The isha shall not wear that which pertaineth unto a gever (man) neither shall a gever put on simlat isha (garment of a woman); for all that do so are to'avat unto Hashem Eloheicha.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    A master's apparel shall neither come to be on a woman, nor shall a master put on a woman's garment, for anyone doing these things is an abhorrence to Yahweh your Elohim.

English Standard Version      "A woman shall not wear a man's garment, nor shall a man put on a woman's cloak, for whoever does these things is an abomination to the LORD your God.

The updated Geneva Bible    The woman will not wear that which pertains unto a man, neither will a man put on a woman’s garment: for all that do so [are] abomination unto the LORD your God. For that alters the order of nature, and shows that you despise God.

Green’s Literal Translation    There shall not be the thing of a man on a woman, nor shall a man put on a woman's garment. For whoever does these things is an abomination to Jehovah your God.

NASB                                     "A woman shall not wear man's clothing, nor shall a man put on a woman's clothing; for whoever does these things is an abomination to the Lord your God.

Syndein/Thieme                     The woman shall not wear that which pertains unto a man, neither shall a man put on a woman's garment. For all that do so are abomination unto Jehovah/God your Elohiym/Godhead.

World English Bible                A woman shall not wear men's clothing, neither shall a man put on women's clothing; for whoever does these things is an abomination to Yahweh your God.

Young’s Updated LT             “The clothes of a man are not on a woman, nor does a man put on the garment of a woman, for the abomination of Jehovah your God is any one doing these.

 

The gist of this verse:          Men and women are to remain within their gender boundaries and wearing clothing which is appropriate to their gender.


Deuteronomy 22:5a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

kelîy (כְּלִי) [pronounced kelee]

manufactured good, artifact, article, utensil, vessel, weapon, armor, furniture, receptacle; baggage, valuables

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #3627 BDB #479

geber (גֶּבֶר) [pronounced GEHB-vehr]

men, as separate from women and children; a male; male offspring, a male [man]-child; a strong man; a warrior [with strength and ability]

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #1397 (& #1399) BDB #149

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of relative proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

ʾîshshâh (אִשָּה) [pronounced eesh-SHAW]

woman, wife

feminine singular noun

Strong's #802 BDB #61


Translation: An item manufactured for a man is not [to be put] upon a woman;... Articles here is a word that we have studied before: kelîy (כְּלִי) [pronounced kelee], and it is an all-purpose word standing for anything which has been finished, made or produced. It could be translated an article, utensil, vessel, object, stuff, load, baggage, implement, apparatus, weapon, furniture, receptacle. It essentially refers to anything which has been manufactured. In this context, it refers to clothing and probably jewelry and accessories; and possibly even to weapons of war. Strong's #3627 BDB #479. In that day and time, the tunics worn by the men and women were almost identical, except that the women’s tunic was longer. This was enough of a difference. However, when a man went to war, he carried a whole host of items which a woman would never carry.


The limitations here are easy to understand and the principle continues even until today. There are things manufactured for men specifically. According to Moses, these items of clothing and accessories are designed specifically for men. These things are therefore not suitable for women.


Styles and fashions change, but this general principle continues to stand. Whatever culture there is, there are things specifically designed for men to wear; and the Bible says that these are to remain with men.


Deuteronomy 22:5b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

lâbash (לָבַש) [pronounced lawb-VAHSH]

to put on, to clothe, to be clothed, to wear

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #3847 BDB #527

geber (גֶּבֶר) [pronounced GEHB-vehr]

men, as separate from women and children; a male; male offspring, a male [man]-child; a strong man; a warrior [with strength and ability]

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #1397 (& #1399) BDB #149

sîmelâh (שִׂמְלָה) [pronounced sime-LAW]

[covering, outer] garment, mantle, clothing, cloth

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #8071 BDB #971

ʾîshshâh (אִשָּה) [pronounced eesh-SHAW]

woman, wife

feminine singular noun

Strong's #802 BDB #61


Translation: ...and a man should not put on the garments of a woman... Similarly, a man is not supposed to wear clothing that belongs to a woman.


Moses perhaps did not understand British sketch comedy in saying this, so I hereby get some British comedians a dispensation to be in productions where they speak in high voices and wear women’s clothes.


However, for the remaining 99.99%, men wear men’s clothing; and women wear women’s clothing. Exactly what this clothing is, varies from country to country and from age to age.


You may notice some difference in the words in the Hebrew. For the man, there are manufactured goods which were developed specifically for men, because men tend to like gear (for want of a better word).


Deuteronomy 22:5c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

tôwʿêvâh (תּוֹעֵוָה) [pronounced to-ģay-VAWH]

disgusting act, an abomination, abhorrent, an abhorrent act

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #8441 BDB #1072

Originally, this word was used to describe how the Egyptians felt about the Jews (Gen. 43:32 46:34 Ex. 8:26). This same word was often used for the abominations committed by the heathen of the land which God told the Jews to destroy (Deut. 18:9, 12 20:18 2Kings 21:2 2Chron. 28:3 2Kings 21:11 2Chron. 28:3). Jews who did such an abhorrent act were to be cut off from their people (Lev. 18:29). People who committed abhorrent acts often stirred God up to anger (Deut. 32:16). This particular word was often associated with sexual degeneracy (Lev. 18:22 1Kings 14:24), with child sacrifice (Deut. 12:31 2Kings 16:3) and with the Jews going after other gods (Deut. 32:16).

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #430 BDB #43

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

ʿâsâh (עָשָֹה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWH]

a doer, a maker, creator, one who constructs [fashions, preparers]

masculine singular, Qal active participle

Strong's #6213 BDB #793

ʾêlleh (אֵלֶּה) [pronounced ALE-leh]

these, these things

demonstrative plural adjective with the definite article (often the verb to be is implied)

Strong's #428 BDB #41


Translation:...—the one doing these things [is] an abomination to Yehowah your Elohim. Women who wear the stuff made specifically for men; and men wearing women’s clothing are an abomination to God.


If something has been designed for a man, then it is not for a woman; similarly a man should not put on garments of a woman—the one doing these things is an abomination to Jehovah your God. The deviant crowd does not like the Bible. Drunkenness and hedonism are out, homosexuality is forbidden, pre-marital sex is forbidden and cross-dressing is not allowed. Perhaps for some of you, it takes away the only fun that you could ever imagine having. Nevertheless, we have to go with the plain meaning of Scripture and here those fashions which pertain to a man are for men and those which pertain to women are women’s. The fashions change from time to time; however, whatever is in fashion for women is not to be worn by men and vice-versa. The Christian is not supposed to be on the cutting edge of fashion when a formerly feminine item is being worn by men or vice versa. As during the time of Moses, earrings worn by male children was acceptable—at this point in time, it is still not quite common and still essentially feminine. Therefore, Christians males should not be wearing earrings. However, this could change in twenty or thirty years. Footnote The key is not whether a man should or should not wear earrings; the key is whether or not this at this time is generally worn by men or by women. We are just not allowed to be on the cutting edge when a change is being made (with respect to items worn exclusively by one sex or the other). You see, the difference is not the fashion, per se, but the distinction between men and women.


God created the man and the woman differently and has given us different stations in life. We are distinct as male and female and transvestism and homosexuality (which may or may not be exclusive of one another) are forbidden. Every man has a right woman designed for him and vice versa. We are different in our approach to sex, fashion, interests; we are different in our emotional and psychological makeup; and we are distinct in our physical beings. Today, we have a proliferation of men who are half female (any man who has gone all the way has always regretted that decision). Despite having feminine characteristic and some feminine body parts, these are still men with male souls, and the right situation will bring the masculine out of such a one in an instant. They might be able to imitate the female in many ways, but they can never change their souls, but superficially.


We are nowhere near grasping the importance of genetics in relation to our psyche, but it only stands to reason that men and women who are genetically distinct are also emotionally and psychological distinct due in part to the differences of our genetic makeup. We are not to confuse or to blur these distinctions. “You will not [as a male] lie with a male as one lies with a female; it is an abomination.” (Lev. 18:22). “If a man which lies with a male as those who lie with a female, both of them have committed a detestable act; they will be put to death without fail. Their bloodguilt will be upon them.” (Num. 20:13). Part of this has to do with being satisfied in whatever state God has placed you. For I have learned to be content in whatever circumstances I am. I know how to get along with little and I also know how to live in prosperity; in any and every circumstance, I have learned the secret of being filled and going hungry, both of gaving abundance and suffering need (Philip. 4:11b–12). A man should be happy that he is born a man and a woman should be happy that God has chosen for her to be a woman. Therefore, we should dress the part, not behaving as though we think we have missed out on what God has given the other camp.


Contemporary fashion, while it has a place, is often an attempt by Satan to blur the distinction between men and women, a distinction which is natural and divinely appointed. The other attempt of fashion is to steal from the woman her inherent beauty. This does not mean that each and every fashion designer has both of these purposes in mind when they create their latest masterpieces. However, in some cases, they are inspired to do one or both of these things to women. For those who hear this and find it humorous to mention Satan as an influence, it is his greatest modern triumph to make men think that he does not exist. I do not know what hell is like in terms of the ability to recognize others, but I can imagine Satan meeting certain people at their death and taking great glee in their surprise at seeing him. It’s kind of like jumping out from behind a door and screaming boo and they jump. He probably gains a great deal of personal satisfaction from that—enough to make up for his lack of notoriety among those who serve him.

 

A little McGee: As my wife and I were driving in San Francisco, we were behind a little Volkswagen. I remarked that the wife was driving and the man was sitting next to her, and she was driving pretty fast. When they were going up a hill, they couldn’t maintain their speed, so I passed them. Do you know that I was wrong? The man was driving and the woman was sitting beside him. The man looked like a woman and the woman looked like a man. Frankly, I don’t see the benefit of that. Footnote


Finally, as mentioned, there are no general statements as to what kind of clothing is masculine and what kind is feminine. That is, as mentioned, mostly a function of culture. Therefore, there are times and places when a kilt is very masculine for a male and times and places when a skirt would be forbidden a male. About the only particular differentiating factor between a man and a woman which stands for all time is hair—the man is to have short hair and the woman longer (1Cor. 11:14–15). Footnote It is also interesting to note that Deut. 22:5 is the only verse in the book of the Law which deals with this issue.


Application: This is not a difficult application. The idea that national healthcare insurance ought to cover sex-change operations (such as, Obamacare) is absurd, and anti-God. Because it is anti-God, we should expect it to come out of the Democratic party (which has become increasingly anti-God). Footnote


Application: The idea that we can somehow choose our gender, as is going on in California, at a very early age, is absolutely ridiculous; but to be expected in a state which has turned more and more against God. There have always been and there will always be tomboys. There will be some boys who play with dolls or with baking toys; this does not mean that the tomboy is really a boy; nor does it mean that the young boy needs to consider that maybe he is really a little girl. Although there are gender differences observable very early in a child’s life, some sort of diversion where a girl loves to play sports and thrives on competition means nothing with regards to that child’s gender. You simply let your children develop, of course with some guidance, and your little girls go to little girls’ rooms; and little boys go to little boys’ rooms.


An item manufactured for a man is not [to be put] upon a woman; and a man should not put on the garments of a woman—the one doing these things [is] an abomination to Yehowah your Elohim. Something which is an abomination to God is something that is wrong in all dispensations. Jesus speaks to marriage between just a man and a woman, and in several areas of the New Testament, there are differences between men and women and their respective roles in life (1Cor. 11:3–15).

 

When Critics Ask: PROBLEM: What is wrong with wearing the clothes of the opposite sex? Isn’t this just a matter of cultural preference, with nothing intrinsically immoral about it? SOLUTION: God’s design here was apparently to make it possible to distinguish one sex from the other. Without distinctive clothes and length of hair, the sexes could be more easily confused and the bounds of social and moral impropriety would have been more easily transgressed. Of course, which clothes are masculine and which are feminine will be determined in large part by the culture. Footnote


There is a natural order of things, and that natural order is not difficult to ascertain. Even for those who are godless, they generally understand that man is at the top of the food chain (although godless liberals may feel guilty about this). When someone is against God, they are often against nature. They have no problems with men have sex with men, even though there are few things more unnatural in this world. In that realm, it does not take a genius to understand that men and women were physically and mentally different as well as made for one another. In fact, it is the balance of the male and female soul which is so pertinent in male-female relations.


I used to watch a reality television show called Wife Swap and they would find these very outgoing and even theatric yet real couples, take two pairs which are polar opposite, and throw the wives into the other family. It made for some interesting interaction. But, what was quite remarkable in almost every show, is how well suited these couples were to one another. There were people with the goofiest lifestyle and values that I have ever seen, and yet, that man and that woman matched up as man and wife in so many ways, that it was remarkable. This is because they had a corresponding coalescence of souls.


Although there are certainly exceptions to the rule, a woman will desire a man whom she respects and with whom she feels safe. If either of those things are missing, there will be no stability in the marriage (and likely no marriage in the first place). Men look for some measure of reassurance and devotion, as well as someone who might act as the rudder, but will not spend her entire life trying to steer the ship. However, key to all of this is the interaction of the souls in the relationship. This is why there are marriages which last 50 or 60 years, and each person cannot imagine life without the other. Not only do they share a life together, but they share this life as two very different halves of the same corporation.


However, when a man begins to assume the actions of a woman and a woman begins to dress and act like a man, this confuses all of life.


I have mentioned male and female relationships, but there is also the roles which they play as parents. Most children understand almost instinctively the different between the gender of their parents; and even children of homosexual couples wonder, at some point, and often with great regularity, about the missing person—either their real father or their real mother.


However, just as important are the gender roles which we learn from our parents. There are things which I get and understand from my mother simply because she is a female; and from my father because he is a male. These are unique. The son often wants to marry a woman like his mother; and the daughter to marry a man like her father (this is ideally speaking). What a man knows about being a man in marriage is often what he has learned from his father. He cannot learn that from two women acting as his parental units. A woman learns about how a man ought to treat a woman by the way her father treats her—with tenderness, great affection, and protection. And she understands her role in marriage from her mother. These are things a young girl cannot pick up from two fathers or from two mothers.


A clear delineation between the two genders keeps society from progressing to the point where the American society finds itself today, where nearly half the population believes that there is no difference (or should be no difference) between marriage between a man and a woman or a marriage between two people of the same gender. This confusion even exists among some Christians, suggesting a sad lack of teaching in their churches. Footnote


If something has been designed for a man, then it is not for a woman; similarly a man should not put on garments of a woman—the one doing these things is an abomination to Jehovah your God. Interestingly enough, cross-dressing is an abomination to God, but there is no fine or punishment associated with such behavior.


——————————


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Conservation in Nature


When is encountered a nest of a bird to your faces in the way in any tree or upon the ground—young birds or eggs and the mother laying upon the young birds or upon the eggs—you will not take the mother upon the sons. Sending forth, you will send forth the mother and the sons you will take to yourself in order that he is good to you and you have prolonged days.

Deuteronomy

22:6–7

When a bird nest is encountered before you along the way in any tree or on the ground—young birds or eggs and the mother is sitting upon [her] young hatchlings or eggs—you will not take the mother upon the sons. You will surely send the mother away and take the sons to yourself so that it is good to you [in the land] and that you will have an extended life [lit., you will have prolonged days].

Let’s say you come across a bird nest along the road, either in a tree or on the ground, and the mother is there sitting upon her young hatchlings or upon eggs—you may take the young birds or the eggs, but you will send the mother away from her nest, so that life will be good for you in the land and so that you will have an extended life.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                If you find the nest of a clean bird before you in the way, in a tree, or upon the ground, in which there are young ones or eggs, and the mother sitting upon the young ones or eggs, you will be sure to send the mother away, but you may take the young for yourself that it may be well with you in this world, and that you may prolong your days in the world to come.

Latin Vulgate                          If you find as you walk by the way, a bird’s nest in a tree, or on the ground, and the dam sitting upon the young or upon the eggs: you will not take her with her young But will let her go, keeping the young which you have caught: that it may be well with you, and you may live a long time.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        When is encountered a nest of a bird to your faces in the way in any tree or upon the ground—young birds or eggs and the mother laying upon the young birds or upon the eggs—you will not take the mother upon the sons. Sending forth, you will send forth the mother and the sons you will take to yourself in order that he is good to you and you have prolonged days.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    When you chance to find a bird’s nest before you in the way in any tree, or on the ground, with young ones or eggs and the mother sitting upon the young or upon the eggs, you shall not take the mother with her young; But you shall surely let the mother go, and take the young for yourself; that it may be well with you, and that you may live long.

Septuagint (Greek)                And if you should come upon a brood of birds before your face in the way or upon any tree, or upon the earth, young or eggs, and the mother is brooding on the young or the eggs, you shall not take the mother with the young ones. You shall by all means let the mother go, but you shall take the young to yourself; that it may be well with you, and that you may live long.

 

Significant differences:           The targum is a paraphrase and not a translation, so it does depart from the actual text about halfway through.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       As you walk along the road, you might see a bird's nest in a tree or on the ground. If the mother bird is in the nest with either her eggs or her baby birds, you are allowed to take the baby birds or the eggs, but not the mother bird. Let her go free, and the LORD will bless you with a long and successful life.

Easy English                          You may find the home of a bird in a tree or on the ground. You must not take away the bird, whether she is sitting on eggs or on young birds. You can take the young birds. But you must let the mother go free. Then everything will be well with you and you will have a long life.

Easy-to-Read Version            “You might be walking along a path and find a bird’s nest in a tree or on the ground. If the mother bird is sitting with her baby birds or on the eggs, then you must not take the mother bird with the babies. You may take the babies for yourself. But you must let the mother go. If you obey these laws, then things will go well for you, and you will live a long time.

The Message                         When you come across a bird's nest alongside the road, whether in a tree or on the ground, and the mother is sitting on the young or on the eggs, don't take the mother with the young. You may take the babies, but let the mother go so that you will live a good and long life.

New Life Bible                        "You might find a bird's nest by the road, in a tree or on the ground, with young ones or eggs. If you find the mother sitting on the young or on the eggs, do not take the mother with the young. Be sure to let the mother go. But you may take the young for yourself. Then it will go well with you, and you will live long.

The Voice                               If you come across a bird's nest by the road, either in a tree or on the ground, and there are baby chicks or eggs in the nest and the mother bird is keeping them warm, don't take the mother with them. You must let the mother go, but you may take the chicks or eggs for yourself. If you do this, God will bless you; everything will go well with you, and you'll live a long time.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          'And if you should find a bird's nest in the road, or in a tree, or on the ground, where the bird is brooding eggs or chicks, you must not take the nest with its young. You may take the [eggs], but you must let the mother go, so things may go well for you and so you may live a long time.

Beck’s American Translation Care of Birds

“If you happen to see along the road a bird’s nest in any tree or on the ground with young birds or eggs and the mother is sitting on the young or the eggs, don’t take the mother with the young birds. Be sure to let the mother go when you take the young birds, so that you will prosper and live long.

Christian Community Bible     If you find along your way a bird’s nest in a tree or on the ground, and the mother-bird is sitting upon the birdlings or upon the eggs, you shall not bring with you the mother-bird together with the young, but you shall let the mother go and take only the young. Then you shall prosper and live long.

God’s Word                         Whenever you're traveling and find a nest containing chicks or eggs, this is what you must do. If the mother bird is sitting on the nest, never take her with the chicks. You may take the chicks, but make sure you let the mother go. Then things will go well for you, and you will live for a long time.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       If thou findest in thy path, in a tree or on the ground, a mother bird sitting on her nestlings or her eggs, do not carry her off with her young; let her go, and be content with her brood; so shalt thou prosper and live long.

New American Bible              "If, while walking along, you chance upon a bird's nest with young birds or eggs in it, in any tree or on the ground, and the mother bird is sitting on them, you shall not take away the mother bird along with her brood; you shall let her go, although you may take her brood away. It is thus that you shall have prosperity and a long life.

New American Bible (R.E.)    If, while walking along, you come across a bird's nest with young birds or eggs in it, in any tree or on the ground, and the mother bird is sitting on them, you shall not take away the mother bird along with her brood. You must let the mother go, taking only her brood, in order that you shall prosper and have a long life. Lv 22:28.

NIRV                                      Suppose you happen to find a bird's nest beside the road. It might be in a tree or on the ground. And suppose the mother bird is sitting on her little birds or on the eggs. Then don't take the mother along with the little ones. You can take the little ones. But make sure you let the mother go. Then things will go well with you. You will live for a long time.

New Jerusalem Bible             'If, when out walking, you come across a bird's nest, in a tree or on the ground, with chicks or eggs and the mother bird sitting on the chicks or the eggs, you must not take the mother as well as the chicks. Let the mother go; the young you may take for yourself. Thus will you have prosperity and long life.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      When visiting in the way, and a fowl's nest in front of you from any tree, or over the ground with immature or eggs, and the mother reclines over the immature or over the eggs, never take a mother from over the sons. But ||send|| the mother and take the sons to you. Therefore do-good and you will lengthen your days.

The Expanded Bible              If you find a bird's nest by the road, either in a tree or on the ground, and the mother bird is sitting on the young birds or eggs, do not take the mother bird with the young birds. You may take the young birds, but you must let the mother bird go free. Then things will go well for you, and you will live a long time.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 When you find a bird’s nest before you in the path, or on any tree, or chicks upon the earth, or eggs, and the mother sitting upon her chicks, or upon her eggs, you shall not take the mother with her young.

NET Bible®                             If you happen to notice a bird's nest along the road, whether in a tree or on the ground, and there are chicks or eggs with the mother bird sitting on them [Heb "and the mother sitting upon the chicks or the eggs."], you must not take the mother from the young [Heb "sons," used here in a generic sense for offspring.]. You must be sure [The Hebrew text uses the infinitive absolute for emphasis, which the translation seeks to reflect with "be sure."] to let the mother go, but you may take the young for yourself. Do this so that it may go well with you and you may have a long life.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           "If, as you are walking along, you happen to see a bird's nest in a tree or on the ground with chicks or eggs, and the mother bird is sitting on the chicks or the eggs, you are not to take the mother with the chicks. You must let the mother go, but you may take the chicks for yourself; so that things will go well with you, and you will prolong your life.

exeGeses companion Bible   If the nest of a bird confronts your face

in the way in any tree or on the earth

- chicks or eggs

and the mother crouches

on the chicks or on the eggs,

take not the mother with the son:

but in sending away, send away the mother

and take the son to you;

that it well-please you

and you prolong your days.

Judaica Press Complete T.    If a bird's nest chances before you on the road, on any tree, or on the ground, and it contains fledglings or eggs, if the mother is sitting upon the fledglings or upon the eggs, you shall not take the mother upon the young. You shall send away the mother, and then you may take the young for yourself, in order that it should be good for you, and you should lengthen your days.

Kaplan Translation                 The Bird's Nest

If you come across a birds's nest on any tree or on the ground, and it contains baby birds or eggs, then, if the mother is sitting on the chicks or eggs, you must not take the mother along with her young. You must first chase away the mother, and only then may you take the young. [If you do this] you will have it good, and will live long.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           If a bird's ken (nest) chance to be before thee in the way in any tree, or on the ground, whether they be young ones, or eggs, and the mother is roosting upon the young, or upon the eggs, thou shalt not take the mother with the young; But thou shalt in any wise let the mother go, and take the young to thee; that it may be well with thee, and that thou mayest prolong thy yamim.

The Scriptures 1998              “When you come upon a birdʼs nest along the way, in any tree or on the ground, with young ones or eggs, with the mother sitting on the young or on the eggs, do not take the mother with the young – let the mother go without fail, and take the young for yourself, so that it might be well with you, and that you shall prolong your days.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

American KJV                        If a bird's nest chance to be before you in the way in any tree, or on the ground, whether they be young ones, or eggs, and the dam sitting on the young, or on the eggs, you shall not take the dam with the young: But you shall in any wise let the dam go, and take the young to you; that it may be well with you, and that you may prolong your days.

The Amplified Bible                If a bird's nest should chance to be before you in the way, in any tree or on the ground, with young ones or eggs, and the mother bird is sitting on the young or on the eggs, you shall not take the mother bird with the young. You shall surely let the mother bird go, and take only the young, that it may be well with you and that you may prolong your days.

The updated Geneva Bible    If a birds nest chance to be before you in the way in any tree, or on the ground, [whether they be] young ones, or eggs, and the dam sitting upon the young, or upon the eggs, you will not take the dam with the young. If God detests cruelty done to little birds, how much more to man, made according to his image? (This is only v. 6)

Green’s Literal Translation    If a bird's nest happens to be before you in the way in any tree, or on the ground, with young ones, or eggs; and the mother is sitting on the young, or on the eggs, you shall not take the mother with the young. But in every case you shall let the mother go, and take the young for yourself, so that it may be well with you, and you may prolong your days.

New RSV                               If you come on a bird's nest, in any tree or on the ground, with fledglings or eggs, with the mother sitting on the fledglings or on the eggs, you shall not take the mother with the young. Let the mother go, taking only the young for yourself, in order that it may go well with you and you may live long.

Syndein/Thieme                     If a bird's nest chance to be before you in the way in any tree, or on the ground, whether they be young ones, or eggs, and the dam sitting upon the young, or upon the eggs, you shall not take the dam with the young. But you shall in any wise let the dam go, and take the young to you; that it may be well with you, and that you may prolong your days.

Webster’s Bible Translation   If a bird's nest shall chance to be before thee in the way on any tree, or on the ground, [whether with] young ones, or eggs, and the dam sitting upon the young, or upon the eggs, thou shalt not take the dam with the young: [But] thou shalt in any wise let the dam go, and take the young to thee; that it may be well with thee, and [that] thou mayest prolong [thy] days.

World English Bible                If a bird's nest chance to be before you in the way, in any tree or on the ground, with young ones or eggs, and the hen sitting on the young, or on the eggs, you shall not take the hen with the young: you shall surely let the hen go, but the young you may take to yourself; that it may be well with you, and that you may prolong your days.

Young’s Updated LT             “When a bird’s nest comes before you in the way, in any tree, or on the earth, brood or eggs, and the mother sitting on the brood or on the eggs, you will not take the mother with the young ones; you will certainly send away the mother, and the young ones will take to thyself, so that it is well with you, and you have prolonged days.

 

The gist of this verse:          When it comes to animals for food or for raising, some conservation ought to be observed; you might eat the eggs of a bird, but you are not to kill the bird.


Deuteronomy 22:6a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

qârâʾ (קָרָא) [pronounced kaw-RAW]

to meet; to meet unexpectedly; to have been met, to have encountered

3rd person masculine singular, Niphal imperfect

Strong’s #7122 & #7125 BDB #896

qên (קֵן) [pronounced cane]

nest, metaphorically abode; possibly cells, chambers, rooms

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #7064 BDB #890

tsippôwr (צִפּוֹר) [pronounced tsihp-POOR]

small bird, sparrow; bird [singular, collective sense]; fowl, birds

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #6833 BDB #861

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

pânîym (פָּנִים) [pronounced paw-NEEM]

face, faces countenance; presence

masculine plural noun (plural acts like English singular); with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #6440 BDB #815

Together, they mean before you, before your face, in your presence, in your sight, in front of you. When used with God, it can take on the more figurative meaning in Your judgment.

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

dereke (דֶּרֶך׃) [pronounced DEH-reke]

way, distance, road, path; journey, course; direction, towards; manner, habit, way [of life]; of moral character

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #1870 BDB #202

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

ʿêts (עֵץ) [pronounced ģayts]

tree, wood; wooden post, [wooden] stake, gallows; [collectively for] a forest of trees

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #6086 BDB #781

ʾôw (אוֹ) [pronounced oh]

or, or rather, otherwise, also, and; if, perchance; except, or else; whether, not the least

conjunction

Strong's #176 BDB #14

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75

ʾepherôchîym (אֶפְרֹחִים) [pronounced ehf-ROW-eem]

young birds; young, young ones

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #667 BDB #827

ʾôw (אוֹ) [pronounced oh]

or, or rather, otherwise, also, and; if, perchance; except, or else; whether, not the least

conjunction

Strong's #176 BDB #14

bêytsâh (בֵּיצָה) [pronounced bay-TSAW]

egg

feminine plural noun

Strong’s #1000 BDB #101


Translation: When a bird nest is encountered before you along the way in any tree or on the ground—young birds or eggs... Interestingly enough, Moses will deal with conservation next. If anyone is walking along the road and they come across a bird’s nest, either with eggs or with young birds in the next. This nest might be on the ground and it might be in a tree.


Deuteronomy 22:6b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêm (אֵם) [pronounced aim]

mother [humans, animals]; grandmother used figuratively for an intimate relationship, for a nation; a metropolis, a great and leading city; metaphorically for the earth; point of departure or division

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #517 BDB #51

râbats (רָבַץ) [pronounced rawb-VAHTS]

is lying down, lying in wait; reclines, is stretching out, settles upon; sitting

Qal active participle

Strong’s #7257 DB #918

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of relative proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

ʾepherôchîym (אֶפְרֹחִים) [pronounced ehf-ROW-eem]

young birds; young, young ones

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #667 BDB #827

ʾôw (אוֹ) [pronounced oh]

or, or rather, otherwise, also, and; if, perchance; except, or else; whether, not the least

conjunction

Strong's #176 BDB #14

bêytsâh (בֵּיצָה) [pronounced bay-TSAW]

egg

feminine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #1000 BDB #101


Translation: ...and the mother is sitting upon [her] young hatchlings or eggs... The mother is still with the young, sitting upon them, keeping them warm.


All of this is food: the mother hen, the eggs, and the young chicks. I have certainly had chicken and I eat eggs, but I have never tried baby chicks as food. That seems a little yucky; but that is how I was raised.


Deuteronomy 22:6c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

lâqach (לָקַח) [pronounced law-KAHKH]

to take, to take away, to take in marriage; to seize

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #3947 BDB #542

ʾêm (אֵם) [pronounced aim]

mother [humans, animals]; grandmother used figuratively for an intimate relationship, for a nation; a metropolis, a great and leading city; metaphorically for the earth; point of departure or division

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #517 BDB #51

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of relative proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

bânîym (בָּנִים) [pronounced baw-NEEM]

sons, descendants; children; people; sometimes rendered men

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119


Translation:...—you will not take the mother upon the sons. You do not take the entire nest with the mother and the eggs (or young birds). More specifically, you do not take the mother bird. You want the mother bird to have more chicks and to lay more eggs.


This has something to do with the conservation of natural resources. We have had a similar command back in Lev. 22:28: “But an ox or a sheep—You will not kill it and its young in one day.” In addition, there is a certain amount of humanity, so to speak, that we are to learn in this and in verses such as Deut. 25:4: “You will not muzzle the ox while he is threshing.” Although that verse has a second, and more important meaning, the principle of care for the animal kingdom is found here as well. It is a balanced, compassionate, but not rabid, care. Animals are not caused to suffer for capricious reasons, nor are they destroyed en masse as target practice.


Deuteronomy 22:7a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

shâlach (שָלַח) [pronounced shaw-LAKH]

to send, to send off, to send away, to dismiss, to give over, to cast out, to let go, to set free, to shoot forth [branches], to shoot [an arrow]

Piel infinitive construct

Strong’s #7971 BDB #1018

shâlach (שָלַח) [pronounced shaw-LAKH]

to send, to send off, to send away, to dismiss, to give over, to cast out, to let go, to set free, to shoot forth [branches], to shoot [an arrow]

2nd person masculine singular, Piel imperfect

Strong’s #7971 BDB #1018

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʾêm (אֵם) [pronounced aim]

mother [humans, animals]; grandmother used figuratively for an intimate relationship, for a nation; a metropolis, a great and leading city; metaphorically for the earth; point of departure or division

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #517 BDB #51


Translation: You will surely send the mother away... The hearer is to shoo the mother bird away. There are many nests which you will never find; but the mother bird’s life is preserved to have chicks on another day.


Several commentators Footnote spoke about how this regulation was all about preventing cruelty to animals—something that the Bible does not condone—but I don’t quite see how it would. However, that does not mean that we ought not to be cruel toward animals. Prov. 12:10 reads: Whoever is righteous has regard for the life of his beast, but the mercy of the wicked is cruel. (ESV)


There are only two other regulations related to animals:


"When an ox or sheep or goat is born, it shall remain seven days with its mother, and from the eighth day on it shall be acceptable as a food offering to the LORD. But you shall not kill an ox or a sheep and her young in one day.” (Lev. 22:27–28; ESV). And, "You shall not muzzle an ox when it is treading out the grain.” (Deut. 25:4; ESV).


Deuteronomy 22:7b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

bânîym (בָּנִים) [pronounced baw-NEEM]

sons, descendants; children; people; sometimes rendered men

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

lâqach (לָקַח) [pronounced law-KAHKH]

to take, to take away, to take in marriage; to seize

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #3947 BDB #542

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

lemaʿan (לְמַעַן) [pronounced le-MAH-ģahn]

for the sake of, on account of, to the intent of, to the intent that, to the purpose that, in order that, in view of, to the end that; so that

compound preposition and substantive which acts like a preposition

Strong’s #4616 BDB #775

yâţab (יָטַב) [pronounced yaw-TABV]

to be good [well, commendable, pleasing]; to do good [well, commendably], to make glad, to make a thing good

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #3190 BDB #405

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510


Translation: ...and take the sons to yourself so that it is good to you [in the land]... The hearer is to take the eggs or the young birds, but not the mother. The eggs would be eaten; the young birds might be eaten Footnote and they might be raised to become larger birds, either to bear more young or to be eaten later.


There are just so many birds and so many people; God is telling the people to preserve some of the wildlife so that they may continue to reproduce.


Application: It is reasonable to try to preserve species of the animal kingdom which are dying out, particularly if they appear to have an integral place in our food chain.


This concept is even found in ancient Greek poetry. Footnote Poet Phocylides (fŏ-SIL-i-dez), wrote:

Μηδε τις ορυιθας καλιης ἁμα παντας ἑλεσθω·

Μητερα δ’ εκπρολιπῃς, ἱν’ εχης, παλι τησδε νεοττους, which translated, means:

“Nor from a nest take all the birds away;

The mother spare, she’ll breed a future day.”


Deuteronomy 22:7c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾârake (אָרַ) [pronounced aw-RAHK]

to prolong [days]; to make [tent cords] long; to grow long, to continue long, to live long

2nd person masculine singular, Hiphil perfect

Strong’s #748 BDB #73

yâmîym (יָמִים) [pronounced yaw-MEEM]

days, time of life, lifetime; a specific time period, a year

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398


Translation: ...and that you will have an extended life [lit., you will have prolonged days]. Life in the land would be extended because there would always be birds in the land laying eggs and raising young.


The eggs would be eaten or the brood would be either eaten or raised domestically. The mother, in any case, is a wild bird and is to remain a wild bird. For the Israelites, the following of God’s commands were the key to their long survival in the Land of Promise: “So you will keep His statutes and His commandments which I am giving you today, that it may go well with you and with your children after you, and that you may live long on the land which Yehowah your God is giving you for all time.” (Deut. 4:40). Footnote Now if God is concerned enough about the birds to set up a law involving them, then you know He is concerned about you.


Let’s say you come across a bird nest along the road, either in a tree or on the ground, and the mother is there sitting upon her young hatchlings or upon eggs—you may take the young birds or the eggs, but you will send the mother away from her nest, so that life will be good for you in the land and so that you will have an extended life. Although the Jews call this the least of God’s commandments, Footnote that would make little sense, given the appendage ...so that life will be good for you in the land and so that you will have an extended life. Making a normal attempt to preserve the animals which you and your family feast upon would be something which would extend their time in the land of Palestine; and it would produce a better environment during their time there.


Notice the way in which God is a conservationist. It is okay to eat the eggs or to take the young; but the mother should be left behind to have more birds and more eggs. So God does not choose to completely let nature be, and man is not allowed to touch anything. Man has to eat and God allowed man to eat birds and various animals. So it is a trade-off, as conservation ought to be.


Furthermore, birds have a very important place in the ecosystem. Some birds will feast on flies, locusts, snakes, mice, rats and scorpions, animals that we do not taking over the ecosystem. Birds spread seed as well; and they assist in pollination. Also, an important consideration is, for many of us, birds are marvelous creatures to watch and enjoy. Preserving them is clearly a benefit to mankind and to the environment that we share.


Application: Man is clearly superior to the animal kingdom—both by common sense and because God made man in His image. There is no such thing as a pristine world without man. God made man to resolve the Angelic Conflict. So, we might maintain some nature preserves and some areas where we do not fish or hunt; but, for the most part, the animals are given to us as food. The preservation here is to make certain that we will have chicken not just today, but next month, next year and 50 years from now. It is reasonable to try to balance out the food supply with demand, so that this supply will continue into the future.


Just as God has allowed us to make an environment to our own liking (the right sort of house and the right kind of environment for us within the house), the maintenance of that environment includes our food supply as well as animals as pets, as beasts of burden and as food. If we were to eat all of the chickens and eggs in one generation, that would show a lack of thought toward those in the next generation. It is all about maintaining the kind of life and environment that we would like to have for ourselves and for our children.


God put both animals and plants under the care and control of mankind (Gen. 1:29–30 9:2–3). Most of us have a little ecosystem in our charge, even if it is just a subdivision lot with a house on it. We rule over the plot of earth. Some of us even encourage birds to come onto this plot of land. We are simply taken that which God has allowed us to have and to make it suit us. This is in our nature to do so.


Application: It is reasonable for a group of people to want to preserve the air and the water which we enjoy as a people. We have had times when many waterways in the United States were too filthy to swim in, as well as disease ridden. It is not unreasonable to, by order of God, maintain the sort of environment that we would like to live in. This does not mean that you shut down every factory that smells bad, but you find a reasonable point midway between the factory providing jobs and the factory polluting the air and water. The factory both produces jobs and items which we desire to have; and yet we breathe the air and drink the water in this vicinity as well. Therefore, we search for a balance.


Application: There is a reasonable harmony which we can establish between man and beast; between our time on this earth, and the air and water. This should not be the focus of our existence, generally speaking, but it is one aspect of our lives. God takes some time here to place this in His Word; and therefore, we should be cognizant of a law related to the preservation even of a family of birds.


Application: However, on the other hand, it is a lot less reasonable for people who think that they can change the climate by changing their light bulbs, driving coal-powered battery cars, and giving the federal government even more power and money.


——————————


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Building Code


Interestingly enough, Moses also prescribed a building code for that day and time. He will not set up pages and pages of building codes, however.


For you build a house new and you have made a parapet for your roof and you will not set bloodshed in your house, for falls the falling one from him.

Deuteronomy

22:8

When you build a new house then you will also make a parapet for the roof and [by doing this] you will not put bloodshed against your home, if [lit., when] one falls from it.

Make certain that you build a parapet for the roof of a new house so that no one can fall from the roof.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                When you build a new house, you will make a surrounding fence to your roof, that it may not be the occasion of blood guilt by the loss of life at your house, by any one through heedlessness falling therefrom.

Jerusalem targum                  Then you will make a parapet to your roof, that the guilt of innocent blood shedding may not be set upon your house.

Latin Vulgate                          When you build a new house, you will make a battlement to the roof round about: lest blood be shed in your house, and you be guilty, if any one slip, and fall down headlong.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        For you build a house new and you have made a parapet for your roof and you will not set bloodshed in your house, for falls the falling one from him.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    When you build a new house, you must make a parapet for your roof, that no man may fall from it, and bring blood upon your house.

Septuagint (Greek)                If you should build a new house, then shall you make a parapet to your house; so you shall not bring blood-guiltiness upon your house, if one should in any way fall from it.

 

Significant differences:           The Jerusalem targum is missing the first phrase.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Whenever you build a new house, you must build a railing for the roof so that you don't end up with innocent blood on your hands because someone fell off of it.

Contemporary English V.       If you build a house, make sure to put a low wall around the edge of the flat roof [Houses usually had flat roofs. In hot dry weather, it was cooler on the roof than in the house, and so roofs were used for sleeping and living quarters, and for entertaining guests.]. Then if someone falls off the roof and is killed, it won't be your fault.

Easy English                          When you build a new house, you must make a low wall round the roof. Even then, someone may fall from the roof and die. But you will not have done anything wrong.

Good News Bible (TEV)         "When you build a new house, be sure to put a railing around the edge of the roof. Then you will not be responsible if someone falls off and is killed.

The Message                         When you build a new house, make a parapet around your roof to make it safe so that someone doesn't fall off and die and your family become responsible for the death.

New Berkeley Version           “When you build a new house, you must put a parapet around the roof, lest if someone falls to the ground, you bring blood guilt up your house. The flat roof was a referred part of the house. In the summer the people live and slept on the roof; a parapet was needed for protection.

New Century Version             When you build a new house, build a low wall around the edge of the roof so you will not be guilty if someone falls off the roof. In Bible times houses were built with flat roofs. The roof was used for drying things such as flax and fruit. And it was used as an extra room, as a place for worship, and as a cool place to sleep in the summer.

New Life Bible                        "When you build a new house, you should put a short wall around your roof. Then no one will fall from it and bring the guilt of blood upon your house.

New Living Translation           "When you build a new house, you must build a railing around the edge of its flat roof. That way you will not be considered guilty of murder if someone falls from the roof.

The Voice                               When you build a new house, make sure you put a low wall around the edge of the roof so that no one will fall off and be killed. That way there will be no bloodguilt on your house as a result of your negligence.

Whether it be home construction, dietary practices and food preparation, or farming and livestock, Israelite customs should reflect the correct order and division of humans, animals, and plants. Further, all practice should encourage life, and not death.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          'When you build a new house, you must erect a parapet around [the roof] to keep anyone from falling from it, so you don't bring the guilt of someone's blood upon your house.

Beck’s American Translation A Parapet

“When you build a new house, but up a low wall around the edges of your roof. Then you will not bring blood guilt on your home if anyone should fall from it.”

Christian Community Bible     When you build a new house, you shall construct a small wall around the roof, lest someone should fall from it, and your house become stained with blood.

God’s Word                         Whenever you build a new house, put a railing around the edge of the roof. Then you won't be responsible for a death at your home if someone falls off the roof.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       When thou buildest a new house, make a parapet about its roof; if anyone should lose his footing and fall to the ground, thy house is polluted with blood, and the guilt is thine.

New American Bible (R.E.)    When you build a new house, put a parapet around the roof, so that you do not bring bloodguilt upon your house if someone falls off. Dt 19:10.

NIRV                                      If you build a new house, put a low wall around the edge of your roof. Then you won't be held accountable if someone falls off your roof and dies.

New Jerusalem Bible             'When you build a new house, you must give your roof a parapet; then your house will not incur blood-vengeance, should anyone fall off the top.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      When you build a new house, make a parapet for your roof, that you set no blood on your house when ||falling|| from it.

Bible in Basic English             If you are building a house, make a railing for the roof, so that the blood of any man falling from it will not come on your house.

The Expanded Bible              When you build a new house, build a ·low wall around the edge of [a fence/parapet on] the roof [Cthe flat roofs of Israelite houses were used for living space] so you will not ·be guilty [have bloodguilt] if someone falls off the roof [Cto avoid negligent homicide].

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 When you build a new house, you shall make a battlement on the circuit of the roof, so that you may not bring blood upon your house, if anyone falls from it.

NET Bible®                             If you build a new house, you must construct a guard rail [Or "a parapet" (so NAB, NIV, NRSV); KJV "a battlement"; NLT "a barrier."] around your roof to avoid being culpable [Heb "that you not place bloodshed in your house."] in the event someone should fall from it.

NIV, ©2011                             When you build a new house, make a parapet around your roof so that you may not bring the guilt of bloodshed on your house if someone falls from the roof.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           "When you build a new house, you must build a low wall around your roof; otherwise someone may fall from it, and you will be responsible for his death.

exeGeses companion Bible   When you build a new house,

work a parapet for your roof,

so if in falling, any man falls from there

you set not blood on your house.

Kaplan Translation                 Guard-Rails; Mixed Agriculture

When you build a new house [The same is true if one buys a house (Sifri), or rents one (Yad, Sekhiruth 6:3). However, some maintain that the latter cases are obligations only by rabbinical legislation (Hagahoth Maimonioth, on Yad, Rotze'ach 11:1; Tzafenath Paaneach)], you must place a guard-rail [At least 10 handbreadths (30') high (Bava Bathra 61a; Yad, Rotze'ach 11:1,3).] around your roof. Do not allow a dangerous situation to remain in your house, since someone can fall from [an unenclosed roof].

Orthodox Jewish Bible           When thou buildest a bais chadash, then thou shalt make a parapet for thy roof, that thou bring not dahm (blood guiltiness) upon thine bais, if any fall from thence.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                When you build a new house, then you shall put a railing around your [flat] roof, so that no one may fall from there and bring guilt of blood upon your house.

Concordant Literal Version    When you build a new house, then you must make a parapet for your housetop so that you do not bring blood-guilt on your house in case someone falling from it might fall to death.

Green’s Literal Translation    When you build a new house, then you shall make a guard rail for your roof, so that you do not put blood on your house if someone falls from it.

World English Bible                When you build a new house, then you shall make a battlement for your roof, that you don't bring blood on your house, if any man fall from there.

Young’s Updated LT             “When you build a new house, then you have made a parapet to your roof, and you will not put blood on your house when one falls from it.

 

The gist of this verse:          Moses suggested that a parapet be built when a house it built, so that no one can easily fall off the roof.


Deuteronomy 22:8a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

bânâh (בָּנָה) [pronounced baw-NAWH]

to build, to construct; to erect; to rebuild, to restore

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #1129 BDB #124

bayith (בַּיִת) [pronounced BAH-yith]

house, residence; household, habitation as well as inward

masculine singular noun

Strong's #1004 BDB #108

châdâsh (חָדָש) [pronounced khaw-DAWSH]

new, new thing; fresh

masculine singular adjective

Strong’s #2319 BDB #294


Translation: When you build a new house... Moses gave one building code, and this is somewhat different than you might think. But the idea was, to make a new house safer.


Deuteronomy 22:8b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʿâsâh (עָשָֹה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWH]

to do, to make, to construct, to fashion, to form, to prepare, to manufacture

2nd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #6213 BDB #793

maʿăqeh (מַעֲקֶה) [pronounced mah-auk-EH]

a parapet; a low wall at the edge of a balcony or roof; a battlment

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #4624 BDB #785

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

gâg (גָג) [pronounced gawg]

roof, top, housetop; top or surface [of the altar of incense]

masculine singular noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #1406 BDB #150


deuteronomy22.gif

Translation: ...then you will also make a parapet for the roof... People in the ancient world used the roofs of their homes as another room. They would wander about up there and even sleep up then on hot nights. Therefore, Moses suggested that a parapet be built.


This is a picture of the parapet which used to be on the roof of my house (before I contracted to have a pitched roof built).


Welcome to the first (and only) building code to be found in the Bible. A parapet is any low barrier, wall or fencing at the edge of any roof (or bridge or balcony). This is common-place today in modern building. People in the ancient world used the roof of their house, which was flat, as another living area, just as some people in New York City do the same on their roofs. We will see the roof being used in Joshua 2 used as a storage area and to keep Joshua’s two spies. Some people slept on their roofs during certain parts of the year (1Sam. 9:25–26, in the Septuagint). David was hanging out on his roof when he first saw Bathsheba (2Sam. 11:2). Peter went to the rooftop to pray occasionally (Acts 10:9). Since it was common for people to spend time on their roofs, then a reasonable barrier or protection fence was to be erected simply for the sake of safety.


Deuteronomy 22:8c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

sîym (שִׂים) [pronounced seem]; also spelled sûwm (שׂוּם) [pronounced soom]

to put, to place, to set; to make; to appoint

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #7760 BDB #962

dâmîym (דָּמִים) [pronounced daw-MEEM]

blood; bloodshed; a bloody [man]; a slaying; guilt of a slaughter

masculine plural noun

Strong's #1818 BDB #196

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

bayith (בַּיִת) [pronounced BAH-yith]

house, residence; household, habitation as well as inward

masculine singular noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #1004 BDB #108


Translation: ...and [by doing this] you will not put bloodshed against your home,... Moses was concerned about the house and using the roof strictly from the standpoint of safety. No one wants their home to be associated with an accident. The potential accident is then explained:


Deuteronomy 22:8d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

nâphal (נָפַל) [pronounced naw-FAHL]

to fall, to lie, to die a violent death, to be brought down, to settle, to sleep deeply; to desert

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #5307 BDB #656

nâphal (נָפַל) [pronounced naw-FAHL]

the one falling, the one lying; he who has died a violent death, the one who is brought down

Qal active participle with the definite article

Strong's #5307 BDB #656

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #4480 BDB #577


Translation: ...if [lit., when] one falls from it. When there is no parapet and people are hanging out on the roof, there is always the chance that one could fall from it, and from then on, that house will be marked as a house where someone died due to the construction.

 

McGee comments: Do you know that it is only in recent years that our nation has had building codes to protect people? God is not behind the times as a great many people seem to think He is. God has a concern about the way people build their homes. Footnote


Whereas, this is easy to understand and to follow, the rabbis made additional laws for the 1%. Certainly, a small number of people would make a decorative 6 inch barrier because they are stupid. So the Rabbis required this barrier or fence to be about three feet high. This was man’s, not God’s, requirement.


We see this with neighborhood committees or organizations. The general idea is that the neighborhood is to be kept up and kept nice. There are innumerable regulations designed for this purpose. One such requirement is the submission of a paint chip prior to painting a house a new color. This is to protect the neighbors from being subjected to a bright purple house with orange trim. However, some do not realize that this paint chip must be submitted and they paint their house one day a very conservative color. There have been neighborhood associations who actually have required people to repaint their houses the original color, submit a chip, and allow them to paint the houses back—and threaten suit if they do not comply. These are the rabbis of our modern day. They have a general purpose, which is important, but too often they forget their purpose and fall into some sort of a power play. This power play does nothing to keep the neighborhood up—it is just the function of someone with an old sin nature who has a smattering of authority and cannot handle it properly. There are some people who should have no authority whatsoever and this is one of those kinds of people. It is completely beyond their ability to function within it.


You will note that there is no penalty attached to this. This is what Moses recommended; and he was not going to send a building inspector by later and make you tear your house down for a lack of a parapet.

 

The Voice does a nice summation of these Jewish laws: Whether it be home construction, dietary practices and food preparation, or farming and livestock, Israelite customs should reflect the correct order and division of humans, animals, and plants. Further, all practice should encourage life, and not death. Footnote


Application: Take note of what is in this law and what is not—Moses is making a recommendation to improve the safety of a home. However, this is not a state requirement so that a person who ignores Moses will be fined or thrown in jail or be executed. How do we apply this to today’s life? There is nothing wrong with having state standards for a home; in fact, this verse suggests that state or national standards is a good thing. However, rather than fining a person or making them tear their house down, or suing them and taking them to court; a certificate could be issued by the state indicating that 50 or 100 (or whatever) safety guidelines have been properly followed. Inspectors would be licensed by the state, but they would be independent of the state. Most builders would want to have their home certified as safe by the standards of the great state of _____. They would want to know that there is regulation wiring, that the carpet will not suddenly go up in flames, and that the sheetrock used is not easily subject to mold growth. Huge amounts of tax dollars in California are spent on such things; and, in Texas, where I live, one house may be built and not subject to any standards at all; and then, 50 yards away, another house is built, and subject to a set of standards designed by Harris County. Both are flawed systems—California, because there are far too many rules and regulations and state inspectors, and it costs far too much money; and Texas because, one house has been inspected, but not far away, another house is not.


Application: Having an official certification for a set of houses, done by a certified private contractor lets the buyer known that the houses build by C. Brown Builders is an outfit that builds safe homes. Having no certificate means, buyer beware. Footnote Having bought a home which was devalued by over 50% because of the slip-shod building which occurred (all of which could have been fixed at a cost of less than $5000 per home Footnote from the very beginning), I can certainly testify that some homes are so poorly built, that it would shock you. A certification program would, with very little cost added to a new home, solve this sort of problem. A private inspector would be brought in, perhaps 2 or 3 times during the building process, paid perhaps $1000 overall, and this private inspector would certify the safety of the newly-built home. Along with this program would go a catchy phrase like Certified Texas safe. Like this regulation in Deuteronomy, there is a cost factor, but it increases the safety of the home. Apart from the regulations, all of this could be done in the private market. The regulations themselves could be done by a collection of builders who are paid one time by the state for their input. This could be updated and revised every 5–10 years (which would be a one-time cost to the state for each update or revision). Rather than maintaining an army of inspectors at the state expense, as California does, at a huge cost, all of this could be done privately and it would be an option for every homebuilder. If Charley Brown does not want to build homes that are certified Texas safe, that would be his problem when it comes to living in the house or selling it.


My point is, the information in Deuteronomy, although given for a particular nation with a particular culture and time period, there is still reasonable application which can be made. God is looking to preserve life among His people; He is looking to set His people apart from all others as pure; and He is developing many laws which have application throughout time.


Note that laws regarding morality are more numerous and therefore more important than building codes and conservation. This is because the laws of morality have a far greater effect upon society as a whole.


——————————


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Farming Recommendations


You will not sow your vineyard [with] two kinds [of crops] lest is set apart the abundance which you sow and the produce of the vineyard.

Deuteronomy

22:9

You will not sow your vineyard [with] two incompatible kinds [of crops] so that the abundance which you have sown along with the produce of the vineyard is not set apart [to be burned].

You will not sow your vineyard with two incompatible kinds of crops so that the yield which you have sown along with the vineyard’s produce will not be kept separate.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                You shall not sow your vineyard with seeds of different kinds, lest thou be chargeable with burning the mixed seed that you have sown and the produce of the vine.

Latin Vulgate                          You will not sow your vineyard with divers seeds: lest both the seed which you have sown, and the fruit of the vineyard, be sanctified together.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        You will not sow your vineyard [with] two kinds [of crops] lest is set apart the abundance which you sow and the produce of the vineyard.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    You shall not sow your furrow with mixed seeds, lest the produce of the seed which you have sown and the produce of your vineyard be seized for the sanctuary.

Septuagint (Greek)                You shall not sow your vineyard with different kinds of seed, lest the fruit be defiled, and whatsoever seed you may sow, with the fruit of your vineyard.

 

Significant differences:           It is unclear whether the word found in this verse includes the concept of seeds with it.

 

The targum offers the likely result of sowing mixed seed, rather than translating the exact words found here. The Greek has defiled rather than set apart; and the Syriac has seized by the sanctuary.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Don't plant your vineyards with two types of seed; otherwise, the entire crop that you have planted and the produce of the vineyard will be unusable [Or sanctified].

Contemporary English V.       If you plant a vineyard, don't plant any other fruit tree or crop in it. If you do plant something else there, you must bring to the place of worship everything you harvest from the vineyard.

Easy English                          You must not plant two different kinds of seed in your field. If you do, then nothing that you plant will grow well. The fruit will not be good.

Easy-to-Read Version            “You must not plant seeds of grain in the same fields as your grapevines. Why? Because then they become useless [Literally, "they become holy." This means these things belonged only to God, so they couldn’t be used by the people.], and you can’t use either the grapes or the grain that grows from the seeds you planted.

Good News Bible (TEV)         "Do not plant any crop in the same field with your grapevines; if you do, you are forbidden to use either the grapes or the produce of the other crop.

The Message                         Don't plant two kinds of seed in your vineyard. If you do, you will forfeit what you've sown, the total production of the vineyard.

New Berkeley Version           “Do not sow in your vineyard two kinds of seed, lest the whole of the produce, the seed you sow and the fruit of the vineyards, be confiscated to the sanctuary.

New Century Version             Don't plant two different kinds of seeds in your vineyard. Otherwise, both crops will be ruined.

New Life Bible                        "Do not plant among your vines another kind of seed. All that grows from what you have planted will be unclean.

New Living Translation           "You must not plant any other crop between the rows of your vineyard. If you do, you are forbidden to use either the grapes from the vineyard or the other crop.

The Voice                               Moses: 9 Don't plant your vineyard with two kinds of seed. If you do, everything that grows there will not be pure, both what grows from the seeds and what grows on the vines.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          'You must not plant different types of seeds in your vineyard, for the [plants] could [cross-pollinate] and make your vineyard unholy.

Beck’s American Translation “Don’t sow in your vineyard another crop, or you will forfeit for sacred use everything that grows there, the seed you sow and the grapes of the vineyard.

Christian Community Bible     Do not sow any other seed in your vineyard because when you do this, you can neither eat from the produce of the grapes nor from the produce of the other plants.

God’s Word                         Never plant anything between the rows in your vineyard. Otherwise, you will have to give everything that grows there to the holy place. This includes the crop you planted and the grapes from the vineyard.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       Do not sow thy vineyard with a second kind of seed, or both the crop thou hast sown and the fruit of thy vineyard are forfeit.

New American Bible (R.E.)    You shall not sow your vineyard with two different kinds of seed, or else its produce shall become forfeit, both the crop you have sown and the yield of the vineyard. Some understand these laws as serving to preserve distinctions set by God in the creation. Become forfeit: to the sanctuary; lit., "be holy"; cf. Lv 19:19; Jos 6:19.

NIRV                                      Don't plant two kinds of seeds in your vineyard. If you do, the crops you grow there will be polluted. Your grapes will also be polluted.

New Jerusalem Bible             'You must not sow any other crop in your vineyard, or the whole yield may become forfeit, both the crop you have sown and the yield of your vines.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      Never sow your vineyard with crossbreeds, otherwise the fullness of your seed which you sow, the produce of your vineyard, will be sanctified.

Bible in Basic English             Do not have your vine-garden planted with two sorts of seed: or all of it may become a loss, the seed you have put in as well as the increase.

The Expanded Bible              Don't plant two different kinds of seeds in your vineyard. Otherwise, ·both crops will be ruined [Lthe fullness will be forfeit, both the seed that has been sown as well as the produce of the vineyard; Cto avoid unnatural combinations, perhaps as a reminder that Israelites were to be separate from Gentiles, see also vv. 10-11].

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 You shall not double-crop your farm; that would spoil the full development of the seed you sow, and the produce of the farm.

NET Bible®                             Illustrations of the Principle of Purity

You must not plant your vineyard with two kinds of seed; otherwise the entire yield, both of the seed you plant and the produce of the vineyard, will be defiled [Heb “set apart.” The verb קָדַש (qadash) in the Qal verbal stem (as here) has the idea of being holy or being treated with special care. Some take the meaning as “be off-limits, forfeited,” i.e., the total produce of the vineyard, both crops and grapes, have to be forfeited to the sanctuary (cf. Exod 29:37; 30:29; Lev 6:18, 27; Num 16:37-38; Hag 2:12).].

New Heart English Bible        You shall not sow your vineyard with two kinds of seed, lest the whole fruit be forfeited, the seed which you have sown, and the increase of the vineyard.

NIV, ©2011                             Do not plant two kinds of seed in your vineyard; if you do, not only the crops you plant but also the fruit of the vineyard will be defiled [Or be forfeited to the sanctuary].


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           "You are not to sow two kinds of seed between your rows of vines; if you do, both the two harvested crops and the yield from the vines must be forfeited.

exeGeses companion Bible   Seed not your vineyard

with heterogenetic inductions:

lest the fulness of the seed you seed

and the produce of your vineyard, becomes defiled:...

Judaica Press Complete T.    You shall not sow your vineyard together with a mixed variety of species, lest the increase, even the seed that you sow and the yield of the vineyard both become forbidden.

Kaplan Translation                 Do not plant different species [See Leviticus 19:19 (Berakhoth 22a; Sefer HaMitzvoth, Negative 216; Yad, Kelayim 5:1; Chinukh 548). The mixtures forbidden in the vineyard are primarily the same as those forbidden otherwise, but if they are planted in a vineyard they become forbidden, for any use at all (Yad, Kelayim 5:4, Maakhaloth Assuroth 10:6).] in your vineyard. [If you do so] the yield of both the crops you planted and the fruit of the vineyard will be forfeit [ (Rashbam; Ralbag). Literally, 'sanctified.' Or, 'an abomination' (Targum), or, 'fit to be burned' (Kiddushin 56b; Targum Yonathan). See note, this verse, 'fruit'.].

Orthodox Jewish Bible           Thou shalt not sow thy kerem with different seeds; lest the fruit of thy zera which thou hast sown, and the fruit of thy kerem, be defiled.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                You shall not plant your vineyard with two kinds of seed, lest the whole crop be forfeited [under this ban], the seed which you have sown and the yield of the vineyard forfeited to the sanctuary.

Concordant Literal Version    You shall not sow your vineyard dissimilarly lest the full yield shall be holy:both the seed which you are sowing and the yield of the vineyard.

English Standard Version      "You shall not sow your vineyard with two kinds of seed, lest the whole yield be forfeited [Hebrew become holy], the crop that you have sown and the yield of the vineyard.

The updated Geneva Bible    You will not sow your vineyard with divers seeds: lest the fruit of your seed which you have sown, and the fruit of your vineyard, be defiled. The tenor of this law is to walk in simplicity and not to be curious about new fads.

Green’s Literal Translation    You shall not sow your vineyard with different kinds of seeds, that the fruit of your seed which you have sown and the fruit of your vineyard not be defiled.

New RSV                               You shall not sow your vineyard with a second kind of seed, or the whole yield will have to be forfeited, both the crop that you have sown and the yield of the vineyard itself.

World English Bible                You shall not sow your vineyard with two kinds of seed, lest the whole fruit be forfeited, the seed which you have sown, and the increase of the vineyard.

Young’s Updated LT             “You will not sow your vineyard with divers things, lest the fulness of the seed which you will sow, and the increase of the vineyard, be separated.

 

The gist of this verse:          Incompatible crops are not to be sown side-by-side, as this is a mess at the end of the season when the crops are harvested, and some must be thrown out.


Deuteronomy 22:9a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

zâra‛ (זָרַא) [pronounced zaw-RAH]

 to scatter, to disperse [seed], to sow, to produce [seed], to yield [seed]; metaphorically to sow [justice, injustice, good, evil]

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #2232 BDB #281

kerem (כֶּרֶם) [pronounced keh-REM]

vineyard, orchard, a cultivated garden

masculine singular noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #3754 BDB #501

kileʾayim (כִּלְאַיִם) [pronounced kile-AH-yim]

two kinds, a mixture, diverse kinds, heterogeneous things; things which should be kept separate; incompatible types

masculine dual substantive; pausal form

Strong’s #3610 BDB #476

This noun only occurs in Lev. 19:19 and Deut. 22:9. We do not have any cognates which help to establish the exact meaning of this word.


Translation: You will not sow your vineyard [with] two kinds [of crops]... The person has a vineyard which is not to be sown with two [incompatible] kinds; which is the masculine substantive dual of the word kileʾayim (כִּלְאַיִם) [pronounced kile-AH-yim], which means two kinds, a mixture, diverse kinds, heterogeneous things; things which should be kept separate, incompatible types. Strong’s #3610 BDB #476. This word is only found here and in Lev. 19:19, and much of its meaning is derived from the fact that this is a dual noun. It probably means two incompatible kinds. Lev. 19:19 reads: “You are to keep My statutes. You will not breed together two kinds of your cattle; you will not sow your field with two kinds of seed, nor wear a garment upon you of two kinds of material mixed together.”


Lev. 19:19 reads: You shall keep my statutes; you shall not cause your livestock to breed with different kinds; you shall not sow two kinds in your field; and you shall not allow a garment mixed of linen and wool to come upon you. (Green’s Literal translation). Contextually, it appears that the definitions offered are reasonable. Perhaps the concept is incompatible types.


This does not necessarily mean that you cannot sow half an acre with corn and half an acre with wheat; but you would not normally sow corn and wheat together, side-by-side. You would not mix the seed together and just throw it all out there willy-nilly.


This also has a symbolic application to the Jews—they are not to intermix with the gentiles, willy-nilly, as if there is no difference. The Jews had a particular relationship with God, and they are set apart by this relationship. Many of the heathen gentiles did not. Quite obviously, this does not mean that gentiles may not become Jews (under this ancient dispensation). A gentile who is an incompatible type is a gentile who cannot accept the God of the Jews; so there should not be an intermixing here (primarily, intermarriage would be forbidden). A gentile who believes in the God of the Jews is no longer an incompatible type.


Deuteronomy 22:9b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

pen (פֶּן) [pronounced pen]

lest, peradventure, or else, in order to prevent, or, so that [plus a negative]

conjunction

Strong's #6435 BDB #814

qâdash (קָדַש) [pronounced kaw-DAHSH]

to be pure, to be clean; to be holy, to be sacred; to set apart, to consecrate, to sanctify, to dedicate, to hallow

3rd person feminine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #6942 BDB #872

melêʾâh (מֶלֵאָה) [pronounced mel-ay-AW]

abundance, fulness, abundance of crop, full produce

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4395 BDB #571

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun; sometimes the verb to be is implied

Strong's #834 BDB #81

zâra‛ (זָרַא) [pronounced zaw-RAH]

 to scatter, to disperse [seed], to sow, to produce [seed], to yield [seed]; metaphorically to sow [justice, injustice, good, evil]

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #2232 BDB #281

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

tebûwʾâh (תְּבוּאַה) [pronounced teb-oo-AW]

product; crops, yield; income, revenue; gain (of wisdom) (figuratively); product of lips (figuratively)

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #8393 BDB #100

kerem (כֶּרֶם) [pronounced keh-REM]

vineyard, orchard, a cultivated garden

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3754 BDB #501


Translation: ...so that the abundance which you have sown along with the produce of the vineyard is not set apart [to be burned]. Different crops are going to mature at different times; they will have different needs, and they are often harvested in different ways.


A farmer is going to have a group of crops which he has kept separate from the beginning, and they have grown and been harvested. But he also has this field of mixed crops, which are a mess, and they would have to be kept separate from the good crops.


The result of sowing two kinds of seed together is given by the averting or deprecating conjunction pen (פֶּן) [pronounced pen], Footnote unfortunately best translated with the Old English lest. I render this with the more modern so that + a negative. It could also be translated simply else, or for the aversion of, for the avoidance of, so that [you] avoid], in order to prevent. Very likely, what is indicated here is separation, keeping separate. Strong's #6435 BDB #814. What is being avoided is qâdash (קָדַש) [pronounced kaw-DAHSH] and it is translated consecrate, sanctify, dedicate, hallow. Any of these words are good translations, particularly consecrate, however, unless you have been going to church for a long time or speak old English fluently, it doesn't mean much to you. This verb means that something is set apart to God; this something takes on the quality of being sacred, holy, different from that which is tied to the earth. Strong's #6942 BDB #872. Therefore, the reason not to sow two different kinds of seed together is so that their yield does not become set apart. My guess here is that this is not used in the religious sense of set apart to God, but so that it is not set apart because the crops are unusable; they are all mixed together. If kept separate, they are easier to maintain, care for and harvest. So, you have, on the one hand, the harvest of crops which were sown separately in their different fields and then you have this cornucopia of crops, which may have to be kept separate and thrown out.


Part of what is in view here is, spiritual purity is being required here. Furthermore, we have found when two crops are sown side-by-side that one takes on some of the characteristics of the other. This does not mean that a person could not have several different things planted. They just were not to be mixed. There was to be a clear demarcation between the types of things sown.


Jesus told the parable of the wheat and the tares, the produce and the weed which were sown side-by-side. As young plants, they could not be distinguished. He presented another parable to them, saying, “The kingdom of heaven may be compared to a man who has sown good seed in his field. But while men were sleeping, his enemy came and sowed weed seeds also among the wheat, and went away. But when the wheat sprang up and bore grain, then the tares became evident as well. And the slaves of the landowner came and said to him, ‘Sir, did you not sow good seed in your field? How then does it have weeds?’ And he said to them, ‘An enemy has done this!’ And the slaves said to him, ‘Do you want us, then to go and gather them up?’ But he said, ‘No, so that you do not root up the wheat with them while you are gathering up the weeds. Allow both to grow together until the harvest; and in the time of the harvest, I will say to the reapers, “First gather up the tares and bind them in bundles to burn them up; but gather the wheat into my barn.” ‘ “ (Matt. 13:24–30). This parable represented the believers and the unbelievers growing up side-by-side in the world. Having things all mixed up is what we find in the world; however, God does not have things all mixed up in His eternity.


Unfortunately, there are no insights to be found on this verse in the notes of the NASB, the NIV Study Bible or in Scofield’s Reference Bible; nor does Barnes’ Notes help us here. So you may wonder why such a thing is forbidden, along with them mixture of clothing material in this context. However, the simple explanation is, Moses is speaking to hundreds of thousands of men who have never worked a farm before. These were children when they left Egypt. Their parents are now all dead, so there is no one from whom they can learn. Moses is giving them basic lessons on home safety, on farming, on conservation, etc. Moses is not going to set up a brigade of inspectors to go throughout the land and make sure that no one is planting corn and wheat side-by-side (and then order that they have a hand cut off). These are simple guidelines which these young, inexperienced farmers need.


This command is probably, on the one hand, indicating the way that farming ought to be done; and, on the other hand, is symbolic of keeping separate things which are fundamentally incompatible.


There should be a practical side to this, and that is, these Jews have not been farmers ever before. Moses is speaking to the second generation of Jews (the GOP, Footnote if you will); and he is laying out some fundamentals of farming which they may not be aware of (recall that they have been eating manna and quail which God brought to them all of this time).


We have come to understand, after centuries of farming, that there are certain fertilizers and nutrients which may be added to the soil which will be good for one crop, but not for another. Certain amounts of water will cause one plant to thrive, and others to burn out. When a farmer plants one kind of crop in one field and another in a different field, then that farmer can treat each field differently and use the fertilizer and watering methods which are best for that particular crop.

 

Clarke writes: for those who have studied the diseases of land and vegetables tell us, that the practice of mingling seeds is injurious both to flowers and to grains. "If the various genera of the natural order Gramineæ, which includes the grains and the grasses, should be sown in the same field, and flower at the same time, so that the pollen of the two flowers mix, a spurious seed will be the consequence, called by the farmers chess. It is always inferior and unlike either of the two grains that produced it, in size, flavor, and nutritious principles. Independently of contributing to disease the soil, they never fail to produce the same in animals and men that feed on them" [WHITLAW]. Footnote The Pulpit commentary says that the pollination from the wrong plant to the delicate vine blossoms injures the production of the fruit. Footnote Whether an of this is true or not, I have no idea. In any case, it seems reasonable to keep various plantings separate, and that this is advice coming from Moses to novice farmers about to all own their first farm.


Symbolically, the Jews were not to intermix with people who were fundamentally different; who did not worship and respect their God. Ultimately, God will go through the field Himself and separate the wheat from the tares (that is, believers from unbelievers), which, from all accounts, appear to look about the same as they begin to grow (Matt. 13:24–30). The Judgment Seat of Christ is the ultimate separation of incompatible things.


It is possible that some ancient heathen groups Footnote used mixtures of seeds for crops and mixtures of different types of cloth were done to obtain the blessing of the gods. The lack of mixture enjoined of the Israelites was both symbolic of purity and separated them from the heathen practices of that day. So, these regulations for separation may symbolic of separation from both the heathen and the practices of that day.


——————————


You will not plow in an ox and in an ass together.

Deuteronomy

22:10

You will not plow with an ox and an ass together.

You will not have an ox and an ass side-by-side to plow.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                You shall not plough with an ox and an ass nor with any animals of two species bound together.

Latin Vulgate                          You will not plough with an ox and an ass together.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        You will not plow in an ox and in an ass together.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    You shall not plow with an ox and an ass together.

Septuagint (Greek)                You shall not plow with an ox and a donkey together.

 

Significant differences:           The bêyth preposition can be translated with as well as in.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       Don't hitch an ox and a donkey to your plow at the same time.

Easy English                          You must not tie a cow and a *donkey together to plough your land.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          'You must not hitch an ox and a burro together to [pull] the same plow.

God’s Word                         Never plow with an ox and a donkey harnessed together.

New American Bible (R.E.)    You shall not plow with an ox and a donkey harnessed together.

NIRV                                      Don't let an ox and a donkey pull the same plow together.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      Never plow with a bull and ass together.

Bible in Basic English             Do not do your ploughing with an ox and an ass yoked together.

The Expanded Bible              Don't plow with an ox and a donkey tied together.

NET Bible®                             You must not plow with an ox and a donkey harnessed together.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 Forbidden Combinations

Do not plow with an ox and donkey together.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           Thou shalt not plow with a shor and a chamor together.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                You shall not plow with an ox [a clean animal] and a donkey [unclean] together.

Concordant Literal Version    You shall not plow with a bull and a donkey together.

English Standard Version      You shall not plow with an ox and a donkey together.

New RSV                               You shall not plough with an ox and a donkey yoked together.

Young’s Updated LT             “You will not plow with an ox and with an ass together.

 

The gist of this verse:          Incompatible animals are not to be used as a pair to plow.


Deuteronomy 22:10

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

chârash (חָרַש) [pronounced chaw-RAHASH]

to cut in, to engrave, to inscribe; to fabricate [out of wood or metal]; to fabricate, devise or plot [evil]; to plough (cutting furrows)

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #2790 BDB #360

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

shôwr (שוֹר) [pronounced shohr]

an ox, a bull, a head of cattle

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #7794 BDB #1004

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

chămôwr (חֲמוֹר) [pronounced khuh-MOHR]

ass, male donkey, he-ass, burrow

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #2543 BDB #331

yachad (יַחַד) [pronounced YAHKH-ahd]

union, joined together, unitedness, together, in unity

masculine singular noun/adverb

Strong’s #3162 BDB #403


Translation: You will not plow with an ox and an ass together. These are two incompatible things, and they do not belong side-by-side. They are not going to cooperate together, and therefore, should be kept separate.


Again, Moses is speaking to a people who have never farmed before; and they no longer have parents to teach them how to farm, so Moses covers a few basic principles. These are a few fundamental principles given to these people who are entering the land who have never farmed before in their lives. Moses is simply laying out some basics.


Note that there is no moral imperative involved here. If someone is caught plowing with an ox and an ass together, they are not going to be taken outside of the city and stoned. This is a simple rule of thumb; things which are incompatible are to be kept separate.


Here, the animals will be unbalanced, one (I believe it’s the ox) will be doing most of the work and their difference in size, strength and temperament will make it difficult for both of them. Barnes said that such a pairing would be cruel to the donkey. Footnote


This is later applied to marriages where we are told not to be unequally yoked (to unbelievers): Do not be bound together with unbelievers; for what partnership has righteousness and lawlessness, or what fellowship has light with darkness? (2Cor. 6:14). For a young person, the biggest mistakes which can be made are pre-marital sex, drugs and pregnancy. If a person is a believer, along with these serious mistakes, one could add marrying an unbeliever. This kind of errors have results which last a lifetime.


In that age, beneath the surface, the key is, the Jews, as believers in the Revealed Lord, are incompatible with the heathen around them who did not believe in Him. Therefore, they could not easily intermingle with the heathen within being negatively impacted.


This same sort of purity is applicable to grace versus legalism; between the call of Christ and the false offerings of religion (all religion is a matter of personal merit; Christianity is a relationship to God through Jesus Christ, based upon His merit, not upon our own).


——————————


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Clothing Recommendations


You will not wear mixed-fabric—wool and linen together.

Deuteronomy

22:11

You will not wear mixed-fabric [clothing]—wool and cotton together.

You will not make clothes from wool and cotton together.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Jerusalem targum                  You shall not clothe nor warm yourselves with a garment combed (carded) or netted, or interwoven with woollen and linen mixed together.

Latin Vulgate                          You will not wear a garment that is woven of woollen and linen together.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        You will not wear mixed-fabric—wool and linen together.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    You shall not wear a garment woven of different sorts of wool and cotton together.

Septuagint (Greek)                You shall not wear a mingled garment, woolen and linen together.

 

Significant differences:           The targum, as usual, acts very much like a commentary.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Don't wear clothes that mix wool and linen together.

Contemporary English V.       When you weave cloth for clothing, you can use thread made of flax [The stalks of flax plants were harvested, soaked in water, and dried, then their fibers were separated and spun into thread, which was woven into linen cloth.] or wool, but not both together.

Easy English                          You must not mix different materials together to make clothes.

Easy-to-Read Version            “You must not wear cloth made by weaving together wool and linen.

The Message                         Don't wear clothes of mixed fabrics, wool and linen together.

New Berkeley Version           ...nor wear garments woven of mixed threads, wool and linen combined. Man should use them as God made them. Isa.28:25–26.

The Voice                               Don't wear any material made of both wool and linen.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

God’s Word                         Never wear clothes made of wool and linen woven together.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       Do not plough with an ox and an ass together; or wear garments woven of linen and wool together. V. 10 is included for context. Some think that this verse refers to superstitions common at the time. Others have suggested that the purpose of these regulations was symbolical, the Israelites being warned against making a hotch-potch of true and false religion. Cf. Deut. 22.9-11.

New American Bible              You shall not wear cloth of two different kinds of thread, wool and linen, woven together.

NIRV                                      Don't wear clothes made of wool and linen that are woven together.

Revised English Bible            You are not to wear clothes woven with two kinds of yarn, wool and flax together.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      Never clothe in satin, wool and flax together.

Bible in Basic English             Do not have clothing made of two sorts of thread, wool and linen together.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 You shall not weave silk, wool, and flax together.

NET Bible®                             You must not wear clothing made with wool and linen meshed together. The Hebrew term שַעַטְנֵז (sha’atnez) occurs only here and in Lev 19:19. HALOT 1610-11 s.v. takes it to be a contraction of words (שַש [shash, “headdress”] + עַטְנַז [’atnaz, “strong”]). BDB 1043 s.v. שַעַטְנֵז offers the translation “mixed stuff” (cf. NEB “woven with two kinds of yarn”; NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT “woven together”). The general meaning is clear even if the etymology is not.

New Heart English Bible        You shall not wear a mixed stuff, wool and linen together.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           You are not to wear clothing woven with two kinds of thread, wool and linen together.

exeGeses companion Bible   ...enrobe not linsey woolsey

as of woollen and flax together:...

Kaplan Translation                 Do not wear a forbidden mixture [Shaatnez in Hebrew; see Leviticus 19:19.], where wool and linen [Some say that this was forbidden because such mixtures were reserved for the priests (Baaley Tosafoth; Chizzkuni; Josephus, Antiqities 4:8:11). Others say that it is forbidden because such mixtures were worn by gentile priests (Moreh Nevukhim 3:37; Chinukh 551). Other sources indicate that it is forbidden because sheep were the sacrifice of Abel while linen was the sacrifice of Cain (Pirkey Rabbi Eliezer 21; Tanchuma, Bereshith 9; Chizzkuni).] are together [in a single garment]..

Orthodox Jewish Bible           Thou shalt not wear a garment of different sorts, as of woolen and linen together.

The Scriptures 1998              “Do not put on a garment of different kinds, of wool and linen together.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    You shall not put on linsey-woolsey, wool and flax together.

A Conservative Version         Thou shall not wear a mingled stuff, wool and linen together.

Context Group Version          You shall not wear a mingled thing, wool and linen together.

Darby Translation                  Thou shalt not wear a garment of mixed material, [woven] of wool and linen together.

English Standard V. – UK       You shall not wear cloth of wool and linen mixed together.

Green’s Literal Translation    You shall not wear a garment of different kinds, of wool and linen together.

NASB                                     "You shall not wear a material mixed of wool and linen together.

New King James Version       "You shall not wear a garment of different sorts, such as wool and linen mixed together.

New RSV                               You shall not wear clothes made of wool and linen woven together.

Webster’s Bible Translation  Thou shalt not wear a garment of divers sorts, [as] of woolen and linen together.

World English Bible                You shall not wear a mixed stuff, wool and linen together.

Young’s Updated LT             “You will not put on a mixed cloth, wool and linen together.

 

The gist of this verse:          Clothing is not to be made out of incompatible materials.


Deuteronomy 22:11

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

lâbash (לָבַש) [pronounced lawb-VAHSH]

to put on, to clothe, to be clothed, to wear

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #3847 BDB #527

shaʿaţenêz (שַעַטְנֶז) [pronounced shah-aht-NAZE]

mixed stuff, fabric of mixed weave, a kind of cloth forbidden for garments; cloth made by weaving linen and wool together

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #8162 BDB #1043

tsemer (צֶמֶר) [pronounced TSEH-mer]

wool [from sheep, in clothing]; metaphorically: whiteness

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #6785 BDB #856

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

pisheteh (פִּשְתֶּה) [pronounced pish-THE]

flax, linen, cotton

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #6593 BDB #833

yachad (יַחַד) [pronounced YAHKH-ahd]

union, joined together, unitedness, together, in unity

masculine singular noun/adverb

Strong’s #3162 BDB #403


Translation: You will not wear mixed-fabric [clothing]—wool and cotton together. This does not mean that all blends are out. Here, Moses is very specific. In many ways, Moses here is writing the first Farmer’s Almanac. Moses has been around for nearly 120 years at this point in time, and the people he is speaking to, apart from Joshua and Caleb, are under 40. He is learned in many different areas; most of them know nothing about farming, building or anything else.


This is a continuation of the theme in v. 10. When washed, wool will shrink whereas linen will not (at least, not as much). Today, we have become very adept at material blends, but it was not so in the ancient world. Moses was repeating what God had instructed him: “You will not...wear a garment upon you of two kinds of material mixed together.” (Lev. 19:19b). The context of Lev. 19 is the forbidding of idolatry. The Israelites were not to mix together idolatry and worship of Jesus Christ. Their worship of God was to be separated from the heathen worship of idols (Lev. 19:1–8) and their behavior was to be separate from the behavior of the unbeliever (Lev. 19:9–18). The passage from 2Cor. 6 is also contiguous with a call to separate from idolatry: Or what agreement has the temple of God with idols? For we are the temple of the living God; just as God said, “I will dwell in them and walk among them; and I will be their God and they will be My people. Therefore, come out from their midst and be separate,” says the Lord. “And do not touch what is unclean and I will embrace you. And I will be a father to you, and you will be sons and daughters to Me,” says the Lord Almighty (2Cor. 6:16–18 Ex. 29:45 Lev. 26:11b–12 Isa. 52:11 Ex. 4:22 2Sam. 7:14). As we have seen, this separated the Israelites from the heathen groups around them.


On the practical side, Moses is keeping these people from wasting time on projects which will yield substandard products. Recall that when these Jews were in the desert, God preserved their clothing and their sandals (Deut. 8:4 29:5). So these people never had to grow their food or grow cotton for making clothes—many of them did not even know how to make clothing and sandals. These were skills which, had they learned them at all, they had not used such skills for at least 40 years.


Jesus used this principle in a parable: “No one puts a piece of unshrunk cloth on an old garment, for the patch tears away from the garment, and a worse tear is made. Neither is new wine put into old wineskins. If it is, the skins burst and the wine is spilled and the skins are destroyed. But new wine is put into fresh wineskins, and so both are preserved." (Matt. 9:16–17; ESV) The parable was trying to use legalism in a grace system (God’s way is grace; religion, which is what the pharisees offered, was legalism; a religion of merit).


Some critics of the Bible, often quote Lev. 19:19, and then with snarky glee, proclaim, “You cannot wear cotton blend clothing.” The implication is, “You Christians are such dorks.” Or, “You Christians do not like homosexuality; well, do you wear cotton blends? Got you there; heh heh heh.”

CGG.org on Wearing Clothing of Mixed Fibers

Should a Christian Wear Clothing of Mixed Fibers (Leviticus 19:19 Deuteronomy 22:9–11)?


This question often arises when people read Leviticus 19:19 and Deuteronomy 22:11. Today we would call this a "consumer protection law." Notice that these verses contain the basic principle that materials of widely differing character and texture are not to be combined. On the other hand, these verses allow a number of combinations that are within God's laws.


Today's garments are made of two basic kinds of natural fibers. The first is plant cellulose fiber, from which fabrics such as linen and cotton are produced. The second is animal protein fiber such as wool and silk. Because these kinds of fibers differ markedly in strength, washability, absorption, and so forth, they should not be mixed.


However, a garment made of a combination of cellulose materials-a mixture of cotton and linen, for example-is acceptable because the fibers are basically similar. For the same reason, mixtures of protein fibers (wool, mohair, silk, and so on) are acceptable.


What about the mixture of synthetic, man-made fabrics, such as Dacron, nylon, polyester, and rayon, with either cellulose or protein fibers? Many have not realized that a combination of synthetic and either plant or animal material does not necessarily break the biblical principle. Synthetic materials are usually made to have essentially the same characteristics as the natural fibers. Otherwise, they would not mix well. The stronger fibers would cut and tear away from the weaker ones or would not combine well in other ways. In other words, it is perfectly acceptable to manufacture fabrics from a combination of fibers which are naturally or artificially compatible with one another. It is the mixture of fibers with markedly differing qualities which this biblical principle concerns.


It should be noted that such combinations produce a cheaper garment, with respect to quality, than one made with the best grades of pure fibers. On the other hand, a fabric made from low-grade, natural fibers is usually improved by the addition of compatible man-made fibers. Any good tailor or seamstress knows that the best quality clothing is made from 100 percent wool, cotton, and so forth. Nevertheless, one need not throw away or destroy clothing which may be of lower quality or a wrong mixture. Wearing such materials is not a sin in itself. Rather, God does not want manufacturers producing shoddy materials in order to take advantage of their customers.

Making clothing in the ancient world was a very involved process and it would make little sense to produce clothing which would not hold up over the long haul. Keeping incompatible things separate simply saved the Jews from wasting the materials which they had to work with and their time as well.

This is taken from:

http://www.cgg.org/index.cfm/fuseaction/Library.sr/CT/BQA/k/192/Should-Christian-Wear-Clothing-of-Mixed-Fibers-Leviticus-1919.htm accessed August 18, 2013 and slightly edited.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


There was a story done on the weirdest Bible laws, and, of course, this was included. No idea who that person below is, but this was their explanation.

TMana on mixing materials

(1) Natural-fiber mavens will tell you that different fibers behave differently and the garments need to be cared for differently. Linen-wool mixtures cannot be bleached white like pure linen can, nor can wool be washed with both agitation and hot water without changing the character of the fabric.

(2) Religious Jews don't limit the non-mixing of natural fibers to linsey-woolsey: the Bible also prohibits the mixing of crops in the field, so any cotton-linen blend is off-limits as well. An Orthodox colleague related to me how her husband has required the collar of the linen suit he wore for his wedding to be picked apart and restitched with polyester thread before he would purchase it, to avoid mixing fibers.

(3) Different fibers behave differently in garments. Mixed-fiber garments have all of the care disadvantages of all fibers in the garment and generally do not have the advantages of both fibers. For example, try putting a linen garment in the washing machine on "hot", with bleach. Now try treating a wool garment the same way... (Caution: please do NOT do this with a wool garment you wish to wear again!)

(4) The Bible also prohibits the mixing of plants in the same field; religious Jews therefore also eschew cotton-linen blends, or even clothing of linen fabric sewn up with cotton thread. (A colleague's husband had the collar and lapel of the suit he'd wish to purchase for his wedding unpicked and restitched in polyester thread for just that reason.)

From http://www.asylum.com/2008/02/20/the-weirdest-laws-in-the-bible-no-mixing-fibers/#commentform accessed September 22, 2013. These are two postings made into one (and, therefore, renumbered).


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Again, portions of Deuteronomy function more like a Farmer’s Almanac than strict laws which demand close adherence to for the rest of human history. The primary difference is, the people of Israel at this time had very few skills in the realm of farming and building.


——————————


Tassels you will construct for yourself upon four of extremities of your garment which you clothe with her.

Deuteronomy

22:12

[However,] You may [lit., will] make tassels [belt loops? pockets?] for yourself beyond the four ends of your garment with which you are clothed.

You will design your overcoat with pockets on all four sections for the overcoats that you wear.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                Nevertheless on a robe of linen thread you may be permitted to make fringes of woollen upon the four extremities of your vestments with which you dress in the day.

Jerusalem targum                  Fringes of threads shall you make upon the four edges of your vestments with which you dress.

Latin Vulgate                          You will make strings in the hem at the four corners of your cloak, wherewith you will be covered.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        Tassels you will construct for yourself upon four of extremities of your garment which you clothe with her.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    You shall make for yourself fringes on the four corners of your cloak, with which you cover yourself.

 

Significant differences:           The targum again acts like a commentary, and appears to be tied to the previous verse.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Easy English                          You must sow *tassels on the four corners of your coat.

New Century Version             Tie several pieces of thread together; then put these tassels on the four corners of your coat.

New Living Translation           "You must put four tassels on the hem of the cloak with which you cover yourself-on the front, back, and sides.

The Voice                               Make tassels for the four corners of the cloak you wear, as a reminder of God's instructions.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          'You must put fringes on all four sides of your clothing, no matter how you may be dressed.

New American Bible              "You shall put twisted cords on the four corners of the cloak that you wrap around you. Twisted cords: referred to as "tassels" on "violet cords" in Numbers 15:38 ("Speak to the Israelites and tell them that they and their descendants must put tassels on the corners of their garments, fastening each corner tassel with a violet cord.). Tassels: at the time of Christ these tassels were worn by all pious Jews, including our Lord (Matthew 9:20-21; Mark 6:56); the Pharisees wore very large ones in ostentation of their zeal for the law (Matthew 23:5).

New American Bible (R.E.)    You shall put tassels on the four corners of the cloak that you wrap around yourself. Num. 15:38-41; Mt 23:5.

NIRV                                      Make tassels on the four corners of the coat you wear.

Today’s NIV                          Make tassels on the four corners of the cloak you wear.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      Make fringes for yourself over the four wings of your covering in which you cover.

The Expanded Bible              Tie several pieces of thread together; then put these tassels on the four corners of your coat [Cperhaps to weigh down the garment to avoid exposure].

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 You may make tassels upon the four corners of the cushions that you sit upon.

NET Bible®                             You shall make yourselves tassels [Heb “twisted threads” (גְּדִלִים, gÿdilim) appears to be synonymous with צִיצִת (tsitsit) which, in Num 15:38, occurs in a passage instructing Israel to remember the covenant. Perhaps that is the purpose of the tassels here as well. Cf. KJV, ASV “fringes”; NAB “twisted cords.”] for the four corners of the clothing you wear.

New Heart English Bible        You shall make yourselves fringes on the four borders of your cloak, with which you cover yourself.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           "You are to make for yourself twisted cords on the four corners of the garment you wrap around yourself.

Kaplan Translation                 Bound Tassels

Make yourself bound tassels on the four corners of the garment with which you cover yourself. Gedilim in Hebrew (cf. 1 Kings 7:17; Targum on Exodus 28:22). See Numbers 15:38. The ritual tzitzith-tassels are made by doubling over four threads so that eight appear to be coming from each corner. One of these threads is longer than the rest, and this is wound around the rest. This section, around which a thread is wound, constitutes one third of the length of the tassel, and is called the gedil (Menachoth 39a; Rashi ibid. 39b, s.v. U'Pothli-hu; Rashi on Deuteronomy 32:5). Or, 'doubled tassels' (Sifri; Menachoth 39b).

Orthodox Jewish Bible           Thou shalt make thee gedilim (fringes, tzitzis, twisted threads) upon the four corners of thy garment, wherewith thou coverest thyself.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    Braided cords shall you make for yourself on the four hems of your covering with which you cover yourself.

Context Group Version          You shall make yourself fringes on the four borders of your vesture, with which you cover yourself.

Green’s Literal Translation    You shall make for yourself tassels on the four corners of your cloak with which you cover.

World English Bible                You shall make you fringes on the four borders of your cloak, with which you cover yourself.

Young’s Updated LT             “Fringes you will make to you on the four skirts of your covering with which you will cover yourself.

 

The gist of this verse:          Tassels or fringes—possibly pockets or belt loops—were to be added to garment extremities.


Deuteronomy 22:12

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

gedilîym (גְּדִלִים) [pronounced gehd-il-LEEM]

tassels, twisted [intertwined] threads; pockets? belt loops?; festoons [on capitals of columns]

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #1434 BDB #152

ʿâsâh (עָשָֹה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWH]

to do, to make, to construct, to fashion, to form, to prepare, to manufacture

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #6213 BDB #793

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of relative proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

ʾarebaʿ (אַרְבַּע) [pronounced ahre-BAHĢ]

four

masculine singular noun; numeral; construct form

Strong’s #702 BDB #916

kânâph (כָּנָף) [pronounced kaw-NAWF]

wings of birds (Gen. 1:21 Ex. 19:4 Deut. 32:11) as well as the extremity of a garment (Deut. 22:12, 30 Ruth 3:9)

feminine dual construct

Strong’s #3671 BDB #489

Just as a bird’s wing sticks out from the torso of the bird; so also the end of Samuel’s robe was away from his body. Or, as the wing of a bird flaps, so did the extremity of Samuel’s robe. This is the connection between the two meanings.

keçûwth (כְּסוּת) [pronounced kehs-OOTH]

covering, a cover; concealment; clothing, a garment

feminine singular noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #3682 BDB #492

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun; sometimes the verb to be is implied

Strong's #834 BDB #81

kâçâh (כָּסָה) [pronounced kaw-SAWH]

to cover, to clothe, to conceal; to spread over, to engulf; to overwhelm

2nd person masculine singular, Piel imperfect

Strong’s #3680 BDB #491

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity with the 3rd person feminine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #88


Translation: [However,] You may [lit., will] make tassels [belt loops? pockets?] for yourself beyond the four ends of your garment with which you are clothed. We do not know for certain what is being made here. The word often translated tassels is only found here in connection with clothing; it is found in 1Kings 7:17 (He made gratings of network with twisted threads of chain-work, for the capitals on the top of the pillars; seven for the one capital, and seven for the other capital. —Green’s Literal Translation). Given what we have had so far, it seems like this is something which would be good advice concerning their clothing, but we don’t really known for certain what that advice is.


The tassels the Israelites were to make were to remind them of the commandments of God. Yehowah Also spoke to Moses, saying, “Speak to the sons of Israel, and tell them that they will make for themselves tassels on the corners of their garments throughout their generations, and that they will put on the tassel of each corner a cord of blue. And it will be a tassel for you to look at and to remember all the commandments of Yehowah, so as to do them and not to follow after your own heart and your own eyes, after which you played the harlot,. [They are] in order that you may remember to do all My commandments and to be holy to your God. I am Yehowah your God who brought you out from the land of Egypt to be your God; I am Yehowah your God.” (Num. 15:37–41). However, these tassels, although worn by our Lord, Footnote were later used as a religious symbol, rather than a reminder to the wearer. Then Jesus spoke to the multitudes and to His disciples, saying, “The scribes and the Pharisees have seated themselves in the chair of Moses; therefore, all that they tell you, do and observe, but do not do according to their deeds; for they say and they do not do. And they tie up heavy loads, and they lay them on men’s shoulders, but they themselves are unwilling to move them which a finger. But they do all their deeds to be noticed by men; for they broaden their phylacteries Footnote and lengthen the tassels [on their clothing].” (Matt. 23:1–5).


The word found in Num. 15:38 is tsîytsîth (צִיצִת) [pronounced tsee-TSEETH], which means tassel, lock, feather, flower; forelock of the hair; borders; the fringed edges. Strong’s #6734 BDB #851. The word in our passage is actually a very different word; it is gedilîym (גְּדִלִים) [pronounced gehd-il-LEEM], which means, tassels, twisted [intertwined] threads; pockets? belt loops?; festoons [on capitals of columns]. Strong’s #1434 BDB #152. So, it is clear that these two words cannot be mistaken for one another; nor does one appear to come from the other. The first word is clearly associated with the commandments and these tassels or fringes were somehow symbolic of them, although it is not clear in what way. That is, these were apparently used as a mnemonic device, but we do not know exactly how.


In our own passage, there appears to be a more utilitarian purpose for whatever it is which is added to the outer garment. Could this be simply a border to keep a garment from fraying? The four corners would then suggest the entirety of the garment’s edge, as in the four corners of the earth.


The John Calvin in his Commentary suggests that these gave people a way to pull their garment together, so that they would not be uncovered by accident. Footnote Matthew Henry suggests that these might have been tassels which immediately distinguished an Israelite from all others. This would keep the Israelites in a frame of mind that they would embrace the peculiarities of their religion. Footnote If you are known immediately by your dress as a Jew to any stranger, this may have an effect upon your behavior, according to Poole. Footnote Keil and Delitzsch similarly say Footnote that this reminds the Israelites of their calling, which could point back to Num. 15:38, and allow this to be understood differently. Quite frankly, none of these opinions really grab me, and I am just as likely to vote for my own idea that these are merely pockets, as Moses appears to be dealing with a lot of common sense suggestions in this short section. That there are tassels or threads besides is clear in Num. 15:38, and any of these commentators could be really speaking of that passage more than they are of the passage we are studying.


There is the possibility that Jesus had this on his garment, as a woman touches the fringe of His garment in Matt. 9:20. There may have been a way to exaggerate these as seen in Matt. 23:5. However, in both of these instances, we could be referring back to Num. 15:38, which may be understood differently than Deut. 22:12.

 

Jamieson, Fausset and Brown have a completely different take on this, and which is legitimate, when viewing the alternate meanings for the words used in this verse: [This is], according to some eminent biblical interpreters, tassels on the coverlet of the bed. The precept is not the same as Num. 15:38. Footnote So they see this as possibly fringe or even a hem which might be applied to a bed sheet. Most of us do not realize this, but, without a hem of some sort, clothing and bed sheets become frayed along the edges and it is possible that this is all that is going on here. Again, recall that God preserved the sandals and clothing of these Jews over this 40 years, so they did not realize that stuff just wears out. A hem will increase the life of a piece of clothing or a bed sheet and keep it looking better.


The targum of Onkelos ties this to the previous verse, so that v. 12 is giving an exception, not necessarily prescribing a requirement for all types of clothes: You shall not clothe nor warm yourselves with a garment combed (carded) or netted, or interwoven with woollen and linen mixed together. Nevertheless on a robe of linen thread you may be permitted to make fringes of woollen upon the four extremities of your vestments with which you dress in the day. So, you do not intermix threads to make clothing; but there are mixtures done in a particular way which are acceptable and will not affect the wear of the clothing. It is possible that this is simple a common sense suggestion by Moses. This certainly gives a reasonable approach, which is far different from the idea that, you cannot mix any kinds of material for any reason; and that all coats must have fringe tassels or some damn thing hanging off them. These tassels may have been used as aides to recall Scripture and spiritual principles, and a common thing worn in those days; and Moses is simply saying, “You can have a cotton coat with woolen fringe material.”


Because of the words found here, we do not know without a doubt what is being spoken of. So, what has been proposed, for the most part, are normal, common sense things that this generation of Jews would not know.


Making this into a group of complex laws, whereas nowhere is there some kind of penalty for doing things differently, suggests more than Moses is just sharing his knowledge for these Jews at this time to get things right. These are simply normal, day-to-day things which would be quite different for them than their time spent in the desert, being taken care of by God. They never had to give any thought to these things before, because of God’s provision for them in the desert. However, Moses is not laying down the law telling them just exactly what they must do in the most minute detail.


The Bible has many purposes, and not everything that we read will apply to us directly. For instance, we can look back and recognize the brilliance of declaring some foods off limits (unclean) in a world without refrigeration. However, that will have very little affect on our day-to-day lives, apart from building up our confidence in the wisdom of God.


However, even in these first 12 verses, we have been introduced to the concepts of building codes, conservation and basic farming. Furthermore, even though Israel would have a specific sort of government, you will note that these particular items did not fall under government control, but were delivered more by way of good advice from a wise sage.


On the other hand, the laws which follow are very specific and there are dramatic penalties for violating some of these laws.


——————————

 

Part II:                     Morality Laws for a New Nation


If has been falsely asserted, “You can’t legislate morality.” First of all, all legislation is related to the morality of a nation, to what the people believe in or don’t (or, in the case of a monarch, what he believes in or doesn’t, with some thought given to the population as a whole). What is really being asserted in this saying, “You can’t legislate (sexual) morality.” However, that is also a false statement, as this is exactly what Moses does, and this, for the most part, sticks with the Israelites for the next 1500 or more years. The citizens of Israel will come to distort some of these laws from time to time (Matt. 19:8), but the correct principles remain.


In our society, our morality is sort of an agreed upon thing within our society, and when enough people violate the existing morality standards, then they are changed to fit the society. At one time, our society recognized homosexual acts as being wrong, and we had laws which supported these beliefs (which are Biblical, by the way). When I was in the public school system in liberal California, in the 1950's and 1960's, an overtly homosexual would be run out of town and would never teach anywhere in California again. Nowadays in California, an overtly homosexual teacher might even get preferential treatment and be hired instead of an overtly Christian teacher. Today, there are some teachers who would be questioned, if they had a Bible sitting on their desk. That represents a change in the morality of a society (as well as a well-organized gay political movement).


However, these are laws from God (Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers); or laws from Moses inspired by God the Holy Spirit (Deuteronomy). These represent some absolute principles as related to sexual morality. The over-arching principle in the laws which follows is, God has designed both sex and marriage for one man and one woman and you get one chance to get that marriage right—and it is upon this relationship that society is built. Any deviation from this is not just sin, but sin which may be punishable by death.


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Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Marriage, Adultery, Virginity Laws


When takes a man a woman and he has gone in unto her and he has hated her; and he has placed to her evil deeds of reports and he has brought upon her a reputation evil, and he has said, “The woman the this I took and so I came near unto her and I did not find to her signs of virginity.”

Deuteronomy

22:13–14

When a man takes a woman [in marriage] and has gone in unto her and has hated her, and he [then] assigns to her reports of evil deeds and has [thereby] brought upon her a reputation of evil. And he [also] says, “I took this woman and came near to her, but I did not find proof of virginity regarding her.”

Let’s say that a man takes a woman in marriage, and they consummate the marriage, but then the man hates her. He may tell others that she has been reported to have done immoral things and has thereby brought a reputation of evil upon her. He may say, “I took this woman and came near to her on our wedding night, but there were no indications that night that she was still a virgin.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                If a man take a wife or virgin and go unto her, but afterwards dislike her, and bring upon her words of calumny in an evil report against her, and say, I took this woman, and lay with her, but found not the witnesses for her;...

Latin Vulgate                          If a man marry a wife, and afterwards hate her, And seek occasions to put her away, laying to her charge a very ill name, and say: I took this woman to wife, and going in to her, I found her not a virgin.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        When takes a man a woman and he has gone in unto her and he has hated her; and he has placed to her evil deeds of reports and he has brought upon her a reputation evil, and he has said, “The woman the this I took and so I came near unto her and I did not find to her signs of virginity.”

Peshitta (Syriac)                    If any man take a wife, and go in unto her, and then hate her, And give an occasion of speech against her, charging her with adultery, and bring an evil name upon her, and say, I took this woman, and when I lay with her, I found her not a virgin;...

Septuagint (Greek)                And if anyone should take a wife, and dwell with her, and hate her, and attach to her reproachful words, and bring against her an evil name, and say, I took this woman, and when I came to her I found not her tokens of virginity;...

 

Significant differences:           The targum adds that she is a virgin; the Latin leaves out that the marriage has been consummated. In the second thought, the Latin has the man seeking to put his wife away, as opposed to the Hebrew where he gives an evil report about her (however, clearly, divorce or separation is what the man is after, even in the Hebrew).

 

The Hebrew is very euphemistic about sex, where it indicates that the man came near to her; the Latin and targum preserve the notion of sex, but use the word lay instead.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Virgin bride

Suppose a man gets married and consummates the marriage but subsequently despises his wife. He then spreads false claims about her to the point that she has a bad reputation, because he said such things as, "I married this woman, but when I went to have sex with her, I couldn't find any proof that she was a virgin.".

Contemporary English V.       Suppose a man starts hating his wife soon after they are married. He might tell ugly lies about her, and say, "I married this woman, but when we slept together, I found out she wasn't a virgin."

Easy English                          Rules for marriage

A man may marry a girl. Then he may decide that he does not like her. So he says wrong things about her and gives her a bad name. He even says, "I married this girl. Then I discovered that she had already had sex. She had sex before I married her.".

Easy-to-Read Version            “A man might marry a girl and have sexual relations with her. Then he might decide that he does not like her. He might lie and say, ‘I married this woman, but when we had sexual relations, I found she was not a virgin. ’ By saying this against her, people might think bad things about her.

Good News Bible (TEV)         "Suppose a man marries a young woman and later he decides he doesn't want her. So he makes up false charges against her, accusing her of not being a virgin when they got married.

The Message                         If a man marries a woman, sleeps with her, and then turns on her, calling her a slut, giving her a bad name, saying, "I married this woman, but when I slept with her I discovered she wasn't a virgin,"...

New Berkeley Version           “If a man takes a wife and, after cohabitation, tiring of her, brings damaging charges against her, giving her a band name, saying, ‘I took this woman and when I approached her, I did not find in her the evidence of virginity,’...

New Century Version             Marriage Laws

If a man marries a girl and has sexual relations with her but then decides he does not like her, he might talk badly about her and give her a bad name. He might say, "I married this woman, but when I had sexual relations with her, I did not find that she was a virgin."

New Life Bible                        "If a man takes a wife and goes in to her and decides he does not like her, and says that she did sinful acts and puts her to shame before others and says, 'I took this woman, but when I came near her, I found that she had been with another man,'...

New Living Translation           Regulations for Sexual Purity

"Suppose a man marries a woman, but after sleeping with her, he turns against her and publicly accuses her of shameful conduct, saying, `When I married this woman, I discovered she was not a virgin.'.

The Voice                               Moses: 13 What if a man marries a woman and has sexual relations with her, but he ends up hating her, 14 falsely accuses her of shameful things, and slanders her publicly, saying, "I married this woman, but then I discovered she wasn't a virgin"?.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          'If any man should take a woman that he comes to dislike after he has lived with her, and then he starts saying bad things about her and calling her bad names, saying, When I took this woman and had sex with her, she didn't prove to be a virgin;...

Beck’s American Translation Sexual Purity

“If a man marries a woman and has intercourse with her and then hates her, accuses her of things he’s made up, and gives her a bad name by saying, ‘I married this woman, but when I came to her, I found she wasn’t a virgin,’...

Christian Community Bible     It may happen that a man takes a wife and afterwards does not like her, so he reproaches her for her behavior, and defames her by saying: “I married this woman, but when I went to bed with her, I found out that she was not a virgin.”

God’s Word                         A man might marry a woman, sleep with her, and decide he doesn't like her. Then he might make up charges against her and ruin her reputation by saying, "I married this woman. But when I slept with her, I found out she wasn't a virgin."

New Advent (Knox) Bible       It may be that a husband will grow weary of the wife he has taken, 14 and look about him for pretexts to put her away. Such a man will perhaps fasten an ill name on her, by complaining that when he bedded her she was found to be no maid.

New American Bible              "If a man, after marrying a woman and having relations with her, comes to dislike her, and makes monstrous charges against her and defames her by saying, 'I married this woman, but when I first had relations with her I did not find her a virgin,'...

New American Bible (R.E.)    Marriage Legislation.

If a man, after marrying a woman and having relations with her, comes to dislike her, and accuses her of misconduct and slanders her by saying, "I married this woman, but when I approached her I did not find evidence of her virginity,"... Deut. 24:1.

NIRV                                      Breaking Marriage Laws

Suppose a man gets married to a woman and makes love to her. But then he doesn't like her. So he tells lies about her and says she's a bad woman. He says, "I got married to this woman. But when I made love to her, I discovered she wasn't a virgin.".

New Jerusalem Bible             'If a man marries a woman, has sexual intercourse with her and then, turning against her, taxes her with misconduct and publicly defames her by saying, "I married this woman and when I had sexual intercourse with her I did not find evidence of her virginity,"...

New Simplified Bible              »If a man marries a woman and has sex with her and then turns against her, he charges her with shameful deeds and publicly defames her. He says: ‘When I had sex with this woman, I did not find proof of her virginity.’

Today’s NIV                          Marriage Violations

If a man takes a wife and, after sleeping with her, dislikes her and slanders her and gives her a bad name, saying, "I married this woman, but when I approached her, I did not find proof of her virginity,"...


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      When any man takes a woman and comes into her, but hates her, and sets words of confrontation to her, and proceeds an evil name over her, saying, "I took this woman, and I neared into her, but found her not a virgin":.

Bible in Basic English             If any man takes a wife, and having had connection with her, has no delight in her, And says evil things about her and gives her a bad name, saying, I took this woman, and when I had connection with her it was clear to me that she was not a virgin:...

The Expanded Bible              Marriage Laws

If a man marries a girl and has sexual relations with her but then decides he ·does not like [Lhates] her, he might ·talk badly about her [charge her with wanton behavior] and give her a bad name. He might say, "I married this woman, but when I ·had sexual relations with [approached] her, I did not find that she was a virgin.".

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 When a man takes a wife, and on going to her hates her, and puts insulting reports upon her, by saying, “I married this woman, and when I approached her I found she was not a maiden!”

NET Bible®                             Purity in the Marriage Relationship

Suppose a man marries a woman, has sexual relations with her [Heb "goes to her," a Hebrew euphemistic idiom for sexual relations.], and then rejects [Heb "hate." See note on the word "other" in Deut 21:15. Cf. NAB "comes to dislike"; NASB "turns against"; TEV "decides he doesn't want."] her, accusing her of impropriety [Heb "deeds of things"; NRSV "makes up charges against her"; NIV "slanders her."] and defaming her reputation [Heb "brings against her a bad name"; NIV "gives her a bad name."] by saying, "I married this woman but when I had sexual relations [Heb "drew near to her." This is another Hebrew euphemism for having sexual relations.] with her I discovered she was not a virgin!"

New Heart English Bible        If any man takes a wife, and goes in to her, and hates her, and accuses her of shameful things, and brings up an evil name on her, and says, "I took this woman, and when I came near to her, I did not find in her the tokens of virginity";...

NIV, ©2011                             Marriage Violations

If a man takes a wife and, after sleeping with her, dislikes her and slanders her and gives her a bad name, saying, "I married this woman, but when I approached her, I did not find proof of her virginity,"...


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           "If a man marries a woman, has sexual relations with her and then, having come to dislike her, brings false charges against her and defames her character by saying, 'I married this woman, but when I had intercourse with her I did not find evidence that she was a virgin';....

exeGeses companion Bible   THE TORAH ON VIRGINITY

If any man takes a woman

and goes in to her and hates her

and set exploitations of words

and brings up an evil name on her, and says,

I took this woman and when I approached her

I found no virginity in her!

Judaica Press Complete T.    If a man takes a wife, is intimate with her and despises her, and he makes libelous charges against her and gives her a bad name, saying, "I took this woman, and when I came to her, I did not find any evidence of virginity for her."

Kaplan Translation                 The Defamed Wife

[This is the law in a case] where a man marries a woman, cohabits with her, and then finds himself hating her. He therefore invents charges against her, framing her and saying, 'I have married this woman and have consummated the marriage. But I have found evidence that she has not been faithful.'.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           If any ish take an isha, and go in unto her, and hate her, And give occasions of speech against her, and bring up a shem rah (bad name) upon her, and say, I took this isha, and when I came to her, I found her with no betulim (proofs of virginity);...


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                If any man takes a wife and goes in to her, and then scorns her And charges her with shameful things and gives her an evil reputation, and says, I took this woman, but when I came to her, I did not find in her the tokens of a virgin, Then the father of the young woman, and her mother, shall get and bring out the tokens of her virginity to the elders of the city at the gate. V. 15 is included for context.

Concordant Literal Version    In case a man should take a wife, and he comes in to her, yet then he hates her, charges her with iniquitous words and brings forth a bad name on her and says:I took this woman, and I came near to her and found no evidence of virginity on her,...

Context Group Version          If any man takes a woman { or wife }, and goes in to her, and then spurns her, and lays shameful things to her charge, and brings up an evil name on her, and says, I took this woman, and when I came near to her, I didn't find in her the signs of virginity;...

Darby Translation                  If a man take a wife, and go in unt