Genesis 2

 

Genesis 2:1–25

God Makes the Man and the Woman


These studies are designed for believers in Jesus Christ only. If you have exercised faith in Christ, then you are in the right place. If you have not, then you need to heed the words of our Lord, Who said, “For God so loved the world that He gave His only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son, so that every [one] believing [or, trusting] in Him shall not perish, but shall be have eternal life! For God did not send His Son into the world so that He should judge the world, but so that the world shall be saved through Him. The one believing [or, trusting] in Him is not judged, but the one not believing has already been judged, because he has not believed in the Name of the only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son of God.” (John 3:16–18). “I am the Way and the Truth and the Life! No one comes to the Father except through [or, by means of] Me!” (John 14:6).


Every study of the Word of God ought to be preceded by a naming of your sins to God. This restores you to fellowship with God (1John 1:8–10). If there are people around, you would name these sins silently. If there is no one around, then it does not matter if you name them silently or whether you speak aloud.


This is a collection of the weekly lessons of Genesis (HTML) (PDF) interspersed with the complete word-by-word exegesis of this chapter from the Hebrew with some information from Genesis (HTML) (PDF) thrown in. Furthermore, the examination of this chapter has been expanded with additional commentary as well. However, much of this material was thrown together without careful editing. Therefore, from time to time, there will be concepts and exegetical material which will be repeated, because there was no overall editing done once all of this material was combined. At some point in the future, I need to go back and edit this material and consider other source material as well. Links to the word-by-word, verse-by-verse studies of Genesis (HTML) (PDF).

 

One more thing: it is not necessary that you read the grey Hebrew exegesis tables. They are set apart from the rest of the study so that you can easily skip over them. However, if you ever doubt a translation of a phrase or a verse, these translation tables will tell you exactly where that translation came from.


This should be the most extensive examination of Gen. 2 available, where you will be able to see every word of the original text.


Outline of Chapter 2:

 

Introduction

 

         vv.     1–3           Day Seven—Rest (This is properly placed with Gen. 1)

         vv.     4–7           God Makes Man

         vv.     8–9           The Garden of Eden

         vv.    10–14         The Rivers and Lands in that Day

         vv.    15–20         Man in the Garden of Eden, Naming the Animals

         vv.    21–25         God Builds the Woman for Man

 

Addendum


Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines:

 

         v.       3              The Sabbath

         v.       3              Sanctification

         v.       7              Ten Amazing Statements from Genesis 1:1–2:7

         v.       7              The Pronunciation of Jehovah

         v.       9              The Tree of Life

         v.       9              The Second Tree of Life Doctrine

         v.       9              Definition of Evil and Links to the Doctrine of Evil

         v.       9              The Doctrine of the Tree of Knowing Good and Evil

         v.      14              Map of the Middle East

         v.      14              More Maps of the Middle East

         v.      15              The Garden of Eden in Scripture

         v.      17              The Heritage Bible on the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil

         v.      17              Four Holy Principles for Fathers (from the Heritage Bible)

         v.      17              Timelines of the Creation of Man and the Woman

         v.      18              What God will Make for Adam

         v.      24              The First Four Divine Institutions

 

         Addendum          Josephus’ History of this Time

         Addendum          Genesis 2:4–25 as a Chiasmos

         Addendum          A Complete Translation of Genesis 2


Chapter Outline

 

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines

Forward

Doctrines Covered and Alluded to

Chapters of the Bible Alluded To

Psalms Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Other Chapters of the Bible Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Definition of Terms

Introduction

Text

Addendum

www.kukis.org

 

Exegetical Studies in Genesis


Doctrines Covered

Doctrines Alluded To

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Chapters of the Bible Alluded To

 

 

 

 


Psalms Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

 

 

 

 


Other Chapters of the Bible Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

 

 

 

 


Many who read and study this chapter are 1st or 2nd generation students of R. B. Thieme, Jr., so that much of this vocabulary is second nature. One of Bob’s contributions to theology is a fresh vocabulary along with a number of concepts which are theologically new or reworked, yet still orthodox. Therefore, if you are unfamiliar with his work, the definitions below will help you to fully understand all that is being said. Also, I have developed a few new terms and concepts which require definition as well.

In addition, there are other more traditional yet technical theological terms which will be used and therefore defined as well.

Sometimes the terms in the exegesis of this chapter are simply alluded to, without any in-depth explanation of them. Sometimes, these terms are explained in detail and illustrated. A collection of all these terms is found here: (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Definition of Terms

Rebound (Restoration to fellowship with God)

In the New Testament, this is naming your sins to God, so that you are both restored to temporal fellowship with God and are then filled with the Spirit of God. In the Old Testament, naming your sins to God would result in a restoration of fellowship and, in some cases, the empowerment of the Holy Spirit once again (the Holy Spirit was not given to all Old Testament believers). See the Doctrine of Rebound (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Some of these definitions are taken from

http://www.bibledoctrinechurch.org/?subpages/GLOSSARY.shtml

http://rickhughesministries.org/content/Biblical-Terms.pdf

http://www.gbible.org/index.php?proc=d4d

http://www.wordoftruthministries.org/termsanddefs.htm

http://www.realtime.net/~wdoud/topics.html

http://www.theopedia.com/


——————————


An Introduction to Genesis 2


I ntroduction: Gen. 2:1–3 properly belongs with Gen. 1. These are the concluding verses. The chapter and verse divisions were made long after Genesis was originally written down (without spaces, without an delineation of verses, and without chapters).


There are some who claim that Gen. 2 is a different passage on the creation of heavens and earth; and that we have two versions of creation which are in conflict. There is very little reason to make such an assertion. There are a few apparent contradictions which are cleared up when the context and the grammar are carefully examined.


There is a theory out there that, various different people wrote various chapters of the first 4 books of the Bible; and that someone a long time later put all of these passages together. Part of the justification for this theory (which is well accepted in many Bible colleges and seminaries) is that one author seems to use the name Yehowah and another seems to use the name Elohim. The first time that I read about this theory, I thought poppycock; and I feel the same way today, after years of study. In this chapter, we will have both names together throughout: Yehowah Elohim.


As we begin Gen. 2, let me point out that, chapter and verse divisions were imposed on the Bible until much later in the Bible’s history. Originally, the Hebrew had only consonant letters, one written after the other, without spaces, without periods or commas, and without chapter, verse or word divisions. In order to help us with the pronunciations, the Masoretes inserted what are called vowel points—this was hundreds of years later; and these vowels tell us what is happening between the consonants (that is, how to pronounce the words). Since the Jews, for hundreds of years, read the Scriptures aloud, they knew what these words were and how to pronounce them (with the exception of the name Jehovah), so inserting vowels was not a difficult thing to do. However, at the time of the Masorites, the Hebrew had become a dead language, and fewer and fewer people could read from such a manuscript. These vowels which the Masorites added are called vowel points because they were inserted above and below the consonants to help with the pronunciation, and so that they did not interfere with the text as it has been handed down (if you ignore the vowel points, which are small jots and tiddles above and below the consonants, then what remains is the text as it was originally written down. Today, if you take a contemporary Hebrew manuscript of the Bible, and block out the spaces and the markings above and below the letters, you are seeing the Hebrew text just as it has stood for over 2000–3000 years. The reason that these vowel points are above and below the text is so that the text is preserved letter for letter from the original text.


——————————


Chapter and verse divisions were imposed on the Old Testament hundreds of years after it was written, so it is not uncommon to find a verse whose thought continues in the next verse; and it is also not uncommon to find a chapter which comes to an end, but shouldn’t. This is one of the places where that has occurred. Gen. 2:1–3 are properly a part of Gen. 1.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Day Seven—Rest (This is properly placed with Gen. 1)


Slavishly literal:

 

Moderately literal:

And so is completed the [two] heavens and the earth and all their host.

Genesis

2:1

And so, the heavens and earth were completed, and all their creation.

And so, the heavens and the earth and all the created universe were completed.


Here is how others have translated this verse:

 

Ancient texts:                       Note: I compare the Hebrew text to English translations of the Latin, Syriac and Greek texts, using the Douay-Rheims translation; George Lamsa’s translation, and Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton’s translation as revised and edited by Paul W. Esposito, respectively. I often update these texts with non-substantive changes (e.g., you for thou, etc.). I often use the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible instead of Brenton’s translation, because it updates the English text.

 

The Septuagint was the earliest known translation of a book (circa 200 b.c.). Since this translation was made before the textual criticism had been developed into a science and because different books appear to be translated by different men, the Greek translation can sometimes be very uneven.

 

When there are serious disparities between my translation and Brenton’s (or the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible), I look at the Greek text of the Septuagint (the LXX) to see if a substantive difference actually exists (and I reflect these changes in the English rendering of the Greek text). I use the Greek LXX with Strong’s numbers and morphology available for e-sword. The only problem with this resource (which is a problem for similar resources) is, there is no way to further explore Greek verbs which are not found in the New Testament. Although I usually quote the Complete Apostles’ Bible here, I have begun to make changes in the translation when their translation conflicts with the Greek and note what those changes are.

 

The Masoretic text is the Hebrew text with all of the vowels (vowel points) inserted (the original Hebrew text lacked vowels). We take the Masoretic text to be the text closest to the original. However, differences between the Masoretic text and the Greek, Latin and Syriac are worth noting and, once in a great while, represent a more accurate text possessed by those other ancient translators.

 

In general, the Latin text is an outstanding translation from the Hebrew text into Latin and very trustworthy (I say this as a non-Catholic). Unfortunately, I do not read Latin—apart from some very obvious words—so I am dependent upon the English translation of the Latin (principally, the Douay-Rheims translation).

 

Underlined words indicate differences in the text.

 

Bracketed portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls are words, letters and phrases lost in the scroll due to various types of damage. Underlined words or phrases are those in the Dead Sea Scrolls but not in the Masoretic text.

 

The Targum of Onkelos is actually the Pentateuchal Targumim, which are The Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan Ben Uzziel. On the Pentateuch With The Fragments of the Jerusalem Targum From the Chaldee by J. W. Etheridge, M.A. Take from http://targum.info/targumic-texts/pentateuchal-targumim/ and first published in 1862.

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the creatures of the heavens and earth, and all the hosts of them, were completed.

Latin Vulgate                          So the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the furniture of them.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so is completed the [two] heavens and the earth and all their host.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    THUS the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them.

Septuagint (Greek)                Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and the whole host of them.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           The heavens and the earth and all who live in them were completed.

Contemporary English V.       So the heavens and the earth and everything else were created.

Easy English                          So God had created the skies and the earth. And he had created the many *creatures in them. He had completed his *creation.

Easy-to-Read Version            So the earth, the sky, and everything in them were finished.

Good News Bible (TEV)         And so the whole universe was completed.

The Message                         Heaven and Earth were finished, down to the last detail.

New Century Version             So the sky, the earth, and all that filled them were finished.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          So the skies and the lands were completed, as was all the arrangement of them.

Ancient Roots Translinear      The heavens and the land and all their host finished.

Christian Community Bible     That was the way the sky and earth were created and all their vast array..

God’s Word                         Heaven and earth and everything in them were finished.

New Jerusalem Bible             Thus heaven and earth were completed with all their array.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And the heaven and the earth and all things in them were complete.

 

omplete Jewish Bible             Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, along with everything in them.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 Thus the whole Host of the Heavens as well as the Earth was completed.

NET Bible®                             The heavens and the earth were completed with everything that was in them [Heb "and all the host of them." Here the "host" refers to all the entities and creatures that God created to populate the world.]. When it comes to making an actual material change to the text, the NET Bible® is pretty good about indicating this. Since most of these corrections will be clear in the more literal translations below and within the Hebrew exegesis itself, I will not continue to list every NET Bible® footnote.

New Advent Bible                  So the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the furniture of them.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And finished are the heavens and the earth and all their host.

Context Group Version          And the skies { or heavens } and the land { or earth } were finished, and all the army of them.

English Standard Version      Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them.

Hebrew Names Version         The heavens and the earth were finished, and all their vast array.

New RSV                               Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all their multitude.

Syndein/Thieme                     {First Three Verses actually belong with Chapter 1 - Thought Continues}

Therefore the heavens and the earth were accomplished/restored, and all the inhabitants/armies/hosts of them. {Note: In perfect environment, everything is perfectly organized. Even the fleas had armies! It is a part of the blessing from God.}.

Young's Literal Translation     And the heavens and the earth are completed, and all their host.

 

The gist of this verse: 


Genesis 2:1a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

kâlâh (כָּלָה) [pronounced kaw-LAWH]

to be completed, to be finished; to be ended

3rd person masculine plural, Pual imperfect

Strong's #3615 BDB #477

shâmayîm (שָמַיִם) [pronounced shaw-MAH-yim]

heaven, heavens, skies; the visible heavens, as in as abode of the stars or as the visible universe, the sky, atmosphere, etc.; Heaven (as the abode of God)

masculine dual noun with the definite article

Strong’s #8064 BDB #1029

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: And so, the heavens and earth were completed,... As previously noted, the first few verses of this chapter all belong with the previous chapter. What we have here, is the 7th day, which is logically placed with the 6 days that came before.


God completed the heavens and the earth back in v. 1. However, since then, a number of things have been done on top of that. Therefore, this speaks of the completion of the heavens and the earth and all that supplemented them. As noted previously, I believe that the heavens and the earth had been created and completed on a previous occasion, for the angels; and then, when a third of the angels fell, God froze the earth in ice. The restorative measures are being spoken of here, those things which took place on days 1–6.


The verb, kâlâh (כָּלָה) [pronounced kaw-LAWH], means to be finished, to be completed or to be accomplished. It is in the Pual imperfect, which is passive voice and incomplete action. God, at this point is temporarily finished. He will be finished until Adam and the woman sin; then He will be involved in work. God will be finished when He says he is finished in the perfect tense. In John 19:30, immediately after our Lord had born our sins in his own body on the cross, then he will say, "It is finished" in the perfect tense. At that point, God will have accomplished for us more than we will ever realize or ever begin to appreciate.


Genesis 2:1b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

tsâbâʾ (צָבָא) [pronounced tsawb-VAW]

that which goes forth, army, war, warfare, host; army, host; host (of organized army); host (of angels); of sun, moon, and stars; of whole creation; war, warfare, service, go out to war; service

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #6635 BDB #838


Translation: ...and all their creation. Normally, this word refers to an army or to warfare. When a king goes out to battle, it is with all of his host, which would include personnel, weaponry, transportation and support. A king will go out to battle for a specific reason, whether it is to defend his nation’s freedom and independence or whether it is to conquer land around him. So, the king may have a specific purpose in mind, but he must be accompanied with his host. So, all that was created and made has a purpose, all related to God’s objectives. There is a great war of sorts, known as the Angelic Conflict (see Gen. 1 for that); and what we have on earth is God’s army, so to speak, which is an army of one at this moment in time, along with his support system, which is all that God had created and made. .


In the 6 days of restoration, God went back to the earth, which had been packed in ice (we refer to this as the Ice Age), and He thawed the earth and, in a matter of 6 literal days, restored the earth.


——————————


And so completes Elohim in the day the seventh His work which He had done, and so He rests on the day the seventh from all His work which He had done.

2Samuel

14:2

Therefore, Elohim completed by the seventh day all His work which He had done. Consequently, He rests on the seventh day from all his work that He had done.

Therefore, God complete all of his work which He had done by the seventh day. Consequently He rests on the seventh day from all of this work.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the Lord had finished by the Seventh Day the work which He had wrought, and the ten formations which He had created between the suns; and He rested the Seventh Day from all His works which He had performed.

Latin Vulgate                          And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made: and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had done.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so completes Elohim in the day the seventh His work which He had done, and so He rests on the day the seventh from all His work which He had done.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And on the sixth day God, finished his works which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his works which he had made.

Septuagint (Greek)                And God finished on the sixth day His works which He made, and He ceased on the seventh day from all His works which He made.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           On the sixth [LXX, Sam, Syr; MT seventh] day God completed all the work that he had done, and on the seventh day God rested from all the work that he had done.

Contemporary English V.       By the seventh day God had finished his work, and so he rested.

Easy English                          By the seventh day, God had finished his *creation. He had finished that work that he had done. He rested on the seventh day. He rested from all the work that he had done.

Easy-to-Read Version            God finished the work he was doing. So on the seventh day God rested from his work.

Good News Bible (TEV)         By the seventh day God finished what he had been doing and stopped working.

New Berkeley Version           On the seventh day God ended His work which He had been doing; He rested on the seventh day from all the works He had accomplished.

New Living Translation           On the seventh day God had finished his work of creation, so he rested [Or ceased; also in 2:3.] from all his work.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          God completed his work of creating these things on the sixth day. And on the seventh day, He stopped creating them.

Beck’s American Translation Now that on the seventh day the work God did was finished, after all He had done, He stopped working on the seventh day.

God’s Word                         By the seventh day God had finished work he had been doing. On the seventh day he stopped the work he had been doing.

New American Bible              On the seventh day God completed the work he had been doing; he rested on the seventh day from all the work he had undertaken. The mention of the seventh day, repeated in v. 3, is outside the series of six days and is thus the climax of the account. The focus of the account is God. The text does not actually institute the practice of keeping the Sabbath, for it would have been anachronistic to establish at this point a custom that was distinctively Israelite (Ex 31:13, 16, 17), but it lays the foundation for the later practice. Similarly, ancient creation accounts often ended with the construction of a temple where the newly created human race provided service to the gods who created them, but no temple is mentioned in this account. As was the case with the Sabbath, it would have been anachronistic to institute the temple at this point, for Israel did not yet exist. In Ex 25-31 and 35-40, Israel builds the tabernacle, which is the precursor of the Temple of Solomon. Ex 20:9-11; 31:17; Heb 4:4, 10.

Revised English Bible            On the sixth day God brought to an end all the work he had been doing; on the seventh day, having finished hall his work,...


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And on the seventh day God came to the end of all his work; and on the seventh day he took his rest from all the work which he had done.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 And God rested at the seventh age from all the works which he had made;...

NET Bible®                             By3 the seventh day God finished the work that he had been doing,4 and he ceased5 on the seventh day all the work that he had been doing. When it comes to making an actual material change to the text, the NET Bible® is pretty good about indicating this. Since most of these corrections will be clear in the more literal translations below and within the Hebrew exegesis itself, I will not continue to list every NET Bible® footnote.

NIV, ©2011                             By the seventh day God had finished the work he had been doing; so on the seventh day he rested from all his work.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:

 

 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And finishing is the Elohim, on the sixth day, His work which He does. And ceasing is He on the seventh day from all His work which He does..

Evidence Bible                       And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made.

Syndein/Thieme                     And, on the seventh day {Saturday} Elohiym/Godhead completed His {restoration} work {'asah - make something out of something} . . . which He had accomplished/produced out of chaos. And, He rested {shabath} on the seventh day from all the work, which He had manufactured {'asah}. {Note: Shabath is Hebrew for rest. It is the word from which we get Sabbath. But God was not tired. In Grace, He had provided all that was necessary. So taking the day off from work represented the fact that man did not 'work' for anything - it was provided by Grace from God.}.

World English Bible                On the seventh day God finished his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made.

Young’s Updated LT             And God completes by the seventh day His work which He has made, and ceases by the seventh day from all His work which He has made.

 

The gist of this verse: 


Genesis 2:2a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

kâlâh (כָּלָה) [pronounced kaw-LAWH]

to complete, to finish; to prepare; to come to an end; to consume, to waste, to destroy, to annihilate; to make pine away

3rd person masculine singular, Piel imperfect

Strong's #3615 BDB #477

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun

Strong's #430 BDB #43

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article); possibly immediately

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

shebîyʿîy (שְבִיעִי) [pronounced she-bee-EE]

seventh

masculine singular adjective; numeral ordinate with the definite article

Strong’s #7637 BDB #988

melâʾkâh (מְלָאכָה) [pronounced melaw-KAWH]

work, occupation, labor, workmanship, items produced by work?

feminine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #4399 BDB #521

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

ʿâsâh (עָשָֹה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWH]

to do, to make, to construct, to fashion, to form, to prepare, to manufacture

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #6213 BDB #793


Translation: Therefore, Elohim completed by the seventh day all His work which He had done... We had the creation of the heavens and the earth; then we have 6 days of restoration, not because God is limited in power, but because He was doing this as angels observed Him. Whether God redefined physics and the laws of science, I do not know, although I believe that was a part of this restoration. However, God, on the 7th day was done. To complete is in the imperfect tense, indicating a series of actions previously described; and the final verb, to do, to make, to construct, is in the perfect tense, indicating a finality of this project.

 


Genesis 2:2b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

shâbath (שָבַת) [pronounced shaw-BAHTH]

to rest, to keep a day of rest, to celebrate the Sabbath; to sit down [still]; to cease, to desist, to leave off, to discontinue

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #7673 BDB #992

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article); possibly immediately

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

shebîyʿîy (שְבִיעִי) [pronounced she-bee-EE]

seventh

masculine singular adjective; numeral ordinate with the definite article

Strong’s #7637 BDB #988


Translation: ...Consequently, He rests on the seventh day... God did not rest because He was tired. In fact, this word does not necessarily mean to rest after working hard; it also means to cease, to desist, to come to an end. So God came to an end of this 6 days of creation and construction, and, at this point, He stops.


God did not rest because He was tired; but God rested (stopped working) because He had completed what He chose to do.


The word translated to rest is the word shâbath (שָבַת) [pronounced shaw-BAHTH], which means to rest, to keep a day of rest, to celebrate the Sabbath; to sit down [still]; to cease, to desist, to leave off, to discontinue. Strong’s #7673 BDB #992. Quite obviously, this word is the origin of the English word Sabbath, which is a transliteration of the Hebrew word shâbbath (שָבַּת) [pronounced shawb-BAHTH], whose exact meaning has been lost, but, given the verb, it likely means a ceasing, a leaving off, a discontinuation; a rest. Strong's #7676 BDB #992. Quite obviously, we have held onto this word since the 7th day of creation.


Genesis 2:2c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

melâʾkâh (מְלָאכָה) [pronounced melaw-KAWH]

work, occupation, labor, workmanship, items produced by work?

feminine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #4399 BDB #521

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

ʿâsâh (עָשָֹה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWH]

to do, to make, to construct, to fashion, to form, to prepare, to manufacture

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #6213 BDB #793


Translation: ...from all his work that He had done. God’s ceasing and desisting is from all of the work that He has done.


What the Bible appears to assert is that human history on this earth is 6000–10,000 years, and that our time on this earth is quite recent. The earth itself may be millions if not billions of years old, but man, descended from a literal Adam and Eve, has not been here for very long. Population growth is studied today, and we have mathematical equations to approximate the population of man growing. These population equation models are consistent with man being on this earth for 6000–10,000 years. These models are not consistent with man living on this earth for 1,000,000 years, as evolution supposes. These models are not at all consistent with the idea that each type of man (homo habilis, homo erectus, and homo sapiens) lived on the earth for approximately 1,000,000 years each. In fact, there is no animal on earth whose population is consistent with being on this earth for a million years.


——————————


And so blesses, Elohim, a day of the seventh and so He sanctifies him, for in him, rested from all His work which had created Elohim to make [construct].

Genesis

2:3

And so Elohim blessed [or, celebrated] the seventh day and He sanctified it, for on that day [lit., on it], Elohim rested [or, ceased] from all His work that He had created to make.

And so God blessed the seventh day and He sanctified it, for on that day, God ceased to work from all the work that He had created [or, God had ceased to work on all of the things that He created].


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:


 

argum of Onkelos                  And the Lord blessed the Seventh Day more than all the days of the week, and sanctified it, because in it He rested from all His works which the Lord had created and had willed to make.

Latin Vulgate                          And he blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so blesses, Elohim, a day of the seventh and so He sanctifies him, for in him, rested from all His work which had created Elohim to make [construct].

Peshitta (Syriac)                    So God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it; because in it he had rested from all his works which God created and made.

Septuagint (Greek)                And God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, because in it He ceased from all His works which God began to do.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it God rested from all the work of creation [Or from all his work, which God created to do].

Contemporary English V.       God blessed the seventh day and made it special because on that day he rested from his work.

Easy English                          So God *blessed the seventh day. He considered it different from the other days. He rested then from his work that he had done. He rested from his *creation. That was why he considered it different.

Easy-to-Read Version            God blessed the seventh day and made it a holy day. God made that day special because on that day he rested from all the work he did while making the world.

Good News Bible (TEV)         He blessed the seventh day and set it apart as a special day, because by that day he had completed his creation and stopped working.

New Berkeley Version           God also blessed the seventh day and consecrated [Sanctifying, consecrating, dedicating, all involve a setting apart for God.] it; because in it, He rested from all His works, which, in creating, He had formed.

New Century Version             God blessed the seventh day and made it a holy day, because on that day he rested from all the work he had done in creating the world.

New Life Bible                        Then God honored the seventh day and made it holy, because in it He rested from all His work which He had done.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Then God blest the seventh day and made it holy, because He had finished all the work that He started out to do.

Christian Community Bible     And God blessed the seventh day and made it holy; because on that day he rested from all the work he had done in his creation..

God’s Word                         Then God blessed the seventh day and set it apart as holy, because on that day he stopped all his work of creation.

New American Bible              God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it he rested from all the work he had done in creation. Ex 20:11; Dt 5:14; Neh 9:14.

Revised English Bible            ...God blessed the day and made it holy, because it was the day he finished all his work of creation.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And God gave his blessing to the seventh day and made it holy: because on that day he took his rest from all the work which he had made and done.

Complete Jewish Bible           God blessed the seventh day and separated it as holy; because on that day God rested from all his work which he had created, so that it itself could produce.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 ...therefore, God blessed the seventh day, and hallowed it, because He then rested from all the work God had arranged to do.

NET Bible®                             God blessed the seventh day and made it holy [The verb is usually translated "and sanctified it." The Piel verb קִדֵּשÑ (qiddesh) means "to make something holy; to set something apart; to distinguish it." On the literal level the phrase means essentially that God made this day different. But within the context of the Law, it means that the day belonged to God; it was for rest from ordinary labor, worship, and spiritual service. The day belonged to God] because on it he ceased all the work that he [Heb "God." The pronoun ("he") has been employed in the translation for stylistic reasons.] had been doing in creation [Heb "for on it he ceased from all his work which God created to make." The last infinitive construct and the verb before it form a verbal hendiadys, the infinitive becoming the modifier — "which God creatively made," or "which God made in his creating."].

NIV – UK                                And God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it he rested from all the work of creating that he had done.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                And God blessed (spoke good of) the seventh day, set it apart as His own, and hallowed it, because on it God rested from all His work which He had created and done.

Concordant Literal Version    And blessing is the Elohim the seventh day, and hallowing it, for in it He ceases from all His work, which the Elohim creates to make.

Context Group Version          And God esteemed the seventh day, and made it special; because in it he rested from all his work which God had created and made.

Darby Translation                  And God blessed the seventh day, and hallowed it, because that on it he rested from all his work which God had created in making it.

English Standard Version      So God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it God rested from all his work that he had done in creation.

Syndein                                  Consequently, Elohiym/Godhead blessed/prospered the seventh day, and 'sanctified it'/"set it apart as a commiseration of God's grace". Because in it, He had rested from all His work . . . which Elohiym/Godhead created {man, animals, plant life - bara' - something from nothing} and restored {'asah - the earth was restored not created out of nothing at this time}. {Note: Principal of the Sabbath is 'only God can work for man's benefit'.}.

Young’s Updated LT             And God blesses the seventh day, and sanctifies it, for in it He has ceased from all His work which God had prepared for making.

 

The gist of this verse: 


Genesis 2:3a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

bârake (בָּרַך׃) [pronounced baw-RAHKe]

to invoke God, to praise, to celebrate, to adore, to bless [God]; to bless [men], to invoke blessings; to bless [as God, man and other created things], therefore to cause to prosper, to make happy; to salute anyone [with a blessing]; to curse

3rd person masculine singular, Piel imperfect

Strong’s #1288 BDB #138

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun

Strong's #430 BDB #43

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article); possibly immediately

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

shebîyʿîy (שְבִיעִי) [pronounced she-bee-EE]

seventh

masculine singular adjective; numeral ordinate with the definite article

Strong’s #7637 BDB #988


Translation: And so Elohim blessed [or, celebrated] the seventh day... On the 7th day, God ceased from working. We can say that God rested, as long as we recognize that God does not rest as we do. We rest when we are tired and sometimes when we are not. God ceased working because He was finished. Therefore, He celebrates this 7th day.


Genesis 2:3b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

qâdash (קָדַש) [pronounced kaw-DAHSH]

to regard as holy, to declare holy or sacred; to consecrate, to sanctify, to inaugurate with holy rites

3rd person masculine singular, Piel imperfect

Strong's #6942 BDB #872

This is the first time we have the word to sanctify in the Bible.

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated mark of a direct object; occasionally to, toward

affixed to a 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #853 BDB #84


Translation: ...and He sanctified it,... Furthermore, God sets this day apart from all of the other days. He declares it holy or sanctified or set apart. The idea is, this day is different from the others; and God, throughout the first chapter (and this verse belongs with the first chapter), differentiates between things, between light and darkness, day and night, land and sea; and here, He differentiates between days.


Genesis 2:3c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #88

shâbath (שָבַת) [pronounced shaw-BAHTH]

to rest, to keep a day of rest, to celebrate the Sabbath; to sit down [still]; to cease, to desist, to leave off, to discontinue

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #7673 BDB #991 & #992

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

melâʾkâh (מְלָאכָה) [pronounced melaw-KAWH]

work, occupation, labor, workmanship, items produced by work?

feminine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #4399 BDB #521

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

bârâʾ (בָּרָא) [pronounced baw-RAWH]

to create; to create something from energy [or from the immaterial]; to create that which is immaterial; to produce; to shape, to fashion

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #1254 BDB #135

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun

Strong's #430 BDB #43


Translation: ...for on that day [lit., on it], Elohim rested [or, ceased] from all His work that He had created... This and the next phrase are quite difficult to translate, and you will note that there are 3 verbs in this portion of v. 3, and the trouble is, people have a difficult time putting them altogether in a way that makes sense. Many times, a Qal infinitive construct furthers along the action or the thinking of the main verb. The main verb in this section is to rest, to cease, to desist. So, if we understand that this verb simply means to cease, to desist, to stop, then it fits in well with the verb in v. 3d: ...for on the day, God ceased to work...


So God is ceasing from two things: He is ceasing to work and He is ceasing from all the labor which He had created. When God created the heavens and the earth, there would be labor still to do at a later date. Again, it is not because God did a lousy job creating the heavens and the earth in the first place, but that something had happened, and that changed things; so God would have to step back in again and labor on heavens and earth.


Genesis 2:3d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʿâsâh (עָשָֹה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWH]

to do, to make, to construct, to fashion, to form, to prepare, to manufacture

Qal infinitive construct

Strong's #6213 BDB #793

A Qal infinitive absolute is a verb which can act like noun, a verb or an adverb. Generally it takes the place of a noun and serves to intensify meanings. When used as a complement of affirmation, it may be rendered surely, indeed, definitely; and when it is a complement of improbability and condition, we render it at all, freely, indeed. The Qal infinitive absolute can also serve as an adverbial complement; or, as a verb, it can replace finite verbs, imperatives, participles, and the infinitive constructs.


Translation: ...to make. As discussed in the previous portion of v. 3, this word may be best affixed to cease rather than to create. It makes more sense that God ceased to do [to make, to construct, to manufacture] than God created to make. We might even render this verse: And so Elohim blessed [or, celebrated] the seventh day and He sanctified it, for on that day [lit., on it], Elohim rested [or, ceased] from all His work that He had created [and He ceased all] construction. Now, the general notion that God stopped creating and stopped constructing is fine.


The Sabbath is a fascinating human event. I should point out, from the outset, that the Jews rightfully recognize Saturday as being the 7th day of the week, as the historic Sabbath; and most calenders are set up that way as well (with Sunday as the 1st day of the week).


What is more fascinating is, virtually every civilized society, with any sort of a history, has operated on the 7-day week for as long as we know. Since a year is 365 days, a 5 day week would be logical, as 365 is divisible by 5. Or, because the number 6 is considered in mathematics to be a perfect number, and it is divisible by 2 and 3, 6 would be a nice period of time to be designated as a week. The number 8 is a great number: it is the cube of 2 and it is divisible by 2 and 4 (which is 2 squared). 5, 6 and 8 all divide evenly into 360, which is a lunar year, and how years were marked in many cultures (including in the Jewish culture). However, societies do not operate on 6-day or 8-day weeks. But, the Bible tells us that, from the very beginning, God established a 7-day week, and that is virtually universal on this earth.


Human traditions die hard. If some nation had a 5 or 6 or 8 day week, and if they functioned under this week for hundreds of years, then it would be quite difficult for them to change their traditions. You may say, “But, we live in a world economy; they have to have a 7 day week just like us.” Our world-wide economy is actually a relatively recent event in human history. There is nothing which requires some other nation to follow a 7-day week simply because England and the US have a 7-day week. For instance, if business really needed to match up, why aren’t our stock markets all open during the precise same hours? Stock markets are open during working hours in each country where they reside, including the United States. Japan has some holidays peculiar to their culture which are holidays for the stock market there; and we have holidays in this country which are not celebrated elsewhere, and our markets our markets and closed then. I’ve been to Thailand, a country which is about 95% Buddhist, and they operate on a 7-day week. I am unaware of some recent point in time where they changed their culture from a 6-day week or an 8-day week. Their present-day calendar was adopted in 1888, which is associated with the Buddhist Era (2009 a.d. = 2552BE). Today, many Thais use the western calendar for business purposes, but both calendars are based upon 7-day weeks. What about the Hindu calendar? 7-day weeks. Now, there are marked differences as to the months, as to how and when leap year began to become considered; they are different with regards to their starting point; but these are all 7-day a week calendars. Wherever we go on this earth, most nations have the 7-day week standard. This is almost hard-wired into the souls of men. That is because, from the very beginning, God restored the earth in 6 days and rested on the 7th; and then, from the very beginning, promoted this.


Critics do not get to have things both ways. Critics will argue that Israel is this small nation with an overblown history; and yet, somehow, some try to argue that Israel caused the entire world to function on a 7-day week? In fact, it is exactly the opposite. Israel was a small nation but with a very important history during a specific time period. However, there is no way that Israel, in itself, could have exported the 7-day week throughout the world, even at its peak as a nation.


Let’s look at the Sabbath day in Scripture:

The Sabbath

1)      The word Sabbath is not used until Ex. 16:23.

2)      However, there is obviously something important about the 7th day, as God is said to bless the 7th day here in Gen. 2:3, whereas, He had not blessed any previous day (he blessed man and animals, but He only blessed one day).

3)      Prior to God marking the Sabbath day in the Law, there are a couple of passages which suggest that man operated on a 7-day week (Gen. 7:4, 10 8:10, 12 31:23 50:10 Ex. 7:25 12:15–16, 19), but none of these verses are definitive. However, the Jews were enjoined to remember the Sabbath day in the Ten Commandments; this suggests that they had some prior knowledge or association with the Sabbath day from the past (you cannot remember something which was never in your thinking before). Ex. 20:8

4)      Our first, unequivocal exposure to the Sabbath is when God provides manna for the children of Israel in the desert. They would collect this manna from the ground 6 days. On the 6th day, they were to gather up a double-portion. On the 7th day, called a Sabbath (in Ex. 16:23), they were not to gather any manna, but to eat the extra gathered the day before.

5)      The Sabbath was codified in the Ten Commandments. God reminds the Jews how He restored the world in 6 days, and rested on the 7th. For that reason, the Jews were to observe the 7th day, the Sabbath Day, as separate from all the other days of the week. Ex. 20:8–11

6)      Setting aside a day to God is important. It is easy in our lives to become so involved with our lives that we just do not have time to consider why we are here and what our purpose is on this earth. It is too easy to become so involved with our work, our family, our pleasures, our chosen methods of relaxation, that we fill up every waking hour with thinking unrelated to God. Therefore, observing the Sabbath was all about setting aside all of those other concerns and focusing our thinking upon God. [God is speaking] “Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days you will labor, and do all your work, but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the LORD your God. On it you will not do any work, you, or your son, or your daughter, your male or female slaves, or your livestock, or the immigrant who is within your gates. For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day. Therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and set it apart [from all other days].” (Ex. 20:8–11). Notice, also, that the Jews were not to push their work onto their own slaves either. Everyone was to stop on the 7th day and to think about Who and What God is.

7)      With the Law, the Sabbath became solely identified with the nation Israel, as God would work through this nation in particular. [God is speaking] "So I took them out of the land of Egypt and brought them into the wilderness. And I gave them My statutes and informed them of My ordinances, by which, if a man observes them, he will live. And I also gave them My Sabbaths to be a sign between Me and them, that they might know that I am Yehowah Who sanctifies them." (Ezek. 20:10–12).

8)      In the Church Age, the only day which has some unusual significance attached to it is the first day of the week. However, it does not supplant the Sabbath day (the 7th day of the week), it is just a day which has prominence in the Church Age, as Christ rose on the 1st day of the week.

9)      What happened to the Sabbath when we moved from the Age of Israel to the Church Age? The Sabbath was a memorial to what God had done at creation and was a sign of what God would do on our behalf. We can only take what He has done for us—we cannot add to it and we cannot work for it.  In the Church Age, the Sabbath is the rest that we enter into at salvation—we have entered into His rest; we have rested from our works.  The whole key to salvation is resting from one's works. The original Sabbath looked forward to this rest as well as backward to the rest commanded by God.  God's rest in the Church Age is believing in Jesus Christ, depending upon His work on the cross and resting from our own works. So then, there remains a Sabbath rest for the people of God, for whoever has entered God's rest has also rested from his works as God did from His. Let us therefore strive to enter that rest (Heb. 4:9–11a). In this way, the Sabbath teaches us grace; it teaches us that God has provided all that we need (Gen. 2:2–3).

10)    We do not retain the literal Sabbath day in the Church Age; i.e., as a day of worship and of no work. Therefore, let not one act as your judge in regard to food or drink or in respect to a festival or a new moon or a Sabbath day; [These are] things which are a shadow of what is to come; but the substance [or, reality] belongs to Christ (Col. 2:16–17).  Believers in the Church Age are not required to keep the Sabbath, nor has the Sabbath day (Saturday) been somehow changed into Sunday in the Church Age. This is because, in the Church Age, we are no longer under the Mosaic Law (Gal. 2:16, 21). Again, the Sabbath is a shadow of what is to come (as were the various feast days); and it represents the resting from our works and trusting in the work of God (Heb. 4:9–11).

11)    Now, the general concept of a 6-day work week with a day off is reasonable for all men and practiced throughout the world. Just as our bodies require rest at night, they require rest from work once a week as well. This simply allows us to recharge our batteries.

12)    So that there is no confusion about this, God did not rest on the 7th day because He was tired; He rested on the 7th day because He was done. He had provided everything that man would need under perfect environment.


Gen. 1:2–3 Therefore, Elohim completed by the seventh day all His work which He had done. Consequently, He rests on the seventh day from all his work that He had done. And so Elohim blessed [or, celebrated] the seventh day and He sanctified it, for on that day [lit., on it], Elohim rested [or, ceased] from all His work that He had created to make.


Vv. 2–3 we see a slight break in the pattern. God speaks of the seventh day during the seventh day. The verb completed is the same one found in v. 1 except this is in the Piel imperfect, which speaks of both a completed action which is causative yet the imperfect indicates that it is an action in progress or as of yet, not complete. God did cause the creation and the restoration of the earth, and, to that point in time, it was finished. However, since God is able to see the end from the beginning, He knew that His work was not complete. Hence, the imperfect.


When it reads God rested, this is an anthropopathism. We do not have the ability to understand God's character and essence entirely. The Bible will sometimes use language of accommodation or take an aspect of God's character or being and express it to us in human terms. We understand the human concept and this gives us insight into God's character. God, as was mentioned, was not tired nor does He get tired. He was, however, temporarily finished. Everything which man needed was provided for him. The stage had been set for the appeal trial of Satan, who voiced a great many objections to his sentencing. Now all angels could watch as the activities on earth reveal the righteousness and perfection of God and the viciousness and evil of the fallen angels.


Here we have the word to bless again, and again it is in the Piel (intensive) stem. Previously, blessing was associated with procreation, of birds, of fish and of man (Gen. 1:22, 28). Here, procreation is not the central theme. Therefore, we have to come up with another understanding of the word bârake: Gesenius suggests that in the Piel stem, this can mean to celebrate. It makes sense that, at the completion of a major project, and a person sit back, pop open a cold one, and admire his own work. This seems to be the sense of what we have here. For man, as time would progress, the celebration of the 7th day may include church and then sitting down in front of the game and opening up a beverage of one’s favorite choice. In any case, there is a break in the routine of the work that men do, and we might understand that to be the blessing spoken of here. For God, it is sitting back and recognizing that what He has done is good; and for us, it is sitting back, after a long week’s work, and perhaps recognizing the same thing (if we have done our work as unto the Lord).


Sanctification is the setting apart of something unto God. That is, it is separated from everything else for purposes related to God and His character. So it is with the seventh day. It both commemorates and looks forward to the true rest that we will enter. At this point in time, it commemorates the creation of the heavens and the earth and the restoration thereof. It is a time that man is to cease from his labors and to rest and to use the time to dwell upon our Lord. This is not the only period of time devoted to spiritual things. When our spiritual life and growth and intake of God's Word is limited to one day a week, the results are mediocre at best. We are faced with human viewpoint sixteen hours a day. In these United States, we are bombarded by television programs and advertising, magazine and newspapers and radio station broadcasts which fill us with human thought and human viewpoint. It takes but a generation to throw an entire country out of whack. We have seen that over the past few decades and the incredible increase in immorality. Things which were recognized as wrong in the 50's are seen as possibly okay in the 60's and taken for granted as being what is done in the 90's. Pre-marital sex is presented on almost any television show or movie as what people do when they become interested in one another. It is no longer even expected that the couple be in love; it is viewed as a step to falling in love. What has resulted is a complete erosion of the marriage institution, which has ruined the family, and has resulted in crime and degeneracy in our youth unprecedented in our nation. All of this results from moving away from God's Word and accepting human viewpoint. The only way we can stand up to this human viewpoint (because it is guaranteed that everyone will try to sway your opinion either through argument, ridicule or temptation), is to feed on God's Word—not weekly, but daily. And we are to be responsible to our children; not to haul them to church once a week but to train them daily in God's Word. A child does not have to be separated from the rest of the world in order to grow into a Christian adult. But, he does require doctrine everyday and he requires parents who live according to the Word, as well as teach it. And this goes back to having parents who have character and spiritual growth when they choose and commit to each other. But, I digress.


The last two verbs, created and made, asah and barah, are in the Qal perfect and the Qal infinitive. The former word looks at the action as a whole or as a competed action. God had several acts of actual creation prior to the six days of restoration and during those six days. He created the heavens and the earth and then created the populations to occupy the earth. Working with these raw materials, he made the atmosphere, man and animals from the elements of the ground, etc. The action of the infinitive can be coterminous with or follow immediately the action of the main verb. In this case, made followed created.


In this next section, we go back to Day 6 and see all that occurred on that day.


——————————


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


God Makes Man


At this point, Genesis chapter 2 should have begun. We have an overall view of the 7days of restoration following God’s creation of the heavens and the earth, and now we are going to look at some details. This is very common in the Jewish way of writing; we have this or that outline laid out, and then we go back in fill in some details.


Gen. 1:1–2:3 should have been chapter 1 of Genesis. This gives us the time frame during which all things were made and/or created, followed by the 7th day of rest.


At this point, we go back and take a closer look at Day 6, when God created man. This is not some internal contradiction in the Bible, but something which is found throughout the Hebrew Scriptures. An outline or a heading is first given (Gen. 1:26–31), and then the author goes back and fills in the details Gen. 2:7–25).


In Gen. 2:4–14, we are told in some detail about the environment into which man was brought.


In this portion of Genesis, we will take a closer look at the sixth day of restoration. Once this day has been completed, we have another gap in history, as we found between Gen. 1:1 and 2. We do not know if Adam's age was calculated as beginning at his fall or from the day of his creation. There was a tree of life in the garden which very likely perpetuated human life; a tree that we had to be cut off from when Adam fell. Seth was born to Adam and Eve when Adam was 130 years old (Gen. 5:3), but we have no other time frame for the birth of Cain, Abel or any of Adam and Eve's other children (Gen. 5:4). The short view of this gap would be a few days to perhaps a century (and Adam and Eve produced children from age 100 on). The long view is that God calculates Adam's age from the fall, which gives us an indeterminable amount of time for man's existence in the garden. It would be nice to view this time period as lasting for centuries; however, Satan certainly observed and devised a plan quickly. Whether the next chapter chronicles his first plan or whether it was his first "successful" plan, we do not know.


These [are] the generations of the [two] heavens and the earth in their creation in a day of making of Yehowah Elohim earth and heavens.

Genesis

2:4

These [are] the [historic] proceedings of the heavens and the earth, when they were created, in the day when Yehowah Elohim made earth and heavens.

This is the history of when the heavens and earth were created, when Jehovah God made them.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                These are the geneses of the heavens and earth when they were created in the day that the Lord God made the earth and heavens.

Latin Vulgate                          These are the generations of the heaven and the earth, when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made the heaven and the earth.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        These [are] the generations of the [two] heavens and the earth in their creation in a day of making of Yehowah Elohim earth and heavens.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD God made the heavens and the earth.

Septuagint (Greek)                This is the book of the generations of heaven and earth, when they were made, in the day in which the Lord God made the heaven and the earth.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           This is the account of the heavens and the earth when they were created.

World's creation in the garden

On the day the LORD God made earth and sky—...

Contemporary English V.       That's how God created the heavens and the earth. When the LORD God made the heavens and the earth,...

Easy English                          This is the true story about how God created the earth and skies.

Easy-to-Read Version            This is the history of the sky and the earth. This is the story about the things that happened at the time God made the earth and the sky.

Good News Bible (TEV)         And that is how the universe was created. When the LORD God made the universe,...

The Message                         This is the story of how it all started, of Heaven and Earth when they were created.

New Berkeley Version           These are the generations of the heavens and the earth in their creation [An account of heaven and earth and what proceeded from them.]. When the Lord God made earth and heaven,...

New Century Version             The First People

This is the story of the creation of the sky and the earth. When the Lord God first made the earth and the sky,...

New Living Translation           This is the account of the creation of the heavens and the earth.

The Man and Woman in Eden

When the Lord God made the earth and the heavens,...


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          This was the scroll of the origins of the sky and the land - when they became - which started the day of the creations of the skies and the lands [by] The God,...

Ancient Roots Translinear      In the days that Yahweh God made the land and heavens, these progeny of the heavens and of the land were created.

Beck’s American Translation This is the history of heaven and earth when they were created.

God Makes Man

When the Lord God made earth and heaven,...

Christian Community Bible     These are the successive steps in the creation of the heavens and the earth.

The story of Eden

On the day that Yahweh God made the earth and the heavens,.

God’s Word                         This is the account of heaven and earth when they were created, at the time when the LORD God made earth and heaven.

New American Bible              The Garden of Eden.

This is the story* of the heavens and the earth at their creation. When the LORD God made the earth and the heavens- ... This is the story: the distinctive Priestly formula introduces older traditions, belonging to the tradition called Yahwist, and gives them a new setting. In the first part of Genesis, the formula "this is the story" (or a similar phrase) occurs five times (2:4; 5:1; 6:9; 10:1; 11:10), which corresponds to the five occurrences of the formula in the second part of the book (11:27; 25:12, 19; 36:1[9]; 37:2). Some interpret the formula here as retrospective ("Such is the story"), referring back to chap. 1, but all its other occurrences introduce rather than summarize. It is introductory here; the Priestly source would hardly use the formula to introduce its own material in chap. 1.

The cosmogony that begins in v. 4 is concerned with the nature of human beings, narrating the story of the essential institutions and limits of the human race through their first ancestors. This cosmogony, like 1:1-3 (see note there), uses the "when.then" construction common in ancient cosmogonies. The account is generally attributed to the Yahwist, who prefers the divine name "Yhwh" (here rendered LORD) for God. God in this story is called "the LORD God" (except in 3:1-5); "LORD" is to be expected in a Yahwist account but the additional word "God" is puzzling.

New Jerusalem Bible             Such was the story of heaven and earth as they were created. At the time when Yahweh God made earth and heaven.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             These are the generations of the heaven and the earth when they were made.

Complete Jewish Bible           Here is the history of the heavens and the earth when they were created. On the day when ADONAI, God, made earth and heaven,...

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 The Creation planned by its Creator

These were the productions for the Heavens and the Earth during their creation at the period of their organization by the Lord God of both the Earth and Heavens,...

HCSB                                     These are the records of the heavens and the earth, concerning their creation at the time that the LORD God made the earth and the heavens.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               Such is the story of heaven and earth when they were created.

When the Lord God made the earth and heaven—...

NET Bible®                             The Creation of Man and Woman

This is the account of the heavens and the earth [This is the only use of the Hebrew noun ????????? (tolÿdot) in the book that is not followed by a personal name (e.g., "this is the account of Isaac"). The poetic parallelism reveals that even though the account may be about the creation, it is the creation the Lord God made.] when they were created — when the LORD God [Advocates of the so-called documentary hypothesis of pentateuchal authorship argue that the introduction of the name Yahweh (Lord) here indicates that a new source (designated J), a parallel account of creation, begins here. In this scheme Gen 1:1-2:3 is understood as the priestly source (designated P) of creation. Critics of this approach often respond that the names, rather than indicating separate sources, were chosen to reflect the subject matter (see U. Cassuto, The Documentary Hypothesis). Gen 1:1-2:3 is the grand prologue of the book, showing the sovereign God creating by decree. The narrative beginning in 2:4 is the account of what this God invested in his creation. Since it deals with the close, personal involvement of the covenant God, the narrative uses the covenantal name Yahweh (Lord) in combination with the name God. For a recent discussion of the documentary hypothesis from a theologically conservative perspective, see D. A. Garrett, Rethinking Genesis. For an attempt by source critics to demonstrate the legitimacy of the source critical method on the basis of ancient Near Eastern parallels, see J. H. Tigay, ed., Empirical Models for Biblical Criticism. For reaction to the source critical method by literary critics, see I. M. Kikawada and A. Quinn, Before Abraham Was; R. Alter, The Art of Biblical Narrative, 131-54; and Adele Berlin, Poetics and Interpretation of Biblical Narrative, 111-34.] made the earth and heavens. The Hebrew phrase ?????? ????????? ('elle tolÿdot) is traditionally translated as "these are the generations of" because the noun was derived from the verb "beget." Its usage, however, shows that it introduces more than genealogies; it begins a narrative that traces what became of the entity or individual mentioned in the heading. In fact, a good paraphrase of this heading would be: "This is what became of the heavens and the earth," for what follows is not another account of creation but a tracing of events from creation through the fall and judgment (the section extends from 2:4 through 4:26). See M. H. Woudstra, "The Toledot of the Book of Genesis and Their Redemptive-Historical Significance," CTJ 5 (1970): 184-89. The expression this is the account of is an important title used throughout the Book of Genesis, serving as the organizing principle of the work. It is always a heading, introducing the subject matter that is to come. From the starting point of the title, the narrative traces the genealogy or the records or the particulars involved. Although some would make the heading in 2:4 a summary of creation (1:1-2:3), that goes against the usage in the book. As a heading it introduces the theme of the next section, the particulars about this creation that God made. Genesis 2 is not a simple parallel account of creation; rather, beginning with the account of the creation of man and women, the narrative tells what became of that creation. As a beginning, the construction of 2:4-7 forms a fine parallel to the construction of 1:1-3. The subject matter of each ????????? (tolÿdot, "this is the account of") section of the book traces a decline or a deterioration through to the next beginning point, and each is thereby a microcosm of the book which begins with divine blessing in the garden, and ends with a coffin in Egypt. So, what became of the creation? Gen 2:4-4:26 will explain that sin entered the world and all but destroyed God's perfect creation.

The Scriptures 1998              These are the births of the heavens and the earth when they were created, in the day that יהוה Elohim made earth and heavens.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    These are the genealogical annals of the heavens and the earth, when they were created. In the day Yahweh Elohim made the earth and the heavens,...

Darby Translation                  These are the histories of the heavens and the earth, when they were created, in the day that Jehovah Elohim made earth and heavens,...

The Emphasized Bible           These are the geneses of the heavens and the earth when they were created,—in the day when Yahweh God made earth and heavens.

English Standard Version      These are the generations of the heavens and the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD God made the earth and the heavens.

English Standard V. – UK       The Creation of Man and Woman

These are the generations

of the heavens and the earth when they were created,

in the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens.

Heritage Bible                        These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day of Jehovah God’s making the earth and the heavens,... Jehovah God. Yehovah Elohiym. Jehovah Elohim. Elohim appears in Gen 1:1, First God created the heavens and the earth. Jehovah Elohim appears for the first time in Gen 2:4, ...in the day of Jehovah God’s making the earth and the heavens. Elohim means the Supreme God. Elohim is plural, meaning the triune God, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, indicated in Gen 1:26, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. The three-in-one God was revealed in the Hebrew Bible, Gen 1:26; 11:7; Ps 2:7; 110:1; Pro 30:4; Is 53, but not fully revealed until the life of Jesus, the Son of God, Mt 1:18,20,23; Lk 1:31,35; Mt 3:16-17; Lk 3:22; Mt 28:19; Jn 14:26; and the writings of the Apostles, 2 Cor 13:14; 1Pet 1:2. Jehovah means the eternal, self-existent God, and God defines Himself in Ex 3:14, I AM WHO I AM, meaning that He is the ground of all existence of all persons and things. Jesus constantly used I AM of Himself, Mrk 6:

NASB                                     This is the account [Lit These are the generations] of the heavens and the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD God made earth and heaven.

New King James Version       This is the history [Hebrew toledoth, literally generations] of the heavens and the earth when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens,...

New RSV                               These are the generations of the heavens and the earth when they were created.

In the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens,...

Syndein                                  {Title for the Next Chapter is Verse 4}

These . . . the history of the heavens and the earth when they were created {bara' something from nothing - refers to Genesis 1:1 - 2:3} in the day when the Lord God {Jehovah Elohiym} restored {'asah} the Earth {for man's occupancy} and the heavens. {Note: From the book of Hebrews, we learn that Jesus Christ was the member of the Godhead Who actually created the Earth and the heavens and all in it.}.

Webster Bible                        These [are] the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD God made the earth and the heavens.

World English Bible                This is the history of the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that Yahweh God made earth and the heavens.

Young’s Updated LT             These are births of the heavens and of the earth in their being prepared, in the day of Jehovah God’s making earth and heavens.

 

The gist of this verse: 


Genesis 2:4a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾêlleh (אֵלֶּה) [pronounced ALE-leh]

these, these things

demonstrative plural adjective

Strong's #428 BDB #41

tôwledôth (תּוֹלְדֹת) [pronounced tohle-DOTH]

generations, results, proceedings, genealogies, history, course of history; origin; families; races

Feminine plural construct

Strong’s #8435 BDB #410

shâmayîm (שָמַיִם) [pronounced shaw-MAH-yim]

heaven, heavens, skies; the visible heavens, as in as abode of the stars or as the visible universe, the sky, atmosphere, etc.; Heaven (as the abode of God)

masculine dual noun with the definite article

Strong’s #8064 BDB #1029

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: These [are] the [historic] proceedings of the heavens and the earth,... This is a formula found throughout the book of Genesis, and it suggests to me that, each time, we are speaking of a new author. Like all of the formula phrasing found in Gen. 1, this is not a static phrase which can only be said in one way.


We find this introductory statement (These are the generations of...) in Gen. 2:4 5:1 6:9 10:1, 32 11:10, 27 25:12, 19 36:1, 9 37:2. Most of the time that we find this statement, what follows is a genealogy. It may be a long or a short genealogy. These also appear to be markers throughout the book of Genesis, and may even point to a new author each time, or a new source.


This is a break in the narrative. We have covered Gen.1:1–2:3 basically in a chronological manner. However, here, we will take a step back. It is likely that this opens up a new document or a new piece of source material. We can readily assume that Moses compiled the final version of Genesis (see the introduction), but we do not know from how many documents he worked, how much was oral tradition (remember that his father-in-law was a man of God and he certainly received some teaching from him; yet this was centuries removed from that which took place in Gen. 2). It is likely that the first portion of Genesis was given to Moses directly from God or he received it as a part of the oral tradition. However, this beginning phrase seems to indicate that Moses is transcribing a document. My Hebrew is not strong enough to make anything else other than an hypothesis at this point, but my guess is that there will be a change of basic vocabulary at this point to correspond with the new source material.


In the Septuagint, this begins with Aὔτη ἡ ϐίϐλος γενέσεως οὐρανο καὶ γς (transliterated: Aute he Biblos geneseos ouranos kai ges) and it should be translated this [is the] book of the genesis [or, generations or beginnings] of heaven and earth. This is not a word-for-word translation from the Hebrew, but it helps to give us the gist of what is being said here. For the translators millenniums ago who spoke the ancient Hebrew and desired a readable translation into the Greek, they recognized that this was the beginning of a book; or the beginning of a writing. This functions like the title of a book more than it does as a portion of the narrative. We certainly recognize here the two famous transliterated words: Bible and Genesis.


The Hebrew word, translated by the Greek book of beginnings is tôwledôth (תּוֹלְדֹת) [pronounced tohle-DOTH], and it means family, race, descent, history, birth, generations, origin. It refers to what is brought into existence by someone and sometimes the results, but does not include the birth of an individual, so, in this case, this does not refer to the creation of heavens and earth as the focus. We will examine that which was brought into existence; in this case, man on his first day (which is why we can look at this as a beginnings of sorts). The translation I prefer, although it is, like most, more wordy than the original language: "This is an Account of the Beginnings..." This gives us the feeling that this is a document somewhat separate from the rest of the surrounding material, a document composed originally by someone other than the editor or Genesis, and carries with it a sense of beginning or origin. This is the sense in which the second or third century bc Jewish scholars who translated the Septuagint, seemed to take this phrase.


This verse also serves as a beginning of human history; a preface if you will to the rest of the entire Bible. We have reached back in Gen. 1:1 to eternity past to the creation of the heavens and the earth and throughout most of Gen. 1, we have examined the restoration of the earth. This verse introduces human history on earth. In one sense, it is the beginning of the Bible, inasmuch as this begins God's dealings with mankind on earth.


Genesis 2:4b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

bârâʾ (בָּרָא) [pronounced baw-RAWH]

to be created [spoken of heaven and earth; of birth; of something new]; of miracles; to be born

Niphal infinitive construct with the 3rd person plural suffix

Strong’s #1254 BDB #135

When combined with a bêyth preposition, the infinitive construct often takes on a temporal meaning and may be rendered when [such and such happens]. With the bêyth preposition, the Qal infinitive construct serve as a temporal marker which denotes an event which occurs simultaneously with the action of the main verb.


Translation: ...when they were created,... This looks back on when the heavens and earth were created, and all that was associated with that creation. The bêyth preposition combined with the infinitive construct above often indicates a temporal meaning.


Genesis 2:4c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article); possibly immediately

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

ʿâsâh (עָשָֹה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWH]

to do, to make, to construct, to fashion, to form, to prepare, to manufacture

Qal infinitive construct

Strong's #6213 BDB #793

When combined with a bêyth preposition, the infinitive construct often takes on a temporal meaning and may be rendered when [such and such happens]. With the bêyth preposition, the Qal infinitive construct serve as a temporal marker which denotes an event which occurs simultaneously with the action of the main verb.

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

This is the first occurrence in the Bible of the proper name YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH].

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun

Strong's #430 BDB #43

This is the first occurrence in the Bible of Yehowah Elohim together.

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun

Strong's #776 BDB #75

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

shâmayîm (שָמַיִם) [pronounced shaw-MAH-yim]

heaven, heavens, skies; the visible heavens, as in as abode of the stars or as the visible universe, the sky, atmosphere, etc.; Heaven (as the abode of God)

masculine dual noun; pausal form

Strong’s #8064 BDB #1029


Translation: ...in the day when Yehowah Elohim made earth and heavens. Both creation verbs are found in this verse; create often means to create out of nothing and to make usually means to use existing materials in order to construct something.


What may be the case is, v. 4c is tied to v. 5. At the time when Yahweh God made earth and heaven there was as yet no wild bush on the earth nor had any wild plant yet sprung up, for Yahweh God had not sent rain on the earth, nor was there any man to till the soil (Gen. 2:4c–5; NJB). In the day Yahweh Elohim made the earth and the heavens, and every shrub of the field ere it is coming to be in the earth, and all herbage of the field ere it is sprouting, at that time Yahweh Elohim does not bring rain on the earth, and there was no human to serve the ground (Gen. 2:4c–5; CLV). Whereas the wâw consecutive followed by an imperfect either begins or continues a consecutive group of actions; and wâw conjunction does not act the same way, even with an imperfect verb. Furthermore, in v. 4c above, the temporal nature of the phrase can go with what came before or with what follows. Then the nonexistence of plants simply indicates that we have not come to day 3 yet in this entire sentence.


With this, I should add that there has never been anything inspired about the chapter and verse divisions. The division of Gen. 1 and 2 is one of the worst divisions made in the entire Bible.


Gen 2:4 These are the generations [results, proceedings, genealogies, course of history] of the heavens and the earth when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens.


Also, in v. 4, we have the first occurrence of the proper name for God, which is found as Lord, Jehovah or Yahweh. Literally, this is Jehovah Elohim, or, possibly, Jehovah of the Elohim; or, Jehovah of the Gods (or, Godhead). Interestingly enough, we find this title throughout Gen. 2–3, once in Gen. 9 and then scattered from Gen. 14 to the end of Genesis 16 times.


In Gen. 2–3, we have direct and continual contact between Jehovah of the Godhead and man; but after the fall of man, there will be sporadic contact between Jehovah Elohim and man.


When we come to v. 7, I will explain what I believe the pronunciation of His name actually is.


——————————


And every plant of the field [or, country] not yet is in the earth and every herb of the field not yet sprouting up, for had not sent rain Yehowah Elohim upon the earth and man [is] not to work the ground.

Genesis

2:5

But not every plant of the field is yet in the earth and not every herb of the field has yet sprouted up, for Yehowah Elohim had not sent rain upon the earth and there was no man to work the ground.

However, not every plant of the field is yet on the earth and not every herb of the field has yet sprouted up because Jehovah Elohim had not yet sent rain upon the earth and there was no man to till the ground.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And all the trees of the field were not as yet in the earth, and all the herbs of the field had not as yet germinated, because the Lord God had not made it to rain upon the earth, and man was not to cultivate the ground.

Latin Vulgate                          And every plant of the field before it sprung up in the earth, and every herb of the ground before it grew: for the Lord God had not rained upon the earth; and there was not a man to till the earth.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And every plant of the field [or, country] not yet is in the earth and every herb of the field not yet sprouting up, for had not sent rain Yehowah Elohim upon the earth and man [is] not to work the ground.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And all the trees of the field were not yet in the ground, and every herb of the field had not yet sprung up; for the LORD God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was no man to till the ground.

Septuagint (Greek)                ...and every herb of the field before it was on the earth, and all the grass of the field before it sprang up, for God had not rained on the earth, and there was not a man to cultivate it.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           ...before any wild plants appeared on the earth, and before any field crops grew, because the LORD God hadn't yet sent rain on the earth and there was still no human being [Or man (Heb adam)] to farm the fertile land, ...

Contemporary English V.       ... no grass or plants were growing anywhere. God had not yet sent any rain, and there was no one to work the land.

Easy English                          The *Lord God made the earth and the skies. There were no green plants on the earth, because the *Lord God had not yet sent rain to the earth. There were not yet any people, so nobody could work with the soil. The Easy English version added portions of v. 4 to v. 5.

Easy-to-Read Version            This was before there were plants on the earth. Nothing was growing in the fields. This was because the Lord had not yet made it rain on the earth. And there was no person to care for the plants.

Good News Bible (TEV)         ...there were no plants on the earth and no seeds had sprouted, because he had not sent any rain, and there was no one to cultivate the land;...

The Message                         At the time GOD made Earth and Heaven, before any grasses or shrubs had sprouted from the ground--GOD hadn't yet sent rain on Earth, nor was there anyone around to work the ground...

New Berkeley Version           When the Lord God made earth and heaven, there was as yet not a shrub on the earth, nor any plant sprouting in the field; for the Lord God had not made it to rain on the earth, and there was no man to cultivate the soil,... The Modern Language Bible has v. 4c as a part of v. 5.

New Century Version             ...there were still no plants on the earth. Nothing was growing in the fields because the Lord God had not yet made it rain on the land. And there was no person to care for the ground,...

New Living Translation           ...neither wild plants nor grains were growing on the earth. For the Lord God had not yet sent rain to water the earth, and there were no people to cultivate the soil.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          ...when all the greenish-yellow plants for it began on the ground and all the grasses of the fields sprung up. Since Jehovah God had not provided rain on the earth, and there were no men to cultivate it,...

Ancient Roots Translinear      Before the land had any greenery in the field, and before any cereals of the field sprouted, Yahweh God rained nothing over the land, and no human served the earth.

Beck’s American Translation When the LORD God made earth and heaven, there was on earth no shrub in the field yet, and no plant had come up yet in the field because the LORD God had not let it rain on the ground. (There was no man to work the ground.). Vv. 4c–5 are included here.

Christian Community Bible     ...there was not yet on the earth any shrub of the fields, nor had any plant yet sprung up, for Yahweh God had not made it rain on the earth, and there was no man to till the earth,...

God’s Word                         Wild bushes and plants were not on the earth yet because the LORD God hadn't sent rain on the earth. Also, there was no one to farm the land.

New American Bible              ...there was no field shrub on earth and no grass of the field had sprouted, for the LORD God had sent no rain upon the earth and there was no man* to till the ground,... Man: the Hebrew word 'adam is a generic term meaning "human being." In chaps. 2-3, however, the archetypal human being is understood to be male (Adam), so the word 'adam is translated "man" here.

New Jerusalem Bible             ...there was as yet no wild bush on the earth nor had any wild plant yet sprung up, for Yahweh God had not sent rain on the earth, nor was there any man to till the soil..

Revised English Bible            When the Lord God made the earth and the heavens, there was neither shrub nor plant growing on the earth, because the Lord God has sent no rain; nor was there anyone to till the ground. V. 4c was included here.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             In the day when the Lord God made earth and heaven there were no plants of the field on the earth, and no grass had come up: for the Lord God had not sent rain on the earth and there was no man to do work on the land. The BBE takes a portion of v. 4 and adds it to v. 5.

Complete Jewish Bible           ...there was as yet no wild bush on the earth, and no wild plant had as yet sprung up; for ADONAI, God, had not caused it to rain on the earth, and there was no one to cultivate the ground.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 ...and of every plant of the field before it was upon the Earth, and every herb of the field before He caused it to grow, even before the Ever-living God had scattered them upon the Earth and Man existed not to cultivate the Earth.

HCSB                                     No shrub of the field had yet grown on the land, and no plant of the field had yet sprouted, for the LORD God had not made it rain on the land, and there was no man to work the ground.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               When the Lord God made earth and heaven—when no shrub of the field was yet on earth and no grasses of the field had yet sprouted, because the Lord God had not sent rain upon the earth and there was no man to till the soil,... V. 4c was included with v. 5.

NET Bible®                             Now [Heb "Now every sprig of the field before it was." The verb forms, although appearing to be imperfects, are technically preterites coming after the adverb ?????? (terem). The word order (conjunction + subject + predicate) indicates a disjunctive clause, which provides background information for the following narrative (as in 1:2). Two negative clauses are given ("before any sprig.", and "before any cultivated grain" existed), followed by two causal clauses explaining them, and then a positive circumstantial clause is given - again dealing with water as in 1:2 (water would well up).] no shrub of the field had yet grown on the earth, and no plant of the field [The first term, ?????? (siakh), probably refers to the wild, uncultivated plants (see Gen 21:15; Job 30:4,7); whereas the second, ?????? ('esev), refers to cultivated grains. It is a way of saying: "back before anything was growing."] had yet sprouted, for the LORD God had not caused it to rain on the earth, and there was no man to cultivate the ground [The two causal clauses explain the first two disjunctive clauses: There was no uncultivated, general growth because there was no rain, and there were no grains because there was no man to cultivate the soil.] [The last clause in v. 5, "and there was no man to cultivate the ground," anticipates the curse and the expulsion from the garden (Gen 3:23).].

NIV – UK                                ...and no shrub of the field had yet appeared on the earth and no plant of the field had yet sprung up, for the LORD God had not sent rain on the earth and there was no man to work the ground,...


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    ...and every shrub of the field ere it is coming to be in the earth, and all herbage of the field ere it is sprouting, at that time Yahweh Elohim does not bring rain on the earth, and there was no human to serve the ground.

Context Group Version          And no plant of the field was yet in the land { or earth }, and no herb of the field had yet sprung up; for YHWH God had not caused it to rain on the land { or earth }: and the man was not [ there ] to till the ground;...

English Standard Version      When no bush of the field was yet in the land and no small plant of the field had yet sprung up--for the LORD God had not caused it to rain on the land, and there was no man to work the ground,...

LTHB                                     And every shrub of the field was not yet on the earth, and every plant of the field had not yet sprung up; for Jehovah God had not sent rain on the earth, and there was no man to till the ground.

Syndein                                  {Verses 5-15: God's Grace Provision}

{Verses 5-6: God Provided Food in Age of Innocence}

Consequently every plant of the field {implies man plowing a field} was not yet {before the fall} on the earth {man reaped what God sowed}, and every vegetable of the field before {the fall} it grew {without man's cultivation}. Because Lord God {Jehovah Elohim} had not caused it to rain {yet - rain was not needed in perfect environment} on the planet earth {water was under the ground and in the form of a mist}, and there was not a man to till the ground.

Updated Bible Version 2.11   And no plant of the field was yet in the earth, and no herb of the field had yet sprung up; for Yahweh God had not caused it to rain on the earth: and the man was not [there] to till the ground;...

A Voice in the Wilderness      ...before any shrub of the field was on the earth and before any green plant of the field had sprouted; for Jehovah God had not caused it to rain on the earth, and there was no man to till the ground...

Young’s Updated LT             And no shrub of the field is yet in the earth, and no herb of the field yet sprouted, for Jehovah God has not rained upon the earth, and a man there is not to serve the ground.

 

The gist of this verse: 


Genesis 2:5a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

The wâw conjunction is used as ➊ a simple copulative, used to connect words and sentences, in which case it is usually rendered and. ➋ It can be used to explain one noun or clarify one noun with another, in which case it is rendered even or yea (see Job 5:19 Dan. 4:10). ➌ The wâw conjunction can introduce two nouns, where the first is the genus and the second is the species; in which case, we would render it and particularly, and specially, and namely, and specifically (and it can be used the other way as well) (see 2Kings 23:2 Psalm 18:1 Isa. 1:1 2:1 Zech. 14:21). ➍ It can be prefixed to a verb also by way of explanation; it could be reasonably rendered as a relative pronoun (who, which) (see Gen. 49:25 Job 29:12 Isa. 13:14). ➎ It can be used to begin an apodosis (the then portion of an if...then... statement) (see Gen. 2:4, 5 40:9 48:7). ➏ It is used between words and sentences in order to compare them or to mark their resemblance (1Sam. 12:15 Job 5:7). ➐ When doubled, it can mean both...and... (Num. 9:14 Joshua 7:24 Psalm 76:7). ➑ It can be prefixed to adversative sentences or clauses and rendered but, and yet, although, otherwise (Gen. 2:17 15:2 17:20 Judges 16:15 Ruth 1:21 Job 15:5 6:14). ➒ And, what we were after, is the wâw conjunction can be used in disjunctive sentences; that is, it can be rendered or (which will help us to understand what Jephthah does) (Ex. 21:17 Lev. 5:3 Deut. 24:7). ➓ Finally, the wâw conjunction can be used before causal sentences and rendered because, for, that, in that (Gen. 18:32 30:27 Psalm 5:12 60:13); before conclusions or inferences, and therefore rendered so that, therefore, wherefore (2Kings 4:41 Isa. 3:14 Ezek. 18:32 Zech. 2:10); and before final and consecutive sentences, which mark an end or an object: in order that (Gen. 42:34 Job 20:10 Isa. 13:2). To paraphrase Gesenius, frequently, it is put after verbs and sentences standing absolutely, especially those which imply time or condition and is reasonably rendered then.

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

sîyach (שִׂיחַ) [pronounced SEE-ahkh]

bush, shrub, plant

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #7880 BDB #967

sâdeh (שָׂדֶה) [pronounced saw-DEH]

field, land, country, open field, open country

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #7704 BDB #961

ţerem (טֶרֶם) [pronounced THE-rem]

not yet; before, from before, before that, previously; before the beginning

an adverb of time, sometimes used in the negative sense

Strong’s #2962 (and #2958) BDB #382

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: But not every plant of the field is yet in the earth... Now, we have to be careful in our understanding of this passage. The writer is not telling us that no plant in the field has sprung up; he is telling us that not every plant of the field has yet begun to grow.


Genesis 2:5b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

ʿeseb (עֶשֶׂב) [pronounced EH-seb]

herbs, herbage; grass, produce; plants [full-grown and in seed]

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #6212 BDB #793

sâdeh (שָׂדֶה) [pronounced saw-DEH]

field, land, country, open field, open country

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #7704 BDB #961

ţerem (טֶרֶם) [pronounced THE-rem]

not yet; before, from before, before that, previously; before the beginning

an adverb of time, sometimes used in the negative sense

Strong’s #2962 (and #2958) BDB #382

tsâmach (צָמַח) [pronounced tsaw-MAHKH]

to sprout, to spring up, to spring forth

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #6779 BDB #855

 

 

 

 


Translation: ...and not every herb of the field has yet sprouted up,... There are also a number of herbs in the field that had not yet begun to grow.


Genesis 2:5c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

mâţar (מָטַר) [pronounced maw-TAHR]

to rain, to send rain, to pour down rain; to rain hail, to send hail

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil perfect

Strong’s #4305 BDB #565

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun

Strong's #430 BDB #43

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: ...for Yehowah Elohim had not sent rain upon the earth... The writer of Gen. 2 gives us a twofold explanation. First of all, there was no rain sent upon the earth yet. We are getting a description of an antediluvian (pre-flood) civilization. Before the flood, there was not rain in the same way that we are used to having rain. This fascinates me. Is there a set of circumstances on this earth where rain does not exist? That is, could we alter a few circumstances here and there with the end result that, there is no rain on this earth?


Or, perhaps we are simply speaking of a pre-sin era on this earth. Maybe these things changed after man sinned?


There are two circumstances which are possibly different on this earth: (1) it is possible that there is no tilt in the earth’s axis; and (2) it is possible that there is only one land mass. This is far beyond my ability to model what is going on in the physical world. I do know that, throughout the world, there are rainey seasons in some areas; in others, as where I lived in California, you would never see any rain between June and September. Quite obviously, there are deserts which receive almost no rain. So we know that there are places on this earth today which are not rained upon. Could all the land on the earth be similar to one of those circumstances. Would the two differences which I described above be enough to give us such a land?


When considering these factors, consider also elevation. There is an area in Mexico which has a lot of pleasant weather throughout the year because it is a mile high. We do not know the air pressure and we do not know the elevation of the earth at this point in time, both of which would play an important part in the weather conditions.


Genesis 2:5d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾâdâm (אָדָם) [pronounced aw-DAWM]

a man, a human being, mankind, Adam

masculine singular noun

Strong's #120 BDB #9

ʾêyin (אֵין) [pronounced AYH-yin]

in the condition of being not = without, nothing, no, not; there is no [none, no one, not]

substantive of negative

Strong’s #369 BDB #34

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʿâbad (עָבַד) [pronounced ģawb-VAHD]

to work, to serve, to labor; to be a slave to

Qal infinitive construct

Strong's #5647 BDB #712

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʾădâmâh (אֲדָמָה) [pronounced uh-daw-MAWH]

ground, soil, dirt, earth, tillable earth, land, surface of the earth

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #127 BDB #9


Translation: ...and there was no man to work the ground. There was something else necessary for the land to yield crops—it needed to be cultivated. And, as we certainly know, some plants just spring up; and others require great care, careful watering and just the right soil in order to grow and survive.


There is an apparent but not real problem with Gen. 2:5. There are times when we run into a verse or a passage which sounds like a contradiction. My English Standard Version reads: Gen 2:5 When no bush of the field was yet in the land and no small plant of the field had yet sprung up--for the LORD God had not caused it to rain on the land, and there was no man to work the ground,... Several other prominent translations are quite similar (e.g., A Conservative Version, the Bible in Basic English, the CEV, the NASB and even the Exegesis Companion Bible). When I first read this, I thought back to Day 3 and how God had all of these plants growing, and here we are, in what will soon become Day 6 (see Gen. 2:7), and there are no plants at all. Although this is a legitimate reading of the Hebrew, the more literal rendering follows:


Gen 2:5 And every shrub of the field was not yet on the earth, and every plant of the field had not yet sprung up; for Jehovah God had not sent rain on the earth, and there was no man to till the ground...


We twice have a very common word here, kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl], which means every, each, all of, all; any of, any. You will note that this word is found in the more accurate translation directly above. We also have negative adverb not yet, which is properly applied to the verbs rather than to the nouns. I have correctly applied every to the two nouns it precedes and have correctly applied the adverb to the two verbs it precedes (as is found in the Modern KJV, Green’s Literal Translation and the Literal Translation of the Holy Bible).


As an aside, you may wonder, how do I know which Bible is accurate? There are a number of very good and accurate Bibles out there (The Amplified Bible, NKJV, NASB, MKJV, AKJV, Green’s Literal Translation, ESV, the Literal Translation of the Holy Bible) and these Bibles are quite accurate about 98% of the time. However, now and again, we come across a verse which is not translated as well as it should be. This is one reason that every believer ought to be under the authority of a pastor-teacher who knows the original Greek and Hebrew of the Bible so that he can reasonably interpret and explain problems such as we have in this verse. Knowing the Hebrew here quickly and simply explains what appears to be a contradiction.


——————————


And a mist goes up from the earth and gives drink to all faces of the land.

Genesis

2:6

But a mist went up from the earth and it irrigated all the surface of the land.

But a mist went up from the earth, irrigating all the earth’s surface.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                But a cloud of glory descended from the throne of glory, and was filled with waters from the ocean, and afterward went up from the earth, and gave rain to come down and water all the face of the ground.

Latin Vulgate                          But a spring rose out of the earth, watering all the surface of the earth.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And a mist goes up from the earth and gives drink to all faces of the land.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    But a powerful spring gushed out of the earth, and watered all the face of the ground.

Septuagint (Greek)                But there rose a fountain out of the earth, and watered the whole face of the earth.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           ...though a stream rose from the earth and watered all of the fertile land-...

Contemporary English V.       But streams came up from the ground and watered the earth.

Easy English                          Then a mist came up from the earth, and the mist watered all the soil.

Easy-to-Read Version            Water [8] came up from the earth and spread over the ground.

Good News Bible (TEV)         ...but water would come up from beneath the surface and water the ground.

The Message                         ...(the whole Earth was watered by underground springs)--...

New Living Translation           But a fog came from the earth and watered the whole top of the ground.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          ...springs poured from the ground and watered the entire surface of the earth.

Ancient Roots Translinear      But a haze ascended from the land and watered all the face of the earth.

Beck’s American Translation And so springs would gush from the earth and water the whole surface of the ground.

God’s Word                         Instead, underground water would come up from the earth and water the entire surface of the ground.

New American Bible              ...but a stream* was welling up out of the earth and watering all the surface of the ground-... Stream: the water wells up from the vast flood below the earth. The account seems to presuppose that only the garden of God was irrigated at this point. From this one source of all the fertilizing water on the earth, water will be channeled through the garden of God over the entire earth. It is the source of the four rivers mentioned in vv. 10-14. Later, with rain and cultivation, the fertility of the garden of God will appear in all parts of the world.

New Jerusalem Bible             Instead, water flowed out of the ground and watered all the surface of the soil.

Revised English Bible            Moisture used to well up out of the earth and water all the surface of the ground.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             But a mist went up from the earth, watering all the face of the land.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 A vapor then rose up from the Earth, and saturated the whole surface of the ground.

HCSB                                     But water would come out of the ground and water the entire surface of the land.

NET Bible®                             Springs [The conjunction vav (?) introduces a third disjunctive clause. The Hebrew word ??? ('ed) was traditionally translated "mist" because of its use in Job 36:27. However, an Akkadian cognate edu in Babylonian texts refers to subterranean springs or waterways. Such a spring would fit the description in this context, since this water "goes up" and waters the ground.] would well up [Heb "was going up." The verb is an imperfect form, which in this narrative context carries a customary nuance, indicating continual action in past time.] from the earth and water [The perfect with vav (?) consecutive carries the same nuance as the preceding verb. Whenever it would well up, it would water the ground.] the whole surface of the ground [The Hebrew word ??????? ('adamah) actually means "ground; fertile soil."] [Here is an indication of fertility. The water would well up from the earth (?????, 'erets) and water all the surface of the fertile soil (???????). It is from that soil that the man (?????, 'adam) was made (Gen 2:7).



Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                But there went up a mist (fog, vapor) from the land and watered the whole surface of the ground--...

Concordant Literal Version    Yet humidity is ascending from the earth and irrigates all the surface of the ground.

Context Group Version          ...but there went up a stream { lit., flow } from the land { or earth }, and watered the entire face of the ground.

Darby Translation                  But a mist went up from the earth, and moistened the whole surface of the ground.

English Standard V. – UK       ...and a mist [Or spring] was going up from the land and was watering the whole face of the ground-...

Heritage Bible                        And a mist ascended out of the earth, and watered all the face of the soil.

NASB                                     But a mist [Or flow] used to rise from the earth and water the whole surface of [Lit face of] the ground.

New RSV                               ...but a stream would rise from the earth, and water the whole face of the ground-...

Syndein                                  But a mist used to rise up from the earth and irrigate the entire surface of the ground.

World English Bible                ...but a mist went up from the earth, and watered the whole surface of the ground.

Young’s Updated LT             And a mist goes up from the earth, and has watered the whole face of the ground.

 

The gist of this verse: 


Genesis 2:6a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêd (אֵד) [pronounced ayd]

mist, [water] vapor

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #108 BDB #15

ʿâlâh (עָלָה) [pronounced ģaw-LAWH]

to go up, to ascend, to come up, to rise, to climb

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #5927 BDB #748

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: But a mist went up from the earth... This mist irrigated the entire surface of the ground; so this was widespread, as far as land goes. We see these sorts of conditions all of the time, where, in the mornings, we look out, and we see a mist over the ground, a few inches thick. This was apparently the way that this world, before the flood and before sin, was watered.


Genesis 2:6b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

shâqâh (שָקָה) [pronounced shaw-KAW]

to give drink to, to furnish drink, to cause to drink; to water [cattle, land]; to irrigate [land]

3rd person masculine singular Hiphil perfect

Strong’s #8248 BDB #1052

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

with a plural noun, it is rendered all of, all; any of

masculine singular construct with a masculine plural noun

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

pânîym (פָּנִים) [pronounced paw-NEEM]

face, faces, countenance; presence; person; surface

masculine plural construct (plural acts like English singular)

Strong’s #6440 BDB #815

ʾădâmâh (אֲדָמָה) [pronounced uh-daw-MAWH]

ground, soil, dirt, earth, tillable earth, land, surface of the earth

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #127 BDB #9


Translation: ...and it irrigated all the surface of the land. This mist was enough for virtually the entire surface of the earth to be watered at this time. However, this still does not allow for men to come in, break up the soil, and to plant seeds to that their roots can grow in the loosened soil.


Gen 2:5–6 And every shrub of the field was not yet on the earth, and every plant of the field had not yet sprung up; for Jehovah God had not sent rain on the earth, and there was no man to till the ground, and a mist was going up from the land and was watering the whole face of the ground--...


V. 6 is absolutely fascinating. How would or why would any author developing a false antediluvian history speak of plants being watered from a mist? The antediluvian world was very different than it is now and this is one of the chief differences; it did not rain but there was a mist which arose from the ground. The earth was surrounded by a much thicker water vapor atmosphere at this time also. If all of this is myth, then this indicates that our ancestors, not too far removed from the cave, had a very imaginative and creative sense of history. Rather than recall the days when man used to roam the earth throwing sticks and rocks at animals and hunkering down around the fire, this author speaks of a much more idyllic period of time and throws in nuances and creativity one would not expect to find in so-called primitive man. However, this is not a myth and man, if anything, was more brilliant and educated then than he is today. When we fantasize about the early days of man, we see cave men throwing rocks and sticks at animals and hunkering down before a fire. Those closer to the true events of history do not record such nonsense in ancient literature. Instead, they record what really happened. Even ancient myths and uninspired literature gives us a more refined view of ancient man than we have. There are certainly those who degenerated over centuries of inbreeding to colonies of less-than-civilized men who drew pictures on cave walls and behaved barbarically. One need look no further back in history than today to examine the affects of inbreeding in the hills of West Virginia or in the primitive portions of Africa to find men who have degenerated to the point of animalism. Throughout all of history, except for the most ancient, we find civilized man living in a world occupied by savages and barbaric peoples; and not infrequently, side-by-side.


Now, what appears to be the case is, there is this oasis, this garden, where Adam and the woman will be placed, but outside of this area, we have some vegetation, but not everything necessary for man’s subsistence. So, the Garden of Eden had everything necessary for man’s subsistence; and outside of the Garden of Eden, we have a limited amount of flora, and man is going to have to work in order to provide for his own life. Every plant in the field had not yet sprouted. Some have.


If you have had the experience of moving into a brand new house on a lot just zoned residential, then you may have had the experience of planting your lawn or planting a few shrubs and trees. The house might look great, but not every exterior plant, tree and/or grass has sprouted so that the outside of your house looks as you think it ought to look. This is the world outside of the Garden of Eden.


We do not know is the size of the Garden of Eden. My guess is that it is several hundred square miles at least. It is not is just an acre or two of foliage.


Another thing which we do not know is, if there are continents or if there is just one continent. The idea that land could rise or fall in just a generation seems quite radical; however, the flood which will come (Gen. 7–8) will be unprecedented. In any case, this is not an issue brought up in Scripture. Was there a continental drift because of the flood (Gen. 9) or was there a continental drift because of the ice age and the breaking up of the ice? It is interesting to theorize about, but we do not know.


There is another thing which stands out here: the writer of this passage tells us how the earth is watered—this is a very unusual touch. Most people have a very difficult time with history. As I have heard one person say, history begins, for most people, the day that they are born, and they have a difficult time with what came before (which is why a nation can change direction in one generation). However, the writer of this portion of Genesis describes the way the earth was watered in an unusual way—a mist arose from the ground, and that there was no rain. Given how the earth began and what steps God took to restore the earth (the melting of the ice), the earth in general would have been very similar to a greenhouse with a high humidity throughout. In any case, had someone wrote down these words in 3000 b.c. or 1400 b.c., it would be quite unusual for them to make mention of such an environment, let alone, even conceive of such an environment.


——————————


In Gen. 1:1–2:3, we examined God creating and making the earth and the universe, and most of this process was laid out for a 7-day period of time. All of the events were placed into a particular time slot. The rest of chapter 2 is going to deal with some specifics here and there, without setting up any sort of a sequence of events. The sequence of events was already laid out; so that does not have to be repeated. The subject matter of each passage will indicate the day we are speaking of. Since this is subject matter which is arranged topically, some subjects will extend beyond the 6 days of restoration.


We do this kind of thing all of the time. Our life occurs as a series of chronological events. However, if you tell someone about the flat tire that you had to fix on the way to work, you don’t backtrack and tell him when you bought this car and whether this particular tire came with the car or not; and, if not, when you purchased it. The fixing of your flat tire incorporates within the narrative a number of things which occurred on various days in previous years, and these events are not enumerated when you tell this story. However, if the flat tire was a tire which you bought 2 months ago, and the problem was the construction of the tire itself, well then, you are going to go back and incorporate that little bit of news into your story. When telling others about your flat tire, you do not recount every single detail every single time, and recount every detail in chronological order. You walk into work late, you have grease and grime on your arms or on your clothes, and you tell your boss, “Sorry I am late; I had a flat tire on the I-10 when driving in to work today. I’m going to clean up.” Here, you speak first of the present (I am late), of the past (I had a flat tire) and then of the future (I am going to clean up). In other words, even though your life is a series of chronological events, that does not mean that, every time you speak of this or that event, that you always put that event into a chronological sequence. That is all that is happening here. The writer knows about Adam’s original environment and about these first few days (logically, this is Adam speaking to one of his sons, who passes this information to his sons), and, at some point, a writer writes this stuff down. This does not mean that information is necessarily lost or inserted, but that we recall portions of our lives chronologically and other portions of our lives topically, without much thought given to chronology.


In v. 4, we are told that this is an account of the heavens and the earth. In vv. 5–6, we are told about the plant life (that there was not much of it) and how it was watered. In v. 7, God makes man:


And so forms, Yehowah Elohim, the man, dust from the ground; and so He breathes in his nostrils a breath of lives; and so is the man to a soul of life.

Genesis

2:7

Then Yehowah Elohim forms the man [from] the dust from the ground; and breathed into his nostrils the breath of lives. Consequently, the man became a living soul.

Then Jehovah Elohim formed the man out of the dust of the ground and then He breathed the breath of lives into his nostrils. Consequently, man became a living soul.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the Lord God created man in two formations; and took dust from the place of the house of the sanctuary, and from the four winds of the world, and mixed from all the waters of the world, and created him red, black, and white; and breathed into his nostils the inspiration of life, and there was in the body of Adam the inspiration of a speaking spirit, unto the illumination of the eyes and the hearing of the ears. [JERUSALEM. And Adam became a soul of life.].

Latin Vulgate                          And the Lord God formed man of the slime of the earth: and breathed into his face the breath of life, and man became a living soul.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so forms, Yehowah Elohim, the man, dust from the ground; and so He breathes in his nostrils a breath of lives; and so is the man to a soul of life.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And the LORD God formed Adam out of the soil of the earth, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being.

Septuagint (Greek)                And God formed the man of the dust of the earth, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           ...the LORD God formed the human [Heb adam] from the topsoil of the fertile land [Heb adamah] and blew life's breath into his nostrils. The human came to life.

Contemporary English V.       The LORD God took a handful of soil and made a man. God breathed life into the man, and the man started breathing.

Easy English                          Then the *Lord God formed a man from dust that was on the earth. God breathed into the man's nostrils (the holes in the nose). The breath that God breathed into him made the man live. So the man became a person, who was alive.

Easy-to-Read Version            Then the Lord God took dust from the ground and made a man [The Hebrew word means "man," "people," or the name "Adam." It is like the word meaning "earth," or "red clay."]. The Lord breathed the breath of life into the man’s nose, and the man became a living thing.

Good News Bible (TEV)         Then the LORD God took some soil from the ground and formed a man out of it; he breathed life-giving breath into his nostrils and the man began to live.

The Message                         GOD formed Man out of dirt from the ground and blew into his nostrils the breath of life. The Man came alive--a living soul!

New Living Translation           Then the Lord God formed the man from the dust of the ground. He breathed the breath of life into the man's nostrils, and the man became a living person.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Then God formed man from the dust of the ground, breathed the breath of life against his face, and He became a living creature.

Ancient Roots Translinear      Yahweh God designed Adam (human) from the dust of the earth, and bellowed in his nose the breath of life. Adam was a living soul.

Christian Community Bible     Then Yahweh God formed Man, dust drawn from the clay, and breathed into his nostrils a breath of life and Man became alive with breath.

God’s Word                         Then the LORD God formed the man from the dust of the earth and blew the breath of life into his nostrils. The man became a living being.

New American Bible              ...then the LORD God formed the man* out of the dust of the ground and blew into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being. God is portrayed as a potter molding the human body out of earth. There is a play on words in Hebrew between 'adam ("human being," "man") and 'adama ("ground"). It is not enough to make the body from earth; God must also breathe into the man's nostrils. A similar picture of divine breath imparted to human beings in order for them to live is found in Ez 37:5, 9-10; Jn 20:22. The Israelites did not think in the (Greek) categories of body and soul. Gn 3:19; 18:27; Tb 8:6; Jb 34:15; Ps 103:14; 104:29; Eccl 3:20; 12:7; Wis 7:1; Sir 33:10; 1 Cor 15:45.

NIRV                                      Then the Lord God formed a man. He made him out of the dust of the ground. He breathed the breath of life into him. And the man became a living person.

New Jerusalem Bible             Yahweh God shaped man from the soil of the ground and blew the breath of life into his nostrils, and man became a living being.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And the Lord God made man from the dust of the earth, breathing into him the breath of life: and man became a living soul.

Complete Jewish Bible           Then ADONAI, God, formed a person [Hebrew: adam] from the dust of the ground [Hebrew: adamah] and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, so that he became a living being.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 The Ever-living God afterwards formed Man from the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the life of animals [or, Reflective, or Intellectual life; see 1Cor. 2:12 3:3]; but Man became a life-containing soul.

New Advent Bible                  And the Lord God formed man of the slime of the earth: and breathed into his face the breath of life, and man became a living soul.

NET Bible®                             The LORD God formed [Or "fashioned." The prefixed verb form with vav (?) consecutive initiates narrative sequence. The Hebrew word ????? (yatsar) means "to form" or "to fashion," usually by plan or design (see the related noun ????? [yetser] in Gen 6:5). It is the term for an artist's work (the Hebrew term ?????? [yotser] refers to a potter; see Jer 18:2-4.)] [Various traditions in the ancient Near East reflect this idea of creation. Egyptian drawings show a deity turning little people off of the potter's wheel with another deity giving them life. In the Bible humans are related to the soil and return to it (see 3:19; see also Job 4:19, 20:9; and Isa 29:16).]the man from the soil of the ground [The line literally reads "And Yahweh God formed the man, soil, from the ground." "Soil" is an adverbial accusative, identifying the material from which the man was made.] and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life [The Hebrew word ???????? (nÿshamah, "breath") is used for God and for the life imparted to humans, not animals (see T. C. Mitchell, "The Old Testament Usage of Nÿshama," VT 11 [1961]: 177-87). Its usage in the Bible conveys more than a breathing living organism (?????? ??????, nefesh khayyah). Whatever is given this breath of life becomes animated with the life from God, has spiritual understanding (Job 32:8), and has a functioning conscience (Prov 20:27).] [Human life is described here as consisting of a body (made from soil from the ground) and breath (given by God). Both animals and humans are called "a living being" (?????? ??????) but humankind became that in a different and more significant way.], and the man became a living being [The Hebrew term ?????? (nefesh, "being") is often translated "soul," but the word usually refers to the whole person. The phrase ?????? ?????? (nefesh khayyah, "living being") is used of both animals and human beings (see 1:20, 24, 30; 2:19).].

NIV, ©2011                             Then the LORD God formed a man [The Hebrew for man (adam) sounds like and may be related to the Hebrew for ground (adamah); it is also the name Adam (see verse 20).] from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

American KJV                        Then the Lord God formed man from the dust [The same essential chemical elements are found in man and animal life that are in the soil. This scientific fact was not known to man until recent times, but God was displaying it here.] of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath or spirit of life, and man became a living being..

Concordant Literal Version    And forming is Yahweh Elohim the human of soil from the ground, and He is blowing into his nostrils the breath of the living, and becoming is the human a living soul.

Context Group Version          And YHWH God formed the man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and the man became a living life { soul }.

Heritage Bible                        And Jehovah God formed the man out of the dust of the soil, and breathed into his nostrils the breath [breath of life, neshamah chayiym. See Gen 7:21-22 where that which is in man is called neshamah ruwach chayiym, which is the breath of the spirit of life. See fuller Note on Isa 42:5.] of life; and the man became a living soul [Here we learn that man is spirit, soul, and body. 1 Th 5:23. Man has a body in common with the material earth and animals. Man has a soul in common with animals. Man has a spirit in common with God. Man is the only creature in the universe with spirit, soul, and body. Heavenly messengers, angels, are spirits, but do not have souls or physical bodies.].

Syndein                                  {Formation of Man and God's Provision for Man's Soul}

And the Lord God {Jehovah Elohiym - Jesus Christ} formed/designed {yatsar - to form from existing materials} the man {male body} of the soil/earth/dust/ 'chemical content of the soul' of the ground and breathed {naphach - really means 'mouth to mouth resuscitation' here} into his nostrils the 'breath of lives'/'spark of lives' {'neshamah chay' -plural - 'breath of lives' - both Adam and Eve's soul see also Job 33:4}; and the Adam/man {Adam only} 'became a living soul'/'became a soul having life' {nephesh - 'soul life'}. {Note: Yatsar is the Hebrew word meaning to form. Used here for the creation of the male body. Yatsar means to shape something in a certain way. The woman completes the man. FYI, the woman's body in contrast is said to be 'banah' - which means to be built or constructed.}.

 

World English Bible                Yahweh God formed man from the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.

Young’s Updated LT             And Jehovah God forms the man—dust from the ground, and breathes into his nostrils breath of life, and the man becomes a living creature.

 

The gist of this verse: 


Genesis 2:7a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

yâtsar (יָצַר) [pronounced yaw-TSAR]

to form, to mold, to sculpt, to fashion; to destine, to predestine, to foreordain; to form in the mind, to devise, to plan

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #3335 BDB #427

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun

Strong's #430 BDB #43

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʾâdâm (אָדָם) [pronounced aw-DAWM]

a man, a human being, mankind, Adam

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #120 BDB #9

ʿâphâr (עָפָר) [pronounced ģaw-FAWR]

dry earth, dust, powder, ashes, earth, ground, mortar, rubbish; dry or loose earth; debris; mortar; ore

masculine singular substantive; construct form

Strong’s #6083 BDB #779

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʾădâmâh (אֲדָמָה) [pronounced uh-daw-MAWH]

ground, soil, dirt, earth, tillable earth, land, surface of the earth

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #127 BDB #9


Translation: Then Yehowah Elohim forms the man [from] the dust from the ground;... We have a different verb used here for God making man. The word is yâtsar (יָצַר) [pronounced yaw-TSAR]; and it means, to form, to mold, to sculpt, to fashion; to destine, to predestine, to foreordain; to form in the mind, to devise, to plan. Strong’s #3335 BDB #427. This is a picture of God reaching down into the clay of the earth and fashioning a man from that clay; a picture which we find throughout the Bible.


Again, the entire Godhead is involved, with emphasis upon One Member of the Godhead. Or we could read this as Jehovah of the Godhead.


This verse would indicate that we are made up of the same basic chemical elements as the earth is. This certainly, although not expressed in scientific language, is not the idea of some savage. It has been several millenniums later when this fact was confirmed. As many have stated, the Bible is not a scientific textbook; however, when it deals with science, it deals with it accurately.


The book of Genesis is filled with what I have called happy coincidences. The idea that God could scoop up some dirt and make man out of it was assumed by many to simply be a miraculous act of God. However, it just turns out that, there are a number of minerals, chemicals and compounds in the earth that are identical to those found in our bodies. As previously alluded to, there are a number of ancient creation myths which are fantastic in every way, and are clearly myths, if not goofy myths. However, the Bible stands up to even modern scrutiny and its accuracy is still debated today. Nobody takes ancient Chinese, Mayan or Norse myths and says, “You know what, this maybe happened.” And then are able to debate this stance. However, the Bible is quite different. So far we have seen then Big Bang Theory, the concept of an ice age, and here, the relationship between the elements of the earth and man’s body—things which entered into the scientific world relatively recently, but have been found in the Bible for thousands of years.


This close relationship between man and the dust of the ground is the names assigned to man and ground; which is even more pronounced, as they both have the definite article affixed to them. Man is ʾâdâm (אָדָם) [pronounced aw-DAWM] and dust is ʾădâmâh (אֲדָמָה) [pronounced uh-daw-MAWH]. Both are preceded by hâ (הָ) [pronounced haw], which is the Hebrew version of a definite article. .


Genesis 2:7b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

nâphach (נָפַח) [pronounced naw-FAHKH]

to breath [out], to blow

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #5301 BDB #655

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʾaphayim (אַפַיִם) [pronounced ah-fah-YIM]

face; noses, nostrils, but is also translated brows, face; anger, fierce anger, fierce wrath

masculine plural noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #639 BDB #60

neshâmâh (נְשָמָה) [pronounced neshaw-MAW]

breath; spirit; living creature; mind; panting, anger; with kôl, it means every breathing thing

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #5397 BDB #675

chayyîym (חַיִּים) [pronounced khay-YEEM]

life, lives; a life of long duration, immortality; living, sustenance; refreshment; prosperity, welfare, happiness

masculine plural adjective/substantive

Strong's #2416 BDB #311


Translation: ...and breathed into his nostrils the breath of lives. Throughout this verse, the verb associated with Jehovah Elohim is a masculine singular, which is how it is found almost throughout the entire Bible (there is one exception that I am aware of).


The plural of life here can have two separate applications: the first is that, by breathing life into man, this begins the human race, which is billions of people. These are the lives being spoken of. However, there is also another sense in which we have lives; man, at creation, had both the soul and the spirit. Man was created a trichotomus being, with a body, soul and spirit. With our bodies, we interacts with the physical world that is around us; with our souls, we interact with people; and with our spirits, we are able to interact with God. In our soul, we store up memories and thoughts about other people; with the human spirit, we store up information about God.


There is an implication of this verse, which I want to state very carefully. Man becomes fully and truly alive when God breathes the breath of lives into him. Before that, man is not alive in the true sense. Many have taken this as a pattern for life; and that when we take our first breath here on earth, at age 0 + 2 seconds, this is when God makes our soul alive (we are born spiritually dead because we have inherited the old sin nature and Adam’s original sin has been imputed to us at birth). Therefore, prior to birth, our soul is dormant, so to speak, until we take our first breath (although, clearly, the mind is functioning within the brain of a fetus); and when we are born alive, our spirit remains dormant until we are born again. For many in theology, they take true human life to begin at birth; and this is true of many Jewish theologians and of some Christian theologians.


I state this carefully, because many have used this to justify abortion. After all, if that baby is not really a baby in the womb, then we can treat it in any way that we want, including killing it if it is deformed or has some sort of a deficit; or if the baby would be born at an inconvenient time. My own thoughts on the matter is, you do not interfere with the wisdom and policy of God. God has willed for a woman to carry a child for 9 months and then to give birth to that child. We know that, biologically speaking, that fetus is every bit the human being that the mother or the father is. That fetus may have a different blood type from the mother; he may be a different gender from the mother; and that there is nothing biological that would suggest that this fetus is less than a human being, apart from being inside the womb. For this reason, I don’t believe that we ought to mess with God’s design for human birth.


I have a very liberal friend who believes that abortion is great and that she would do anything to keep abortion as a key political freedom. Her argument from the conservative side is, “We do not want to pay for these children from birth to death, including, often, their incarceration; so, allow the mother to abort them.” Our payment for these children is based upon liberal social problems and government policy. Not only do we tolerate people having children but the government will pay for people to have children. Similarly, the government will pay for birth control and for abortions if one cannot afford these things. This results in the simplest rule of government: subsidize something, and you get more of it; tax something, and you get less of it. If the government does nothing, then life simply proceeds based upon the freedom of the individuals involved.


Therefore, I believe that you respect the process of conception and birth that God designed; and that women are not paid money because they are single mothers with children. This is quite simple. A flighty young boy-crazy women might hook up with a player and, whatever happens, happens. That is because, she does not really need to take responsibility for her mistakes, because Uncle Sugar will kick in and take care of her and her family, whether player is in or out of the picture.


However, if government remains neutral at this point, women would learn very quickly that, hooking up with player-types may give them a few days of pleasure, followed by 20 years of hardship. Most people, even imbeciles, can weigh that in the balance, and forgo the pleasure. At one time, until government stepped in, this is how people acted. Therefore, at the high school that I went to, the number of girls who got pregnant during those 4 years (out of a population of about 10,000 or more) was maybe 5. So, maybe 0.05% became pregnant; and their lives were sufficiently difficult that their girlfriends did not follow in their footsteps.


Today, in a junior high, 5 pregnancies out of 800 students in the space of a year is not at all abnormal. For some schools, this would reflect a good year of smart decisions by the kids. We have removed all shame and judgment from doing this sort of thing; and, in some cases, subsidize the single mother and her children after this. Consider this thinking process; let’s say we have a young lady not too interested in going to college, facing possibly a lifetime of minimum wage jobs; so, she can have a child or two, and, by age 18, government is paying for her food, her diapers, her medical care and her housing. She can’t easily make that much money working; so these children take her through a few decades where she is supported economically.


Let me recap, because I have gone far afield here: not allowing abortions does not produce a lot of children; the government offering to pay the expenses for single women having children is where all of these children come from.


Genesis 2:7c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

When followed by the lâmed preposition, hâyâh often means to become [something that it was not before].

ʾâdâm (אָדָם) [pronounced aw-DAWM]

a man, a human being, mankind, Adam

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #120 BDB #9

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

nephesh (נֶפֶש) [pronounced NEH-fesh]

soul, life, living being, desire, volition

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #5315 BDB #659

chayyâh (חַיָּה) [pronounced khay-YAWH]

living thing, animal, life, organisms, life form; appetite, revival, renewal; community, family, assembled group, allied families, bands

substantive; feminine noun

Strong's #2416 BDB #312


Translation: Consequently, the man became a living soul. Through God breathing into Adam, Adam becomes alive. Here, the emphasis is upon man having life; or upon man’s soul being alive.


The verb for formed here is a different one than we have used before. It is the word yâtsar (יָצַר) [pronounced yaw-TSAR], and it means to form, fashion, mold, and several other varied meanings. Here, God is fashioning our bodies out of the elements of the earth. We do not have life until God breaths life into us. The verb breath is the Qal imperfect of nâphach (נָפַח) [pronounced naw-FAHKH], which carries with it the vision of blowing upon a furnace; it means to breathe, inflame, or to blow fire upon something. Breath is the Hebrew word neshâmâh (נְשָמָה) [pronounced neshaw-MAW], and it means panting, breath, puff of air, and even inspiration and wisdom. It is not farfetched to allow this to have an electrical connotation due to the verb and give it the translation the spark of lives. We have learned from science that our brains have an electrical current and the lack of that current indicates death. It is reasonable for God to have taken this lump of clay which was our bodies and breathed into the lungs oxygen and into the brain a spark. The adjective, living, translated often live(s), is the word chayyîym (חַיִּים) [pronounced khay-YEEM], and it has to do with being alive. It is in the plural here. Man's body, soul and spirit were all activated and all became living, or, if you will forgive the cornball expression, energized. The result is that man becomes a living being. These words in the Hebrew are chay again (this time in the singular) and nephesh (נֶפֶש) [pronounced NEH-fesh], usually translated soul; a word applied to animals as well as to people. This is in the feminine singular and seems to refer to the entire being of man in this context.


Gen 2:7 Then the LORD God formed the man of dust from the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of lives, and the man became a living creature.


This is a fantastic statement which is consistent with known science. Simply put: we are made out of the chemicals of the earth with life breathed into us by God. Being constructed of the chemicals of the earth is not something which ancient man would have automatically figured out. In fact, only since we mid-1800's have we had a periodic chart. I have no idea at what point science figured out that man is made up of the same kinds of chemicals as are found in the earth. Obviously, it would have been after the mid-1800's. But here, in a document written thousands of years ago, God uses the chemicals found in the earth to form man.


In the Hebrew, we have the verb yâtsar (יָצַר) [pronounced yaw-TSAR] which means, to form, to mold, to sculpt, to fashion; to destine, to predestine, to foreordain; to form in the mind, to devise, to plan. Strong’s #3335 BDB #427. This verb is often used of a potter working with clay (this is the verb which actually means potter when found as a Qal active participle). What is fascinating is, this verb is found in the imperfect tense, which can either refer to action in the future or continuous action. At the very least, this refers to an extensive process. At the most, this refers to an ongoing process. In case you were unaware of this, your body is constantly renewing itself, and, if memory serves, we essentially have a completely new physical body every 7 years, as cells replicate and die off.


Allow me to admit two things—when I first began to study the Bible, there were two things which I initially doubted—the ages of Adam and his progeny (measured in hundreds of years) and Jesus fasting for 40 days. Both seemed a little fantastic. However, with what we know of the human body today, it is somewhat of a curiosity why we only live 60–100 years. Our bodies are constantly replicating individual cells and constantly throwing off dead cells. There is a regeneration mechanism in place on the cellular level which is quite fantastic. We have all had bumps and bruises. As a very young boy, I had a foot covered with 2nd and 3rd degree burns. A year later, you could not even see a scar. Psalm 139:14: I praise you, for I am reverently and distinctly made. Your works are extraordinary; my soul knows it very well. Our bodies as originally made were quite incredible. Sin affects both our moral choices and our physical bodies. When Adam is corrupted by sin, his body is so well-made that it will take over 900 years for it die. Passing along the sin nature reduced our life expectancy. However, Jesus was born without a sin nature. His body was uncorrupted by sin, and therefore was able to endure extraordinary abuse, including a 40 day fast.


Gen 2:7 Then the LORD God formed the man of dust from the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of lives, and the man became a living creature.


In the Hebrew, the word for dust is ʿâphâr (עָפָר) [pronounced ģaw-FAWR], and it means dry earth, dust, powder, ashes, earth, ground, mortar, rubbish; dry or loose earth; debris; mortar; ore. Strong’s #6083 BDB #779. Pretty much, it is anything which one might find in the ground.


The idea that we come from the dust of the earth is not some lucky, one-shot statement which some imaginative author of thousands of years ago penned. We find this same sentiment expressed throughout Scripture. After the man sins, God tells him, “By the sweat of your face you shall eat bread, until you return to the ground, for out of it you were taken; for you are dust, and to dust you shall return.” (Gen. 3:19). Abraham, when speaking to God, understood what he was: "Listen, I have undertaken to speak to the Lord, I who am but dust and ashes.” (Gen. 18:27). Job, when praying to God before his friends, said, “Your hands fashioned and made me, and now you have destroyed me altogether. Remember that you have made me like clay; and will you return me to the dust?” (Job 10:8–9). Elihu, who spoke for God, told Job, “If God should set His heart to it and gather to Himself His spirit and His breath, all flesh would perish together, and man would return to dust.” (Job 34:14–15). Once God removes His breath, man no longer exists in this mortal body. The body returns to the dust from where it came (see also Psalm 90:3 104:29 Eccles. 3:20 12:7). God knows what we are and He remembers that we are but dust (Psalm 103:14). And more than a thousand years later, Paul writes: The first man [Adam] was from the earth, a man of dust; the second Man [Jesus Christ] is from heaven. As was the man of dust, so also are those who are of the dust, and as is the man of heaven, so also are those who are of heaven. Just as we have borne the image of the man of dust, we shall also bear the image of the Man of heaven (1Cor. 15:47–49).


We find many things begun in Genesis, which theme continues throughout the rest of the Bible.


Gen 2:7 Then the LORD God formed the man of dust from the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of lives, and the man became a living creature.


Whereas, the idea that man came from the chemicals of the earth was later shown by science to be true, the second aspect of this verse has just the opposite historical perspective. Men for centuries have believed that God gave life to man; or that life is something which is placed into or thrust upon our human bodies. As of late, there are some who assert that our thinking is simply a jumble of chemicals jostling around in our brains, set off by electrical current. Many scientist would have you believe that we are just advanced monkeys (okay, primates) with a slightly more developed brain, which is somehow capable of abstract philosophy, moral concepts, love, duty, patriotism and self-justification—but a brain which is only a little better than that of a primate.


Science really has no clue exactly what life is or when it begins in man. No scientist is able to say, with any certainty, when human life begins. In fact, this is where evolutionists who allow for abortion are extremely inconsistent. If life is merely the firing of electrical synapses and chemicals sloshing around in the brain—if life is simply a biological process, having nothing to do with the divine spark—these same biological processes are also present in fetuses. Therefore, it is unscientific and inconsistent for an evolutionist to arbitrarily assign birth as the moment life begins, as all of these brain processes are already in place long before a child is born (if memory serves, these electrical signals in the brain can be measured in a 3 week old fetus). Therefore, a scientist who believes that human life is important can only be consistent if he believes that fetal life is equally important. After all, if there is no intervening divine spark—no breath of lives given by God—then birth is not an accurate place to draw the line between unimportant human life and important human life. It is arbitrary, unscientific, theological line. How can a scientist who does not believe in the breath of lives from God make any distinction between the human fetus, 1 second before birth and 1 second after birth? If a baby who is born is fully human, then no scientist or doctor can suggest that what is inside the womb a few seconds earlier is somehow different and not fully human. If a woman has the right to choose, why should she have to choose before giving birth? Why not give her an additional year or two after giving birth to decide whether she wants this child to live? This is no less logical or scientific than saying the woman has the right to terminate any life which is in her womb.


My point is, if we want to remove theology from science and ignore all revealed truth in the Bible, then we cannot view a fetus as substantively different from a child who is born. They are both entirely dependent upon their mother for continued life. Apart from the revealed truth of the Bible, the scientific differences between a fetus and a child with regards to humanity do not exist. They both have electrical impulses running through their brains. If this is considered a sign of life by science (which it is; lack of electrical signals from the brain indicates death), then a scientist who does not want to give any consideration to things theological cannot consider a fetus, whose brain controls a whole host of physical functions, as something other than human. If it has human DNA and if it has brain wave activity, and if left unperturbed, will turn into a living, breathing, talking and thinking human being; then science has no basis for distinguishing a fetus from a born-child, apart from a few minor characteristics; which characteristics cannot be tied to humanity without inserting morality, theology or philosophy into the picture. Human life is human life, and if it is considered to be important after one is born, then there can be no scientific argument against its importance prior to birth.


On the other hand, if a scientist cavalierly considers no life to be important or meaningful, then believing in abortion is completely consistent with his philosophy, as is genocide, euthanasia, and child sacrifice. However, this takes us into theology and/or philosophy and not science. What such a philosophy logically leads to is making judgments on quality of life, convincing, say, old people that it is their duty to mankind, to remove themselves from this earth when they are no longer of value to society. If life in the womb is not seen as valuable, and if embryonic stem cell research is seen as valuable, then we are making philosophical judgments concerning the sanctify of life.


We have not gone so far as for some to suggest that a recently born child is okay to experiment on or to take various parts from for other people. However, if a scientist can justify experimenting on embryos and can also justify older people removing themselves from society when they are no longer productive, how long will it be before someone decides that a crack baby has no real future and is therefore a candidate for experimentation which benefits others, but not the child? I may be pushing this, but when you take theology, philosophy and morality out of the picture, then there is no real reason to make distinctions between a born child and a child not quite yet born.


What many Christians believe is, life actually begins when God breathes the breath of lives into each person as they are born; in fact, the idea that true human life begins at conception is only a recent theological position. The historical position of the church is that life begins at birth. This does not automatically mean that abortion is okay; birth is simply the beginning of full and complete human life. One may reasonably argue that, if God is spending 9 months preparing a body to be born into the world, then we ought not to disrespect that process and treat it as if it is nothing more than a sub-human or non-human growth.


In just 1⅓ chapters, we have a number of very unusual statements which have been made already:

Ten Amazing Statements from Genesis 1:1–2:7

Scripture

Text/Commentary

In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth (Gen. 1:1).

The universe and the earth had a specific beginning point. There is no weirdness here, e.g., a tear drop of a turtle falling down, splashing on the earth, making the oceans. It is a very matter-of-fact statement. It is my understanding that most scientists—those who believe in God and those who do not—believe that the universe had a beginning; that time had a beginning. This is actually a fairly recent development in scientific theory and it is called the Big Bang Theory.

The earth became a chaos and a desolate place, and darkness was over the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters (Gen. 1:2).

We are introduced to the Spirit of God here, and He hovers over the earth as a mother hen hovers over eggs, to warm them. One may reasonably understand this to mean that the earth is packed in ice (i.e., it is undergoing an ice age). If this were the case, and the Holy Spirit is warming the earth, we would expect a great deal of steam to rise, creating a greenhouse affect, which is described later in Gen. 1:6 and 2:5.

And God said, "Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters." And God made the expanse and separated the waters that were under the expanse from the waters that were above the expanse. And it was so. And God called the expanse Heaven (Gen. 1:6–8).

The last thing in the world we would expect an ancient writer to describe is the making of the atmosphere of the earth; it was not until Galileo in the 1600's that anyone realized that air actually had weight.

[Day 3] And God said, "Let the earth sprout vegetation, plants yielding seed, and fruit trees bearing fruit in which is their seed, each according to its kind, on the earth." And it was so (Gen. 1:11).

On its face, this verse does not seem to be unusual. However, this occurs after the light came to be, but before the sun.

[Day 4] And God said, "Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night. And let them be for signs and for seasons, and for days and years.” (Gen. 1:14).

Most of us would have assumed the sun was made on the 1st day, as almost every ancient civilization has evidence of men worshiping the sun. An ancient religious man would reasonably make the sun before vegetation.

Then God said, "Let Us make man in Our image, after Our likeness. And let them have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the heavens and over the livestock and over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth." (Gen. 1:26).

In a book where monotheism is touted, how do we have God making man in Our image?

And on the seventh day God finished his work that he had done, and he rested on the seventh day from all his work that he had done. So God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it God rested from all his work that he had done in creation (Gen. 2:2–3).

It is quite odd that a 7-day week is almost universal among mankind. Logically, one could argue for a 5, 6 or 8-day week; and yet mankind seems to have decided, as a whole, that a 7-day week is what we ought to live with.

When no bush of the field was yet in the land and no small plant of the field had yet sprung up--for the LORD God had not caused it to rain on the land, and there was no man to work the ground, and a mist was going up from the land and was watering the whole face of the ground (Gen. 2:5–6).

We would not expect a writer of Scripture to describe an environment which is fundamentally different from the environment in which he himself lives. For some reason, there is no rain, but everything is watered with a mist which rises from the ground.

In the next lesson, we will study Gen. 2:7:

Then the LORD God formed the man of dust from the ground... (Gen. 2:7).

What ancient writer would ever suggest that our bodies are made out of the same chemicals which are found in the earth? Yet, the writer of Genesis tells us this.

...and God breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living creature (Gen. 2:7b).

The writer notes that there must be something additional given from God—breath—in order for us to be alive. Science can figure out when life is gone (our brain stops sending out electrical signals), but they do not know how we got it in the first place or where it goes when it goes.

Individually, we might be able to ignore these 10 statements, but when taken as a whole, they are quite amazing. There is no parallel to this in any ancient literature.

You need to ask yourself, is it possible that some random ancient guy just wrote this stuff down? Is it possible that some semi-primitive man just made this stuff up because it sounded good? You may not realize it, but for several centuries, many ancient historians even questioned that man was even able to write in 1400 b.c. and yet, not only do we have someone writing before this time, but about the events at the beginning of time, saying things which would take 3000–5000 years before they would be fully appreciated. Today, we know about the Big Bang theory, about the atmosphere of the earth, about the chemical composition of man, and yet here, in the first chapter and a half of Genesis, with words which could be 4000 or even 5000 years old, we find these concepts. In case you have any doubts, you ought to consider that maybe—just maybe—this book thought to be the Word of God by millions of people throughout time—is the Word of God.


Let’s go back a few verses now:


Gen 2:4 These are the generations [results, proceedings, genealogies, course of history] of the heavens and the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD God made the earth and the heavens.


Gen 2:5–6 And every shrub of the field was not yet on the earth, and every plant of the field had not yet sprung up; for Jehovah God had not sent rain on the earth, and there was no man to till the ground, and a mist was going up from the land and was watering the whole face of the ground--...


Gen 2:7 Then the LORD God formed the man of dust from the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of lives, and the man became a living creature.


The Pronunciation of Jehovah

 

Back in v. 4, a new name for God was given: in some Bibles, this is Lord (written in small caps); in other Bibles, this is Jehovah; and in other Bibles, this is Yahweh. What is going on here? Why do we have 3 different names for this same Hebrew word? In the Hebrew, the noun is YHWH (יהוה) and you may recall that I told you that there are no vowels in the original Hebrew manuscripts. They read and reread the Scriptures aloud for centuries, so they knew how to pronounce these words without having vowels to guide them. However, the Jews, at some point in time, decided that it was not right for the holy name of God to pass through their sinful lips when reading the Bible aloud, so they began to use the noun ʾâdôwn (אָדוֹן) [pronounced aw-DOHN] or ʾădônây (אֲדֹנָי) [pronounced uh-doh-NAY] instead of YHWH. What was in the text was YHWH; but what they said aloud was uh-doh-NAY. This tradition continued for hundreds of years until the pronunciation of YHWH was lost to us. After this time, the Masorites (insofar as we know) developed a system of vowel points which left the original text unchanged, but they added dots and dashes and tiny markings above and below the various consonants so both that the pronunciation and the original text would both be preserved. What was not preserved was the pronunciation of YHWH.

 

As a result of this, we know the consonants of God’s name, but we do not know the vowels in between the consonants. Jehovah takes the vowels from ʾădônây and places them in the middle of YHWH, giving us the modern-day transliteration Jehovah. (there is no j in Hebrew, but we often use a j when transliterating a y; and some call the Hebrew w wâw and others vâv; which accounts for the use of the v in Jehovah).

 

Some theologians have settled on Yahweh [pronounced YAW-way] as being the proper way to say YHWH. Personally, I believe that the proper pronunciation of YHWH (Jehovah) is Yehowah [the pronunciation being yehoh-WAH]. I come by this pronunciation in two ways: there are many proper Hebrew names which use YHWH (or a portion of this name) affixed to a verb or an adjective, like Joshua. I take the vowel points from those names and arrive at Yehowah [pronounced yehoh-WAH]. The second reason for taking this position is, this is an onomatopoetic word, which sounds like an exhaled breath, and would, in this way, be the most personal connection between man and God. God breathes life into man.

 

The pronunciation of God’s proper name makes more sense to explain after we have studied that God breathes lives into man.


God breathing life into man is consistent with the fact that men and women universally like to kiss.


——————————


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


The Garden of Eden


And so plants, Yehowah Elohim, a garden in Eden, from the east; and so He places there the man whom He had formed.

Genesis

2:8

Then Yehowah Elohim planted a garden in Eden, out from the east [or, out from antiquity]; and He placed there the man, whom He had formed.

Then Jehovah God planted a garden in Eden, which was out of the east; and He placed there the man, whom He had formed.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And a garden from the Eden of the just was planted by the Word of the Lord God before the creation of the world, and He made there to dwell the man when He had created him.

Latin Vulgate                          And the Lord God had planted a paradise of pleasure from the beginning: wherein he placed man whom he had formed.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so plants, Yehowah Elohim, a garden in Eden, from the east; and so He places there the man whom He had formed.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And the LORD God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed.

Septuagint (Greek)                And God planted a garden eastward in Eden, and placed there the man whom He had formed.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       The LORD made a garden in a place called Eden, which was in the east, and he put the man there.

Easy-to-Read Version            Then the Lord God planted a garden in the East [This usually means the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers as far east as the Persian Gulf.], in a place named Eden. The Lord God put the man he made in that garden.

The Message                         Then GOD planted a garden in Eden, in the east. He put the Man he had just made in it.

New Berkeley Version           The Lord God also planted a garden to the east in Eden, and there He placed the man whom He had formed.

New Century Version             Then the Lord God planted a garden in the east, in a place called Eden, and put the man he had formed into it.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          And thereafter, God planted a Paradise on the east side of Edem, where He put the man whom he had formed.

Ancient Roots Translinear      Yahweh God planted a garden in ancient Eden, and set Adam there that he designed.

Christian Community Bible     God planted a garden in Eden in the east and there he placed Man whom he had created.

God’s Word                         The LORD God planted a garden in Eden, in the east. That's where he put the man whom he had formed.

New American Bible              The LORD God planted a garden in Eden, in the east,* and placed there the man whom he had formed. Eden, in the east: the place names in vv. 8-14 are mostly derived from Mesopotamian geography (see note on vv. 10-14). Eden may be the name of a region in southern Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), the term derived from the Sumerian word eden, "fertile plain." A similar-sounding Hebrew word means "delight," which may lie behind the Greek translation, "The Lord God planted a paradise [= pleasure park] in Eden." It should be noted, however, that the garden was not intended as a paradise for the human race, but as a pleasure park for God; the man tended it for God. The story is not about "paradise lost."

The garden in the precincts of Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem seems to symbolize the garden of God (like gardens in other temples); it is apparently alluded to in Ps 1:3; 80:10; 92:14; Ez 47:7-12; Rev 22:1-2. For this verse, also see Is 51:3; Ez 31:9.

New Jerusalem Bible             Yahweh God planted a garden in Eden, which is in the east, and there he put the man he had fashioned.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And the Lord God made a garden in the east, in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had made.

Complete Jewish Bible           ADONAI, God, planted a garden toward the east, in 'Eden, and there he put the person whom he had formed.

HCSB                                     The LORD God planted a garden in Eden, in the east, and there He placed the man He had formed.

New Advent Bible                  And the Lord God had planted a paradise of pleasure from the beginning: wherein he placed man whom he had formed.

NET Bible®                             The LORD God planted an orchard [Traditionally "garden," but the subsequent description of this "garden" makes it clear that it is an orchard of fruit trees.] [The Lord God planted an orchard. Nothing is said of how the creation of this orchard took place. A harmonization with chap. 1 might lead to the conclusion that it was by decree, prior to the creation of human life. But the narrative sequence here in chap. 2 suggests the creation of the garden followed the creation of the man. Note also the past perfect use of the perfect in the relative clause in the following verse.] in the east [Heb "from the east" or "off east."] [One would assume this is east from the perspective of the land of Israel, particularly since the rivers in the area are identified as the rivers in those eastern regions.], in Eden [The name Eden (?????, 'eden) means "pleasure" in Hebrew.]; and there he placed the man he had formed [The perfect verbal form here requires the past perfect translation since it describes an event that preceded the event described in the main clause.].


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                And the Lord God planted a garden toward the east, in Eden [delight]; and there He put the man whom He had formed (framed, constituted).

Concordant Literal Version    And planting is Yahweh Elohim a garden in Eden, in the east, and He is placing there the human whom He forms.

English Standard Version      And the LORD God planted a garden in Eden, in the east, and there he put the man whom he had formed.

Syndein                                  {Verses 8-15: The Garden of Eden}

And the 'Lord God'/'Jehovah Elohim' planted a park/garden in Eden {means pleasure or delight} toward the east. And there He placed the man {'adam} whom He had formed/designed {yatsar}. {Note: In the Hebrew, what we call the 'Garden of Eden' is really translated into the 'Park of Pleasure/Delight'. 'Adam is the Hebrew word meaning man.}.

World English Bible                Yahweh God planted a garden eastward, in Eden, and there he put the man whom he had formed.

Young’s Updated LT             And Jehovah God plants a garden in Eden, at the east, and He sets there the man whom He has formed.

 

The gist of this verse: 


Genesis 2:8a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

nâţaʿ (נָטַע) [pronounced naw-TAHĢ]

to set upright; to plant; to place; to fix, to fasten [with a nail]; to pitch [a tent], to set up; figuratively to establish

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #5193 BDB #642

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun

Strong's #430 BDB #43

gan (גַּן) [pronounced gahn]

a garden, enclosure, an enclosed garden

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #1588 BDB #171

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʿÊden (עֵדֶן) [pronounced ĢAY-den]

pleasures; and is transliterated Eden

proper singular noun; place/territory

Strong’s #5731 BDB #727

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

qêdem (קֶדֶם) [pronounced KAY-dem]

east, antiquity, front, that which is before, aforetime; in front, mount of the East; ancient time, aforetime, ancient, from of old, earliest time; anciently, of old ; beginning; eastward, to or toward the east

noun/adverb

Strong’s #6924 BDB #870


Translation: Then Yehowah Elohim planted a garden in Eden, out from the east [or, out from antiquity];... Eden, transliterated from the Hebrew, means pleasures or delights. Formed in v. 7 was in the Qal imperfect, because we were looking at a process and a series of steps, whereas formed in v. 8 is in the Qal perfect, which is the completed action or the action is viewed upon from its entirety. Yahweh God is Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ is the revealed member of the Godhead to us. His name did not appear in the first chapter because there was no man in the first chapter that He conversed with or had fellowship with. When this chapter begins to unfold, God has a more personal relationship with man than he did the animals or the firmament or the seas, so we now see Jesus Christ, Yahweh Elohim, doing things on our behalf. He begins by planting a garden for man to take care of in Eden. Again, this will be a pleasure for man to tend, not a chore. Then He placed man in Eden, before this garden.


Normally, when we have the wâw consecutive followed by the imperfect verb, we are looking at successive acts or acts which are logically successive. These successive acts began in v. 7 and will continue through v. 9a. Therefore, what is logical is, we are looking at a group of successive acts which take place during the 6 days or restoration and after. There would be two general approaches to this passage, which are consistent with the verb forms found here: (1) God did a lot of stuff on day six or (2) we are picking up at day six and moving forward in time to other days. I lean toward the latter explanation. A third possibility is, the days of the earth took place over a long period of time, so that we are talking about several days here if not weeks or months. My only problem with this latter interpretation (which I certainly allow for days 1–3), is, given all that is written in Genesis, it certainly sounds as if the author is attempting to portray those last 3 days of restoration as 24-hour days. There is not much else that a person could do to be more emphatic about that. Secondly, whatever length of time there is for these days, there must be a similar length of time for the nights, and that would allow for possibly weather that is too cold too long for man and animals.


The most logical interpretation to me is, days 4–6 are 24-hour days. V. 7 speaks of day six and v. 8 is what occurred after day six. When it says that God created man and woman, this does not mean that God created two people, but that God created one man who was capable of being cloned; and that in him was all that was necessary for two separate people to be made. In fact, in Adam was the potential for the entire human race, which is what God desired. Adam was potentially able to fulfill God’s order, “Be fruitful and multiply.”


Therefore, after God created man, God also made a garden. Now, on day 3, God caused plants to spring up from the ground; however, here, God is taking more time and placing into an area something that we would call a garden. So there is no confusion here, we often think of a garden is some fruits and veggies planted in a relative small plot of ground. However, this garden may cover several square miles or even more; and it will be filled with plants of all sorts—plants pleasant to look at—including those good for food.


It makes just as much sense to me, if not more, that this garden is being called a garden from antiquity or from early time, more than a garden related to compass points. If this is related to compass points, then it appears as though this garden was made west of where the sun arose in the sky.


Genesis 2:8b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

sîym (שִׂים) [pronounced seem]; also spelled sûwm (שׂוּם) [pronounced soom]

to put, to place, to set; to make; to appoint

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #7760 BDB #962

shâm (שָם) [pronounced shawm]

there; at that time, then; therein, in that thing

adverb

Strong’s #8033 BDB #1027

Shâm actually has three sets of meanings: ➊ it is a preposition of place and means there. When preceded by a relative pronoun, it means where. After verbs of motion, it means to what place, to or toward [a particular place or point]. ➋ Shâm is also used of time and can be rendered at that time, then. ➌ Finally, it is used to mean therein, in that thing.

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʾâdâm (אָדָם) [pronounced aw-DAWM]

a man, a human being, mankind, Adam

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #120 BDB #9

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

yâtsar (יָצַר) [pronounced yaw-TSAR]

to form, to mold, to sculpt, to fashion; to destine, to predestine, to foreordain; to form in the mind, to devise, to plan

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #3335 BDB #427


Translation: ...and He placed there the man, whom He had formed. There will be a few unanswered questions related to all of this: did God make this garden and then walk man to it? We have no idea the size of the land, but the land mass of the earth would probably have been quite large. Or did God pick man up, in some way, and transport him to this garden?


The verb at the end, in the Qal perfect, obviously indicates that man was fully formed, that he was one in person, and that God somehow transported him for the place where Adam was made to Eden.


Another unanswered question: did this take a long period of time or did God plant this garden in such a way that it took a day’s time? Adam appears to have been formed as an adult of an undetermined age (20? 30?). Now, if Adam was formed as if he were 20 or 30 years old, what about the rest of God’s creation? Animals appear to be made at an adult age, suggesting that plants were begun in an adult stage as well.


What we do not know is anything about whatever radioactive matter that exists in the earth at this time. Given the gap theory, which I believe in, the rocks of the earth would reflect that this earth is millions or billions of years old.


Gen 2:8 And the LORD God planted a garden in Eden, in the east, and there he put the man whom He had formed.


The growing of the Garden of Eden appears to be a more gradual process. God does not appear to have created the Garden of Eden fully grown, and then thrown man into the midst of it. We do not have the verb for create or the verb for make, we have, instead, a verb which means to plant. Most of us have had a garden or planted a few plants here and there, and we know what that is all about. You go down to your local home and garden place, you choose a few potted plants and you bring them back and plant them. Although God could have created this garden fully grown or He could have made this garden out of the elements of the soil, we have a verb here which suggests more that God collected plants from here and there and planted them in a particular geographical location.


Into this geographical location, God placed man, whom He had formed. Again, in the Hebrew, we have the verb yâtsar (יָצַר) [pronounced yaw-TSAR] which means, to form, to mold, to sculpt, to fashion; to destine, to predestine, to foreordain; to form in the mind, to devise, to plan. Strong’s #3335 BDB #427. So, we have man, who has been formed and sculpted placed into a garden which God had planted. This garden appears to be fully grown, as the next verse indicates.


——————————


And so makes grow, Yehowah Elohim, from the ground, every tree pleasant for seeing; and good for food; and a tree of the lives in a midst of the garden; and a tree of the knowledge—good and evil.

Genesis

2:9

And Yehowah Elohim caused to grow from the ground every tree pleasant to see and good for food; and in the midst of the garden [is] the tree of living [or, immortality, sustenance, refreshment]; and the tree of knowledge [of] good and evil.

And Jehovah Elohim caused to grow out from the ground every tree that is pleasant to look at and every tree that is good for food; and in the midst of the garden is the tree of perpetual life; and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the Lord God made to grow from the ground every tree that was desirable to behold and good to eat, and the tree of life in the midst of the garden, whose height was a journey of five hundred years, and the tree of whose fruit they who ate would distinguish between good and evil. [JERUSALEM. And the tree of knowledge, of which any one who ate would distinguish between good and evil.]

Latin Vulgate                          And the Lord God brought forth of the ground all manner of trees, fair to behold, and pleasant to eat of: the tree of life also in the midst of paradise: and the tree of knowledge of good and evil.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so makes grow, Yehowah Elohim, from the ground, every tree pleasant for seeing; and good for food; and a tree of the lives in a midst of the garden; and a tree of the knowledge—good and evil.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And out of the ground the LORD God made to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.

Septuagint (Greek)                And God made to spring up also out of the earth every tree beautiful to the eye and good for food, and the tree of life in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           In the fertile land, the LORD God grew every beautiful tree with edible fruit, and also he grew the tree of life in the middle of the garden and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.

Contemporary English V.       The LORD God placed all kinds of beautiful trees and fruit trees in the garden. Two other trees were in the middle of the garden. One of the trees gave life--the other gave the power to know the difference between right and wrong.

Easy English                          God made all the trees grow there that are pleasant to look at. And their fruit is good to eat. Also, in the middle of the garden, there were these two trees. There was the tree that makes people live. And there was the tree that makes people know right things and wrong things.

Easy-to-Read Version            The Lord God made every beautiful tree and every tree that was good for food to grow in the garden. In the middle of the garden, the Lord God put the tree of life and also the tree that gives knowledge about good and evil.

Good News Bible (TEV)         He made all kinds of beautiful trees grow there and produce good fruit. In the middle of the garden stood the tree that gives life and the tree that gives knowledge of what is good and what is bad.

The Message                         GOD made all kinds of trees grow from the ground, trees beautiful to look at and good to eat. The Tree-of-Life was in the middle of the garden, also the Tree-of-Knowledge-of-Good-and-Evil.

New Berkeley Version           From the ground the Lord God caused to sprout every tree that is pleasing to the eye and good for food; the tree of life, too, in the center of the garden, and the tree of knowing good and evil. The Modern Language Bible is one of the very few that correctly translated the final few words of this verse.

New Century Version             The Lord God caused every beautiful tree and every tree that was good for food to grow out of the ground. In the middle of the garden, God put the tree that gives life and also the tree that gives the knowledge of good and evil.

New Life Bible                        And the Lord God made to grow out of the ground every tree that is pleasing to the eyes and good for food. And He made the tree of life grow in the center of the garden, and the tree of learning of good and bad.

New Living Translation           The Lord God made all sorts of trees grow up from the ground-trees that were beautiful and that produced delicious fruit. In the middle of the garden he placed the tree of life and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          And thereafter, God planted a Paradise on the east side of Edem, where He put the man whom he had formed. 9 And it was there that God caused every tree that was attractive to look at and good for food to spring from the ground. [He also] put the Tree of Life in the middle of the Paradise, as well as the tree of the Knowledge Good and Evil.

Ancient Roots Translinear      Yahweh God sprouted from the earth all trees desirable in appearance and good for meat. The tree of life was in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil..

God’s Word                         The LORD God made all the trees grow out of the ground. These trees were nice to look at, and their fruit was good to eat. The tree of life and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil grew in the middle of the garden.

New American Bible              Out of the ground the LORD God made grow every tree that was delightful to look at and good for food, with the tree of life in the middle of the garden and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. The second tree, the tree of life, is mentioned here and at the end of the story (3:22, 24). It is identified with Wisdom in Prv 3:18; 11:30; 13:12; 15:4, where the pursuit of wisdom gives back to human beings the life that is made inaccessible to them in Gn 3:24. In the new creation described in the Book of Revelation, the tree of life is once again made available to human beings (Rev 2:7; 22:2, 14, 19). Knowledge of good and evil: the meaning is disputed. According to some, it signifies moral autonomy, control over morality (symbolized by "good and evil"), which would be inappropriate for mere human beings; the phrase would thus mean refusal to accept the human condition and finite freedom that God gives them. According to others, it is more broadly the knowledge of what is helpful and harmful to humankind, suggesting that the attainment of adult experience and responsibility inevitably means the loss of a life of simple subordination to God. Gn 3:22; Prv 3:18; Rev 2:7; 22:2, 14.

NIRV                                      The Lord God made all kinds of trees grow out of the ground. Their fruit was pleasing to look at and good to eat.

The tree that gives life forever was in the middle of the garden. The tree that gives the ability to tell the difference between good and evil was also there.

New Jerusalem Bible             From the soil, Yahweh God caused to grow every kind of tree, enticing to look at and good to eat, with the tree of life in the middle of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And out of the earth the Lord made every tree to come, delighting the eye and good for food; and in the middle of the garden, the tree of life and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 And out of the ground the Ever-living God caused to grow all the trees that were beautiful and good for food, as well as the Tree of Lives in the centre of the garden and the tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil.

New Advent Bible                  And the Lord God brought forth of the ground all manner of trees, fair to behold, and pleasant to eat of: the tree of life also in the midst of paradise: and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. The tree of life... So called because it had that quality, that by eating of the fruit of it, man would have been preserved in a constant state of health, vigour, and strength, and would not have died at all. (Challoner) The tree of knowledge... To which the deceitful serpent falsely attributed the power of imparting a superior kind of knowledge, beyond that which God was pleased to give. (Challoner)

NET Bible®                             The LORD God made all kinds of trees grow from the soil [Heb "ground," referring to the fertile soil.], every tree that was pleasing to look at [Heb "desirable of sight [or "appearance"]." The phrase describes the kinds of trees that are visually pleasing and yield fruit that is desirable to the appetite.] and good for food. (Now [The verse ends with a disjunctive clause providing a parenthetical bit of information about the existence of two special trees in the garden.] the tree of life [In light of Gen 3:22, the construction "tree of life" should be interpreted to mean a tree that produces life-giving fruit (objective genitive) rather than a living tree (attributive genitive). See E. O. James, The Tree of Life (SHR); and R. Marcus, "The Tree of Life in Proverbs," JBL 62 (1943): 117-20.] and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil were in the middle of the orchard.). The expression "tree of the knowledge of good and evil" must be interpreted to mean that the tree would produce fruit which, when eaten, gives special knowledge of "good and evil." Scholars debate what this phrase means here. For a survey of opinions, see G. J. Wenham, Genesis (WBC), 1:62-64. One view is that "good" refers to that which enhances, promotes, and produces life, while "evil" refers to anything that hinders, interrupts or destroys life. So eating from this tree would change human nature - people would be able to alter life for better (in their thinking) or for worse. See D. J. A. Clines, "The Tree of Knowledge and the Law of Yahweh," VT 24 (1974): 8-14; and I. Engnell, "`Knowledge' and `Life' in the Creation Story," Wisdom in Israel and in the Ancient Near East [VTSup], 103-19. Another view understands the "knowledge of good and evil" as the capacity to discern between moral good and evil. The following context suggests the tree's fruit gives one wisdom (see the phrase "capable of making one wise" in 3:6, as well as the note there on the word "wise"), which certainly includes the capacity to discern between good and evil. Such wisdom is characteristic of divine beings, as the serpent's promise implies (3:5) and as 3:22 makes clear. (Note, however, that this capacity does not include the ability to do what is right.) God prohibits man from eating of the tree. The prohibition becomes a test to see if man will be satisfied with his role and place, or if he will try to ascend to the divine level. There will be a time for man to possess moral discernment/wisdom, as God reveals and imparts it to him, but it is not something to be grasped at in an effort to become "a god." In fact, the command to be obedient was the first lesson in moral discernment/wisdom. God was essentially saying: "Here is lesson one - respect my authority and commands. Disobey me and you will die." When man disobeys, he decides he does not want to acquire moral wisdom God's way, but instead tries to rise immediately to the divine level. Once man has acquired such divine wisdom by eating the tree's fruit (3:22), he must be banned from the garden so that he will not be able to achieve his goal of being godlike and thus live forever, a divine characteristic (3:24). Ironically, man now has the capacity to discern good from evil (3:22), but he is morally corrupted and rebellious and will not consistently choose what is right.

NIV, ©2011                             The LORD God made all kinds of trees grow out of the ground-trees that were pleasing to the eye and good for food. In the middle of the garden were the tree of life and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                And out of the ground the Lord God made to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight or to be desired--good (suitable, pleasant) for food; the tree of life also in the center of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of [the difference between] good and evil and blessing and calamity.

Concordant Literal Version    And furthermore sprouting is Yahweh Elohim from the ground every tree coveted by the sight and good for food, and the tree of the living in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.

Heritage Bible                        And out of the soil Jehovah God sprouted every tree delightful to the sight, and good for food, and the tree of life in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.

LTHB                                     And out of the ground Jehovah God made to spring up every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food. The Tree of Life was also in the middle of the garden; also the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil.

Syndein                                  {4 Categories of Trees- See also Revelation Chapter 2:7}

Consequently, Jehovah Elohiym {our Lord Jesus Christ} caused to grow out of the ground {category 1} every tree that is pleasant/desirable to the sight {soul blessing}, and {category 2} those good for food {blessing to the body}, and {category 3} the tree of lives in the middle of the garden {spiritual blessing - related to doctrine}, and {category 4 - Angelic Conflict volitional test} the tree of knowledge of good and evil.

{Note: First 3 categories of trees were provided for man in innocence and saved man in eternity Category 1- contributed to the prosperity and happiness of the soul Category 2- relates to the body Category 3- Reward Given with Positive Volition toward the Plan of God - capacity for and blessings from the happiness of God. Provided by God's grace to be associated with man's volition expressed in his free will toward the Plan of God - while he functions as the ruler of this world until he fell. Category 4- Negative Volition - disobedience to the Plan of God. Knowledge of Satan's plan of human good and evil - works outside the filling of the Holy Spirit.}.

World English Bible                Out of the ground Yahweh God made every tree to grow that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.

Young’s Updated LT             And Jehovah God causes to sprout from the ground every tree desirable for appearance, and good for food, and the tree of life in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil.

 

The gist of this verse: 


Genesis 2:9a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

tsâmach (צָמַח) [pronounced tsaw-MAHKH]

to cause [make] to sprout [up, forth]; to cause [deliverance] to exist or to spring up

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect

Strong’s #6779 BDB #855

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun

Strong's #430 BDB #43

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʾădâmâh (אֲדָמָה) [pronounced uh-daw-MAWH]

ground, soil, dirt, earth, tillable earth, land, surface of the earth

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #127 BDB #9

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

ʿêts (עֵץ) [pronounced ģayts]

tree, wood; wooden post, [wooden] stake, gallows; [collectively for] a forest of trees

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #6086 BDB #781

châmad (חָמַד) [pronounced khaw-MAHD

desired, desirous; coveted; pleasant, agreeable; precious

Niphal participle

Strong's #2530 BDB #326

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

mareʾeh (מַרְאֶה) [pronounced mahr-EH]

the act of seeing, sight, vision; appearance, that which is seen

masculine singular noun

Strong's #4758 BDB #909


Translation: And Yehowah Elohim caused to grow from the ground every tree pleasant to see... Nowhere are we given any sort of notion of time. The two possibilities is, this all occurs on day six; and the other is, this all occurs after day six. I tend to opt for the latter, simply because there is so much which takes place on day six, if much of this chapter is included.


The Hiphil imperfect for grow means that God had caused the trees to begin to grow and they continued to grow. Whether they began with rings or were solid wood to begin with, I do not know. The latter would seem to be the most likely, not that it makes a great deal of difference. Two types of trees mentioned are those pleasant to look at and those which produce food which is good to eat.


In this garden, God has 4 categories of trees which are growing. Interestingly enough, God does not just make these trees—poof, they are there—but God causes these trees to grow. We do not know over what period of time this is. Since God is at least indirectly involved, we do not know if these trees grew as if we were watching time-lapse photography or if they took their normal period of growth and grew over a period of several years.


No matter what the time frame, God had some trees grow which are pleasant to see. Now, you will notice the differentiation which takes place: we have trees for aesthetic reasons and trees given to us for practical reasons. Under perfect environment, God believed that it was important for us to be able to enjoy looking at a tree.


Genesis 2:9b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ţôwb (טוֹב) [pronounced tohbv]

pleasant, pleasing, agreeable, good, better; approved

masculine feminine singular adjective which can act like a substantive

Strong’s #2896 BDB #373

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

maʾăkâl (מַאֲכָל) [pronounced mah-uh-KAWL]

food; corn; corn meal

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #3978 BDB #38


Translation: ...and good for food;... The second category of tree that God caused to grow are those which produce food that can be eaten. It is my contention that this fruit was available year-round. Trees of produce tend to grow in a growing cycle. However, there is no indication that we have a growing cycle until after the flood (Gen. 8:22). The word for good suggests that this food was enjoyable for Adam to eat.


I suspect that Adam’s body, undistorted by sin, was much more like our Lord’s body in His incarnation. He suffered a great deal of privation (e.g., fasting for 40 days—Matt. 4) and still survived. So, whereas I don’t believe that man could simply live on and on and on without food; I think that it is reasonable to assume that we could go for longer periods of time without eating. Similarly, I suspect that Adam’s body was a more efficient processor of the energy and nutrients found in food.


Genesis 2:9c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʿêts (עֵץ) [pronounced ģayts]

tree, wood; wooden post, [wooden] stake, gallows; [collectively for] a forest of trees

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #6086 BDB #781

chayyîym (חַיִּים) [pronounced khay-YEEM]

life, lives; a life of long duration, immortality; living, sustenance; refreshment; prosperity, welfare, happiness

masculine plural adjective with the definite article

Strong's #2416 BDB #311

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

tâveke (תָּוֶ) [pronounced taw-VEKE]

midst, among, middle

masculine singular construct

Strong's #8432 BDB #1063

With the bêyth preposition, tâveke can mean in the middle of, in the midst of; into, among. In the Hebrew, this is spelled בְּתוֹך׃.

gan (גַּן) [pronounced gahn]

a garden, enclosure, an enclosed garden

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #1588 BDB #171


Translation: ...and in the midst of the garden [is] the tree of living [or, immortality, sustenance, refreshment];... Somewhere in the middle of this garden is a tree of living, which could also be called a tree of immortality [sustenance or refreshment]. God designed our bodies, as weak as they were compared to angels, to survive for a very long time, if not eternally. This tree appears to be instrumental in that regard.


Genesis 2:9d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʿêts (עֵץ) [pronounced ģayts]

tree, wood; wooden post, [wooden] stake, gallows; [collectively for] a forest of trees

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #6086 BDB #781

daʿath (דַּעַת) [pronounced DAH-ahth]

knowledge, knowing, perception, skill; intelligence, discernment, understanding, wisdom

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #1847 BDB #395

ţôwb (טוֹב) [pronounced tohbv]

pleasant, pleasing, agreeable, good, better; approved

masculine feminine singular adjective which can act like a substantive

Strong’s #2896 BDB #373

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

raʿ (רַע) [pronounced rahģ]

evil, bad, wicked; evil in appearance, deformed; misery, distress, injury; that which is displeasing [disagreeable, unhappy, unfortunate, sad]

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #7451 BDB #948

This is the firs occurrence of this word in the Bible.


Translation: ...and the tree of knowledge [of] good and evil. Here, the structure of this phrase is different than is found in all of the translations. We are made to think that the word knowledge is in the construct state, but it cannot be because the construct will not have a definite article. Therefore, this is more accurately rendered: ...and the tree of knowledge: good and evil. (Often when we have a noun in the construct state and the noun which follows it has a definite article; in the English translation, we often put the definite article out in front of everything. Because knowledge is not in the construct state, then the words that follow are usually not preceded by the word of.


Everything that God has created and restored so far is good, as He proclaimed on many occasions. There was no evil, misery, distress or displeasing in God’s world. What He created and what man was exposed to had none of that in its realm. However, somehow in some way, evil did lurk in the shadows; and eating from that 4th tree would lead to a knowledge about good and evil which did not exist before.


Gen 2:9 And out of the ground the LORD God caused to spring up every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for food. The tree of life was in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.


In the Hebrew, we have the Hiphil imperfect of the verb tsâmach (צָמַח) [pronounced tsaw-MAHKH], which means, to cause [make] to sprout [up, forth]; to cause [deliverance] to exist or to spring up. Strong’s #6779 BDB #855. We do not find the words to create or to make here. So God did not just create plant life; He did not use the chemicals of the ground to make plant life.


In the Hebrew, we have the perfect tense and the imperfect tense. The perfect tense is used for a past action or for a completed action (it can also be used of a certain action in the prophetic future). The imperfect is used for a future action and/or for a continuous action. We also have the Hiphil stem, which is the causative stem. Often, you can take the meaning of the Qal stem, affix to that meaning caused to and you have what the verb means in the Hiphil. In other words, the verbiage found here means God caused trees to spring up, to sprout up. Furthermore, this was a process; this was a continuous action. God did not say, “Plants be” and plants were suddenly all there.


Gen 2:9 And out of the ground the LORD God caused to spring up every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for food. The tree of life was in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.


Eden also contained two trees which could open a Pandora's box of interpretations. However, the concept behind these two trees is easy. The tree of life provided perpetual life for the partaker and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil allowed Adam and Eve to understand and, therefore, participate in actions that are good and evil. In innocence, or in sinless perfection, they had no need to know anything about good and evil. Good and evil were not issues in their lives. Prior to their partaking of that tree, Adam and the woman could not sin and seemed to have no fellowship with fallen angels as God allowed Satan to speak with the woman.


We have 4 categories of trees here. The first are trees which are pleasing to the soul—they are pleasant to look at. The second category are trees which produce food. Eating was as much for pleasure as for sustenance, and Adam had trees with fruit that were pleasurable to eat. Think back to that third day—there was no sun; God provided the light. Then God devised a way to take His energy, put it into the plant life on earth, and when we eat the resultant fruits, we receive this energy from God. It is an amazing process which we take for granted. The first two categories of trees were for the soul and body of Adam.


The 3rd category of tree is the Tree of Life. This tree is associated with man’s spirit. Whereas the soul allows for us to interact with other people and with our environment, our spirit is the basis for our interaction with God.


The tree of life is found more times in the Bible than one might expect. The tree of life is found in 3 books: Genesis, Proverbs and Revelation.

The Tree of Life

1.      When Adam and the woman fall, they will be kept from the tree of life, so that they do not live forever in a fallen state (Gen. 3:22, 24).

2.      In Prov. 3, God’s wisdom (Bible doctrine) is the topic, and wisdom (Bible doctrine) is like the tree of life to us, providing us with eternal sustenance (Prov. 3:18).

3.      The tree of life is associated with the gospel (the good news of Jesus Christ) in Prov. 11:30, where the one who captures souls is spoken of as wise (the application of Bible doctrine). The entire verse reads: The fruit of the righteous is a tree of life, and whoever captures souls is wise. Proverbs is built around couplets, as we have here. The fruit, or production of the righteous is a tree of life; that is, the production of a mature believer (= the fruit of the righteous) is everlasting. Closely associated with this thought (the other half of the couplet), is the person who captures, takes, acquires, seizes souls is wise. How does one capture a soul? He gives them the gospel and the person responds to the gospel. He tells someone that Jesus Christ is their Savior, Who died for their sins, and if they believe this, they receive eternal life and he has captured their soul, so to speak. This just happens to be the production of the righteous (which includes much more than evangelization).

4.      The church of Ephesus faced some apostasy within the church at the end of the 1st century and Jesus promised to those who overcame this apostasy within their own church would be given fruit from the tree of life from the paradise of God (which simply refers to eternal life with great rewards). Recovery from apostasy and reversionism (falling away from God and reverting back to our old habits) is a rewardable act. Rev. 2:1–7

5.      In the final state, there is the river of life flowing out from the throne of God, and on either side is the tree of life (I would assume thousands of trees along side of the river), each with 12 fruits. This speaks of our everlasting life with God. Rev. 22:1–2

6.      There are rewards for believers for what we have done on this earth. Those who have washed their robes have the right to the tree of life and may enter the new Jerusalem. Washing one’s robe refers to naming your sins and being restored to fellowship; the result is, one then produces divine good, and that good is rewardable in heaven. Rev. 22:12–14.

7.      There are those who, as believers and unbelievers, will rebel against the Word of God, and do what they can to distort, remove from, or add to the Word of God. For the unbeliever, this means no life with God (they do not have access to the tree of life); and for the believer, this means a lack of reward. Rev. 22:18–19

So the tree of life is associated with Bible doctrine, eternal life, and with divine good production. So, whereas some trees appeal to the soul of man and others to the body; the tree of life appealed to the spirit of man


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


The tree of life shows up primarily in three places in the Bible; in the early chapters of Genesis, in a few passages in Proverbs and in Revelation.

The Second Tree of Life Doctrine

 1.     The tree of life was in the garden of Eden (Gen. 2:9)

 2.      Man was cast out of the garden of Eden after the fall. He had the ability to recognize good and evil and God protected man from everlasting life by keeping him away from the tree of life (Gen. 3:22–24). Man has been preoccupied with a fountain of youth, a tree of life and in our fallen state, rather than face death, almost any man would take from the tree of life to prolong his life. How long life would be perpetuated seems to be forever.

 3.      Wisdom, God's Word, a thread throughout much of Proverbs, is said to be a tree of life to those who take a hold of her. This would indicate that life is perpetuated by knowledge of doctrine. Prov. 3:18

 4.      The production of righteousness also seems to extend the life in Prove. 11:30

 5.      Correct desire fulfilled is a tree of life (that is, it increases one's life span) in Prov. 13:12.

 6.      Using one's words to heal becomes a tree of life in Prov. 15:4.

 7.      To the man who overcomes false doctrine, God will give to him from the tree of life in His garden in paradise (Rev. 2:7).

 8.      The tree of life will be found in the new Jerusalem (Rev. 22:2).

 9.      Eternal life by the tree of life will be among the rewards for those who wash their robes (this is regeneration). They will also be able to enter into the new Jerusalem (Rev. 22:14).

10.    The tree of life as found in the passages in Proverbs is not a literal tree but it indicates that life will be extended or increased under certain conditions. However, the tree found in Genesis and in Revelation appear to be literal trees with just exactly that effect; when one eats from the tree, their life is extended; forever (Gen. 3:22).

11.    Man, in innocence, was given free access to the tre of life in the Garden of Eden. In our fallen state we are give free access to a different tree of life. In Revelation, the phrase tree of life is ξύλου τσ ζωής (xulou tēs zōlēs) [pronounced zoo'-lou tās zō-ās' ]. The same word translated tree here is found in I Pet. 2:24, where Christ bears our sins in His own body on the tree. When Peter appears before the high priest and the Sadduccees as a prisoner, he tells them "The God of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom you had put to death by hanging Him on a cross" (literally, tree—the same word used in Revelation) (Acts 5:30). Peter uses the same word to refer to the cross in Acts 10:39. Paul uses the same word when refering to Jesus Christ being crucified in Gal. 3:13. Our tree of life, therefore, is Jesus dying for our sins on the tree and He has told us to take of Him and freely eat to obtain eternal life: "I am the living bread that came down out of heaven; if any one eats of this bread, he shall live forever; and the bread also which I shall give for the lfe of the world is My flesh...He who eats My flesh and drinks My blood has eternal life; and I will raise him up on the last day" (John 6:51,54). So man was driven from the Garden of Eden to prevent him from eating from the tree of life, which would perpetuate our miserable lives in a fallen state of sin; but God, in His matchless grace has provided for us a better tree of life from which we may take freely: the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ.

I need to combine these two doctrines into one.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


The fourth category of trees is the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, and it is related to volition, sin, the sin nature and the Angelic Conflict. Eating from this tree was the only prohibition in the garden. We will examine it in greater detail in v. 17.


Before we cover the Tree of Knowing Good and Evil, we should first look at what the word evil means. Evil is more than a synonym for sin.

Definition of Evil and Links to the Doctrine of Evil

Definition of Evil: Evil refers to the ungodly presuppositions, mind-set, attitudes, plans, sayings, actions, and goals of life that stand apart from God's will, direction, and influence because of a rejection of and a lack of God's Word. Evil includes liberal theology, the social gospel, salvation by works, preoccupation with self, one-world government apart from the physical rule of Christ, ecumenism and one-world religion, moral relativity, rejection of absolute truth and the ability to know absolute truth, emotional control of the soul, rejection of authority, self-esteem based upon human good, the redistribution of wealth, the theory of evolution, post-modernism, naturalism-materialism, do-it-yourself spirituality, and many others ideas, projects, programs, and activities that Satan and fallen man believe and promote. Rebellion against proper authority is evil; laziness is evil; self-centeredness is evil; religion, defined as human works to gain something from God, is evil; emotionalism is evil; crime is evil; some wars are evil; and human good activity that ignores or seeks to replace God's will is evil. Evil includes human viewpoint, human good, and sin. Evil is sometimes a synonym for sin, but evil is more comprehensive than sin. Genesis 2:17; Genesis 3:5; Proverbs 6:14; Proverbs 8:13 Ecclesiastics 5:13-14; Matthew 15:19; Romans 7:21; 12:9, 21; 2 Corinthians 6:8; Galatians 1:4; Hebrews 5:14.1

Links to the Doctrine of Evil:


Short Doctrine by Todd Kennedy.


R. B. Thieme, Jr. notes from Grace notes.


From He-Ekklesia (this will open up in Word on your computer).

1 From Todd Kennedy http://www.spokanebiblechurch.com/study/Bible%20Doctrines/evil.htm accessed June 5, 2013.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Let’s first of all examine the Doctrine of the Tree of Knowing Good and Evil

The Doctrine of the Tree of Knowing Good and Evil

1.      There was one volitional test given to the first man (and to the first woman), and that is the Tree of the Knowing Good and Evil. In the day that man ate of this trying, dying, he would die. Gen. 2:17

2.      In innocence, the man and the woman could not make immoral or sinful choices. This is because they were not able to distinguish between good and evil. However, after eating the fruit of the Tree of Knowing Good and Evil, man’s eyes would be opened and they could understand good and evil. Gen. 3:5, 22

3.      Children go through a stage of innocence, before God requires them to make a choice. Deut. 1:39

4.      There are two ways to understand this: good and evil can stand for human good and evil, the plan of Satan; or good and evil could stand for the plan of God versus the plan of Satan. I believe the latter is the best way to understand the result of eating from the tree. I base this on the contrast laid out in Gen. 50:20, where Joseph has been sold into slavery by his brothers, and he tells his brothers, “You meant it for evil, but God meant it for good.” God’s plan is associated with good; the evil plans of Joseph’s brothers meant it for evil. Deut. 30:15 and 1Sam. 24:17 also give a similar contrast.

5.      Similarly, we may understand Adam (and the woman) to undergo two deaths: spiritual death, at the time of eating the fruit; and physical death, which would occur 900+ years later. “Dying, you will die.” Gen. 3:5

6.      Believers in the Church Age face a similar volitional test. We face eternal death because we are born with Adam’s original sin imputed to us, a sin nature as a part of our very cell structure, and, eventually, we commit personal sin. Therefore, all men are born under judgement and deserving of death. The soul that sins will die (Ezek. 18:20a). See also Eccles. 7:20 Rom. 3:23 6:23 11:32

7.      Our volitional test is toward the tree of the cross; we choose to believe in Jesus Christ and His death for us on the cross and we are saved by that one volitional test; that simple bite secures our salvation forever. Heb. 9:28 1Peter 2:24

8.      Therefore, in innocence, we must choose against God to fall into judgment; in sin, we must choose Jesus Christ in order to be saved. John 3:16–18

Often, God gives us training aids which we may use to understand this concept of innocence. Generally speaking a child under the age 1½ is innocent; once they get past age 2, they begin to demonstrate that they have a sin nature.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Gen 2:9 And out of the ground the LORD God caused to spring up every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for food. The tree of life was in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.


Again, plant and tree growth appear to be a natural process; the trees and the plants of the Garden of Eden appear to be growing up out of the ground, rather than to be suddenly formed. In exegeting this passage, I have two areas of difficulty: did all trees and plants grow naturally or did God create some fully grown? At what point was the woman built? Was she constructed on the 6th day or was she made much later?


The plant and tree growth here appear to be normal, as opposed to God creating the flora of His garden suddenly. There are two reasons for this. Again, let’s look at the verb. The verb means to sprout, to grow, to spring up. This verb is in the Hiphil stem, which is the causative stem in the Hebrew, which means that God did not necessarily do this directly, but He caused these plants and trees to grow, to sprout, to spring up. This is the imperfect tense in the Hebrew, indicating a continuous action rather than a completed action. Back in Gen. 1:11, God called for the earth to bring plants forth and here, God is said to cause these plants and trees to spring up and to grow. The verbiage is quite different than we find for animals or man, which are both created and/or made by God directly (Qal stem). Although we could allow for God to have done this almost instantaneously (plants and trees to spring up like time-lapse photography), there is nothing in Gen. 1–2 which suggests that God did that.


As has been discussed earlier, it would not contradict Scripture for Day 3, when plants were grown, including those in the Garden of Eden, to occur over a more lengthy period of time. Days 4–6 occur after the sun, moon and stars, which mark time, making Days 4–6 24 hour days; Days 1–3 occur before there were such things to mark time. All we have for these first 3 days is and dusk and morning, day ___.


In any case, there were plants and trees in existence, ready for man and animal life, which came along on days 5 and 6.


Gen 2:8–9 And the LORD God planted a garden in Eden, in the east, and there he put the man whom He had formed. And out of the ground the LORD God made to spring up every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for food. The tree of life was in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.


Now, there is no reason to see Gen. 2:4–9 as a strict chronology. That is, God did not necessarily put man into an open field, and then start growing the trees while man sat around and watched. The chronology was given to us in Gen. 1:1–2:3. The days and events of each day were clicked off, one by one. We have God growing things on Day 3. Vv. 8–9 are consistent with this, as long as we do not require v. 8 to occur first and then for v. 9 to occur next. Gen. 1:1–2:3 proceeds in a clear, chronological way; however, since we are going back to plants growing and man being created and made, all we need to do is to place these events into the time slots which has already been laid out for us. Plants and trees growing begins on Day 3; man is made and created on Day 6. We already know this. Also, plants continued to grow on Day 4, Day 5, and on and on. So there is no reason for vv. 8–9 to indicate a different chronological order than is found in Gen. 1. Throughout the Hebrew Old Testament, it is going to become clear that not everything is laid out in a chronological order. Many times, the order will be arranged according to the thinking of the author, who does not always think chronologically. As I have pointed out earlier, we think, speak and write in this way as well. In the previous lesson, I gave the example of getting a flat tire on the way to work, walking into the office and saying, “Boss, sorry I am late but I had a flat tire. I need to go wash up before I start working.” We have a present event followed by a past event followed by a future event. Your boss does not look at your grimy hands and ask, “Now, what happened first?” We have the ability to process information which is not given in a chronological order without being confused.


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Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


The Rivers and Lands in that Day


And a river going out from Eden to water the garden and there was separating and was four heads.

Genesis

2:10

Also, [there was] a river going out from Eden to irrigate the garden; and it separated there and became four beginnings [of rivers].

Also, there was a river that went out of Eden to irrigate that garden; and there, it separated into 4 other rivers.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And a river went forth from Eden, to water the garden, and from thence was separated, and became four heads of rivers (or four chief rivers).

Latin Vulgate                          And a river went out of the place of pleasure to water paradise, which from thence is divided into four heads.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And a river going out from Eden to water the garden and there was separating and was four heads.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And a river flowed out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it divided and became into four heads.

Septuagint (Greek)                And a river proceeded out of Eden to water the garden, and it divided itself there into four heads.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       From Eden a river flowed out to water the garden, then it divided into four rivers.

Easy English                          A river flowed out of Eden and it watered the garden. The river divided there into four rivers.

Easy-to-Read Version            A river flowed from Eden and watered the garden. That river then separated and became four smaller rivers.

Good News Bible (TEV)         A stream flowed in Eden and watered the garden; beyond Eden it divided into four rivers.

New Century Version             A river flowed through Eden and watered the garden. From there the river branched out to become four rivers.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          A river flowed from Edem to water the Paradise, and from there [came the] head [waters] of four [rivers].

Ancient Roots Translinear      A river proceeded from Eden to water the garden, and from there it was segregated to four heads:....

Christian Community Bible     A river flowed from Eden to water the garden and from there it divided to form four main streams.

God’s Word                         A river flowed from Eden to water the garden. Outside the garden it divided into four rivers.

New American Bible              A river rises in Eden* to water the garden; beyond there it divides and becomes four branches. A river rises in Eden: the stream of water mentioned in v. 6, the source of all water upon earth, comes to the surface in the garden of God and from there flows out over the entire earth. In comparable religious literature, the dwelling of god is the source of fertilizing waters. The four rivers represent universality, as in the phrase "the four quarters of the earth." In Ez 47:1-12; Zec 14:8; Rev 22:1-2, the waters that irrigate the earth arise in the temple or city of God. The place names in vv. 11-14 are mainly from southern Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), where Mesopotamian literature placed the original garden of God. The Tigris and the Euphrates, the two great rivers in that part of the world, both emptied into the Persian Gulf. Gihon is the modest stream issuing from Jerusalem (2 Sm 5:8; 1 Kgs 1:9-10; 2 Chr 32:4), but is here regarded as one of the four great world rivers and linked to Mesopotamia, for Cush here seems to be the territory of the Kassites (a people of Mesopotamia) as in Gn 10:8. The word Pishon is otherwise unknown but is probably formed in imitation of Gihon. Havilah seems, according to Gn 10:7 and 1 Chr 1:9, to be in Cush in southern Mesopotamia though other locations have been suggested.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And a river went out of Eden giving water to the garden; and from there it was parted and became four streams.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 A lake also sprang up in Eden to supply the Garden with water, and from there it divided and became four sources.

HCSB                                     A river went out from Eden to water the garden. From there it divided and became the source of four rivers.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               A river issues from Eden to water the garden, and it then divides and becomes four branches.

New Advent Bible                  And a river went out of the place of pleasure to water paradise, which from thence is divided into four heads.

NET Bible®                             Now [The Hebrew active participle may be translated here as indicating past durative action, "was flowing," or as a present durative, "flows." Since this river was the source of the rivers mentioned in vv. 11-14, which appear to describe a situation contemporary with the narrator, it is preferable to translate the participle in v. 10 with the present tense. This suggests that Eden and its orchard still existed in the narrator's time. According to ancient Jewish tradition, Enoch was taken to the Garden of Eden, where his presence insulated the garden from the destructive waters of Noah's flood. See Jub. 4:23-24.] a river flows34 from Eden [Eden is portrayed here as a source of life-giving rivers (that is, perennial streams). This is no surprise because its orchard is where the tree of life is located. Eden is a source of life, but tragically its orchard is no longer accessible to humankind. The river flowing out of Eden is a tantalizing reminder of this. God continues to provide life-giving water to sustain physical existence on the earth, but immortality has been lost.] to

water the orchard, and from there it divides [The imperfect verb form has the same nuance as the preceding participle. (If the participle is taken as past durative, then the imperfect would be translated "was dividing.")] into four head streams [Or "branches"; Heb "heads." Cf. NEB "streams"; NASB "rivers."].

NIV – UK                                A river watering the garden flowed from Eden; from there it was separated into four headwaters.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And a stream is faring forth from Eden to irrigate the garden, and thence it is being parted and comes to four heads.

Darby Translation                  And a river went out of Eden, to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became four main streams.

English Standard Version      A river flowed out of Eden to water the garden, and there it divided and became four rivers.

Modern KJV                           And a river went out of Eden to water the garden. And from there it was divided and became four heads.

New King James Version       Now a river went out of Eden to water the garden, and from there it parted and became four riverheads.

New RSV                               A river flows out of Eden to water the garden, and from there it divides and becomes four branches.

Syndein                                  And a river was flowing out of Eden to cause to 'give drink'/water to the garden; and there became four beginnings {means the heads of four rivers outside the garden}.

Young’s Updated LT             And a river is going out from Eden to water the garden, and from there it is parted, and has become four chief [rivers].

 

The gist of this verse: 


Genesis 2:10a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

nâhâr (נָהָר) [pronounced naw-HAWR]

stream, river

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #5104 BDB #625

yâtsâʾ (יָצָא) [pronounced yaw-TZAWH]

to go [come] out, to go [come] forth; to rise; to flow, to gush up [out]

Qal active participle

Strong's #3318 BDB #422

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʿÊden (עֵדֶן) [pronounced ĢAY-den]

pleasures; and is transliterated Eden

proper singular noun; place/territory

Strong’s #5731 BDB #727

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

shâqâh (שָקָה) [pronounced shaw-KAW]

to give drink to, to furnish drink, to cause to drink; to water [cattle, land]; to irrigate [land]

Hiphil infinitive construct

Strong’s #8248 BDB #1052

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

gan (גַּן) [pronounced gahn]

a garden, enclosure, an enclosed garden

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #1588 BDB #171


Translation: Also, [there was] a river going out from Eden to irrigate the garden;... Because of the way that God designed things, there had to be a provision of water, and there was a river that ran through Eden which essentially irrigated that garden. We do not have rain yet, but a mist which created somewhat of a greenhouse effect. However, there was a running river, whose origins are not given to us. Do we have melting ice further upstream, and that is what provides the water?


Genesis 2:10b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

shâm (שָם) [pronounced shawm]

there; at that time, then; therein, in that thing

adverb

Strong’s #8033 BDB #1027

pârad (פָּרַד) [pronounced paw-RAHD]

to divide, to separate; to be divided, to be separated; to separate oneself

3rd person singular, Niphal imperfect

Strong’s #6504 BDB #825


Translation: ...and it separated there... Somewhere in Eden, or close to Eden, this river separates. The imperfect tense seems to indicate that this is a process; this suggests that we do not have 1 river turning into 4 in one place, all at once, but that is occurring along this river in several nearby junctions.


Genesis 2:10c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

When followed by the lâmed preposition, hâyâh often means to become [something that it was not before].

ʾarebâʿâh (אַרְבַּעָה) [pronounced ahre-baw-ĢAW]

four

feminine singular noun; numeral

Strong’s #702 BDB #916

râʾshîym (רָאשִים) [pronounced raw-SHEEM]

heads, princes, officers, captains, chiefs; company, band, division

masculine plural noun

Strong's #7218 BDB #910

BDB’s full set of meanings: head, top, summit, upper part, chief, total, sum, height, front, beginning; head (of man, animals); top, tip (of mountain); height (of stars); chief, head (of man, city, nation, place, family, priest); head, front, beginning; chief, choicest, best; head, division, company, band; sum. Gesenius lists 5 sets of meanings, which includes what is first and foremost, the beginning, the commencement.


Translation: ...and became four beginnings [of rivers]. We have the perfect tense here, which indicates an accomplished state; and suggests that this was not an ongoing process; that is, on one day, there might be 4 river beginnings and on another, there might be 5.


It is interesting to hear about this, because this is the only description which we have of the world when there was no sin introduced into the world.


——————————


A name of the first [is] Pishon; he is going around all land of Havilah where there [is] the gold.

Genesis

2:11

The name of the first [river is] Pishon, it is going around all the land of Havilah, where there [is] gold.

The name of the first river is Pishon, which encompasses the territory of Havilah, where there is much gold.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                The name of the first is Phishon; that is it which compasseth all the land of Hindiki, where there is gold.

Latin Vulgate                          The name of the one is Phison: that is it which compasses all the land of Hevilath, where gold grows.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        A name of the first [is] Pishon; he is going around all land of Havilah where there [is] the gold.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    The name of the first is Pishon; it is the one which encircles the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold.

Septuagint (Greek)                The name of the one is Pishon, this it is which encircles the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       The first one is the Pishon River that flows through the land of Havilah,...

Easy English                          The first river is called Pishon. It flows all through the region called Havilah.

Easy-to-Read Version            The name of the first river was Pishon. This river flowed around the entire country of Havilah.

New Living Translation           The first branch, called the Pishon, flowed around the entire land of Havilah, where gold is found.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          The name of the [first river] is Phison. It circles the entire land of Evilat, where there is gold...

Ancient Roots Translinear      The one from there named Pison, it surrounds all the gold of the land of West-Arabia.

Christian Community Bible     The name of the first river is Piston. It is the one that flows around all the country of Havilah where there is gold,...

God’s Word                         The name of the first river is Pishon. This is the one that winds throughout Havilah, where there is gold.

NIRV                                      The name of the first river is the Pishon. It winds through the whole land of Havilah. Gold is found there.

New Jerusalem Bible             The first is named the Pishon, and this winds all through the land of Havilah where there is gold.

Revised English Bible            The name of the first is Pishon; it is the river which skirts the whole land of Havilah, where gold is found.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             The name of the first is Pishon, which goes round about all the land of Havilah where there is gold.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               The name of the first is Pishon, the one that winds through the whole land of Havilah, where the gold is.

New Advent Bible                  The name of the one is Phison: that is it which compasses all the land of Hevilath, where gold grows.

NET Bible®                             The name of the first is Pishon; it runs through [Heb "it is that which goes around."] the entire land of Havilah, where there is gold.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    The name of the one is Pison. It is that surrounding the entire land of Havilah, where there is gold,...

Context Group Version          The name of the first is Pishon: that is it which encompasses the entire land of Havilah, where there is gold;...

English Standard Version      The name of the first is the Pishon. It is the one that flowed around the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold.

New King James Version       The name of the first is Pishon; it is the one which skirts the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold.

Syndein                                  The name of the first {river} is Pison { refers to the Cyrus River in Armenia} . . . which {river} surrounds the whole land of Havilah . . . where there is much gold. {Note: This is the area of extra- biblical story of Jason and the Golden Fleece. Reports of Jason have been found now in Egyptian papyrus now. So, RBT says 'possibly' Jason's story is based on a historical fact.}.

A Voice in the Wilderness      The name of the first is Pishon; it is the one which circles around all the land of Havilah, where there is gold;...

Updated Webster Bible          The name of the first [is] Pison, which compasses the whole land of Havilah, where [there is] gold;...

World English Bible                The name of the first is Pishon: this is the one which flows through the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold;...

Young's Updated LT              The name of the one is Pison, it is that which is surrounding the whole land of the Havilah where the gold is,...

 

The gist of this verse: 


Genesis 2:11a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

shêm (שֵם) [pronounced shame]

name, reputation, character

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #8034 BDB #1027

ʾechâd (אֶחָד) [pronounced eh-KHAWD]

one, first, certain, only; each, every; but it can also mean a composite unity; possibly particular; anyone

numeral adjective with the definite article

Strong's #259 BDB #25

Pîyshôwn (פִּישוֹן) [pronounced pee-SHOWN]

increase; water poured forth, overflowing; and is transliterated Pison, Pishon

proper noun; location

Strong’s #6376 BDB #810


Translation: The name of the first [river is] Pishon,... In the next several verses, we will go through the names of these places and what was in them. This suggests that Adam or several of his descendants explored these various places.


There are many theories as to where this is; but, remember, between then and now, there was an horrendous destructive flood where mountains fell and valleys went up, so that there might not be anything topographically related to that day. Several possible locations for this river in Gesenius p, 673.


Genesis 2:11b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

hûwʾ (הוּא) [pronounced hoo]

he, it; himself as a demonstrative pronoun: that, this (one)

3rd person masculine singular, personal pronoun; sometimes the verb is, is implied

Strong’s #1931 BDB #214

çâbab (סָבַב) [pronounced sawb-VAHBV]

turning around, going around, surrounding, encompassing, circling around

Qal active participle with the definite article

Strong’s #5437 BDB #685

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

masculine singular construct

Strong's #776 BDB #75

Chăvîylâh (חֲוִילָה) [pronounced khuh-vee-LAW]

circle; sand-land, sand region, wet sand and is transliterated Havilah, Chavilah

proper noun, location; with the definite article

Strong’s #2341 BDB #296


Translation: ...it is going around all the land of Havilah,... There are several lands and people named Havilah. However, all of those coming after Gen. 9 have no relationship to this predeluvian place (apart from the use of the name).


Genesis 2:11c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER] is actually used in a number of different ways; it can mean that, so that, in that; for that, since; which; when, at what time; who; where, wherever; the fact that = how; in order that, because that, because; as, like as; yea, even, yea even; until that; then, so [in an apodosis].

shâm (שָם) [pronounced shawm]

there; at that time, then; therein, in that thing

adverb

Strong’s #8033 BDB #1027

zâhâb (זָהָב) [pronounced zaw-HAWBV]

gold; a measure of weight [related to gold]; [figuratively used for] brilliance, splendor

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #2091 BDB #262


Translation: ...where there [is] gold. That there is gold in this area is interesting and that it is noted is also interesting. Gold, in our time, has become the metal of intrinsic value. Various currencies rise and fall, but there is no substitute for gold. It tends to maintain some sort of an objective value, regardless of the circumstances in the world.


——————————


And gold of the land the that [is] good, there bdellium and stone of the onyx.

Genesis

2:12

(furthermore, the gold of the land [is] good, [and] there [is also] bdellium and onyx stone).

(furthermore, the gold of the land there is good, along with the bdellium and the onyx stone).


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the gold of that land is choice. There is the bedilcha, and the precious stones of byrils.

Latin Vulgate                          And the gold of that land is very good: there is found bdellium, and the onyx stone.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And gold of the land the that [is] good, there bdellium and stone of the onyx.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And the gold of that land is good; there is also beryllium and the onyx stone.

Septuagint (Greek)                And the gold of that land is good, there also is carbuncle and emerald.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           That land's gold is pure, and the land also has sweet-smelling resins and gemstones [Heb uncertain].

Contemporary English V.       ...where pure gold, rare perfumes, and precious stones are found.

Easy English                          There is good gold in Havilah. There is also bdellium (a kind of sticky stuff that smells good). And there is onyx (a valuable kind of stone).

Easy-to-Read Version            ...(There is gold in that country, and that gold is good. There are also Bdellium [12] and Onyx [13] in that country.)

Good News Bible (TEV)         ...(Pure gold is found there and also rare perfume and precious stones.)

The Message                         The gold of this land is good. The land is also known for a sweet-scented resin and the onyx stone.

New Berkeley Version           ...high quality gold; aromatic gum, too, and onyx stone.

New Living Translation           The gold of that land is exceptionally pure; aromatic resin and onyx stone are also found there.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          ...(and the gold from that land is good). There is also coal and ornamental stone.

New Jerusalem Bible             The gold of this country is pure; bdellium and cornelian stone are found there.

Revised English Bible            The gold of that land is good, gum resin and cornelians are also to be found there.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               (The gold of that land is good; bdellium is there, and lapis lazuli [Others “onyx”; meaning of Hebrew shoham uncertain].

NET Bible®                             (The gold of that land is pure [Heb "good."]; pearls [The Hebrew term translated "pearls" may be a reference to resin (cf. NIV "aromatic resin") or another precious stone (cf. NEB, NASB, NRSV "bdellium").] and lapis lazuli [Or "onyx."] are also there).

NIV, ©2011                             (The gold of that land is good; aromatic resin [Or good; pearls] and onyx are also there.).


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                The gold of that land is of high quality; bdellium (pearl?) and onyx stone are there.

Concordant Literal Version    ...and the gold of that land is exceedingly good. There is the pearl and the onyx stone.

The Emphasized Bible           ...moreover the gold of that and, is good,—there, is the bdellium, and the beryl stone,...

LTHB                                     ...the gold of that land is good; there is bdellium gum resin, and the onyx stone.

Syndein                                  Moreover the gold of that land is good. There is {also} bdellium and the onyx stone {rich in other minerals also}.

World English Bible                ...and the gold of that land is good. There is aromatic resin and the onyx stone.

Young's Literal Translation     ...and the gold of that land is good, there is the bdolach and the shoham stone.

 

The gist of this verse: 


Genesis 2:12a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

zâhâb (זָהָב) [pronounced zaw-HAWBV]

gold; a measure of weight [related to gold]; [figuratively used for] brilliance, splendor

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #2091 BDB #262

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75

hûwʾ (הוּא) [pronounced hoo]

that; this

masculine singular, demonstrative pronoun with a definite article

Strong’s #1931 BDB #214

ţôwb (טוֹב) [pronounced tohbv]

pleasant, pleasing, agreeable, good, better; approved

masculine feminine singular adjective which can act like a substantive

Strong’s #2896 BDB #373

As has been discussed previously, this could be the verb which means essentially the same thing.


Translation: (furthermore, the gold of the land [is] good,... This appears to be an aside which is added to the previous verse, and what is being indicated is the great prosperity of that land. In innocence, gold has but little value; but it is beautiful to look at.


Genesis 2:12b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

shâm (שָם) [pronounced shawm]

there; at that time, then; therein, in that thing

adverb

Strong’s #8033 BDB #1027

bedôlach (בְּדֹלַח) [pronounced behd-OH-lakh]

a gum resin, bdellium

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #916 BDB #95

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾeben (אֶבֶן) [pronounced EHB-ven]

a stone [large or small] [in its natural state, as a building material]; stone ore; used of tablets, marble, cut stone; used of a tool or weapon; a precious stone, gem; rock; a weight of the balance

feminine singular construct

Strong's #68 BDB #6

shôham (ֹהַםש) [pronounced SHOW-hahm]

a precious stone, a gem [probably onyx, sardonyx, chrysoprasus, beryl, malachite]

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #7718 BDB #995


Translation:...[and] there [is also] bdellium and onyx stone). Other things found in that region included what appears to be an aromatic resin and onyx or some other beautiful type of stone.


——————————


And a name of the river the second [is] Gihon; this [is] the one circling around all land of Cush.

Genesis

2:13

The name of the second river [is] Gihon; this [is the river that] circles around the entire land of Cush.

The name of the second river is Gihon and it circles all the way around the land of Cush.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the name of the second river is Gichon; that is it which encompasseth all the land of Koosh.

Latin Vulgate                          And the name of the second river is Gehon: the same is it that compasseth all the land of Ethiopia.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And a name of the river the second [is] Gihon; this [is] the one circling around all land of Cush.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And the name of the second river is Gihon, the one which encircles the whole land of Ethiopia.

Septuagint (Greek)                And the name of the second river is Gihon, this it is which encircles the whole land of Ethiopia.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       The second is the Gihon River that winds through Ethiopia.

Easy English                          The second river is called Gihon. It flows all through the region called Cush.

Easy-to-Read Version            The name of the second river was Gihon. This river flowed around the entire country of Ethiopia.

New Century Version             The second river, named Gihon, flows around the whole land of Cush.

New Living Translation           The second branch, called the Gihon, flowed around the entire land of Cush.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          The name of the second river is Geon. It runs around the land of Kush.

God’s Word                         The name of the second river is Gihon. This is the one that winds throughout Sudan.

Revised English Bible            The name of the second river is Gihon; this is the one which skirts the whole land of Cush.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And the name of the second river is Gihon: this river goes round all the land of Cus.

Complete Jewish Bible           The name of the second river is Gichon; it winds throughout the land of Kush.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 And the second river is Jihon; it flows along all the land of Kush.

HCSB                                     The name of the second river is Gihon, which encircles the entire land of Cush.

NET Bible®                             The name of the second river is Gihon; it runs through [Heb "it is that which goes around."] the entire land of Cush [Cush. In the Bible the Hebrew word ?????? (kush, "Kush") often refers to Ethiopia (so KJV, CEV), but here it must refer to a region in Mesopotamia, the area of the later Cassite dynasty of Babylon. See Gen 10:8 as well as E. A. Speiser, Genesis (AB), 20.].

NIV – UK                                The name of the second river is the Gihon; it winds through the entire land of Cush [Possibly southeast Mesopotamia].


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

A Conservative Version         And the name of the second river is Gihon. The same is it which encompasses the whole land of Cush.

 

English Standard Version      The name of the second river is the Gihon. It is the one that flowed around the whole land of Cush.

Heritage Bible                        And the name of the second river is Gihon; it surrounds the whole land of Cush. Cush is Ethiopia, and apparently referred to the entire continent of Africa.

LTHB                                     And the name of the second river is Gihon. It is the one surrounding all the land of Cush.

Syndein                                  And the name of the second river is Gihon. It flows through the entire land of Kuwsh {Ethiopia}.

Updated Bible Version 2.11   And the name of the second river is Gihon: the same is it that circles the whole land of Cush.

World English Bible                The name of the second river is Gihon: the same river that flows through the whole land of Cush.

Young's Updated LT              And the name of the second river is Gibon, it is that which is surrounding the whole land of Cush.

 

The gist of this verse: 


Genesis 2:13a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

shêm (שֵם) [pronounced shame]

name, reputation, character

masculine singular construct (Owens does not list this as a construct)

Strong’s #8034 BDB #1027

nâhâr (נָהָר) [pronounced naw-HAWR]

stream, river

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #5104 BDB #625

shênîy (שֵנִי) [pronounced shay-NEE]

second, the second; two, both, double, twice; When only two items are named, it can be rendered [the] other

adjective singular numeral ordinal; with the definite article

Strong’s #8145 BDB #1041

Gîychôwn (גִּיחוֹן) [pronounced ghee-KHOWN]

a bursting forth; transliterated Gihon

proper singular noun/location

Strong’s #1521 BDB #161

This is also spelled without the yodh.


Translation: The name of the second river [is] Gihon;... We do not know where this river is, despite the information given to us in this verse. We do not know how the world changed topologically after the fall of man and then after the flood.


Genesis 2:13b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

hûwʾ (הוּא) [pronounced hoo]

he, it; himself as a demonstrative pronoun: that, this (one)

3rd person masculine singular, personal pronoun; also a demonstrative pronoun; sometimes the verb is, is implied

Strong’s #1931 BDB #214

çâbab (סָבַב) [pronounced sawb-VAHBV]

turning around, going around, surrounding, encompassing, circling around

Qal active participle with the definite article

Strong’s #5437 BDB #685

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

masculine singular construct

Strong's #776 BDB #75

Kûwsh (שכּוּ) [pronounced koosh]

This word is translated variously as Ethiopia, Cush, Cushi and Cushite (it is all the same word)

Proper masculine noun/location

Strong’s #3568 BDB #468


Translation: ...this [is the river that] circles around the entire land of Cush. Although it is certainly possible that this is the land of Cush (Ethiopia), it is just as likely that the name of Cush simply came from this early designation found in Genesis.


——————————


And a name of the river the third [is] Hiddekel—he [is] the [one] flowing east of Asshur [or, Assyria]. And the river the fourth, he [is] Phrat [or, the Euphrates].

Genesis

2:14

The name of the third river [is] Hiddekel, [which is] the one flowing east of Asshur [or, Assyria]. The fourth river [is] Phrat [or, the Euphrates].

The name of the third river is the Hiddekel which is the one flowing east of Assyria. The fourth river is the Euphrates.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the name of the third river is Diglath; that is it which goeth to the east of Athoor. And the fourth river is Pherath.

Latin Vulgate                          And the name of the third river is Tigris: the same passeth along by the Assyrians. And the fourth river is Euphrates.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And a name of the river the third [is] Hiddekel—he [is] the [one] flowing east of Asshur [or, Assyria]. And the river the fourth, he [is] Phrat [or, the Euphrates].

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And the name of the third river is Deklat (Tigris); it is the one which flows east of Assyria. And the fourth river is the Euphrates.

Septuagint (Greek)                And the third river is Tigris, this is that which flows forth over against the Assyrians. And the fourth river is Euphrates.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       The Tigris River that flows east of Assyria is the third, and the fourth is the Euphrates River..

Easy-to-Read Version            The name of the third river was Tigris. [15] This river flowed east of Assyria. The fourth river was the Euphrates.

New Century Version             The third river, named Tigris, flows out of Assyria toward the east. The fourth river is the Euphrates.

New Living Translation           The third branch, called the Tigris, flowed east of the land of Asshur. The fourth branch is called the Euphrates.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          The third river is the Tigris, which flows over toward the Assyrians; and the fourth river is the EuPhrates.

God’s Word                         The name of the third river is Tigris. This is the one that flows east of Assyria. The fourth river is the Euphrates.

New Jerusalem Bible             The third river is named the Tigris, and this flows to the east of Ashur. The fourth river is the Euphrates.

Today’s NIV                          The name of the third river is the Tigris; it runs along the east side of Ashur. And the fourth river is the Euphrates.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And the name of the third river is Tigris, which goes to the east of Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 The name of the third river is Hidikel, which flows through the east of Ashur, and the fourth river is the Frath [Euphrates].

New Advent Bible                  And the name of the third river is Tigris: the same passes along by the Assyrians. And the fourth river is Euphrates.

NET Bible®                             The name of the third river is Tigris; it runs along the east side of Assyria [Heb "Asshur" (so NEB, NIV).]. The fourth river is the Euphrates.

NIV – UK                                The name of the third river is the Tigris; it runs along the east side of Asshur. And the fourth river is the Euphrates.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                The third river is named Hiddekel [the Tigris]; it is the one flowing east of Assyria. And the fourth river is the Euphrates.

Concordant Literal Version    And the name of the third stream is Hiddekel. It is that going east of Ashur. And the fourth stream, it is the Euphrates.

A Conservative Version         And the name of the third river is Hiddekel [Tigris]. That is it which goes in front of Assyria. And the fourth river is the Euphrates.

Darby Translation                  And the name of the third river is Hiddekel: that is it which flows forward toward Asshur. And the fourth river, that is Euphrates.

 

Heritage Bible                        And the name of the third river is Hiddekel; it walks east of Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates.

LTHB                                     And the name of the third river is Tigris; it is the one going east of Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates.

NASB                                     The name of the third river is Tigris [Heb Hiddekel]; it flows [Lit is the one going] east of Assyria. And the fourth river is the Euphrates [Heb Perath].

Syndein                                  And the name of the third river is Hiddekel {Tigris River}. It flows east of Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates. {SideNote: The Earth before the flood had one form of typography. After the effects of the flood, the Earth's typography drastically changed.}.

World English Bible                The name of the third river is Hiddekel: this is the one which flows in front of Assyria. The fourth river is the Euphrates.

Young's Updated LT              And the name of the third river is Hiddekel, it is that which is going east of Asshur; and the fourth river is Phrat.

 

The gist of this verse: 


Genesis 2:14a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

shêm (שֵם) [pronounced shame]

name, reputation, character

masculine singular construct (Owens does not list this as a construct)

Strong’s #8034 BDB #1027

nâhâr (נָהָר) [pronounced naw-HAWR]

stream, river

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #5104 BDB #625

shelishîy (שְלִישִי) [pronounced sheli-SHEE]

third, a third part, a third time; chambers [of the third story]

masculine/feminine adjective/ordinal numeral with the definite article

Strong’s #7992 BDB #1026

Chiddeqel (חִדֶּקֶל) [pronounced khihd-DEH-kehl]

rapid; and is transliterated Hiddekel and translated Tigris

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #2313 BDB #293

hûwʾ (הוּא) [pronounced hoo]

he, it; himself as a demonstrative pronoun: that, this (one)

3rd person masculine singular, personal pronoun; also a demonstrative pronoun; sometimes the verb is, is implied

Strong’s #1931 BDB #214

hâlake (הָלַךְ) [pronounced haw-LAHKe]

is walking, is going, is departing, is advancing, is traveling

Qal active participle with the definite article

Strong’s #1980 (and #3212) BDB #229

When water is the subject, this can mean to flow, to pour out. When spoken of a lifestyle or a manner of life, to walk can be understood to live, to follow a particular lifestyle or manner of life; to follow [in one’s footsteps]. This verb can also mean to go away, to vanish; to go on, to go forward; to add to something [making it go forward, so to speak]; to grow.

qidemâh (קִדְמָה) [pronounced kide-MAW]

front, East, to the east of; beginning, origin

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #6926 BDB #870

ʾAshshûwr (אַשּוּר) [pronounced ahsh-SHOOR]

a step; transliterated Assur or Assyria

Proper singular noun gentilic/territory

Strong’s #804 & #838 BDB #78


Translation: The name of the third river [is] Hiddekel, [which is] the one flowing east of Asshur [or, Assyria]. Again, even though these are names that we have heard before, there may be no relationship whatsoever between Asshur here and the actual ancient Assyria with which some of us are familiar.


We are to know that these various lands have been named and they all have rivers flowing through them or around them or along the side. At this point in time, the only person on earth is Adam.


Genesis 2:14b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

nâhâr (נָהָר) [pronounced naw-HAWR]

stream, river

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #5104 BDB #625

rebîyʿîy (רְבִיעִי) [pronounced re-bee-ĢEE]

a fourth

masculine singular adjective; numeral; with the definite article

Strong’s #7243 BDB #917

hûwʾ (הוּא) [pronounced hoo]

he, it; himself as a demonstrative pronoun: that, this (one)

3rd person masculine singular, personal pronoun; also a demonstrative pronoun; sometimes the verb is, is implied

Strong’s #1931 BDB #214

Pherât (פְּרָת) [pronounced fe-RAWT]

to break forth, rushing; transliterated Euphrates

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #6578 BDB #832


Translation: The fourth river [is] Phrat [or, the Euphrates]. We have a familiar sounding river, and it is possible that it was preserved; we simply do not know that for a fact.


A worthwhile question is, why is this told to us? Why do we find out about the different lands and their rivers?


Gen 2:10–14: A river flowed out of Eden to water the garden, and there it divided and became four rivers. The name of the first is the Pishon. It is the one that flowed around the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold. And the gold of that land is good; bdellium and onyx stone are there. The name of the second river is the Gihon. It is the one that flowed around the whole land of Cush. And the name of the third river is the Tigris, which flows east of Assyria. And the fourth river is the Euphrates.


Map of the Middle East


God set up an irrigation system for His Garden, and here we have 4 rivers which the primary river breaks down into.


neareastmuseum_ane_map.jpghttp://www.yorku.ca/kdenning/images/civilizations%20images/Near%20East%20Museum_ANE_Map.gif

This is the pre-deluvian era (before the flood). Some of what we find here is possibly known to us, such as the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, which area was once known as the fertile crescent, and today is modern-day Iraq, thought of as anything but fertile. Cush and Havilah are roughly equivalent to the present-day Egypt and the Sudan, and there are two rivers which flow throughout those two areas in this pre-deluvian world. These areas are fairly far apart, and if connected together by a river out of Eden, it would be difficult to identify that river or its origins (remember, the earth has just been formed and there is no rain), and that a flood unlike anything we could ever imagine will change this landscape forever. Could this river flowing out of Eden be the Jordan River or connected to what is now the Red Sea? At this point, we can only speculate. However, it is not out of the question to possibly connect the Garden of Eden with the Middle East, understanding full well that a flood of unimaginable proportions has radically changed this area as well.


More Maps of the Middle East

There has been a great deal of speculation as to where these rivers are. Since there are modern locations for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, and since the are not far from the Arafat Mountains, those same mountains are thought by some to be the location of the origin of the 4 rivers, 2 of which no longer exist. Another theory is that there are fault lines near the Persian Gulf, making that the origin of these 4 rivers.

fourrivers.jpg

 

faultlines.jpg

 

http://www.jonchristianryter.com/IMAGE/FourRivers(l).jpg

http://www.jonchristianryter.com/IMAGE/fig3.jpg


There is also the possibility that these names from a pre-deluvian world were later given to rivers and lands of a post-deluvian world, as the sons of Noah would have all been familiar with these names from their era.


In any case, it is fascinating that a writer from thousands of years ago had a map in his head from which he describes lands and rivers which existed before the great flood.


So far, God has planted a garden with 4 categories of trees in this garden. God also set up an irrigation system for this garden. Although these 4 rivers had names in the pre-deluvian (pre-flood) era, it is not clear whether these bear any resemblance to the rivers with the same names after the flood.


The original author of this portion of God's Word was obviously no savage but a person who had an appreciation for things aesthetic, geographic and agrarian. We have details here that had to come from a person who knew this antediluvian area. We do not know if it was Adam or Adam's description to his sons who passed it on, but this is not the kind of information which one would necessarily fabricate. One's first reaction is a desire to know what these proper nouns mean; however, although man certainly began with a full vocabulary, probably far superior to ours, these are proper names given to these rivers and lands by Adam or his early descendants and likely do not have a meaning. If anything meanings have sprung from these words rather than vice versa. In Havilah we have mentioned that there were a lot of precious stones. Again, the original author is one who appreciates things of beauty. I would not be willing to try and designate where these places would be found today. The world-wide flood occurred when the earth was likely less mountainous than it is today; since the flood and the rage of the flood waters, the terrain has probably undergone some remarkable changes. The flood likely caused a great shifting of the earth's plates, the formation of mountains through volcanic activity and plate shifting and, as a result, I believe that the geography of the antediluvian civilization and the postdiluvian civilization possess more dissimilarities than similarities. I do not know enough about geography to say that this is when the continental drift occurred (if such a thing occurred) but I doubt that the areas identified here and later in the Bible are the same. On the other hand, it is equally likely that persons who possessed a knowledge or a record of the antediluvian civilization used these names again to designate new areas of land, as has been man's habit whenever he conquers a new land.


My educated guess, for what it is worth, is that the rivers mentioned here had names that were retained after the flood. However, because of the massive destruction of a worldwide flood, It is unlikely that we are speaking of the very same Tigris and Euphrates rivers as found today.


On the other hand, there is an argument to be made for some of these rivers and lands to coincide. The reason that I would make this guess is that God has chosen a particular plot of land and has given that to the Jews as a piece of real estate forever. Would it not be logical that this piece of real estate has, in a sense, sentimental value to our Lord as the area of the Garden of Eden and the area first occupied by Adam and the woman. Since the middle East, in many ways, seems to be the center of the earth and likely the original populated area (at least since the flood), I would say that these are the very same rivers of today. The other two rivers have either been renamed (if they are still in existence) and the paths of the rivers have certainly been changed dramatically because of the flood. This would, of course, put the original Garden of Eden somewhere between Israel and the Persian Gulf.


The use of the words one (not first), second, third and fourth are the same as is found in Gen. 1:5,8,13 and 19; the first four days of restoration. The rivers were not necessarily built in a specific order nor was one preeminent; the author just began with one river and then described the others. The lack of detail on the other four lands suggests that the original author of the text from which Moses wrote was not an eyewitness but one who heard this from someone who heard this from someone who heard it from someone who may have been an eyewitness. A much less likely possibility is that Moses simply edited out a lot of text at this point (I am of the opinion that, if Moses did write the book of Genesis, it was from either existing documents or existing information at his time.


——————————


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Man in the Garden of Eden, Naming the Animals


And so takes Yehowah Elohim the man and so deposits him in a Garden of Eden to work her and to keep her.

Genesis

2:15

Then Yehowah Elohim took the man and set him in the Garden of Eden to work it and to guard it.

Then Jehovah God took the man and placed him in the Garden of Eden both to work it and to guard it.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the Lord God took the man from the mountain of worship, where he had been created, and made him dwell in the garden of Eden, to do service in the law, and to keep its commandments. [JERUSALEM. And the Lord God took the man, and made him dwell in the garden of Eden; and set him to do service in the law, and to keep it.]

Latin Vulgate                          And the Lord God took man, and put him into the paradise of pleasure, to dress it, and to keep it.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so takes Yehowah Elohim the man and so deposits him in a garden of Eden to work her and to keep her.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And the LORD God took the man, and put him in the garden of Eden to till it and to keep it.

Septuagint (Greek)                And the Lord God took the man whom He had formed, and placed him in the garden of Delight, to cultivate and keep it.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       The LORD God put the man in the Garden of Eden to take care of it and to look after it.

Easy English                          The *Lord God took the man. And he put the man in the garden that was in Eden. God told the man to work with the soil in the garden. God told him to take care of the garden.

Easy-to-Read Version            The Lord God put the man in the garden of Eden to work the soil and take care of the garden.

Good News Bible (TEV)         Then the LORD God placed the man in the Garden of Eden to cultivate it and guard it.

The Message                         GOD took the Man and set him down in the Garden of Eden to work the ground and keep it in order.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Then Jehovah God took the man that He had formed and put him in the Paradise of Delights, so He could cultivate and care for it.