Genesis 9

 

Genesis 9:1–29

God’s Post-Deluvian Covenant/Noah’s Nakedness


These studies are designed for believers in Jesus Christ only. If you have exercised faith in Christ, then you are in the right place. If you have not, then you need to heed the words of our Lord, Who said, “For God so loved the world that He gave His only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son, so that every [one] believing [or, trusting] in Him shall not perish, but shall be have eternal life! For God did not send His Son into the world so that He should judge the world, but so that the world shall be saved through Him. The one believing [or, trusting] in Him is not judged, but the one not believing has already been judged, because he has not believed in the Name of the only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son of God.” (John 3:16–18). “I am the Way and the Truth and the Life! No one comes to the Father except through [or, by means of] Me!” (John 14:6).


Every study of the Word of God ought to be preceded by a naming of your sins to God. This restores you to fellowship with God (1John 1:8–10). If there are people around, you would name these sins silently. If there is no one around, then it does not matter if you name them silently or whether you speak aloud.


This is a collection of the weekly lessons of Genesis (HTML) (PDF) interspersed with the complete word-by-word exegesis of this chapter from the Hebrew with some information from Genesis (HTML) (PDF) thrown in. Furthermore, the examination of this chapter has been expanded with additional commentary as well. However, much of this material was thrown together without careful editing. Therefore, from time to time, there will be concepts and exegetical material which will be repeated, because there was no overall editing done once all of this material was combined. At some point in the future, I need to go back and edit this material and consider other source material as well. Links to the word-by-word, verse-by-verse studies of Genesis (HTML) (PDF).

 

One more thing: it is not necessary that you read the grey Hebrew exegesis tables. They are set apart from the rest of the study so that you can easily skip over them. However, if you ever doubt a translation of a phrase or a verse, these translation tables will tell you exactly where that translation came from.


This should be the most extensive examination of Gen. 9 available, where you will be able to examine in depth every word of the original text.


Outline of Chapter 9:

 

Introduction

 

         vv.     1–7           God’s Covenant: Requirements of the New Civilization

         vv.     8–17         God’s Covenant: A Promise Never to Flood the Entire Earth Again

         vv.    18–19         The Progenitors of Humanity

         vv.    20–27         Noah’s Drunkenness Followed by Noah Alternately Cursing and Blessing his Sons

         vv.    28–29         Noah’s Age

 

Addendum


Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines:

 

         v.       3              God Blesses Adam and the Woman/God Blesses Noah and his Sons

         v.       6              Man, the Shadow Image of God

         v.       6              The [Short] Doctrine of Murder

         v.       8              A Review of Dispensations

         v.       8              Covenant Theology

         v.       8              Problems with Covenant Theology

         v.       8              Dispensationalism versus Covenant Theology

         v.       8              Additional Readings on Dispensations and Covenant Theology

         v.       9              Points on Covenants

         v.      12              The Doctrine of a Sign or Token

         v.      15              God’s Omniscience

         v.      17              Summary Points on the Noahic Covenant

         v.      17              Additional References to Antediluvian Meteorological Conditions

         v.      18              R. B. Thieme, Jr. Breaks Down the Races

         v.      23              The Three Reactions

 

         Addendum          Josephus’ History of this Time Period

         Addendum          Edersheim Summarizes Genesis 9

         Addendum          A Complete Translation of Genesis 9


Chapter Outline

 

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines

Forward

Doctrines Covered and Alluded to

Chapters of the Bible Alluded To

Psalms Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Other Chapters of the Bible Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Definition of Terms

Introduction

Text

Addendum

www.kukis.org

 

Exegetical Studies in Genesis


Doctrines Covered

Doctrines Alluded To

Covenant Theology

 

Dispensations

 

 

 

 

 


Chapters of the Bible Alluded To

Genesis 1

 

 

 


Psalms Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

 

 

 

 


Other Chapters of the Bible Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

 

 

 

 


Many who read and study this chapter are 1st or 2nd generation students of R. B. Thieme, Jr., so that much of this vocabulary is second nature. One of Bob’s contributions to theology is a fresh vocabulary along with a number of concepts which are theologically new or reworked, yet still orthodox. Therefore, if you are unfamiliar with his work, the definitions below will help you to fully understand all that is being said. Also, I have developed a few new terms and concepts which require definition as well.

In addition, there are other more traditional yet technical theological terms which will be used and therefore defined as well.

Sometimes the terms in the exegesis of this chapter are simply alluded to, without any in-depth explanation of them. Sometimes, these terms are explained in detail and illustrated. A collection of all these terms is found here: (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Definition of Terms

Covenant Theology

The general idea is that man has a relationship to God based upon covenants, or contracts, which is not disputed by theologians. Covenant theology takes this one step further and says that the entirety of the Bible can be interpreted within the framework of covenants, which position is disputed.

Dispensations

A dispensation is a period of time in which God has a specific plan for spirituality, evangelization, judgment, and the writing, preservation and dissemination of His Word. The Greek noun which is occasionally translated dispensation does not mean this exactly; although it has come to mean a specific period of time as defined by God. The Greek noun is oikonomia (οἰκονομία) [pronounced oy-koh-nohm-EE-uh]; which specifically means the administration or management of a household. The idea is, those administering God’s household here on earth change from time to time. Strong’s #3622.

Rebound (Restoration to fellowship with God)

In the New Testament, this is naming your sins to God, so that you are both restored to temporal fellowship with God and are then filled with the Spirit of God. In the Old Testament, naming your sins to God would result in a restoration of fellowship and, in some cases, the empowerment of the Holy Spirit once again (the Holy Spirit was not given to all Old Testament believers). See the Doctrine of Rebound (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Some of these definitions are taken from

http://gracebiblechurchwichita.org/?page_id=1556

http://www.bibledoctrinechurch.org/?subpages/GLOSSARY.shtml

http://rickhughesministries.org/content/Biblical-Terms.pdf

http://www.gbible.org/index.php?proc=d4d

http://www.wordoftruthministries.org/termsanddefs.htm

http://www.realtime.net/~wdoud/topics.html

http://www.theopedia.com/


——————————


An Introduction to Genesis 9


I ntroduction: Chapter 9 is the new civilization and the slightly changed earth. We will see the life expectancy to drop abruptly and we will see the existence of bacteria, which did not seem to exist or was not a factor in the antediluvian system. We will also see behavior which is certainly unbecoming a Christian in this chapter. It is all recorded for our benefit. There is not a man in Scripture who does not have feet of clay. This further indicates the unusual material which is found in the Scripture; most people spend a great deal of time justifying themselves—however, those who wrote Scripture record even there most embarrassing moments or the most serious mistakes that they made; and these are recorded unabashedly, without apology and without justification.


In the previous chapters, the earth has suffered a worldwide flood, and Noah and his family have been in an ark for over a year with representative members of the various animal families. The rain has stopped, the waters have subsided, dry land has begun to appear, and God has ordered Noah and company to exit the ark.


In Gen. 9, God appears to speak to Noah and his sons on 1 or 2 occasions. He first speaks to Noah and his sons after they exit the ark, and lays down a few rules (vv. 1–7). Then God speaks to Noah and his sons, and makes a covenant with them (vv. 8–17). Whether this second conversation is a continuation of the first, or occurs an hour later, a day later or a month later, we do not know. Most approach these conversations as if God just started talking in v. 1 and He stops in v. 17.


Even though it is a fairly minor thing, whether there are 2 separate conversations or whether God said this to Noah and company upon exiting the ark, this has bothered me for over a month now, and so far, I have not come up with any satisfactory explanation or understanding of this on my own or through the reading and studying that I do.


In any case, here is my take on these conversations (and I have changed my mind on this several times). At the end of the flood, when the waters subsided, and it was possible to live outside of the ark, God first tells Noah to exit the ark (Gen. 8:15–17). Noah and company exit the ark and offer up some animal sacrifices (recall that they took 7 of each of the clean animals with them into the ark—Gen. 7:2). After these animal sacrifices, which portray the death of Christ on the cross, God lays down the basic ground rules of this new dispensation and this new civilization, explaining to them their responsibilities (Gen. 9:1–7). What God tells Noah and his sons is, what has changed since the flood. Prior to the flood, it does not appear as if there was any formal governance or any formal law (what we know about these 1600+ years is covered in only 6 chapters). Then, after laying down the changes, which includes at least one prohibition, God makes a covenant with Noah and his sons, which appears to be a continuation of this. “These are your responsibilities (vv. 1–7) and this is My promise (vv. 8–17),” seems to be the gist of what is being said here.


In the first 7 verses, there are 7 verbs in the imperative mood and 5 in the imperfect tense, which essentially function as imperatives (the Ten Commandments are given in imperfect tenses rather than in the imperative mood). So God, after Noah and company have exited the ark, will lay down a few requirements and mandates which they are to follow.


This resource puts together some reasonable footnotes.

The Christian Community Bible Summary of Genesis 9

God’s blessing on Noah and his children (that is on all humankind) serves as a commentary on the previous promise. Let us note the following points:


Man is confirmed in his role as steward of creation (v. 2).


He may eat the flesh of animals (v. 3), but not their blood (compare with 1:29) because for the Hebrews blood was thought to contain the soul, that is the life of a living being. Thus, to eat the flesh of animals without first draining the blood was considered as profaning the very sacredness of life (see Lev 17:10-14).


The covenant of God with humankind (v. 8) and with everything that came from the Ark, means that God is interested in everything that people create: their culture, inventions, as well as their legitimate ambitions. God is not only the God of believers, he is the God of everyone. God does not want merely to save souls: through human creativity God enables people to grow in awareness and responsibility and he prepares them for divine union through the Holy Spirit.


God has not made himself known to all human groups as he has done for Israel and later for Christians. But to every human in every country, he gives signs of his providence and his goodness through daily events: this is what he expresses when he invites Noah’s descendants to see in the rainbow a reminder of his covenant with them (v. 12).

The third paragraph makes it sound like the Bible is based upon superstition. So, we know this cannot be the reason as stated.

This comes from a footnote on Gen. 9:1 for the Christian Community Bible.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines



——————————


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


God's Covenant: Requirements of the New Civilization


Slavishly literal:

 

Moderately literal:

And so blesses Elohim Noah and his sons; and so He says to them, “Be fruitful and multiply and fill up the earth.

Genesis

9:1

Then Elohim blessed Noah and his sons, saying to them, “Be fruitful and multiply [your numbers] and replenish the earth.

Then God blessed Noah and his sons with the command, “Be fruitful and multiply your population and replenish the earth.


Here is how others have translated this verse:

 

Ancient texts:                       Note: I compare the Hebrew text to English translations of the Latin, Syriac and Greek texts, using the Douay-Rheims translation; George Lamsa’s translation, and Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton’s translation as revised and edited by Paul W. Esposito, respectively. I often update these texts with non-substantive changes (e.g., you for thou, etc.). I often use the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible instead of Brenton’s translation, because it updates the English text.

 

The Septuagint was the earliest known translation of a book (circa 200 b.c.). Since this translation was made before the textual criticism had been developed into a science and because different books appear to be translated by different men, the Greek translation can sometimes be very uneven.

 

When there are serious disparities between my translation and Brenton’s (or the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible), I look at the Greek text of the Septuagint (the LXX) to see if a substantive difference actually exists (and I reflect these changes in the English rendering of the Greek text). I use the Greek LXX with Strong’s numbers and morphology available for e-sword. The only problem with this resource (which is a problem for similar resources) is, there is no way to further explore Greek verbs which are not found in the New Testament. Although I usually quote the Complete Apostles’ Bible here, I have begun to make changes in the translation when their translation conflicts with the Greek and note what those changes are.

 

The Masoretic text is the Hebrew text with all of the vowels (vowel points) inserted (the original Hebrew text lacked vowels). We take the Masoretic text to be the text closest to the original. However, differences between the Masoretic text and the Greek, Latin and Syriac are worth noting and, once in a great while, represent a more accurate text possessed by those other ancient translators.

 

In general, the Latin text is an outstanding translation from the Hebrew text into Latin and very trustworthy (I say this as a non-Catholic). Unfortunately, I do not read Latin—apart from some very obvious words—so I am dependent upon the English translation of the Latin (principally, the Douay-Rheims translation).

 

Underlined words indicate differences in the text.

 

Bracketed portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls are words, letters and phrases lost in the scroll due to various types of damage. Underlined words or phrases are those in the Dead Sea Scrolls but not in the Masoretic text.

 

The Targum of Onkelos is actually the Pentateuchal Targumim, which are The Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan Ben Uzziel. On the Pentateuch With The Fragments of the Jerusalem Targum From the Chaldee by J. W. Etheridge, M.A. Take from http://targum.info/targumic-texts/pentateuchal-targumim/ and first published in 1862.

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the Lord blessed Noah, and his sons, and said to them, Spread forth and multiply, and replenish the earth.

Latin Vulgate                          And God blessed Noe and his sons. And he said to them: Increase, and multiply, and fill the earth.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so blesses Elohim Noah and his sons; and so He says to them, “Be fruitful and multiply and fill up the earth.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    AND God blessed Noah and his sons, and said to them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth.

Septuagint (Greek)                And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said to them, Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth and have dominion over it.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           God's covenant with all life

God blessed Noah and his sons and said to them, "Be fertile, multiply, and fill the earth.

Contemporary English V.       God said to Noah and his sons: I am giving you my blessing. Have a lot of children and grandchildren, so people will live everywhere on this earth.

Easy English                          And God *blessed Noah and his sons. And God said this to them. `Have very many children and *descendants. And live everywhere on the earth.

Easy-to-Read Version            God blessed Noah and his sons. God said to him, “Have many children. Fill the earth with your people.

Good News Bible (TEV)         God blessed Noah and his sons and said, "Have many children, so that your descendants will live all over the earth.

The Message                         God blessed Noah and his sons: He said, "Prosper! Reproduce! Fill the Earth!

New Century Version                                         The New Beginning

Then God blessed Noah and his sons and said to them, "Have many children; grow in number and fill the earth.

New Life Bible                                                    God's Agreement With Noah

God made good come to Noah and his sons, and said to them, "Have many children, and cover the earth.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Thereafter, God blest Noah and his sons and told them, 'Reproduce and multiply. fill the earth and rule over it.

Christian Community Bible     The new world order

God blessed Noah and his sons and he said to them, “Be fruitful, multiply and fill the earth.

God’s Word                         God blessed Noah and his sons and said to them, "Be fertile, increase in number, and fill the earth.

New American Bible              Covenant with Noah.

God blessed Noah and his sons and said to them: Be fertile and multiply and fill the earth. God reaffirms without change the original blessing and mandate of 1:28. In the Mesopotamian epic Atrahasis, on which the Genesis story is partly modeled, the gods changed their original plan by restricting human population through such means as childhood diseases, birth demons, and mandating celibacy among certain groups of women. Gn 1:22, 28; 8:17.

NIRV                                      Then God gave his blessing to Noah and his sons. He said to them, "Have children and increase your numbers. Fill the earth.

New Simplified Bible              God blessed Noah and his sons. He said: »Be fruitful and increase in number and fill the earth.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And God gave his blessing to Noah and his sons, and said, Be fertile, and have increase, and make the earth full.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 God’s Blessing and Command to Mankind upon Noah Leaving the Ark. A Renewal of the Primeval Blessings.

God also blessed Noah and his sons, and said, “Be prolific and increase and fill the earth.

NET Bible®                             God's Covenant with Humankind through Noah

Then God blessed Noah and his sons and said to them, "Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth. When it comes to making an actual material change to the text, the NET Bible® is pretty good about indicating this. Since most of these corrections will be clear in the more literal translations below and within the Hebrew exegesis itself, I will not continue to list every NET Bible® footnote.

 

The Scriptures 1998              And Elohim blessed Noaḥ and his sons, and said to them, “Bear fruit and increase, and fill the earth.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                And God pronounced a blessing upon Noah and his sons and said to them, Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth.

Concordant Literal Version    And blessing is the Elohim Noah and his sons. And saying is He to them, "Be fruitful and increase and fill the earth and subdue it.

Context Group Version          And God esteemed Noah and his sons, and said to them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the land { or earth }.

The Geneva Bible                  And God blessed [God increased them with fruit, and declared to them his counsel as concerning the replenishing of the earth. ] Noah and his sons, and said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth.

Syndein/Thieme                     {Divine Commands to Re-populate the Whole Earth}

And 'Elohiym/Godhead blessed {barak - means He provided all they needed} Noah and his sons, and said {'amar} unto them, "Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the whole earth {'erets}.".

World English Bible                God blessed Noah and his sons, and said to them, "Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth.

Young’s Updated LT             And God blesses Noah, and his sons, and says to them, “Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the earth.

 

The gist of this verse:          God encourages Noah and his sons to have lots of children.


Genesis 9:1a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

bârake (בָּרַ) [pronounced baw-RAHKe]

to invoke God, to praise, to celebrate, to adore, to bless [God]; to bless [men], to invoke blessings; to bless [as God, man and other created things], therefore to cause to prosper, to make happy; to salute anyone [with a blessing]; to curse

3rd person masculine singular, Piel imperfect

Strong’s #1288 BDB #138

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun

Strong's #430 BDB #43

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Nôach (נֹחַ) [pronounced NOH-ahkh]

rest, repose; consolation; transliterated Noah

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #5146 BDB #629


Translation: Then Elohim blessed Noah... When this word is applied with God as the subject and man as the recipient, the idea is, God is causing man to prosper in some way; or God wants man to be happy; or God is saluting these men with a blessing.


We do not know if this is all that God said, but it does seem to be fairly thorough, as what God says will be found in the better part of the next 15 or 16 verses (it is not clear whether these blessings were given at different times because, several times to follow, it will be noted against that God is speaking to Noah and his sons. This suggests to me not that the human author thinks his readers are A.D.D. (“Now, let me remind you just one more time, that this was God speaking to Noah and his sons.”), but it suggests, rather, that God spoke to Noah and his sons on several occasions after they got out of the ark and began to live on the earth. Noah is going to live for another 350 years after this flood, so it makes little sense for all of this to take place, and then for God to disappear again from Noah’s life.


Because this is a covenant that God makes with Noah, then we understand that this is a blessing from God to Noah and his family.


Genesis 9:1b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

bânîym (בָּנִים) [pronounced baw-NEEM]

sons, descendants; children; people; sometimes rendered men

masculine plural noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119


Translation: ...and his sons,... God does not speak only to Noah, but He speaks to Noah and his sons. Now, we do not know exactly how this was done or in what form that God came. I tend to opt for God appearing as a man and to just show up and begin talking to Noah and his family at pivotal times.


Genesis 9:1c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510


Translation: ...saying to them,... This passage emphasizes over and over again that this arrangement is between God and Noah’s family. This verse tells us that God is addressing Noah and his family; then it uses the 3rd person masculine singular suffix here; and then all of the commands will be 2nd person masculine plural suffix. In other words, even if you just skim this passage, you know that it is directed toward Noah and his sons.


Genesis 9:1d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

pârâh (פָּרָה) [pronounced paw-RAW]

to bear fruit, to be fruitful; to bear young, to have lots of children

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperative

Strong’s #6509 (& #6500) BDB #826

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

râbâh (רָבָה) [pronounced rawb-VAWH]

to become much, to become many, to multiply, to increase in population and in whatever else; to become [or grow] great

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperative

Strong’s #7235 BDB #915


Translation:...“Be fruitful and multiply [your numbers]... There will be 3 verbs here, all of which are different but related. Furthermore, these words are associated with blessing. Furthermore, these verbs indicate that God is principally speaking to Noah’s sons, since Noah is, at this point in time, 601 years old, and probably unable to sire children at his age.


God tells Noah and his 3 sons to be fruitful and multiply, which means to have a lot of children. Noah is apparently out of that business now, but his 3 sons will propagate the human race.


The verb to be fruitful is the Qal imperative of pârâh (פָּרָה) [pronounced paw-RAW], which means to bear fruit, to be fruitful; to bear young, to have lots of children. Strong’s #6509 BDB #826. This word is used more often for humans and for animals than it is for plants. God is ordering Noah’s sons to have a lot of children.


The second Qal imperative is râbâh (רָבָה) [pronounced rawb-VAWH], which means to become much, to become many, to multiply, to increase in population and in whatever else. Strong’s #7235 BDB #915. So God is telling them to have a lot of children and to continue to increase the number of people on the earth.


The second verb mandates that they increase in population, which means that it will be up to the sons of Noah’s sons to carry on the tradition to marry and to have plenty of children themselves.


Genesis 9:1e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

mâlêʾ (מָלֵא) [pronounced maw-LAY]

to fill, to make full; to be filled, to be full, to fulfill; to be accomplished, to be ended; to consecrate; to fill [the hand]

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperative

Strong's #4390 BDB #569

Although I do not find this meaning among the BDB and Gesenius definitions, I like to replenish a lot in this context.

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: ...and replenish the earth. Now, the verb here replenish, was not taken from Gesenius or from BDB, but it seems to be apropos. The population of the earth, which must have been significant, is wiped out. So God is telling these young men (they are 100, which is probably the equivalent of 30 today) to have lots of children, for those children to have children, and to fill up the earth with tons of children.


The third verb is the Qal imperative of mâlêʾ (מָלֵא) [pronounced maw-LAY], which means to fill, to make full, to be full. Strong's #4390 BDB #569. The earth is to be made full of people.


The command to bear a lot of children simply indicates that Noah’s 3 sons should impregnate their wives again and again and again.


It is of the utmost importance when studying God's Word and the various commands within it to note who is giving a command and who is receiving the command. It is important to examine whether this command is designed to be carried out by a specific person, generation, epoch or whether it holds for all time. God gave this specific command to Adam and Eve, to Noah and his sons and to the animals. This command is not repeated nor is it repealed in the New Testament. At that point in time there were but eight people alive on the earth and God had intended for them to repopulate the earth. This in no way invalidates birth control nor does it mean that population control is the order of the day. Today, those are non issues to be determined by individuals. Some families should be large and other married people should not have any children whatsoever. When it comes to that sort of thing, it is up to the individuals involved to act according to how God guides them. Further; if you do not know God's Word then just how exactly do you expect to be guided? It is possible that there is no real divine guidance apart from God's Word in our souls. Any other guidance is the result of repeated discipline.


Gen 9:1 And God blessed Noah and his sons. And He said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth.


This parallels another verse which we have studied: And God blessed them. And God said to them, "Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth and subdue it and have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the heavens and over every living thing that moves on the earth." (Gen. 1:28). The difference in these commandments is, Adam and the woman were without sin natures when God told them to be fruitful and multiply. God told Noah’s son to be fruitful and multiply, and they possessed one each, a sin nature.


This is a fascinating command, as God does not abrogate this command nor does He restate it in the New Testament. For most of my lifetime, I have heard dire warnings of human overpopulation—that there would not be enough food to go around, that there would not be enough energy to power everything, but, throughout my lifetime, I have also observed population growth without out-of-control hunger (there are areas of the world where starvation occurs, but there is no indication that the percentages of starving people have increased when populations increase).


There are about 6 billion people in this world today, and if they all decided to move to Texas, that would put them on 268,600 sq. miles of land, that would make our population density here around 22,000 people/sq. mile, leaving the rest of the world unpopulated. In the year 2000, the population density of New York City was 26,000 people/sq. mile, and there are about 20 other cities in the world today with a population density greater than New York City. Therefore, it ought to be obvious that we can add a few more people to the earth and still be okay.


There is something which is not revealed here: how did God reveal Himself to Noah? In what form was God? It is reasonable to assume that He took upon the form of a man or an angel. Whatever form God takes, this is called a theophany when God appears to man in some form (like the burning bush to Moses; as angels to Abraham). Many theologians believe that this is a Christophany; that is, an appearance of Jesus Christ in some form before the incarnation.


I personally believe that all theophanies are Christophanies; that is, every appearance of God to man is actually the revealed member of the Trinity, Jesus Christ, in a pre-incarnate form. In most cases, I would guess that Jesus takes the form of a man, and, for this reason, the writer of Scripture does not go on and on and on about how Jesus looks (even in the New Testament, the only physical description of Jesus is when He is in His glorified state).


——————————


And your dread and your fear is upon all life of the earth and upon every bird of the [two] heavens and upon all that creeps [upon] the ground and all fishes of the sea—into your hand they are given.

Genesis

9:2

Furthermore, your dread and your fear will be upon all life on the earth and upon every bird of the heavens and upon all that creeps along the ground and all the fishes of the sea—they have [all] been placed under your control [lit., given into your hand].

Furthermore, the dread and fear of you will be put upon all beasts of the earth and upon every bird of the heavens and upon all animals which creep along the ground, as well as upon all the fish of the seas. All of these creatures have been placed under your control.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and on every fowl of the heavens; of all that the earth swarmeth forth, and all the fishes of the sea, into your hand are they delivered.

Latin Vulgate                          And let the fear and dread of you be upon all the beasts of the earth, and upon all the fowls of the air, and all that move upon the earth: all the fishes of the sea are delivered into your hand.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And your dread and your fear is upon all life of the earth and upon every bird of the [two] heavens and upon all that creeps [upon] the ground and all fishes of the sea—into your hand they are given.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, upon all that moves upon the earth, and all the fish of the sea; into your hand they are delivered.

Septuagint (Greek)                And the dread and the fear of you shall be upon all the wild beasts of the earth, on all the birds of the sky, and on all things moving upon the earth, and upon all the fish of the sea, I have placed them under your power.


 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           All of the animals on the earth will fear you and dread you-all the birds in the skies, everything crawling on the ground, and all of the sea's fish. They are in your power.

Contemporary English V.       All animals, birds, reptiles, and fish will be afraid of you. I have placed them under your control,,,.

Easy English                          Every *creature that lives will be afraid of you. That includes every animal on the earth. It includes every bird that flies in the air. It includes all *creatures that crawl on the ground. And it includes the fish in the sea. I have given everything to you.

Easy-to-Read Version            Every animal on earth, every bird in the air, every animal that crawls on the ground, and every fish in the sea will be afraid of you. All of them will be under your control.

Good News Bible (TEV)         All the animals, birds, and fish will live in fear of you. They are all placed under your power.

The Message                         Every living creature--birds, animals, fish--will fall under your spell and be afraid of you. You're responsible for them.

New Century Version             Every animal on earth, every bird in the sky, every animal that crawls on the ground, and every fish in the sea will respect and fear you. I have given them to you.

New Living Translation           All the animals of the earth, all the birds of the sky, all the small animals that scurry along the ground, and all the fish in the sea will look on you with fear and terror. I have placed them in your power.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          All the wild animals of the earth, the winged creatures in the sky, and everything that moves on the earth - including the creatures in the sea - will dread and fear you. And I have put you in charge over all of them.

Beck’s American Translation “All the animals on earth and all the birds in the air, that is, everything that moves on the ground, as well as all the fish in the sea, will fear you and be terrified by you. You are given control over them.

God’s Word                         All the wild animals and all the birds will fear you and be terrified of you. Every creature that crawls on the ground and all the fish in the sea have been put under your control.

New American Bible              Fear and dread of you shall come upon all the animals of the earth and all the birds of the air, upon all the creatures that move about on the ground and all the fishes of the sea; into your power they are delivered. [9:2-3] Pre-flood creatures, including human beings, are depicted as vegetarians (1:29-30). In view of the human propensity to violence, God changes the original prohibition against eating meat.

NIRV                                      "All of the land animals will be afraid of you. All of the birds of the air will fear you. Every creature that moves along the ground will fear you. Every fish in the oceans will also be afraid of you. Every living thing is put under your control.

New Jerusalem Bible             Be the terror and the dread of all the animals on land and all the birds of heaven, of everything that moves on land and all the fish of the sea; they are placed in your hands.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      The fear of you and the dismay of you is over all the life of the land, over all the birds of the heavens, over all creeping on the earth, and over all the fish of the sea. To your hand they are given.

Bible in Basic English             And the fear of you will be strong in every beast of the earth and every bird of the air; everything which goes on the land, and all the fishes of the sea, are given into your hands.

Complete Jewish Bible           The fear and dread of you will be upon every wild animal, every bird in the air, every creature populating the ground, and all the fish in the sea; they have been handed over to you.

HCSB                                     The fear and terror of you will be in every living creature on the earth, every bird of the sky, every creature that crawls on the ground, and all the fish of the sea. They are placed under your authority.

NET Bible®                             Every living creature of the earth and every bird of the sky will be terrified of you [Heb "and fear of you and dread of you will be upon every living creature of the earth and upon every bird of the sky." The suffixes on the nouns "fear" and "dread" are objective genitives. The animals will fear humans from this time forward.]. Everything that creeps on the ground and all the fish of the sea are under your authority [Heb "into your hand are given." The "hand" signifies power. To say the animals have been given into the hands of humans means humans have been given authority over them.].

NIV – UK                                The fear and dread of you will fall on all the beasts of the earth, and on all the birds in the sky, on every creature that moves along the ground, and on all the fish in the sea; they are given into your hands.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And the fear of you and dismay due to you shall come on every living animal of the earth, even on every flyer of the heavens, and in all which is moving on the ground, and in all the fishes of the sea. Into your hand are they given.

Context Group Version          And the fear of you { pl } and the dread of you { pl } shall be on every beast of the land { or earth }, and on every bird of the skies { or heavens }; With all by which the ground teems, and all the fish of the sea, into your { pl } hand they are delivered.

The updated Geneva Bible    And the fear [By the virtue of this commandment, beasts do not rage as much against man as they would, yea and many serve his purposes by it. ] of you and the dread of you will be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, upon all that moves [upon] the earth, and upon all the fishes of the sea; into your hand are they delivered.

LTHB                                     And your fear and your dread shall be on all the animals of the earth, and on every bird of the heavens, on all that moves on the earth, and on all the fish of the sea. They are given into your hands.

Syndein/Thieme                     And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, upon all that moves upon the whole earth {'erets}, and upon all the fishes of the sea. Into your hand are they given {nathan - a grace of God word}. {Note: Before the fall, animals voluntarily subjected themselves to Adam's authority. After the flood, Adam will need to use weapons to control animals.}.

A Voice in the Wilderness      And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every living thing of the earth, upon every flying creature of the heavens, upon everything that moves on the earth, and upon all the fish of the sea. They have been entrusted into your hand.

World English Bible                The fear of you and the dread of you will be on every animal of the earth, and on every bird of the sky. Everything that the ground teems with, and all the fish of the sea are delivered into your hand.

Young’s Updated LT             And your fear and your dread is on every beast of the earth, and on every fowl of the heavens, on all that creeps on the ground, and on all fishes of the sea—into your hand they have been given.

 

The gist of this verse:          God promises that animal life will fear and dread man, and that man is given control over the animal kingdom.


Genesis 9:2a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

môwrâʾ (מוֹרָא) [pronounced moh-RAW

fear, terror, dread

masculine singular noun with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

Strong’s #4172 BDB #432

This is the first occurrence of this word, and it is the lesser used word for fear in the Old Testament.

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

chath (חַת) [pronounced khahth]

fear, alarm; that which is broken or shattered

masculine singular noun (also an adjective); with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

Strong’s #2844 BDB #369

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

chayyâh (חַיָּה) [pronounced khay-YAWH]

living thing, animal, life, organisms, lifeform; appetite, revival, renewal; community, family, assembled group, allied families, bands

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #2416 BDB #312

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: Furthermore, your dread and your fear will be upon all life on the earth... God continues His blessing, which is given to Noah and his three sons. These sons were named in every chapter dealing with the flood except for Gen. 8; and they will not be named until v. 18 of this chapter.


God tells the sons and Noah that there will be a dread of them from all life on this earth. Although I do not have a clear distinction between the two terms for fear found here, neither one is the common word for fear used when speaking of man’s fear of the Lord. That is fear/respect; and animals do not, insofar as I know, have that ability to respect. A dog and love and be obedient; and animals can be taught to be obedient, but I do not see that as a matter of respect.


Genesis 9:2b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

ʿôwph (עוֹף) [pronounced ģohf]

birds; used collectively for anything that flies, including bats and flying insects

masculine singular collective noun; construct form

Strong’s #5775 BDB #733

shâmayîm (שָמַיִם) [pronounced shaw-MAH-yim]

heaven, heavens, skies; the visible heavens, as in as abode of the stars or as the visible universe, the sky, atmosphere, etc.; Heaven (as the abode of God)

masculine dual noun with the definite article; pausal form

Strong’s #8064 BDB #1029


Translation: ...and upon every bird of the heavens... It is common for birds to fear mankind as well (with the exception of a very few, who can certainly respond to fear of mankind).


Genesis 9:2c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

râmas (רָמַשׂ) [pronounced raw-MAHS]

to creep, move lightly, move about, to glide; to bustle [about]; to be animated, to be active; it carries the implication of surreptitiously moving about.

3rd person feminine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #7430 BDB #942

ʾădâmâh (אֲדָמָה) [pronounced uh-daw-MAWH]

ground, soil, dirt, earth, tillable earth, land, surface of the earth

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #127 BDB #9


Translation: ...and upon all that creeps along the ground... This appears to be a reference to the smaller animals who scamper along the ground.


Genesis 9:2d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

dâg (דָּג) [pronounced dawg]

fishes

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #1709 BDB #185

Interestingly enough, this is the first occurrence of this word in the Bible.

yâm (יָם) [pronounced yawm]

sea, lake, river, seaward, west, westward

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3220 BDB #410


Translation: ...and all the fishes of the sea... Unless a fish learns to be accepting of man, most fear man. Even when it comes to sharks and men, it is a rare shark who will actually attack a man, the movie Jaws notwithstanding.


So far, this is what we have in v. 2: Furthermore, your dread and your fear will be upon all life on the earth and upon every bird of the heavens and upon all that creeps along the ground and all the fishes of the sea—... This represents certainly a change from the garden, where there was no animosity or fear between man and the animal kingdom. After the garden, we are not told about the relationship between man and animal other than it is implied by this chapter and by the early chapters of Genesis, that man originally was a vegetarian and this changed after the flood. We are not told when animals began to eat other animals for food, but my educated guess would be at this point in time. We have developed over time the ability to kill any animal that lives and we do this for sport as well as for food. These are animals which are clearly faster, more agile and stronger than we are. The deciding difference is our intelligence. This represents a change from the ark certainly where Noah preserved the animals on the ark and they came to him by twos (although that was a miracle). V. 2 is best understood in conjunction with v. 3:


This is a new thing, for the animals to be afraid of man. We do not really have many details of man and animal relationships before the flood. This would suggest that there was not a natural timidness in the animals with respect to man in the antediluvian state.


However, Noah and his family brought these animals aboard the ark and they were under Noah’s watch for these past several months. Just as a certain breeds of dogs inherit specific personalities (the personality of a black lab is much different than that of a wire haired terrier), the animals which Noah brought upon board would have a fear of man, to some degree. That is, for the most part, these animals would not view man as food and many would come to view man as their natural enemy, or, at least something to be afraid of. Domesticated animals would view man as their superior, which is a different form of fear.


There are many dogs capable of killing men—German shepherds and pit bulls come to mind. What restrains them is often a fear of man. I have a cousin who loves big dogs, and she is able to control animals who are capable of killing a man twice her size. These dogs learn respect and fear for her, which becomes the basis of their love for her (and why she has some control over them).


My point in all of this is, wild and domesticated animals both have a fear of man. It is when this fear/respect is diminished that our lives are in danger.


Genesis 9:2e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

yâd (יָד) [pronouncedy awd]

hand; figuratively for strength, power, control

feminine singular noun with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #3027 BDB #388

nâthan (נָתַן) [pronounced naw-THAHN]

to be give, to be delivered, to be given forth [as law]; to be made

3rd person plural, Niphal perfect; pausal form

Strong's #5414 BDB #678


Translation:...—they have [all] been placed under your control [lit., given into your hand]. For these animals to be placed into the hand of man indicates that mankind can determine how to use these animals for his own benefit. So, if we want a dog for company, a horse to ride and a cow to milk, this is given God’s stamp of approval in this passage.


Giving all of these animals into the hand of Noah and his sons (your is the 2nd person masculine plural suffix), simply means that they are given to Noah and his sons. Animals can be eaten, they can be tamed, they can be used as beasts of burden, they can be preserved—man has authority over these animals.


——————————


All active life forms which that [are] alive, to you [all], are for food, as green herbage I had given to you [all] everything.

Genesis

9:3

All animals that [are] living are for you [all] for food, as the green herbage [that] I had given to you [all] everything.

All animals are now given to you as food, just as the green herbage I had given to you before.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                Every moving thing which liveth to you shall be for food: as the green herb have I given to you the whole.

Latin Vulgate                          And every thing that moves, and lives shall be meat for you: even as the green herbs have I delivered them all to you.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        All active life forms which that [are] alive, to you [all], are for food, as green herbage I had given to you [all] everything.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    Every moving thing that is alive shall be food for you; even as the green herb have I given you all things.

Septuagint (Greek)                And every reptile which is living shall be to you for food, I have given all things to you as the green herbs.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Everything that lives and moves will be your food. Just as I gave you the green grasses, I now give you everything.

Contemporary English V.       ...and I have given them to you for food. From now on, you may eat them, as well as the green plants that you have always eaten.

Easy English                          Every thing that lives shall be food for you. That is, every thing that also moves. I gave the green plants to you for food. Now I give everything to you.'

Easy-to-Read Version            {In the past,} I gave you the green plants to eat. Now, every animal will also be food for you. I give you everything on earth—it is yours.

Good News Bible (TEV)         Now you can eat them, as well as green plants; I give them all to you for food.

The Message                         All living creatures are yours for food; just as I gave you the plants, now I give you everything else.

New Berkeley Version           Every living, moving thing shall be yours for food; I have given it all to you like the vegetables.

New Century Version             "Everything that moves, everything that is alive, is yours for food. Earlier I gave you the green plants, but now I give you everything for food.

New Living Translation           I have given them to you for food, just as I have given you grain and vegetables.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          'All living and slithering animals can serve as meat for you. I have given them all to you as though they were green vegetation.

Christian Community Bible     Everything that moves and lives shall be food for you; as I gave you the green plants, I have now given you everything.

God’s Word                         Everything that lives and moves will be your food. I gave you green plants as food; I now give you everything else.

New American Bible              Any living creature that moves about shall be yours to eat; I give them all to you as I did the green plants. Gn 1:29-30; Dt 12:15.

NIRV                                      "Everything that lives and moves will be food for you. I have already given you the green plants for food. Now I am giving you everything.

New Jerusalem Bible             Every living thing that moves will be yours to eat, no less than the foliage of the plants. I give you everything.

New Simplified Bible              »Everything that lives and moves will be food for you. Just as I gave you the green plants, I now give you everything.

Today’s NIV                          Everything that lives and moves will be food for you. Just as I gave you the green plants, I now give you everything.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      Any reptile that lives is food for you. I give you all the cereals and vegetation.

Bible in Basic English             Every living and moving thing will be food for you; I give them all to you as before I gave you all green things.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 Every living animal that moves shall be food for you. I have given the whole to you like the green herbage.

HCSB                                     Every living creature will be food for you; as I gave the green plants, I have given you everything.

New Advent Bible                  And everything that moves and lives shall be food for you: even as the green herbs have I delivered them all to you:

NET Bible®                              You may eat any moving thing that lives [Heb "every moving thing that lives for you will be for food."]. As I gave you [The words "I gave you" are not in the Hebrew text, but are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.] the green plants, I now give [The perfect verb form describes the action that accompanies the declaration.] you everything.

The Scriptures 1998               “Every moving creature that lives is food for you. I have given you all, as I gave the green plants.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                Every moving thing that lives shall be food for you; and as I gave you the green vegetables and plants, I give you everything.

Concordant Literal Version    Into your hand are they given. "And every moving animal which is living is coming to be food for you. As the green herbage I give to you al.

Context Group Version          Every moving thing that lives shall be food for you { pl }; As the green herb I have given you { pl } all.

English Standard Version      Every moving thing that lives shall be food for you. And as I gave you the green plants, I give you everything.

The Geneva Bible                  Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you [By this permission man may with a good conscience use the creatures of God for his needs. ]; even as the green herb have I given you all things.

Green’s Literal Translation    Every creeping thing which is alive shall be food for you. I have given you all things, even as the green plant.

LTHB                                     Every creeping thing which is alive shall be food for you. I have given you all things, even as the green plant.

Syndein/Thieme                     {Verses 3-4: New set of Dietary Laws}

Every moving thing that lives shall be food for you. Even as the green herb {vegetables} have I {God} given {nathan} you all things. {Note: Only Cain and his prodigy as outlaws ate meat to survive (farming out for Cain was one of his punishments for murder). Now God is saying it is ok for everyone to eat meat.}.

Third Millennium Bible            Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you; even as the green herb have I given you all things.

A Voice in the Wilderness      Every moving thing that lives shall be food for you. I have designated all things for you, even as the green plants.

World English Bible                Every moving thing that lives will be food for you. As the green herb, I have given everything to you.

Young’s Updated LT             Every creeping thing that is alive, to you it is for food; as the green herb I have given to you the whole;...

 

The gist of this verse:          God gives the animals over to man as food.


Genesis 9:3a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

remes (רֶמֶשׂ) [pronounced REH-mes]

active life forms, animated and active organisms, lively creatures, animated things, bustling creatures, reptiles

collective masculine singular noun

Strong’s #7431 BDB #943

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

hûwʾ (הוּא) [pronounced hoo]

he, it; himself as a demonstrative pronoun: that, this (one)

3rd person masculine singular, personal pronoun; sometimes the verb is, is implied

Strong’s #1931 BDB #214

Could these two words together be rendered he Who?

chay (חַי) [pronounced KHAH-ee]

living, alive, active, lively, vigorous [used of man or animals]; green [vegetation]; fresh [used of a plant]; flowing [water]; reviving [of the springtime]; raw [flesh]

masculine singular adjective

Strong's #2416 BDB #311

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾôkelâh (אֹכְלָה) [pronounced oak-LAW]

food, eating; object of devouring [consuming] [by beasts, by fire, in judgment]

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #402 BDB #38


Translation: All animals that [are] living are for you [all] for food,... I am uncomfortable with the translation here. There are difficulties with the first word that refers to animals of some sort (often to reptiles but not only); and there are two pronouns together which are difficult to translate together (however, this is not the only place that these pronouns are found together).


What this is usually understood to mean is, God is giving animals to Noah and his sons (and their descendants) to eat, although this is done is a somewhat confusing way.


Genesis 9:3b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kaph or ke (כְּ) [pronounced ke]

like, as, just as; according to, after; about, approximately; combined with an infinitive, it can also take on the meaning as, often, when, as soon as

preposition of comparison, resemblance or approximation

No Strong’s # BDB #453

yereq (יֶרֶק) [pronounced YEH-rehk]

green, greenness, green plants, greenery, that which is green

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #3418 BDB #438

ʿeseb (עֶשֶׂב) [pronounced EH-seb]

herbs, herbage; grass, produce; plants [full-grown and in seed]

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #6212 BDB #793

nâthan (נָתַן) [pronounced naw-THAHN]

to give, to grant, to place, to put, to set; to make

1st person singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #5414 BDB #678

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]; also kol (כַּל) [pronounced kol]

all, all things, the whole, totality, the entirety, everything

masculine singular noun without the definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481


Translation: ...as the green herbage [that] I had given to you [all] everything. The second half of this verse is easier to translate, although the green herbage may not be the proper way to translate this.


The verb I have given is in the perfect tense, which suggests a past event. Since the other verb is in the imperfect tense, the gist is, the animals for food is a new thing; and the green herbage for food was given in the past.


The final word all, everything suggest that mankind is now given clear permission to eat whatever he wants to eat. The limitations will be given in the next verse.


Prior to all of this taking place, before the flood, the produce of trees and the ground were given to man to eat. It is very likely that, with the fall, men began to eat other things, but without expressed permission from God.


This is also a change: man is allowed to be a carnivore at this point. Before the flood, man was not given permission to eat meat, even that of an animal sacrifice. It is possible that some of the half-men/half-angels in the pre-deluvian (pre-flood) civilization ate meat. However, this is not something which we can state with any dogmatism one way or the other.


V. 3 reads: All animals that [are] living are for you [all] for food, as the green herbage [that] I had given to you [all] everything.


There is an interesting parallel here between what God decided for Adam and what God is here telling Noah.

God Blesses Adam and the Woman

God Blesses Noah and his Sons

Genesis 1:28–30

Genesis 9:1–4

Gen 1:28a And God blessed them [Adam and the woman]. And God said to them, "Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth and subdue it.

Gen 9:1 And God blessed Noah and his sons. And He said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth.

Gen 1:28b And you will have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the heavens and over every living thing that moves on the earth."

Gen 9:2 And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon the animals of the earth, and upon every bird of the air, upon all that moves on the earth, and upon all the fish of the sea. Into your hand they are delivered.

Gen 1:29 And God said, "Behold, I have given you every plant yielding seed that is on the face of all the earth, and every tree with seed in its fruit. You shall have them for food. Men were supposed to be herbivores before the flood.

Gen 9:3 Every moving thing that lives shall be food for you. I have given you all things, even as the green herb. After the flood, God allowed man to eat meat and plants.

Gen 1:30 And to every beast of the earth and to every bird of the heavens and to everything that creeps on the earth, everything that has the breath of life, I have given every green plant for food." And it was so. Animals were also limited to eating only from plants.

Gen 9:4 But you shall not eat of flesh with the life in it, or the blood of it. Man was limited to not eating live flesh or drinking the blood of animals.

So we find an exact parallel with Gen. 9:1–3 and Gen. 1:28–29.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


——————————


Only flesh in his soul, his blood, you [all] will not eat.

Genesis

9:4

Only flesh with its life, its blood, you [all] will not eat.

However, you will not eat flesh while it is alive nor its blood.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:


 

Targum of Onkelos                But flesh which is torn of the living beast, what time the life is in it, or that torn from a slaughtered animal before all the breath has gone forth, you shall not eat.

Latin Vulgate                          Saving that flesh with blood you shall not eat.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        Only flesh in his soul, his blood, you [all] will not eat.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    Only flesh with the life thereof, that is, the blood thereof, you shall not eat.

Septuagint (Greek)                But flesh with its lifeblood you shall not eat.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       But life is in the blood, and you must not eat any meat that still has blood in it....

Easy English                          However, you must not eat meat that still has its life in it. That is, it still has its blood in it.

Easy-to-Read Version            But I give you one command. You must not eat meat that still has its life (blood) in it.

Good News Bible (TEV)         The one thing you must not eat is meat with blood still in it; I forbid this because the life is in the blood.

The Message                         Except for meat with its lifeblood still in it--don't eat that.

New Berkeley Version           However, you must not eat flesh with its life — that is, it blood — in it [This prohibition was carried over into the Christian Church at the Jerusalem Council, Acts 15:20, 29.].

New Century Version             But you must not eat meat that still has blood in it, because blood gives life.

New Life Bible                        But you must not eat meat with blood in it because that is its life.

New Living Translation           But you must never eat any meat that still has the lifeblood in it.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          But you must not eat flesh with its blood of life.

Christian Community Bible     Only you shall not eat flesh with its life that is its blood.

God’s Word                         "But you are not to eat meat with blood in it. (Blood is life.)

New American Bible              Only meat with its lifeblood still in it you shall not eat. Because a living being dies when it loses most of its blood, the ancients regarded blood as the seat of life, and therefore as sacred. Jewish tradition considered the prohibition against eating meat with blood to be binding on all, because it was given by God to Noah, the new ancestor of all humankind; therefore the early Christian Church retained it for a time (Acts 15:20, 29). Lv 7:26-27; 17:4; Dt 12:16, 23; 1 Sm 14:33; Acts 15:20.

New Jerusalem Bible             ...with this exception: you must not eat flesh with life, that is to say blood, in it.

New Simplified Bible              »You must not eat meat that has its lifeblood still in it.

Revised English Bible            But yiou must never eat flesh with its lief still in it, that is the blood.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      However, never eat the blood of flesh with a soul, for...

Bible in Basic English             But flesh with the life-blood in it you may not take for food.

HCSB                                     However, you must not eat meat with its lifeblood in it.

New Advent Bible                  Saving that flesh with blood you shall not eat.

NET Bible®                             But [Heb "only."] you must not eat meat [Or "flesh."] with its life (that is [Heb "its life, its blood." The second word is in apposition to the first, explaining what is meant by "its life." Since the blood is equated with life, meat that had the blood in it was not to be eaten], its blood) in it [The words "in it" are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.].

NIV – UK                                `But you must not eat meat that has its lifeblood still in it..


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    Yea, only flesh with its soul, its blood, you shall not eat.

Context Group Version          But flesh with the life { soul }, [ which is ] the blood, you { pl } shall not eat.

English Standard Version      But you shall not eat flesh with its life, that is, its blood.

The updated Geneva Bible    But flesh with the life thereof, [which is] the blood thereof, you will not eat. That is, living creatures, and the flesh of beasts that are strangled: and by this all cruelty is forbidden.

Green’s Literal Translation    But you shall not eat flesh in its life, its blood.

LTHB                                     But you shall not eat flesh in its life, its blood.

Modern KJV                           But you shall not eat of flesh with the life in it, or the blood of it.

New RSV                               Only, you shall not eat flesh with its life, that is, its blood.

Syndein/Thieme                     {Two Prohibitions - A Live Animal and the Blood of an Animal}

Only 'living flesh' thereof {idiom: literally 'flesh in its soul' (nephesh) meaning while animal is still alive}, and the blood {dam - no drinking of blood of animals - blood should be drained first - and no cup of blood type thing}, you shall not devour. {Note: The soul/life of the animal is in its blood. We are ordered not to eat animals while they are still alive as some animals will do.}

Updated Bible Version 2.11   But flesh with its life, [which is] its blood, you+ will not eat.

A Voice in the Wilderness      But you shall not eat flesh with its soul, that is, its blood.

World English Bible                But flesh with the life of it, the blood of it, you shall not eat.

Young’s Updated LT             Only flesh in its life—its blood—you do not eat.

 

The gist of this verse:          Flesh with the blood was not to be eaten.


Genesis 9:4a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾake (אַ) [pronounced ahke]

surely, truly, certainly, no doubt, only, but; only now, just now, only this once; nothing but

adverb of restriction, contrast, time, limitation, and exception. Also used as an affirmative particle

Strong’s #389 BDB #36

bâsâr (בָּשָׂר) [pronounced baw-SAWR]

flesh; body; animal meat

masculine singular noun

Strong's #1320 BDB #142

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; among, in the midst of; at, by, near, on, before, in the presence of, upon; with; to, unto, upon, up to; in respect to, on account of; by means of, about, concerning

primarily a preposition of proximity; however, it has a multitude of functions

No Strong’s # BDB #88

nephesh (נֶפֶש) [pronounced NEH-fesh]

soul, life, living being, desire, volition; will

feminine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5315 BDB #659


Translation: Only flesh with its life,... The adverb used here limits what can be eaten. The word usually translated soul also means life; so we are not to eat live animals (or, perhaps, we are not to keep them alive and cut off pieces of them to eat). Or, this may not be a complete thought, the rest of this verse completing that thought.


Genesis 9:4b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

dâm (דָּם) [pronounced dawm]

blood, often visible blood; bloodshed, slaughter; bloodguilt; blood of the grape [wine]

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #1818 BDB #196

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

ʾâkal (אָכַל) [pronounced aw-KAHL]

to eat; to devour, to consume, to destroy

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #398 BDB #37


Translation: ...its blood, you [all] will not eat. Nor are we to eat the blood which is in the animal. However, I would have thought that, for this to mean two different things for mankind to avoid, there should be a wâw conjunction here, but there is not.


The second interpretation, which is probably more accurate is, we are not to eat animals with the blood still in the animal. There appear to be two reasons for this: (1) the blood often carries diseases which would not be found in the flesh of the animal and (2) the animal rots much more quickly with the blood in it. Now, it is possible that God simply had these considerations in mind with this prohibition, as there are dietary laws in the Mosaic Law which serve only to keep the Jews healthy as a race.


I did not carefully read this verse in the Hebrew, and misinterpreted it the first time through. Literally, this reads, Only flesh in its life—its blood—you will not eat. This prohibits us from eating the blood of an animal or eating an animal with its blood remaining in it.


One of the things which can be noted in God’s instructions to man about foods is, often, the result preserves the human race. A lot of diseases are carried in the blood, as well as in the live flesh of animals. Cooking the meat without the blood reduces the chances of man becoming ill.


A symbolic reason for this prohibition does not occur to me.


Vv. 3–4 read: All animals that [are] living are for you [all] for food, as the green herbage [that] I had given to you [all] everything. Only flesh with its life, its blood, you [all] will not eat. This is a mini Mount Sinai. God is giving Noah instructions on what law will be in the new post-diluvian era. God will cover some dietary laws and one prohibition. Here is where man began to be a meat eater. Prior to this, sacrifices were not eaten. I don't know if sacrifices to the true God were ever eaten, but meat sacrificed to idols was. I wouldn't be surprised if meat-eating in general did not occur, particularly in the first millennium of the antediluvian era; but I would venture to guess that the part man/part angelic beings did engage in meat-eating. This is certainly conjecture on my part; but this does not appear to be something which is unthinkable to Noah; he was probably aware of meat-eating and he just probably did not engage in it. This is why God tells him how to be a meat-eater—you do not eat the animal's blood.


——————————


And surely your blood for your souls I require; from a hand of every living thing, I require him; and from a hand of the man—from the hand of each one his brother—I require the soul of the man.

Genesis

9:5

And surely I will require your blood for your souls. From the hand of every living thing, I will require it; from the hand of the man—from the hand of [this] man’s brother—I will require the soul of [that] man.

And for a fact, I will require your blood for the souls you take. From the hand of every living thing, I will require this. From the hand of a man—even from the hand of this man’s brother—I will require the soul of that man.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                But the blood of your lives I will I require of every animal which hath killed a man, I will require that it be put to death on his account. And from the hand of the human being, from the hand of the man who hath shed the blood of his brother, will I require the life of man.

Latin Vulgate                          For I will require the blood of your lives at the hand of every beast, and at the hand of man, at the hand of every man, and of his brother, will I require the life of man.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And surely your blood for your soul I require; from a hand of every living thing, I require him; and from a hand of the man—from the hand of each one his brother—I require the soul of the man.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And surely your lifeblood will I f avenge; of every beast will I avenge it, and at the hand of man; and at the hand of a man and his brother will I avenge the life of man.

Septuagint (Greek)                For your lifeblood shall I require at the hand of all wild beasts, and I shall require a man's life at the hand of his fellow man.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           I will surely demand your blood for a human life,

from every living thing I will demand it.

From humans, from a man for his brother,

I will demand something for a human life.

Contemporary English V.       I created humans to be like me, and I will punish any animal or person that takes a human life. If an animal kills someone, that animal must die. And if a person takes the life of another, that person must be put to death.

Easy English                          When somebody kills someone, there must be punishment. Someone will kill any animal that kills a person. Someone will kill any person that kills another person. Every person that kills his brother will die.

Easy-to-Read Version            I will demand your blood for your lives. That is, I will demand the life of any animal that kills a person. And I will demand the life of any person who takes another person’s life.

Good News Bible (TEV)         If anyone takes human life, he will be punished. I will punish with death any animal that takes a human life.

The Message                         "But your own lifeblood I will avenge; I will avenge it against both animals and other humans.

New Century Version             I will demand blood for life. I will demand the life of any animal that kills a person, and I will demand the life of anyone who takes another person's life.

New Life Bible                        For sure, I will take the life of every animal and every person for taking a life. I will punish every man's brother for taking the life of man.

New Living Translation           "And I will require the blood of anyone who takes another person's life. If a wild animal kills a person, it must die. And anyone who murders a fellow human must die.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Otherwise, I will require your blood at the hand of all the wild animals. I will also require a man's life at the hands of his brothers.

Beck’s American Translation And I will certainly punish anyone, animal or man, who pours out your blood and kills you; I will punish anyone who kills another.

Christian Community Bible     But I will also demand a reckoning for your lifeblood. I will demand it from every animal; and from man, too, I will demand a reckoning for the life of his fellow man.

God’s Word                         In addition, I will demand your blood for your life. I will demand it from any animal or from any person. I will demand the life of any person who kills another person.

New American Bible              Indeed for your own lifeblood I will demand an accounting: from every animal I will demand it, and from a human being, each one for the blood of another, I will demand an accounting for human life. Gn 4:10-11; Ex 21:12.

NIRV                                      You can be sure that I will hold someone accountable if you are murdered. I will even hold animals accountable if they kill you. I will also hold anyone accountable who murders another person.

New Jerusalem Bible             And I shall demand account of your life-blood, too. I shall demand it of every animal, and of man. Of man as regards his fellow-man, I shall demand account for human life.

New Simplified Bible              »I will require your lifeblood as an accounting. I will demand an accounting from every animal. I will demand an accounting from each man for the life of his fellow man.

Revised English Bible            And further, for your life-blood I shall demand satisfaction; from every animal I shall require it, and from human beings also I shall require satisfaction for the death of their fellows.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      I surely will request the blood from your souls. I will request it from the hand of anyone living, from the human hand, from the hand of a man's brother: I will request the soul of a human.

Bible in Basic English             And for your blood, which is your life, will I take payment; from every beast I will take it, and from every man will I take payment for the blood of his brother-man.

Complete Jewish Bible           I will certainly demand an accounting for the blood of your lives: I will demand it from every animal and from every human being. I will demand from every human being an accounting for the life of his fellow human being.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               But for your own life-blood I will require a reckoning: I will require it of every beast; of man, too, will I require a reckoning for human life, of every man for that of his fellow man!

NET Bible®                             For your lifeblood [Again the text uses apposition to clarify what kind of blood is being discussed: "your blood, [that is] for your life." See C. L. Dewar, "The Biblical Use of the Term `Blood,'" JTS 4 (1953): 204-8.] I will surely exact punishment [The word “punishment” is not in the Hebrew text, but is supplied in the translation for clarification. The verb דָּרָש? (darash) means “to require, to seek, to ask for, to exact.” Here it means that God will exact punishment for the taking of a life. See R. Mawdsley, “Capital Punishment in Gen. 9:6,” CentBib 18 (1975): 20-25.], from [Heb “from the hand of,” which means “out of the hand of” or “out of the power of” and is nearly identical in sense to the preposition מִן (min) alone.] every living creature I will exact punishment. From each person [Heb "and from the hand of the man." The article has a generic function, indicating the class, i.e., humankind.] I will exact punishment for the life of the individual [Heb "of the man."] since the man was his relative [Heb "from the hand of a man, his brother." The point is that God will require the blood of someone who kills, since the person killed is a relative ("brother") of the killer. The language reflects Noah's situation (after the flood everyone would be part of Noah's extended family), but also supports the concept of the brotherhood of humankind. According to the Genesis account the entire human race descended from Noah].

NIV – UK                                And for your lifeblood I will surely demand an accounting. I will demand an accounting from every animal. And from each human being, too, I will demand an accounting for the life of another human being.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                And surely for your lifeblood I will require an accounting; from every beast I will require it; and from man, from every man [who spills another's lifeblood] I will require a reckoning.

Concordant Literal Version    Yea, and your blood for your souls I will require. From the hand of every living animal will I require it, and from the hand of humanity. From the hand of a man's brother I will require the soul of a human.

A Conservative Version         And surely your blood, [the blood] of your lives, I will require. At the hand of every beast I will require it. And at the hand of man, even at the hand of every man's brother, I will require the life of man.

Context Group Version          And surely your { pl } blood, [ the blood ] of your { pl } lives { souls }, I will require; At the hand of every beast I will require it. And at the hand of man, even at the hand of every man's brother, I will require the life of man.

Darby Translation                  And indeed your blood, [the blood] of your lives, will I require: at the hand of every animal will I require it, and at the hand of Man, at the hand of each [the blood] of his brother, will I require the life of Man.

English Standard Version      And for your lifeblood I will require a reckoning: from every beast I will require it and from man. From his fellow man I will require a reckoning for the life of man.

Fred Miller’s Revised KJV     And surely your blood of your lives will I require; I will require it at the hand of every animal and at the hand of man; I will require the life of man at the hand of every man's brother.

The Geneva Bible                  And surely your blood of your lives will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it, and at the hand of man; at the hand of every mans brother will I require the life of man. That is, I will take vengeance for your blood.

LTHB                                     And surely the blood of your lives I will demand. At the hand of every animal I will demand it, and at the hand of man. I will demand the life of man at the hand of every man's brother.

NASB                                     Surely I will require your lifeblood [Lit your blood of your lives]; from [Lit from the hand of] every beast I will require it. And from [Lit from the hand of] every man, from [Lit from the hand of] every man's brother I will require the life of man.

New RSV                               For your own lifeblood I will surely require a reckoning: from every animal I will require it and from human beings, each one for the blood of another, I will require a reckoning for human life.

Syndein/Thieme                     {Verses 5-6: Divine Principal of Capital Punishment}

And surely your blood of your souls {nephesh} will I require. At the hand of every beast will I require it {capital punishment for man-killing animals}, and at the hand of man {capital punishment for man-killing humans}. At the hand of every man's brother will I require the soul {nephesh} of man . . .

Third Millennium Bible            And surely your blood of your lives will I require. At the hand of every beast will I require it, and at the hand of man; at the hand of every man's brother will I require the life of man.

World English Bible                I will surely require your blood of your lives. At the hand of every animal I will require it. At the hand of man, even at the hand of every man's brother, I will require the life of man.

Young’s Updated LT             “And only your blood for your lives do I require; from the hand of every living thing I require it, and from the hand of man, from the hand of every man”s brother I require the life of man.

 

The gist of this verse:          God will require the life of any man who takes the life of another.


Genesis 9:5a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾake (אַ) [pronounced ahke]

surely, truly, certainly, no doubt, only, but; only now, just now, only this once; nothing but

adverb of restriction, contrast, time, limitation, and exception. Also used as an affirmative particle

Strong’s #389 BDB #36

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

dâm (דָּם) [pronounced dawm]

blood, often visible blood; bloodshed, slaughter; bloodguilt; blood of the grape [wine]

masculine singular noun with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #1818 BDB #196

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

nephesh (נֶפֶש) [pronounced NEH-fesh]

souls, lives, living beings, desire, volition; will

feminine plural noun with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

Strong’s #5315 BDB #659

dârash (דָּרַש) [pronounced daw-RASH]

to seek, to make inquiries concerning, to consult, to investigate, to study, to follow, to inquire; to require

1st person singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #1875 BDB #205

This is the first occurrence of this word in the Bible.


Translation: And surely I will require your blood for your souls. In many cases, when God speaks of man’s blood—particularly here, where He requires man’s blood—it refers to taking the life of that man. This reads, And surely I will require your blood for your souls. This general principle is, if you take souls away from others (that is, if you kill others), then God demands your life. This sets up the general principle for this and the next verse.


This verse begins with a conjunction and an adverb ʾake (אַ) [pronounced ahke]. ʾAk emphasizes what follows, often in contrast to what precedes it. God is speaking about the blood of animals and then says what He does in v. 5 as a continuation but a contrast to v. 4. The word usually translated require is the Hebrew word dârash dârash (דָּרַש) [pronounced daw-RASH] and it means to search out, to study, to inquire, to investigate. However, it does also mean to require and that is the correct translation in this verse due to what follows in v. 6. Because of Cain and Abel, God requires of one's brother their soul.


Genesis 9:5b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

yâd (יָד) [pronouncedy awd]

hand; figuratively for strength, power, control

feminine singular construct

Strong's #3027 BDB #388

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

chayyâh (חַיָּה) [pronounced khay-YAWH]

living thing, animal, life, organisms, lifeform; appetite, revival, renewal; community, family, assembled group, allied families, bands

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #2416 BDB #312

dârash (דָּרַש) [pronounced daw-RASH]

to seek, to make inquiries concerning, to consult, to investigate, to study, to follow, to inquire; to require

1st person singular, Qal imperfect with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #1875 BDB #205


Translation: From the hand of every living thing, I will require it;... Hand refers to power, control. In this context, it refers to responsibility. If a living thing is responsible for something, God will require it. So, if any living thing is responsible for the death—removing the soul—of any man, then the blood of that man is what God requires. The masculine singular suffix refers back to blood (which is a masculine plural, but that was stating the principle). So, God is saying, “I require the blood of any living thing that is responsible for the death of another.


So you don’t get too weird about this, this is not requiring the death of an animal which has killed another animal.


Genesis 9:5c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

yâd (יָד) [pronouncedy awd]

hand; figuratively for strength, power, control

feminine singular construct

Strong's #3027 BDB #388

ʾâdâm (אָדָם) [pronounced aw-DAWM]

a man, a human being, mankind; transliterated Adam

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #120 & #121 BDB #9

The word the Adam can mean man, mankind, humankind, men, human beings.


Translation: ...from the hand of the man... This applies to any man; if a man is responsible for the death of another man, God will require his blood (i.e., his life).



Genesis 9:5d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

yâd (יָד) [pronouncedy awd]

hand; figuratively for strength, power, control

feminine singular construct

Strong's #3027 BDB #388

ʾîysh (אִיש) [pronounced eesh]

a man, a husband; anyone; a certain one; each, each one, everyone

masculine singular noun (sometimes found where we would use a plural)

Strong's #376 BDB #35

ʾâch (אָח) [pronounced awhk]

brother, kinsman or close relative

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #251 BDB #26


Translation:...—from the hand of [this] man’s brother—... Although many commentators at this point look back to Cain and Abel, because we have one brother killing another; I think this refers to the blood relative, and God will require the blood relative to exact this punishment.


Now, the words for man are different in vv. 5c and 5d. The man in v. 5c is the killer; the man in v. 5d is the brother of the man killed. Therefore, we would expect these men to be different. Insofar as I know, this is a unique interpretation, but I believe it to be accurate.


Just so you do not think I have gone too far afield with this interpretation, three things need to be noted: (1) when God speaks, the Hebrew tends to be more difficult than when men speak. (2) The next verse will at least partially validate this interpretation. (3) The final portion of this verse will refer back to the man of v. 5c, which is what this interpretation would demand.


Genesis 9:5e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

dârash (דָּרַש) [pronounced daw-RASH]

to seek, to make inquiries concerning, to consult, to investigate, to study, to follow, to inquire; to require

1st person singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #1875 BDB #205

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

nephesh (נֶפֶש) [pronounced NEH-fesh]

soul, life, living being, desire, volition; will

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #5315 BDB #659

ʾâdâm (אָדָם) [pronounced aw-DAWM]

a man, a human being, mankind; transliterated Adam

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #120 & #121 BDB #9

The word the Adam can mean man, mankind, humankind, men, human beings.


Translation: ...I will require the soul of [that] man. Remember, there are two words for man used here; this is the word for man found back in v. 5c—the one who has murdered another. God requires the soul of that man.


V. 5 reads: And surely I will require your blood for your souls. From the hand of every living thing, I will require it; from the hand of the man—from the hand of [this] man’s brother—I will require the soul of [that] man. Blood is a central theme of Scripture, occurring again and again. What is being said here deals with the death penalty for murder, which apparently was not a specified law from God prior to the flood (recall that Cain killed Abel, but then he just left the area in order to stay alive, and God did not command anyone to go after him).


The final verb here is rather difficult; it is: dârash (דָּרַש) [pronounced daw-RAHSH], and in the Qal stem, it means to seek, to make inquiries concerning, to consult, to investigate, to study, to follow, to inquire; to require. Strong’s #1875 BDB #205. This verb is used 3 times in Gen. 9:5.


Verses 5–6 should not have been separated; the entire thought is:


——————————


Shedding the blood of the man, in the man, his blood will be shed; for in an image of Elohim, He made the man.

Genesis

9:6

The one who sheds the blood of man, by man, his blood will be shed; for God [lit., He] made man in His [lit., God’s] image.

When one sheds the blood of another man, by man, his blood will be shed. This is because God made man in His image.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                Whoever sheds the blood of man, the judges, by witnesses, will condemn him unto death; but he who sheds it without witnesses, the Lord of the world will bring punishment on him in the day of the great judgment; because in the image of the Lord He made man.

Latin Vulgate                          Whosoever shall shed man's blood, his blood shall be shed: for man was made to the image of God.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        Shedding the blood of the man, in the man, his blood will be shed; for in an image of Elohim, He made the man.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    Whoever sheds the blood of men, by men shall his blood be shed; for man was made in the image of God.

Septuagint (Greek)                He that sheds man's blood, instead of that blood shall his own be shed, for in the image of God I made man.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Whoever sheds human blood,

by a human his blood will be shed;

for in the divine image

God made human beings.

Easy English                          If someone kills a person, then people should kill the killer. That is because God made man like himself.

Easy-to-Read Version            “God made people as a copy of himself.

So any person who kills a person

must be killed by a person.

Good News Bible (TEV)         Human beings were made like God, so whoever murders one of them will be killed by someone else.

The Message                         Whoever sheds human blood, by humans let his blood be shed, Because God made humans in his image reflecting God's very nature.

New Berkeley Version           Whoever sheds a person’s blood, by man shall his blood be shed; because God made man in His likeness [This command has remained the basis for capital punishment, with our likeness to God as the reason back of it. Reverence for blood was strengthened by its use for atoning sacrifices (Lev. 17:11)].

New Century Version             "Whoever kills a human being

will be killed by a human being,

because God made humans

in his own image.

New Living Translation           If anyone takes a human life, that person's life will also be taken by human hands. For God made human beings [Or man; Hebrew reads ha-adam.] in his own image.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          For, whoever spills the blood of men will also have their blood spilled; because, I made man in the image of God.

Beck’s American Translation If anyone kills a man, he should be killed by a man because God made man like Himself.

Christian Community Bible     He who sheds the blood of man shall have his blood shed by man; for in the image of God has God made man.

New American Bible              Anyone who sheds the blood of a human being,

by a human being shall that one's blood be shed;

For in the image of God

have human beings been made. The image of God, given to the first man and woman and transmitted to every human being, is the reason that no violent attacks can be made upon human beings. That image is the basis of the dignity of every individual who, in some sense, "represents" God in the world. Gn 1:26-27; Lv 24:17; Nm 35:33; Jas 3:9.

NIRV                                      "Anyone who murders man

will be killed by man.

That is because I have made man

in my own likeness.

New Jerusalem Bible             He who sheds the blood of man, by man shall his blood be shed, for in the image of God was man created.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      Whoever spills human blood, by a human his blood will spill: for humans are made in the image of God.

Bible in Basic English             Whoever takes a man's life, by man will his life be taken; because God made man in his image.

Complete Jewish Bible           Whoever sheds human blood, by a human being will his own blood be shed; for God made human beings in his image.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 Whoever sheds the blood of man, by man his own blood shall be shed; because I made man under the shadow of God.

NET Bible®                             "Whoever sheds human blood [Heb "the blood of man."],

by other humans [Heb "by man," a generic term here for other human beings.]

must his blood be shed;

for in God's image [See the notes on the words "humankind" and "likeness" in Gen 1:26, as well as J. Barr, "The Image of God in the Book of Genesis - A Study of Terminology," BJRL 51 (1968/69): 11-26.]

God [Heb "he"; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.] has made humankind."

NIV – UK                                `Whoever sheds human blood,

by humans shall their blood be shed;

for in the image of God

has God made mankind.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    The shedder of the blood of a human, by a human his blood shall be shed, for in the image of the Elohim has He made humanity.

English Standard Version      "Whoever sheds the blood of man, by man shall his blood be shed, for God made man in his own image.

The updated Geneva Bible    Whoever sheds man’s blood, by man shall his blood be shed [Not only by the magistrate, but often God raises up one murderer to kill another. ]: for in the image of God made he man [Therefore to kill man is to deface Gods image, and so injury is not only done to man, but also to God. ].

 

New King James Version       "Whoever sheds man's blood,

By man his blood shall be shed;

For in the image of God

He made man.

New RSV                               Whoever sheds the blood of a human,

by a human shall that person's blood be shed;

for in his own image

God made humankind.

Syndein/Thieme                     Who sheds/'pours out' {shaphak} man's blood . . . by man shall his blood be shed/'poured out' {shaphak}. For in the image {tselem} of Elohim/Godhead, He manufactured mankind/Adam {'adam} {'asah - out of the elements of the earth}. {Note: When Cain murdered Abel, capital punishment was NOT the law of the Land. Now God has decreed Capital Punishment required for murder. At this point all man-eating animals are commanded to be killed. And, this command also includes humans that murder other humans. The eating of animal flesh will 'demonstrate' to people that they also can kill each other! So, God prohibits this activity.}.

World English Bible                Whoever sheds man's blood, by man will his blood be shed, for in the image of God made he man.

Young's Updated LT              Whoever sheds man's blood, by man is his blood shed: for in the image of God has He made man.

 

The gist of this verse:          A man who is a murderer is liable for his crime and should die by the hand of man.


Genesis 9:6a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

shâphake (שָפַ) [pronounced shaw-FAHKe]

shedding, pouring, pouring out, a shedder [of blood], a murderer

Qal active participle

Strong’s #8210 BDB #1049

Although Owen lists this just as a Qal active participle, I translate it below as a masculine singular, Qal active participle.

dâm (דָּם) [pronounced dawm]

blood, often visible blood; bloodshed, slaughter; bloodguilt; blood of the grape [wine]

masculine singular construct

Strong's #1818 BDB #196

ʾâdâm (אָדָם) [pronounced aw-DAWM]

a man, a human being, mankind; transliterated Adam

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #120 & #121 BDB #9

The word the Adam can mean man, mankind, humankind, men, human beings.


Translation: The one who sheds the blood of man,... God is making a covenant with Noah and his sons. First, God is laying out the privileges and responsibilities of man on this recently-destroyed earth. Our topic is murder, and this is one way of expressing murder. The one who sheds the blood of man... I have translated the Qal active participle as a masculine singular, Qal active participle.


What we are determining here is, what must be done with a man who has shed the blood of another man.


Now, although there was a careful distinction in the previous verse with using the two words that can be translated man, that is not the case in this verse. We use the same word all the way through.


Genesis 9:6b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; among, in the midst of; at, by, near, on, before, in the presence of, upon; with; to, unto, upon, up to; in respect to, on account of; by means of, about, concerning

primarily a preposition of proximity; however, it has a multitude of functions

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʾâdâm (אָדָם) [pronounced aw-DAWM]

a man, a human being, mankind; transliterated Adam

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #120 & #121 BDB #9

The word the Adam can mean man, mankind, humankind, men, human beings.

dâm (דָּם) [pronounced dawm]

blood, often visible blood; bloodshed, slaughter; bloodguilt; blood of the grape [wine]

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #1818 BDB #196

shâphake (שָפַ) [pronounced shaw-FAHKe]

to be poured [out], to be shed; metaphorically for, to be profusely expended, to be poured out like blood or water

3rd person masculine singular, Niphal imperfect

Strong’s #8210 BDB #1049


Translation: ...by man, his blood will be shed;... The preposition above can be translated by means of; and that is how it is to be understood here. Some man—perhaps the blood relative—will shed his blood.


We have to always be aware of the time and place. At the time that this is given, there is no concept of groups of men, as in, an organized government with a judicial system. At this point, there are 4 men on this earth. This this provides us with a general principle that works with a small population. However, this principle will be modified in the future so that this verse is not used to justify taking the law into one’s own hands.


Genesis 9:6c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; among, in the midst of; at, by, near, on, before, in the presence of, upon; with; to, unto, upon, up to; in respect to, on account of; by means of, about, concerning

primarily a preposition of proximity; however, it has a multitude of functions

No Strong’s # BDB #88

tselem (צֶלֶם) [pronounced TSEH-lem]

image, likeness, resemblance, shadow-image, semblance; mere, empty

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #6754 BDB #853

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun

Strong's #430 BDB #43

ʿâsâh (עָשָֹה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWH]

to do, to make, to construct, to fashion, to form, to prepare, to manufacture

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #6213 BDB #793

ʾâdâm (אָדָם) [pronounced aw-DAWM]

a man, a human being, mankind; transliterated Adam

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #120 & #121 BDB #9

The word the Adam can mean man, mankind, humankind, men, human beings.


Translation: ...for God [lit., He] made man in His [lit., God’s] image. This gives us the rationale behind executing murderers: God made man in His image; therefore, man’s life is sacrosanct.


Literally, this final phrase reads: ...for in an image of Elohim, He made the man. This sounds more like an aside than a quote by God. Quite frankly, this is an odd thing found in this chapter. It is possible that God refers to Himself twice in the 3rd person. The Revealed Member of the Trinity (Elohim in v. 1; Jesus Christ is how we know Him) is speaking to Noah and his sons and He is God. Then He says that man is made in the image of God (Elohim). The principle is the same, whether this is said by Jehovah or whether the writer of this passage added this as an aside.


When God actually made man back in Gen. 1–2, we looked at what it meant for man to be made in God’s image.


We already studied what it means for God to be in the shadow image of God back in Gen. 1 (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Man, the Shadow Image of God

God

Man

Traits in Evidence (so far in the first chapter of Genesis):

Created the earth and the universe

Man is a creative being

God is powerful (He created the universe)

Man has strength; man produces energy

God is sovereign (He chose to create the universe)

Man has volition. Man is given authority over the earth.

God

Man

Traits to be Revealed Later:

God is love

Man is capable of personal and impersonal love

God is righteousness

Man has a sense of right and wrong

God is justice

Man seeks to right injustices; it is in man’s nature to seek justice.

God is omniscient

Man has 5 senses by which he perceives the world and a mind with which to think. Man’s mind is hard-wired for language.

God is omnipresent

Man exists somewhere in a specific place and time

God is perfect

Man was created perfect

God is eternal

Man is created to live forever

God is immutable

Man’s essence is fixed. We do not mutate a new essence while on this earth.

God is absolute truth

Man can understand and appreciate truth and the need for truth.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Verses 5–6 should not have been separated; the entire thought is:


Gen 9:5 And surely the blood of your lives will I require. At the hand of every animal will I require it, and at the hand of man. At the hand of every man's brother I will require the life of man.


Gen 9:6 Whoever sheds man's blood, his blood shall be shed by man; for He made man in the image of God.


God here requires, at the hand of every man’s brother, the life of a man (with respect to his brother’s life). That is, there is a responsibility here being set up, which is the opposite of Cain’s assertion (“Am I my brother’s keeper?”). Here is how this works: If Charlie Brown kills Linus, then a close relative of Linus is to kill Charlie Brown. This is his solemn responsibility before God. I know that you want to bring in, “Vengeance is Mine, I will repay,” says the Lord; and that is true, after the Mosaic Law is given. However, part of this was retained; executioners in the Old Testament, insofar as I am able to discover, are close relatives of the person killed.


One of the first laws laid down by God is, a murderer ought to be executed. This was not the case in the antediluvian civilization. There was murder and there was revenge for murder (Gen. 4:15), but God did not require execution of murderers at that time, insofar as we know. Cain would have been a prime example, and yet God did not impel anyone to execute Cain for his sin of murder.


I realize that the first 3 points of this doctrine are going to be controversial.

The [Short] Doctrine of Murder

1.      In the antediluvian civilization, God does not require anyone to execute Cain, although it is clear that he is guilty of murder. Cain was banished as a result, but he was not executed. Gen. 4:1–16

2.      In the antediluvian civilization, there was, apparently, revenge for murder, but we do not clearly see it brought to pass, nor do we see any divine codification of such a penalty for murder. Gen. 4:23–24

3.      In the post-diluvian society, prior to the Mosaic Law, God required the execution of a murderer by the next-of-kin of the victim. Gen. 9:5–6

4.      We may reasonably assume that God’s requirement of blood for blood was codified by law, as societies became larger and better organized. Because man was made in the image of God, he had an organized framework of law within his soul. Rom. 1:18–20, 32

5.      Historically, a number of law codes will emerge, which would culminate in the Mosaic Law, the Law of God, specifically given to the people of Israel directly from God.

         1)      Codes of law which are known to us today include the Code of Hammurabi (circa 1790 b.c.), the Code of Ur-Nammu, king of Ur (circa 2050 b.c.) the Laws of Eshnunna (circa 1930 b.c.) and the codex of Lipit-Ishtar of Isin (circa 1870 b.c.).

         2)      As man formed national entities, which is God’s design, he also establishes laws (or traditions), because man is made in the image of God. It is our nature, when gathered into groups, to develop some sort of organization or structure, which includes laws.

         3)      As a side note, the Law of Moses was not some offshoot of the Code of Hammurabi.

6.      The Ten Commandments, often called codex I of the Mosaic Law, forbade murder (not killing, but murder).

         1)      There are abound a half-dozen Hebrew words which are various translated to murder, to kill, to strike down. The word used in the Ten Commandments specifically means to murder (2nd or 3rd degree murder). Ex. 20:13

         2)      The Bible clearly presents killing which is not murder: manslaughter (Ex. 21:12–13), execution for the violation of certain laws (Ex. 21:14–17), and killing in war (Ex. 23:20–23 Num. 31:1–8 Joshua 6:21 8:24 Psalm 144:1).

         3)      In other words, thou shalt not kill is properly translated, you will not murder. This commandment is not an absolute prohibition against all killing in all circumstances. God will give direct orders for Moses or Joshua, for instance, to completely destroy this or that group of people, because their degeneracy was so ingrained.

7.      Murder continues to be a sin in the New Testament, and in the Church Age, and it is punishable by death. Matt. 26:52 Rom. 1:21 13:1–4

I do not doubt that you have problems with #1–3, but those were different times, and not applicable to today.

For further study, let me recommend:

http://www.answerbag.com/q_view/1249061

http://www.westbankbiblechurch.com/LGMerrittBooks/100425Doctrine%20of%20Murder.pdf

http://www.angelfire.com/mi/universe/jude.glossary3.html

Some of these Scriptural references are from: http://www.answerbag.com/q_view/1249061 (Moosemose posts in answerbag quite often, giving his notes from Bible class as the answer to many questions posed there. My assumption is, these are notes from Bible classes at Berachah Church.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Also, hidden within Gen. 9:5–6 is the death penalty for animals which kill man. Whether God was more explicit with Noah and his sons, we do not know; but when God gives Moses the Law, it will include the killing of animals which kill man. There are a number of animals which are capable of killing man, but their fear/respect for man prevents them from doing so. However, whenever that fear/respect diminishes to a point where these animals will kill, that animal needs to die, so that it cannot influence other animals and so that it cannot breed (e.g., Ex. 21:28).




——————————


And you [all]: be fruitful and multiply; and abound in the earth and multiply in her.

Genesis

9:7

And [to all of] you: be fruitful [or, have many children] and multiply [or, increase your population]; and swarm [or, multiply yourselves] the earth and multiply [or, increase your population] in it.”

And to all of you: have many children and encourage them to have children as well; and spread out throughout the earth and fill it.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And you, spread yourselves abroad and multiply; bring forth in the earth, and increase in it.

Latin Vulgate                          But increase you and multiply, and go upon the earth and fill it.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And you [all]: be fruitful and multiply; and abound in the earth and multiply in her.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    As for you, be fruitful, and multiply; bring forth abundantly on the earth, and multiply in it.

Septuagint (Greek)                But as for you, be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth, and have dominion over it.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           As for you, be fertile and multiply. Populate the earth and multiply in it."

Contemporary English V.       I want you and your descendants to have many children, so people will live everywhere on earth.

Easy English                          And I say this to you. Have large families and have many *descendants. Spread over the earth and live everywhere on it.

Easy-to-Read Version            “Noah, you and your sons should have many children. Fill the earth with your people.”

Good News Bible (TEV)         "You must have many children, so that your descendants will live all over the earth."

The Message                         You're here to bear fruit, reproduce, lavish life on the Earth, live bountifully!"

New Century Version             "As for you, Noah, I want you and your family to have many children, to grow in number on the earth, and to become many."

New Life Bible                        As for you, have many children. Cover the earth with many people."

New Living Translation           Now be fruitful and multiply, and repopulate the earth."


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          So, reproduce and multiply. fill the earth and rule over it!'

Beck’s American Translation But you are to have many children, spread out, and become many on the earth.”

Christian Community Bible     As for you, be fruitful and increase. Abound on the earth and be master of it.”

New American Bible              Be fertile, then, and multiply; abound on earth and subdue it. Gn 1:28; 8:17; 9:2; Jas 3:7.

NIRV                                      "Have children and increase your numbers. Multiply on the earth and increase your numbers on it."

New Jerusalem Bible             Be fruitful then and multiply, teem over the earth and subdue it!'


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      You be-fruitful and multiply! Teem in the land, and multiply in it."

Bible in Basic English             And now, be fertile and have increase; have offspring on the earth and become great in number.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 And be prolific yourselves, increase and swarm on the earth, and multiply on it.”

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               ‘Be fruitful, then, and increase in number; people the earth and rule over it.’ Rule is the probable ruling (compare Gen. 1:28); Hebrew reads increase.

New Advent Bible                  But increase and multiply, and go upon the earth and fill it.

NET Bible®                             But as for you [The disjunctive clause (conjunction + pronominal subject + verb) here indicates a strong contrast to what has preceded. Against the backdrop of the warnings about taking life, God now instructs the people to produce life, using terms reminiscent of the mandate given to Adam (Gen 1:28).], be fruitful and multiply; increase abundantly on the earth and multiply on it."

NIV – UK                                As for you, be fruitful and increase in number; multiply on the earth and increase upon it.'


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And you, be fruitful, and increase, and roam in the earth and sway in it.

Context Group Version          And you { pl }, be fruitful and multiply; Produce abundantly in the land { or earth }, and multiply in it.

LTHB                                     And you, be fruitful and multiply. Swarm over the earth and multiply in it.

NASB                                     "As for you, be fruitful and multiply;

Populate the earth [Lit Swarm in the earth] abundantly and multiply in it."

New King James Version       And as for you, be fruitful and multiply;

Bring forth abundantly in the earth

And multiply in it."

New RSV                               And you, be fruitful and multiply, abound on the earth and multiply in it.'

World English Bible                Be fruitful, and multiply. Bring forth abundantly in the earth, and multiply in it."

Young’s Updated LT             And you, be fruitful and multiply, teem in the earth, and multiply in it.”

 

The gist of this verse:          God encourages man to multiply on the earth.


Genesis 9:7a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾattem (אַתֶּם) [pronounced aht-TEM]

you all, you guys, you (often, the verb to be is implied)

2nd person masculine plural, personal pronoun

Strong’s #859 BDB #61

pârâh (פָּרָה) [pronounced paw-RAW]

to bear fruit, to be fruitful; to bear young, to have lots of children

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperative

Strong’s #6509 (& #6500) BDB #826

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

râbâh (רָבָה) [pronounced rawb-VAWH]

to become much, to become many, to multiply, to increase in population and in whatever else; to become [or grow] great

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperative

Strong’s #7235 BDB #915


Translation: And [to all of] you: be fruitful [or, have many children] and multiply [or, increase your population];...


Genesis 9:7b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

shârats (שָרַץ) [pronounced shaw-RATS]

to creep [crawl]; to swarm, to infest [with]; to abound [teem] [with]; to multiply themselves, to be multiplied

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperative

Strong's #8317 BDB #1056

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; among, in the midst of; at, by, near, on, before, in the presence of, upon; with; to, unto, upon, up to; in respect to, on account of; by means of, about, concerning

primarily a preposition of proximity; however, it has a multitude of functions

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: ...and swarm [or, multiply yourselves] the earth...


Genesis 9:7c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

râbâh (רָבָה) [pronounced rawb-VAWH]

to become much, to become many, to multiply, to increase in population and in whatever else; to become [or grow] great

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperative

Strong’s #7235 BDB #915

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; among, in the midst of; at, by, near, on, before, in the presence of, upon; with; to, unto, upon, up to; in respect to, on account of; by means of, about, concerning

primarily a preposition of proximity; however, it has a multitude of functions; with the 3rd person feminine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #88


Translation: ...and multiply [or, increase your population] in it.


V. 7 reads: And [to all of] you: be fruitful [or, have many children] and multiply [or, increase your population]; and swarm [or, multiply yourselves] the earth and multiply [or, increase your population] in it.” Again, God tells Noah’s family to have lots of children. I do not know why this mandate is repeated, apart from that being God’s emphasis in the matter. In contrast to killing and to executing murderers, God’s plan is for man to fill the earth.


——————————


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


God's Covenant: A Promise Never to Flood the Entire Earth Again


And so says Elohim unto Noah and unto his sons with him, to say,...

Genesis

9:8

Later [lit., and so], Elohim said to Noah and to his sons with him, saying,...

Later, God said to Noah and to his sons who were with him, saying,...


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the Lord spake to Noah, and to his sons with him, saying,...

Latin Vulgate                          Thus also said God to Noe, and to his sons with him:...

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so says Elohim unto Noah and unto his sons with him, to say,...

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And God spoke to Noah, and to his sons with him, saying,...

Septuagint (Greek)                And God spoke to Noah, and to his sons with him, saying,...

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Easy English                          Then God said this to Noah. And God said it to Noah's sons, who were with Noah.

The Message                         Then God spoke to Noah and his sons:...


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Then God spoke to Noah and his sons (who were with him) and said,...

Beck’s American Translation God told Noah and his sons:...

Christian Community Bible     God spoke to Noah and his son,...

New American Bible              God said to Noah and to his sons with him:... [9:8-17] God makes a covenant with Noah and his descendants and, remarkably, with all the animals who come out of the ark: never again shall the world be destroyed by flood. The sign of this solemn promise is the appearance of a rainbow.

 

ew Jerusalem Bible                God spoke as follows to Noah and his sons,...


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      God ||said|| to Noah and to his sons with him,...

Complete Jewish Bible           God spoke to Noach and his sons with him; he said,...

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 God also spoke to Noah, and to his sons along with him, saying,...

NET Bible®                             God said to Noah and his sons [Heb "to Noah and to his sons with him, saying."],...


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And speaking is the Elohim to Noah and to his sons with him, saying...

English Standard Version      Then God said to Noah and to his sons with him,...

Syndein/Thieme                     {Verses 8-17: God's Covenant with Noah - First Part in Chapter 8:21-22}

And Elohiym/Godhead spoke {'amar} unto Noah and to his sons with him, saying {'amar},...

World English Bible                God spoke to Noah, and to his sons with him, saying,...

Young's Updated LT              And God speaks unto Noah, and unto his sons with him, saying,...

 

The gist of this verse:          God speaks to Noah (possibly on a different occasion).


Genesis 9:8

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun

Strong's #430 BDB #43

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

Nôach (נֹחַ) [pronounced NOH-ahkh]

rest, repose; consolation; transliterated Noah

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #5146 BDB #629

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

bânîym (בָּנִים) [pronounced baw-NEEM]

sons, descendants; children; people; sometimes rendered men

masculine plural noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

with, at, near, by, among, directly from

preposition (which is identical to the sign of the direct object); with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #854 BDB #85

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #559 BDB #55


Translation: Later [lit., and so], Elohim said to Noah and to his sons with him, saying,... It appears as though this is God speaking to Noah and his sons at another time. When we will study Abraham, God will come and speak to Abraham on many different times, each time adding a bit more information for Abraham to understand and do. So, it seems logical that the same would be done in the case of Noah and his sons.


I should warn you up front that this lesson will be very theological in nature.


Gen 9:8 And God spoke to Noah, and to his sons with him, saying,


What will follow is known as the Noahic Covenant. A covenant is a contract or agreement between two parties, although some of these covenants are called unconditional covenants, meaning that God promises some things without conditions. It would have been reasonable to entitle the Bible as the New Covenant and the Old Covenant.


There are 2 dramatically different ways of organizing the Bible: by Dispensations and by Covenant Theology. The first is correct and Biblical and the second is a distortion of Biblical truth. Since we are going to talk about the Noahic Covenant, it might be a good idea to differentiate between Dispensationalism and Covenant Theology.


Although we have already covered dispensations in the past, this is a very brief review:

A Review of Dispensations

1.      A dispensation is a period of time in which God has a specific plan for spirituality, evangelization, judgment, and the writing, preservation and dissemination of His Word. The Greek noun which is occasionally translated dispensation does not mean this exactly; although it has come to mean a specific period of time as defined by God. The Greek noun is oikonomia (οἰκονομία) [pronounced oy-koh-nohm-EE-uh]; which specifically means the administration or management of a household. The idea is, those administering God’s household here on earth change from time to time. Strong’s #3622.

2.      God organizes and administers His household here on earth in different ways through the ages.

3.      There are 7 dispensations throughout human history:

         1)      Innocence: this is Adam and the woman in the garden

         2)      The Age of the Gentiles is broken down into 2 parts

                  (1)     The antediluvian era: from the Fall to the flood

                  (2)     Post-diluvian era: from the flood to Abraham

         3)      The Age of the Jews is broken down into 3 parts

                  (1)     The Age of the Patriarchs

                  (2)     The nation Israel

                  (3)     The Tribulation, which is future, and marks the resumption of the Jewish Age

         4)      The Dispensation of the Hypostatic Union (also known as the First Advent of Jesus Christ)

                  (1)     This short period of time acts as the hinge between the Church Age and the Age of Israel.

                  (2)     Jesus Christ lived under the Law in the nation Israel. At no time did He violate the Law of Moses and He fulfilled all of the Messianic prophecies pertinent to the first advent.

                  (3)     However, Jesus primarily functioned as a man under the power of the Holy Spirit, test-driving, so to speak, the life of the Church Age believer.

         5)      The Church Age or the Intercalated Age (the Church Age is intercallated between the 1st and 2nd advents of Jesus Christ). The Church Age was unknown to previous dispensations, and it is a part of the mystery doctrine which Jesus taught in the Upper Room and the Apostles taught in the epistles (particularly Paul).

                  (1)     The pre-canon period began with signs and miracles, which conferred upon the Apostles the authority to teach and to write Scripture (the canon refers to the completed Word of God).

                  (2)     The post-canon period; the Bible is complete, all of the doctrine that we need has been recorded, and now, the authority of God is in the completed Word of God. Signs and miracles are no longer needed in order to confer authority on this or that person; because, if they teach the Word of God accurately, we place ourselves under their authority. Furthermore, our faith is strengthened by the Word of God, and not by witnessing some random miracle.

         6)      The Millennium is a literal 1000 year reign of Jesus Christ on the earth, during which we will enjoy perfect environment. This will end with a revolt against God.

         7)      The Eternal State, in which there is a new heavens and a new earth.

4.      Dispensations allows us to give the most literal interpretation to the Bible. God’s promises to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob (in the Book of Genesis) will mean exactly what they appear to mean. All of the New Testament references to dispensations, mystery doctrine, and the times and the seasons all make perfect sense as well.

5.      Dispensations do teach that man is saved the same way in every dispensation: by placing one’s faith in the 2nd person of the Trinity (Jehovah Elohim in the Old Testament and Jesus Christ in the New). Gen. 15:6 John 3:36

We have previously studied dispensations back in Introductory Lesson 6. This is covered in even greater detail in the Doctrine of Dispensations (HTML) (PDF) (WPD). Please refer to the links for further information, including Biblical documentation for this correct interpretation of the Bible.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


The reason that one would apply the dispensational framework to the Bible is, this allows for the most literal interpretation of all Scripture. Jews are Jews; the land of Israel is the land of Israel; God’s promises to the patriarchs mean exactly what they seem to mean; and the church (the body of believers) is treated as a separate, but closely related entity.


I am going to briefly cover Covenant Theology and what is wrong with it. If you are not getting the contrast between these theologies, then you need to go back to links above.


I have made references to Covenant Theology throughout this study of Genesis without ever properly defining it. Let me emphasize up front that this is a false theology. Like all false systems of interpretation, this will have some truth in it.

Covenant Theology

1.      The general idea is, God has a relationship with man through covenants (by contract). This is not in dispute by any theologian of any stripe.

2.      Covenant Theology provides a framework within which we interpret the Bible. This approach is what is in dispute.

3.      There are 3 basic covenants: a covenant of works, a covenant of redemption and a covenant of grace. These definitions come from the Theopedia1:

         1)      The first covenant in logical order, usually called the Covenant of Redemption, is the agreement within the Godhead that the Father would appoint his son Jesus to give up his life for mankind and that Jesus would do so (cf. Titus 1:1-3).

         2)      The second, called the Covenant of Works, was made in the Garden of Eden between God and Adam and promised life for obedience and death for disobedience. Adam disobeyed God and broke the covenant, and so the third covenant was made between God and all of mankind, who also fell with Adam according to Romans 5:12-21.

         3)      This third covenant, the Covenant of Grace, promised eternal blessing for belief in Christ and obedience to God's word. It is thus seen as the basis for all biblical covenants that God made individually with Noah, Abraham, and David, nationally with O.T. Israel as a people, and universally with man in the New Covenant. These individual covenants are called the "Biblical covenants" because they are explicitly described as such in the Bible.

         4)      Sometimes, covenant theology speaks only of the latter 2 covenants, as they are the general covenants between man and God.

4.      These covenants are not found specifically named anywhere in the Bible; they are inferred from the Bible, and then used as a framework for Biblical interpretation.

5.      The general idea is, God was working through the nation Israel and through the race of the Jews, and they failed so badly, that God began working with a new entity, believers in Jesus Christ (and the church), who then became the spiritual heirs of Abraham. Since the Jews now rejected the covenant of grace, God offered this covenant of grace to the Gentiles, the spiritual heirs of Abraham. In Covenant Theology, there is no real difference between Israel and the church, except that Israel failed, so God had to move on.

6.      In Covenant Theology, the covenant of grace is the constant, and those with whom God makes this covenant are believers in Jesus Christ.

7.      Covenant Theology takes all of the promises which God made to Israel (to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob—men we will study in Genesis) along with the covenants made with Moses, with the Jews and with David, and spiritualizes these covenants.

8.      That is, the actual words of these covenants are no longer precise. Abraham’s seed no longer refers to those physically descended from Abraham but those who are spiritually descended from Abraham.

9.      The covenants made previously to Israel and to various patriarchs of Israel are no longer applicable to that particular plot of ground nor are they applicable to that particular race of people.

10.    All of these promises are spiritualized, which, of course, calls into question exactly what these promises really mean.

11.    The reason that this happened is, Israel screwed up so many times, again and again and again, that God just decided, “These people are just not working out. I need a new group of people who are better and more faithful.” That turns out to be us, believers in the Church Age (however, covenant theologians do not recognize the Church Age as a separate dispensation).

12.    Covenant theologians do not recognize a substantive difference between the church and Israel; the latter morphed into the former.

13.    Israel, as a people and as a nation, was simply too disobedient and they rejected the covenant of grace at the advent of Jesus Christ.

14.    There is also a new covenant theology which has sprung up, which seems to try to find a place in between dispensational theology and covenant theology.

1 From http://www.theopedia.com/Covenant_theology accessed May 12, 2010.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


I should point out that, most people who believe in covenant theology are believers in Jesus Christ. That is, at some point in their lives, they exercised faith in Jesus Christ, and they are eternally saved. Believing a false doctrine does not remove someone’s salvation. We are saved based upon what Jesus did for us on the cross; not based upon our lives as Christians (most of us can give testimony as to the sub-standard way that we conduct ourselves from time to time).


Although I have implied that there are problems with covenant theology, let me enumerate them:

Problems with Covenant Theology

1.      God’s promises are not what they seem. God made many specific promises to Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, to the nation Israel and to David. These promises involve a specific bloodline and a specific plot of ground. If the nation Israel is no longer a part of God’s plan and if the Jews are no longer God’s people, then dozens of promises that God made directly to various Jews from God make very little sense.

2.      According to Covenant Theology, there is a limit to God’s patience. The Old Testament is a book which testifies to Jewish failure more than almost anything else, yet God is with the Jews throughout the Old Testament. The book of the Judges is remarkable as to how many times Israel would go astray, and yet God was always faithful to them. In Covenant Theology, God’s patience has limits; you can fail enough times where God removes you completely from His plan.

3.      Most people who believe in covenant theology do not believe in eternal security (which means, once you have believed in Jesus Christ, you cannot lose this salvation).

4.      The Jews failed so spectacularly, that God, for all intents and purposes, withdrew His specific promises from the Jews, and has substituted a spiritualized meaning and understanding of these promises. Or, more accurately, covenant theology always believes that these promises were spiritual promises.

5.      Covenant Theology takes two very different entities—the church and the nation Israel—and says that they are, in essence, the same thing.

6.      Dan Smedra writes: With all varieties of Covenant theology, there is an obsession for an overriding continuity or unified purpose for the sixty-six books (Canon) which comprise Holy Scriptures. Rather than having wisdom to discern the real difference among things which resemble one another, the covenantist is driven to find an "integrating" principle to produce theological uniformity, in hope of discovering "what the Bible is really all about." Their "key" is the erroneous concept that every relationship between God and man must take the form of a covenant or legal agreement. From this notion, albeit logical, has arisen their apocryphal and overarching Covenant of Works and Covenant of Grace.1

         1)      As an aside, there are a variety of consistencies throughout the Bible: God’s character and essence, the fundamental concept of believing in Jesus Christ (or Yehowah Elohim) for salvation, etc.

7.      Dr. Lewis Sperry Chafer, a dispensationalist, writes:2

         1)      A theology which penetrates no further into Scripture than to discover that in all ages God is immutable in His grace toward penitent sinners, and constructs the idea of a universal church, continuing through the ages, on the one truth of immutable grace, is not only disregarding vast spheres of revelation but is reaping the unavoidable confusion [fog] and misdirection which part-truth engenders. The outworking of divine grace is not standardized, though the Covenant idea of theology would make it so...

         2)      A form of Covenant Theology which would thread all of Jehovah's purposes and undertakings upon His one attribute of grace could hardly avoid confusion of mind [fog] in matters related to His varied objectives. Covenant Theology, in consistency with its man-made premise, asserts its inventions respecting an Old Testament church, which, it is claimed, is an integral part of the New Testament Church and on the ground that, since God's grace is one unchanging attribute, its accomplishments must be the realization of one standardized ideal.

         3)      A Covenant Theology engenders the notion that there is but one soteriology and one eschatology, and that ecclesiology, such as it is conceived to be, extends from the Garden of Eden to the Great White Throne. The insuperable problems in exegesis which such fanciful suppositions create are easily disposed of by ignoring them.

         4)      Covenantism, which has molded the major theological concepts for many generations, recognizes no distinction as to ages, therefore can allow for no distinctions between law and grace. This dominating attitude of Covenantism must account for the utter neglect of life-truth in all their works of theology. No more representative theological dictum from the Covenant viewpoint has been formed than the Westminster Confession of Faith, which valuable and important document recognizes life-truth only to the point of imposing the Ten Commandments on Christians as their sole obligation, this in spite of the teachings of the Pauline Church Epistles which assert that the law was never given to Gentiles or Christians, and that the latter has been saved and delivered from it--actually dead to it (Gal. 2:19).

8.      In short, covenant theology takes something which is clearly found in the Bible (covenants between God and man), and from this, infers 2 or 3 overarching covenants (which are not found in the Bible), and then superimposes the inferred covenants over all of Scripture, in order to give it a unifying set of factors.

9.      Covenant theologians must therefore go back and interpret all of the covenants which appear to have a clear meaning, and yet that meaning must be reinterpreted to fit within the umbrella of covenant theology. The end result is, many of God’s promises are not what they seem.

10.    Therefore, those who believe in covenant theology often reject God using Jews in the future; they reject the importance of the nation Israel (although it is found in prophecy); and they reject the millennial rule of Jesus Christ. Again, promises and prophecies which appear to have clear meanings must be reinterpreted to fit into covenant theology.

1 From http://withchrist.org/covtheo.htm accessed May 12, 2010.

2 From Lewis Sperry Chafer, Systematic Theology, Volume IV (Dallas, Texas: Dallas Seminary Press, 1948) pp. 156, 311; Vol. VI, p. 167.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


The very fact that we find covenants in the Bible (particularly in the Old Testament), does not prove that Covenant Theology is correct and Dispensationalism is not.

Dispensationalism versus Covenant Theology

Characteristic

Covenant Theology

Dispensationalism

The Framework of Biblical Interpretation

There are 2 overarching covenants and God’s relationship to man is interpreted according to those covenants. The church is not a separate entity from Israel but a new or evolved Israel. Or, Israel 2.0.

The Bible is interpreted with respect to the outline of dispensations. What is done in one era is not necessarily repeated in another era.

Pattern of History

A Covenant of Works is established with Adam (but not specifically called this in Scripture); and a Covenant of Grace between Christ and the elect (one might interpret this as the gospel).

Divided into dispensations (usually seven); e.g., Innocence (pre-Fall), Conscience (Adam), Human Government (Noah), the Age of Israel (which is further subdivided into the time of the patriarchs, the time of the Law and the Tribulation); the Age of the Hypostatic Union; the Church Age; and the Millennium.

View of History

Optimistic: God is extending His kingdom. Some even have an evolutionary view of man and God.

Pessimistic: the Last Days are marked by increasingly worse wickedness in the world and by apostasy in the church. Things get worse in the end times, not better.

God's Purpose in History

There is a unified redemptive purpose.

There are two distinct organizations, one earthly (Israel), one heavenly (church). However, the gospel is constant in relationship to Israel and the church. God furthers His purpose in human history primarily through these 2 institutions.

View of the Biblical Covenants

They are different administrations of the Covenant of Grace.

They mark off periods of time during which God's specific demands of man differ. God works through various institutions, and one might see this as a covenant relationship in many of these cases, but with varying covenants (however, salvation is always through faith in Christ).

Relationship of Old Testament to New Testament

Acceptance of Old Testament teaching required unless specifically abrogated by New Testament.

Old Testament prescriptions are not binding unless reaffirmed in New Testament.

Relationship Between Israel and the Church

The church is spiritual Israel, in continuity with true Israel of Old Testament.

The church is the spiritual people of God, distinct from Israel, the physical people of God.

Israel

This can refer to the literal seed of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob or to their spiritual seed, depending upon the context.

Israel is a literal nation with Jews who are genetically descended from Abraham, Isaac and Jacob (and Gentiles could choose to become a part of Israel). The church is not spiritual Israel and the church does not replace Israel. Israel, as the entity through which God works, is temporarily set aside during the Church Age.

Old Testament Law

In effect unless specifically abrogated in the New Testament.

Not in effect unless specifically reaffirmed in the New Testament.

The Mosaic Law

The Mosaic Law still stands as the Law of God, except for ceremonial laws and some civil laws.

The Mosaic Law has been replaced by the law of the Spirit and life. The Mosaic Law remains as an excellent guide to human freedom.

Old Testament Prophecy

Some refer to a literal Israel and some refer to God's people, the church, which is spiritual Israel.

Refers to ethnic Israel. All prophecy pertaining to the church is given either during the Age of the Hypostatic Union or during the Church Age.

Jesus offering of the kingdom

This spiritual kingdom was rejected by Israel, but will later be accepted by spiritual Israel.

When Israel rejected the Kingdom of God, a bona fide offer from the Person of Jesus Christ, God turned to the Gentiles, who, along with Jewish believers, make up the church.

Interpretation of History and Prophecy

Promises to Israel as well as the identity of Israel is generally spiritualized. .  

Accepts both literal and figurative interpretation of the Bible. The Jews are seen as a literal race which will exist throughout human history; and the nation Israel is seen as a literal nation. However, God works through regenerate Israel.

Prophecies of the Church Age

There are prophecies of the church and the time of the church throughout the Old Testament.

There are no Old Testament prophecies which deal with the church directly.

The Indwelling and Filling of the Holy Spirit

God indwelt and filled both Old and New Testament saints.

God only indwells and fills Church Age believers. This is a part of the mystery doctrine. Some believers in the Old Testament had the Holy Spirit, but this could be lost (David, for instance, prayed, “Do not take Your Spirit from me.”).

The Body of Christ

Believers of all ages are in Christ and make up the body of Christ.

Church Age believers are the body of Christ. This is a part of the mystery doctrine.

Doctrine of the Church Age

Doctrine related to the church is found throughout the Bible.

Church Age doctrine is found in the Upper Room Discourse (in the book of John) and in the epistles.

The Church

The church began in Abraham’s tent. It finds is complete fulfillment in the New Testament. Acts 7:38

This entity known as the church was born on the Day of Pentecost around a.d. 33.

The Place of the Church

The church is simply the evolution from Israel.

The Church Age is parenthetical, and separate from the Age of Israel. God works through the church (the body of believers) similar to how He worked through Israel, but these are separate entities.

Church Age

God's redemptive purpose continued to unfold. There has been little or no change from God working through the nation Israel.

There is a parenthesis between past and future manifestations of the kingdom (Israel is the past manifestation of His kingdom; and the millennial rule of Jesus Christ will be the future manifestation of His kingdom).

Role of Holy Spirit

The Holy Spirit indwells God's people throughout history.

The Holy Spirit indwells God's people only from Pentecost to the Rapture. There are differing opinions when it comes to the Tribulation and the Millennium.

Baptism

Unified covenant generally used to support infant baptism.

Israel/church distinction often (but not always) used to support believers' baptism.

Social Implications

Emphasizes "cultural mandate."

The only way to save the world is to save individuals; therefore evangelism takes precedence over "social action."

Eschatology

Usually amillennial (there is no millennium); rarely postmillennial; occasionally pre-millennial (there will be a tribulation before the millennial kingdom).

Pre-millennial, usually pretribulational. The Age of Israel is completed by the Tribulation, which is then followed by the Millennium. The church is removed before the Tribulation.

The Kingdom of God

Represents heaven, for the most part.

The Millennium (1000 year reign of Jesus Christ on earth) is seen as the literal Kingdom of God on earth.

Millennium

Symbolic, often identified with present age. This could be identified with heaven.

Literal, earthly 1000-year reign of Jesus Christ after the Tribulation and the Great White Throne.

Animal Sacrifices

Fulfilled in Jesus Christ and never to be repeated.

Animal sacrifices will resume in the Millennium as a testimony to the sacrifice of Jesus Christ for our sins.

Taken from: http://reformed-theology.org/html/c-vs-dis.htm accessed May 19, 2010 and from

http://faithbibleonline.net/MiscDoctrine/DispCov.htm accessed May 19, 2010. Both sources are edited.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Covering both of these topics in a single lesson is impossible. In this, we are barely skimming the surface of these two theologies. Luckily, the internet provides a wealth of information.

Additional Readings on Dispensations and Covenant Theology

Dispensations:

http://kukis.org/Doctrines/dispensations.htm (or)

http://kukis.org/Doctrines/dispensations.pdf

http://www.wenstrom.org/downloads/written/doctrines/dispensational/dispensations.pdf (The most complete doctrine I have seen on dispensations)

http://www.gbible.org/index.php?proc=d4d&sf=rea&did=8

http://dtbrents.wordpress.com/category/doctrine-of-dispensations/ (same as above but a better format)

http://www.christiandoctrinediscussion.com/doctrine-debate-forum/1411-7-dispensations.html (Scofield’s notes on dispensations)

http://www.versebyverse.org/doctrine/dispensations.html

http://www.churchofhopeontheweb.org/archives/218 (a 10 minute video covering dispensations by a missionary in the Philippines; who is a student of R. B. Theme, Jr.)

http://www.spokanebiblechurch.com/study/Bible%20Doctrines/dispensations-definitions-explanation.htm

Dispensations and the gospel:

http://www.brethrenonline.org/articles/dispgosp.htm

Covenant Theology:

http://withchrist.org/covtheo.htm


http://www.ukapologetics.net/07/COVENANTTHEOLOGY.htm

Dispensations and Covenant Theology Contrasted:

http://www.4himnet.com/bnyberg/dispensationalism02.html

http://www.4himnet.com/bnyberg/dispensationalism01.html (to be read in that order)


http://www.christinyou.net/pages/dthcthchth.html (this article gives some of the historical background of both theologies).


http://www.xenos.org/essays/covdisp.htm

New Covenant Theology:

http://www.mbbc.edu/download/Fundamentalism/2008/OatsNewCovenantTheology.pdf

Covenant Theology versus New Covenant Theology

http://www.mountainretreatorg.net/faq/covenant_theol.html

All 3 Systems Contrasted

http://pressiechurch.org/Theol_1/a_comparison_of_three_systems.htm

Listing these sites does not constitute approval of all that is found on these sites.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


In summary, the correct interpretation of human history is, God divides our history into different epochs, ages or periods of time, which we often call dispensations (which, admittedly, slightly distorts the actual meaning of the word oikonomos, which is translated dispensation, and means the administration of a household). There are certain truths which transcend all dispensations: that Jesus Christ dies for our sins and we are saved by faith in Him, is one of these truths. This was taught in the Old Testament, although quite obviously, OT believers did not have a clear understanding of what they were believing in (which is true of NT believers, who first believe in Jesus Christ, and then find out exactly what it is they signed up for).


Dispensationalism simply provides the most literal interpretation of the Bible and dispensationalists believe that Jews have a specific future in God’s plan, which involves very specific promises which include a very specific place.


In vv. 1–7, God spoke to Noah and his sons, and told them that animals would fear them; that they could eat meat (but not blood or living flesh); when a man is killed, his nearest of kin should execute the murderer; and twice, God told Noah’s sons to be fruitful and multiply.


What follows will be an unconditional covenant from God; God will make a promise to Noah and his family (and to all mankind), but without a need for any sort of reciprocation.


Gen 9:8 And God speaks to Noah, and to his sons with him, saying,


In whatever form God presents Himself, Noah and his sons clearly recognize Him and accept His authority.


The Noahic Covenant is an unconditional covenant, which God will lay out below. Unconditional means that Noah and his sons will not have to do anything in order for this covenant to be fulfilled by God. This covenant will be a promise that God will not ever again destroy the earth with a flood. The words conditional and unconditional do not occur in Scripture in association with the word covenant. Theologians have used these words to classify the types of covenants which are found in Scripture.


——————————


“And I, behold Me establishing My covenant with you [all] and with your seed after you [all]...

Genesis

9:9

“And I—even I—am establishing My covenant with you and with your descendants [lit., seed] after you...

“Listen to Me! I am establishing My covenant with you and with your descendants after you...


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                I, behold, I establish my covenant with you, and with your children after you; and with every living soul that is with you,...

Latin Vulgate                          Behold I will establish my covenant with you, and with your seed after you:...

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        “And I, behold Me establishing My covenant with you [all] and with your seed after you [all].

Peshitta (Syriac)                    As for me, behold, I will establish my covenant with you and with your descendants after you;...

Septuagint (Greek)                Behold, I establish My covenant with you, and with your seed after you,...

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       I am going to make a solemn promise to you and to everyone who will live after you.

Easy English                          Look! I am *confirming my *covenant with you. And it is also a *covenant with your *descendants, who will live after you.

The Message                         "I'm setting up my covenant with you including your children who will come after you,...

New Berkeley Version           Take note! I Myself am establishing My covenant with you, with your descendants...

New Century Version             "Now I am making my agreement with you and your people who will live after you,...

New Life Bible                        "See, I make My agreement with you, and with your children after you,...

New Living Translation           "I hereby confirm my covenant with you and your descendants,...


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          'Look; I am establishing an Agreement between you and Me, [as well as] with your seed [that comes] after you...

God’s Word                         "I am going to make my promise to you, your descendants,...

New American Bible              See, I am now establishing my covenant with you and your descendants after you... Gn 6:18.

NIRV                                      "I am now making my covenant with you and with all of your children who will be born after you.

New Jerusalem Bible             'I am now establishing my covenant with you and with your descendants to come,...


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             Truly, I will make my agreement with you and with your seed after you,...

Complete Jewish Bible           "As for me - I am herewith establishing my covenant with you, with your descendants after you,...

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 “Now I Myself will fix a Covenant with you and your descendants after you,...

NET Bible®                             "Look! I now confirm [Heb “I, look, I confirm.” The particle הִנְנִי (hinni) used with the participle מֵ?קִים (meqim) gives the sense of immediacy or imminence, as if to say, “Look! I am now confirming.”] my covenant with you and your descendants after you [The three pronominal suffixes (translated "you," "your," and "you") are masculine plural. As v. 8 indicates, Noah and his sons are addressed.]...


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                Behold, I establish My covenant or pledge with you and with your descendants after you...

Context Group Version          And I, look, I establish my covenant with you { pl }, and with your { pl } seed after you { pl };...

The Geneva Bible                  And I, behold, I establish my covenant [To assure you that the world will never again be destroyed by a flood. ] with you, and with your seed [The children which are not yet born, are comprehended in Gods covenant with their fathers. ] after you;...

NASB                                     "Now behold, I Myself do establish My covenant with you, and with your descendants [Lit seed] after you;...

New RSV                               `As for me, I am establishing my covenant with you and your descendants after you,...

World English Bible                "As for me, behold, I establish my covenant with you, and with your offspring after you,...

Young’s Updated LT             “And I, lo, I am establishing My covenant with you, and with your seed after you.

 

The gist of this verse:          God makes a covenant with Abraham, his sons, and their descendants.


Genesis 9:9

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾânîy (אָנִי) [pronounced aw-NEE]

I, me; in answer to a question, it means I am, it is I

1st person singular, personal pronoun

Strong’s #589 BDB #58

hinnêh (הִנֵּה) [pronounced hin-NAY]

lo, behold, or more freely, observe, look here, look, listen, note, take note; pay attention, get this, check this out

interjection, demonstrative particle

Strong’s #2009 (and #518, 2006) BDB #243

ʾânîy (אָנִי) [pronounced aw-NEE]

I, me; in answer to a question, it means I am, it is I

1st person singular, personal pronoun

Strong’s #589 BDB #58

qûwm (קוּם) [pronounced koom]

raising up, causing to raise up [stand]; establishing; fulfilling; upholding; performing [a testimony, a vow, a commandment, a promise]

masculine singular, Hiphil participle

Strong’s #6965 BDB #877

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

berîyth (בְּרִית) [pronounced bereeth]

covenant; pact, alliance, treaty, alliance, contract

feminine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #1285 BDB #136

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

with, at, near, by, among, directly from

preposition (which is identical to the sign of the direct object); with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #854 BDB #85

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

with, at, near, by, among, directly from

preposition (which is identical to the sign of the direct object)

Strong's #854 BDB #85

zeraʿ (זֶרַע) [pronounced ZEH-rahģ]

a seed, a sowing; an offspring, progeny, descendant; posterity

masculine singular noun with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

Strong’s #2233 BDB #282

ʾachar (אַחַר) [pronounced ah-KHAHR]

after, following, behind; afterwards, after that

preposition/adverb with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

Strong’s #310 BDB #29


Translation: “And I—even I—am establishing My covenant with you and with your descendants [lit., seed] after you... As mentioned earlier, this is probably another time and another place that God is speaking to Noah and his sons. The suffixes here are all 2nd person masculine plural suffixes, so God is speaking to Noah and his 3 sons. In the previous few verses, the word covenant was not mentioned, but what was said appeared to be a part of a covenant agreement. Here, what God is about to say is clearly a covenant between Himself and those before Him and those who would come after them.


Gen 9:9 “Behold! I, even I, am establishing My covenant with you, and with your seed after you;


God states the parties to the covenant: Himself, Noah and his sons and all of their descendants. Let me re-emphasize last week’s lesson: the fact that God established contracts with man throughout human history, this does not make valid the false doctrine of covenant theology.


Although some of this came from Robby Dean’s own notes, I have changed up this doctrine quite a bit.

Points on Covenants

1)      In Genesis 6:18 we have this first mention of the word "covenant." And in this passage God says, "I will establish my covenant with you." What follows is a promise that God would bring a flood upon the earth and that there would be one way of salvation, which is the ark that God would have Noah build. You will recall that there were a number of parallels between Jesus Christ and the ark in which Noah’s family was saved.

2)      This same language will be repeated here in Gen. 9:11. What we find here is the hiphil stem of the Hebrew verb qum (קֻם) [pronounced koom], which means to set in place or to establish. In the hiphil stem it means to cause to be in place and it can have the connotation of confirming something that is already in existence.

3)      Even though the word covenant is new verbiage in Gen. 6:18, we read in Hosea 6:7a: But, like Adam, they have broken the covenant. Therefore, Adam was subject to a contract of some sort with God.

4)      In Gen. 1:28–30, we read: And God blessed them; and God said to them, Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it, and rule over the fish of the seas, and over birds of the heavens, and over all beasts creeping on the earth. And God said, Behold, I have given you every plant seeding seed which is on the face of all the earth, and every tree in which is the fruit of a tree seeding seed; it shall be food for you. And to every beast of the earth, and to all birds of the heavens, and to every creeper on the earth which has in it a living soul, every green plant is for food. And it was so. You will note how close this is to Gen. 9:1–7.

5)      God also said, “Eating you may eat of every tree in the garden; but of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil you may not eat, for in the day that you eat of it, dying you shall die.” (Gen. 2:16b–17). This would have been the covenant which Adam violated. I would think that this would have been accompanied with God allowing Adam and the woman to eat from every tree of the garden, as the woman later confirmed: “We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden, but of the fruit of the tree in the middle of the garden, God has said, You shall not eat of it, nor shall you touch it, lest you die.” (Gen. 3:3b–4). Although the woman appears to have embellished God’s covenant somewhat, the standing contract between man and God was, Adam and the woman could eat from every tree in the garden, except for the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil. This is the covenant which Adam violated. Often, this is called the Edenic Covenant (the Covenant of Eden). Some call this the Adamic Covenant as well (because it is made with Adam). These are logical and reasonable theological designations which do not appear in Scripture.

6)      Later, after Adam and the woman sinned, breaking the Edenic covenant, God gave them the repercussions of violating this covenant, which consequences contained a promise: And Jehovah God said to the serpent, “Because you have done this, you are cursed above all beasts, and above every animal of the field. You shall go on your belly, and you shall eat dust all the days of your life. And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her Seed; He will bruise your head, and you shall bruise His heel. He said to the woman, I will greatly increase your sorrow and your conception; you shall bear sons in sorrow, and your desire shall be toward your husband; and he shall rule over you. And He said to the man, Because you have listened to the voice of your wife, and have eaten of the tree about which I commanded you, saying, You shall not eat from it, the ground shall be cursed because of you; you shall eat of it in sorrow all the days of your life. And it shall bring forth thorns and thistles for you, and you shall eat the plant of the field. By the sweat of your face you shall eat bread until your return to the ground. For you have been taken out of it; for you are dust, and to dust you shall return.” (Gen. 3:14–19). God promises what will happen in the future. Because they violated the original covenant (Hosea 6:7), God, in Gen. 3:14–19, explains to them what He means when He warned them, in dying, you will die. These are the consequences of violating the Edenic Covenant. Buried within this curse is the promise of the Seed of the Woman, an early example of cursing turned to blessing.

7)      A covenant often (but not always) implies that there are responsibilities on the part of man as a covenant partner. That is what we see played out all through Genesis. A covenant establishes the way God is going to interact with man and man's responsibilities, if any, in association with the covenant.

8)      God, being God, can define the exact terms of the covenant. God, being God, can require man to fulfill certain conditions or not.

9)      Since God is God, we can hold Him to the covenants which He makes with us. If you should ever doubt your salvation, then you hold God to His promise: Believe in the Son and you will have eternal life (John 3:16, 36). God cannot lie (Num. 23:19 Heb. 6:18).

10)    In most cases, each new covenant may be seen as a furtherance of each previous covenant. God will make several covenants with Abraham, which indicates that God is reaffirming or amending the original contract (however, the original contract is never abrogated). This is because God is immutable (He does not change) and He does not lie.

11)    In Gen. 9, we have a new covenant made with Noah, but it does not abrogate the results of violating the Edenic Covenant. The promise of the Seed of the Woman still stands, and this was well understood throughout the ages, and more well-defined as time went on. He was called the seed of Abraham (Gal. 3:16–19 Heb. 2:16) and the Seed of David (Rom. 1:3 2Tim. 2:8).

12)    When we get to Abraham, there will be some additional vocabulary words associated with covenants, which we will discuss then.

13)    A covenant is essentially a legal contract. That implies several things.

         (1)     First, there are two parties involved. There is God who is the party of the first part, and man or a group of men, who are parties of the second part. This implies that for there to be a legal contract that both parties are persons. You can't have a covenant between a thing or an impersonal force or a non-person. So this implies that the God who gives this covenant or contract is a personal entity, an individual. The Bible clearly indicates that God is a Person who is capable of relationships.

         (2)     Secondly, a covenant or contract implies that the person who establishes the contract is able to guarantee what he promises in the contract. He is able to control the situation and circumstances and all of the details of history to be able to fulfill what He, God, has promised. That tells us things about God's character. It implies that one who makes this contract is sovereign; He is ultimately in charge. It relates to His immutability. If God is not immutable, if He is going to change His mind tomorrow, then is that contract any good? It implies His love. One of the key words that we find over and over in the Old Testament is the Hebrew word chesed, a word that is a little difficult to translate into English, but it is usually translated "loving kindness." But it means much more than that, it has to do with loyalty, faithfulness. It is love that is faithful to a free, established contract. God honors His obligations even when we don't.

14)    The covenant relationship which we find here is not a contract between equals; God made us, God made the world, and He has the authority to establish whatever contract He chooses. We don’t get to come back and negotiate this contract with Him. If this bothers you in any way, then recognize God’s character; God may be sovereign, but He is also just and righteous. Therefore, we may be assured, on the basis of His essence, that any contract which he establishes will be righteous and just as well.

15)   The giving of a covenant is the expression of God's grace to fallen man and provides the guidelines for the relationship.

16)   The very fact that God enters into a covenant with us shows that man's relationship with God is always based on immutable legal principles that are articulated in specific written regulations. That has implications for understanding the inerrancy of the Bible. This is the old covenant and the new covenant. God writes down and signs the contract. The terms aren't going to change, they are inviolable.

Originally taken from Robby Dean’s Genesis series, lesson #047, and greatly edited. His notes are found here: http://phrasearch.com/Trans/DBM/setup/Genesis/Gen047.htm The audio lesson may be downloaded from here: http://deanbible.org/Media/Audio%20Files/2003%20-%20Genesis/Genesis-047b.mp3


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Sadly, contrast this with man’s approach to a covenant. At one time in this country, two men could come to an agreement, shake hands, and that was the end of it. Today, we can sign 10 or 20 page contracts, and our signatures mean nothing to us. Our signature often means, I will agree to the terms of this contract as long as I want to; if keeping this contract becomes difficult or to my disadvantage to keep my half of the contract, then I will break it without any moral qualms. I have dealt with real estate for the past 30 years, and I have seen hundreds of people break leases or walk away from mortgages because they have no personal integrity. And sadly enough, in many cases, these are believers in Jesus Christ.


Gen 9:8–9 And God speaks to Noah, and to his sons with him, to say, “Behold! I, even I, am establishing My covenant with you, and with your seed after you;...


Most people understand all of Gen. 9 to be the Noahic Covenant, and the tenses of the verbs in vv. 8–9 do not contradict that. Above, I have translated the verbs very literally, as per the tense (speaks is the imperfect tense; to say is an infinitive; and am establishing is a participle). So, this is consistent will all of Gen. 9 being a part of the covenant, even though I don’t believe that these things were spoken at the same time. In any case, it is important to note that this is not a conditional covenant. That is, God defines the specific responsibilities of man after the flood in vv. 1–7. Then God will give a promise to Noah and his family. This promise is not based upon Noah and his descendants fulfilling the requirements of vv. 1–7. Some men will eat blood; some men and some murderers will be set free or thy will not be executed but imprisoned instead. However, despite this, God still guarantees that He will not flood the entire earth again in judgment. Therefore, this is why there is a separation between vv. 1–7 and 10–17; so that we do not mistakenly think that this is a conditional covenant. We may understand all of it to be the Noahic Covenant; with 2 separate and distinct parts, one of which does not depend upon the other. Part I: man’s responsibilities in the post-diluvian era; and Part II: God’s unconditional promise never to destroy all life on earth again with a flood.


——————————


...and with every soul of the living thing who [are] with you [all]—in the bird, in the beast, and in all animal life of the earth [who are] with you—from all those going out of the ark to every living thing of the earth.

Genesis

9:10

...and [My covenant is] with every soul of all the living things that [are] with you—with the birds, with the beasts and with all animal life of the earth [who are] with you—from all the [animals] coming out of the ark to every living thing on the earth.

...and My covenant is also with every living animal that is with you—with the birds, with the beasts, and with the animals of the earth who are with you—including both the animals who have come out of the ark to every living thing on earth.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                ...of birds, and of cattle, and of every beast of the earth that is with you, of all that go forth from the ark, of every beast of the earth.

Latin Vulgate                          And with every living soul that is with you, as well in all birds, as in cattle and beasts of the earth, that are come forth out of the ark, and in all the beasts of the earth.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        ...and with every soul of the living thing who [are] with you [all]—in the bird, in the beast, and in all animal life of the earth [who are] with you—from all those going out of the ark to every living thing of the earth.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And with every living creature that is with you, the fowl, the cattle, and every wild beast of the earth with you; with all that come out of the ark, and with every beast of the earth.

Septuagint (Greek)                ...and with every living creature with you, of birds and of beasts, and with all the wild beasts of the earth, as many as are with you, of all that came out of the ark.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           ...and with every living being with you-with the birds, with the large animals, and with all the animals of the earth, leaving the ark with you.

Contemporary English V.       This includes the birds and the animals that came out of the boat.

Easy English                          And it is a *covenant with every *creature that is with you. That is, every *creature that lives on the earth. That includes birds, *cattle and wild animals. It includes everything that came out of the *ark.

Easy-to-Read Version            I make my promise to all the birds, and to all the cattle, and to all the animals that came out of the boat with you. I make my promise to every living thing on earth.

Good News Bible (TEV)         ...and with all living beings---all birds and all animals---everything that came out of the boat with you.

The Message                         ...along with everything alive around you--birds, farm animals, wild animals--that came out of the ship with you.

New Century Version             ...and with every living thing that is with you-the birds, the tame and the wild animals, and with everything that came out of the boat with you-with every living thing on earth.

New Life Bible                        ...and with every living thing that is with you, the birds, the cattle, and every animal of the earth, of all that came out of the large boat, every living thing on earth.

New Living Translation           ...and with all the animals that were on the boat with you-the birds, the livestock, and all the wild animals-every living creature on earth.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          ...and with everything that lives (the winged creatures, the [domesticated] animals, and all the wild animals of the earth). with all that are with you and came out of the chest.

God’s Word                         ...and every living being that is with you-birds, domestic animals, and all the wild animals, all those that came out of the ship-every living thing on earth.

New American Bible              ...and with every living creature that was with you: the birds, the tame animals, and all the wild animals that were with you-all that came out of the ark.

NIRV                                      I am making it also with every living thing that was with you in the ark. I am making my covenant with the birds, the livestock and all of the wild animals. I am making it with all of the creatures that came out of the ark with you. I am making it with every living thing on earth.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      ...with all living souls with you, the birds, animals, and all life of the land with you, any proceeding from the box and any life of the land:...

New Advent Bible                  And with every living soul that is with you, as well in all birds, as in cattle and beasts of the earth, that have come forth out of the ark, and in all the beasts of the earth.

NET Bible®                             ...and with every living creature that is with you, including the birds, the domestic animals, and every living creature of the earth with you, all those that came out of the ark with you - every living creature of the earth [The verbal repetition is apparently for emphasis.].

NIV – UK                                ...and with every living creature that was with you - the birds, the livestock and all the wild animals, all those that came out of the ark with you - every living creature on earth.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                And with every living creature that is with you-whether the birds, the livestock, or the wild beasts of the earth along with you, as many as came out of the ark-every animal of the earth.

Concordant Literal Version    ...and with every living soul which is with you, with flyer and with beast and with all land life with you, with all faring forth from the ark, for all the land life.

Context Group Version          ...and with every living creature that is with you { pl }, the birds, the cattle, and every beast of the land { or earth } with you { pl }, from all those coming out of the ark to all the beasts of the land { or earth }.

Darby Translation                  ...and with every living soul which is with you, fowl as well as cattle, and all the animals of the earth with you, of all that has gone out of the ark -- every animal of the earth.

English Standard Version      ...and with every living creature that is with you, the birds, the livestock, and every beast of the earth with you, as many as came out of the ark; it is for every beast of the earth.

New King James Version       ...and with every living creature that is with you: the birds, the cattle, and every beast of the earth with you, of all that go out of the ark, every beast of the earth.

New RSV                               ...and with every living creature that is with you, the birds, the domestic animals, and every animal of the earth with you, as many as came out of the ark. Gk: Heb adds every animal of the earth.

A Voice in the Wilderness      ...and with every living creature that is with you: the flying creatures, the animals, and every living thing of the earth with you, of all that go out of the ark, every living thing of the earth.

World English Bible                ...and with every living creature that is with you: the birds, the cattle, and every animal of the earth with you. Of all that go out of the ark, even every animal of the earth.

Young's Updated LT              ...and with every living creature which is with you, among fowl, among cattle, and among every beast of the earth with you, from all who are going out of the ark--to every beast of the earth.

 

The gist of this verse:          This covenant that God is making also applies to all of the animals that are on earth.


Genesis 9:10a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

with, at, near, by, among, directly from

preposition (which is identical to the sign of the direct object)

Strong's #854 BDB #85

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

nephesh (נֶפֶש) [pronounced NEH-fesh]

soul, life, living being, desire, volition; will

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #5315 BDB #659

chayyâh (חַיָּה) [pronounced khay-YAWH]

living thing, animal, life, organisms, lifeform; appetite, revival, renewal; community, family, assembled group, allied families, bands

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #2416 BDB #312

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

with, at, near, by, among, directly from

preposition (which is identical to the sign of the direct object) with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #854 BDB #85


Translation: ...and [My covenant is] with every soul of all the living things that [are] with you... God is making a covenant not just with Noah and his sons, but with all of the animals of the earth.


Genesis 9:10b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; among, in the midst of; at, by, near, on, before, in the presence of, upon; with; to, unto, upon, up to; in respect to, on account of; by means of, about, concerning

primarily a preposition of proximity; however, it has a multitude of functions

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʿôwph (עוֹף) [pronounced ģohf]

birds; used collectively for anything that flies, including bats and flying insects

masculine singular collective noun; with the definite article

Strong’s #5775 BDB #733

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; among, in the midst of; at, by, near, on, before, in the presence of, upon; with; to, unto, upon, up to; in respect to, on account of; by means of, about, concerning

primarily a preposition of proximity; however, it has a multitude of functions

No Strong’s # BDB #88

behêmâh (בְּהֵמָה) [pronounced behay-MAW]

beasts [a collective of all animals]; mammal (s), beast, animal, cattle, livestock [domesticated animals]; wild beasts

feminine singular noun often used in the collective sense; with the definite article

Strong’s #929 BDB #96

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; among, in the midst of; at, by, near, on, before, in the presence of, upon; with; to, unto, upon, up to; in respect to, on account of; by means of, about, concerning

primarily a preposition of proximity; however, it has a multitude of functions

No Strong’s # BDB #88

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

chayyâh (חַיָּה) [pronounced khay-YAWH]

living thing, animal, life, organisms, lifeform; appetite, revival, renewal; community, family, assembled group, allied families, bands

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #2416 BDB #312

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

with, at, near, by, among, directly from

preposition (which is identical to the sign of the direct object) with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #854 BDB #85


Translation:...—with the birds, with the beasts and with all animal life of the earth [who are] with you—... God makes certain that there is no mistaking with whom He is making this covenant. It includes the birds and here, it appears to be the domesticated and wild animals.


Genesis 9:10c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

min (מִן) [pronounced mihn]

from, away from, out from, out of from, off, on account of, since, above, than, so that not, beyond, more than, greater than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

with a plural noun, it is rendered all of, all; any of

masculine singular construct with a masculine plural noun

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

Literally, they mean from all... However, together, various literal translations give the following renderings: about all, of all (1Sam. 23:23); over all, more than all, above all (Gen. 3:14).

yâtsâʾ (יָצָא) [pronounced yaw-TZAWH]

those going [coming] out, those going [coming] forth; the ones rising

masculine plural, Qal active participle

Strong's #3318 BDB #422

têbâh (תֵּבָה) [pronounced tayb-VAW]

an ark, a chest

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #8392 BDB #1061

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

chayyâh (חַיָּה) [pronounced khay-YAWH]

living thing, animal, life, organisms, lifeform; appetite, revival, renewal; community, family, assembled group, allied families, bands

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #2416 BDB #312

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: ...from all the [animals] coming out of the ark to every living thing on the earth. We have two important prepositions here which describe all of the animals which are included in this covenant: all those who have exited the ark and every animal on the earth (which would have included their progeny).


Gen 9:10 ...and with every living creature that is with you, of the birds, of the cattle, and of every animal of the earth with you; from all that go out from the ark, to every animal of the earth.


God makes this covenant with every living creature as well.


God is establishing this covenant with you all (the southern plural of you). Verbs, in the Hebrew, come in a variety of stems, and the stem of the verb further modifies the meaning of the verb. The basic meaning of this verb (to establish) in the Qal stem, is to arise, to stand, to set in place. Here, this verb is in the Hiphil stem, which is known as the causative stem, and it means to establish, to cause to stand, to make binding, to carry out.


——————————


And I have established My covenant with you [all]; and will not be cut off all flesh again from waters of the flood and will not again a flood to destroy the earth.”

Genesis

9:11

I have established My covenant with you [all], that all flesh will never again be cut off [or, destroyed] on account of the waters of a flood and a flood will never again destroy the earth.”

I have established My covenant with all of you that I will never again destroy all flesh with the waters of a flood and a flood will never again lay waste to the entire earth.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And I will establish my covenant with you, and will not again cause all flesh to perish by the waters of a flood; and there shall not again be a flood to destroy the earth.

Latin Vulgate                          I will establish my covenant with you, and all flesh shall be no more destroyed with the waters of a flood, neither shall there be from henceforth a flood to waste the earth.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And I have established My covenant with you [all]; and will not be cut off all flesh again from waters of the flood and will not again a flood to destroy the earth.”

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And I will establish my covenant with you; so that never again shall all flesh perish by the waters of a flood; neither shall there any more be a flood to destroy the earth.

Septuagint (Greek)                And I will establish My covenant with you: never again shall all flesh die by the water of the flood, and never again shall there be a flood of water to destroy all the earth.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       I promise every living creature that the earth and those living on it will never again be destroyed by a flood.

Easy English                          I am *confirming my *covenant with you. Never again will I send the waters of a flood to completely destroy everything. I will never again kill all that is alive. Never again will I send a flood to destroy the earth.'

Easy-to-Read Version            This is my promise to you: All life on the earth was destroyed by the flood. But that will never happen again. A flood will never again destroy all the life on the earth.”

Good News Bible (TEV)          With these words I make my covenant with you: I promise that never again will all living beings be destroyed by a flood; never again will a flood destroy the earth.

The Message                         I'm setting up my covenant with you that never again will everything living be destroyed by floodwaters; no, never again will a flood destroy the Earth."

New Berkeley Version           I covenant [This is the first mention of God making a covenant.] with you that neither shall all flesh again be eliminated by the waters of a flood, nor shall there be another deluge to destroy the earth.

New Living Translation           Yes, I am confirming my covenant with you. Never again will floodwaters kill all living creatures; never again will a flood destroy the earth."


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          This is the Agreement that I'm making with you and with all flesh: Never again will a downpour of water kill all flesh, and never again will a downpour destroy the whole earth.'

Christian Community Bible     I establish my covenant with you. Never again will all life be cut off by the waters of a flood, and never again will there be a flood to destroy the earth.” Hosea 2:20 Jonah 4:11 Isa. 54:9-10

God’s Word                         I am making my promise to you. Never again will all life be killed by floodwaters. Never again will there be a flood that destroys the earth."

New American Bible              I will establish my covenant with you, that never again shall all creatures be destroyed by the waters of a flood; there shall not be another flood to devastate the earth. Sir 44:18; Is 54:9.

NIRV                                      "Here is my covenant that I am making with you. The waters of a flood will never destroy all life again. A flood will never destroy the earth again."

New Jerusalem Bible             And I shall maintain my covenant with you: that never again shall all living things be destroyed by the waters of a flood, nor shall there ever again be a flood to devastate the earth.'

Revised English Bible            I shall sustain my covenant with you: never again will all living creatures be destroyed by the waters of a flood, never again will there be a flood to lay waste to the earth.’


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      I raise my covenant with you to never cut all flesh again by the waters of a flood and never again have a flood destroy the land."

Bible in Basic English             And I will make my agreement with you; never again will all flesh be cut off by the waters; never again will the waters come over all the earth for its destruction.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 I have fixed My Covenant with you, that all flesh shall never again be destroyed by a downrush of water; there shall never again be a downrush to desolate the earth.”

HCSB                                     I confirm My covenant with you that never again will all flesh be wiped out by the waters of a deluge; there will never again be a deluge to destroy the earth."

New Advent Bible                  I will establish my covenant with you, and all flesh shall be no more destroyed with the waters of a flood, neither shall there be from henceforth a flood to waste the earth.

NET Bible®                             I confirm [The verb וַהֲקִמֹתִי (vahaqimoti) is a perfect with the vav (ו) consecutive and should be translated with the English present tense, just as the participle at the beginning of the speech was (v. 9). Another option is to translate both forms with the English future tense (“I will confirm”).] my covenant with you: Never again will all living things [Heb "all flesh."] be wiped out [Heb "cut off."] by the waters of a flood [Heb "and all flesh will not be cut off again by the waters of the flood."]; never again will a flood destroy the earth."


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                I will establish My covenant or pledge with you: Never again shall all flesh be cut off by the waters of a flood; neither shall there ever again be a flood to destroy the earth and make it corrupt.

Concordant Literal Version    And I set up My covenant with you, that not cut off shall all flesh be in the future by the waters of a deluge, neither will there come a future deluge of water to wreck the entire earth.

Context Group Version          And I will establish my covenant with you { pl }; neither shall all flesh be cut off anymore by the waters of the flood; neither shall there anymore be a flood to destroy the land { or earth }.

Darby Translation                  And I establish my covenant with you, neither shall all flesh be cut off any more by the waters of a flood, and henceforth there shall be no flood to destroy the earth.

English Standard Version      I establish my covenant with you, that never again shall all flesh be cut off by the waters of the flood, and never again shall there be a flood to destroy the earth."

LTHB                                     And I have established My covenant with you, and all flesh shall not be cut off again by the waters of a flood; nor shall there ever again be a flood to destroy the earth.

World English Bible                I will establish my covenant with you; neither will all flesh be cut off any more by the waters of the flood; neither will there any more be a flood to destroy the earth."

Young’s Updated LT             And I have established My covenant with you, and all flesh is not any more cut off by waters of a deluge, and there is not any more a deluge to destroy the earth.”

 

The gist of this verse:          God covenants with all mankind and all living things that He will never again bring a flood upon the earth to destroy all lilfe.


Genesis 9:11a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

qûwm (קוּם) [pronounced koom]

to cause to raise up, to cause to stand, to establish, to fulfill; to uphold, to perform [a testimony, a vow, a commandment, a promise]

1st person singular, Hiphil perfect

Strong’s #6965 BDB #877

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

berîyth (בְּרִית) [pronounced bereeth]

covenant; pact, alliance, treaty, alliance, contract

feminine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #1285 BDB #136

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

with, at, near, by, among, directly from

preposition (which is identical to the sign of the direct object); with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #854 BDB #85

This is almost a repeat of a portion of v. 9.


Translation: I have established My covenant with you [all],... God is speaking to Noah, his sons, their sons, and to all animal life. So, this covenant, spoken of here, is for all life.


Genesis 9:11b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

kârath (כָּרַת) [pronounced kaw-RAHTH]

to be cut off; to be cut down; to be destroyed, to be consumed; to perish, to fail

3rd person masculine singular, Niphal imperfect

Strong's #3772 BDB #503

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

bâsâr (בָּשָׂר) [pronounced baw-SAWR]

flesh; body; animal meat

masculine singular noun

Strong's #1320 BDB #142

ʿôwd (עוֹד) [pronounced ģohd]

still, yet, again, again and again, repeatedly, in addition to; more, farther, besides; as yet, yet, still, even yet

adverb

Strong’s #5750 BDB #728

min (מִן) [pronounced mihn]

from, away from, out from, out of from, off, on account of, since, above, than, so that not, beyond, more than, greater than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

mayim (מַיִם) [pronounced mah-YIHM]

water (s)

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #4325 BDB #565

mabbûwl (מַבּוּל) [pronounced mahb-BOOL]

flood, a deluge, an inundation of water

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3999 BDB #550


Translation: ...that all flesh will never again be cut off [or, destroyed] on account of the waters of a flood... God would never allow a flood to ever again destroy all flesh.


Genesis 9:11c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

ʿôwd (עוֹד) [pronounced ģohd]

still, yet, again, again and again, repeatedly, in addition to; more, farther, besides; as yet, yet, still, even yet

adverb

Strong’s #5750 BDB #728

mabbûwl (מַבּוּל) [pronounced mahb-BOOL]

flood, a deluge, an inundation of water

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #3999 BDB #550

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

shâchath (שָחַת) [pronounced shaw-KHAHTH]

to destroy, to ruin, to lay waste [to]; to spoil, to corrupt; to deal corruptly [with]; to act wickedly

Piel infinitive construct

Strong's #7843 BDB #1007

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: ...and a flood will never again destroy the earth.” There would no longer be a flood to destroy all the earth.


Gen 9:11 And I have [caused to be] established My covenant with you [all]. Neither shall all flesh be cut off any more by the waters of a flood. Neither shall there any more be a flood to destroy the earth.


God is making His covenant known to Noah and He will make this covenant stand. God guarantees that the earth will never again be destroyed by a flood. In fact, such a thing is impossible today. The mountains are too high and the oceans too deep for a flood to cover all the earth. We do not have enough water on this earth to cover it anymore.


Now take note of the verb’s tense: perfect tense. This is not something which God is doing right at that moment; this is not something which God will do in the future; he has, in a point of time in the past, caused this promise to be established. During the flood, God changed the height of the mountains and the depths of the seas to make a second worldwide flood impossible. There is no reason to understand this as some form of magic or a miracle, but this could have been accomplished through natural processes.


I still find it fascinating that, if the earth was a perfect sphere, that we would be way, way underwater; that the Bible testifies to there having been a worldwide flood (as do dozens of ancient myths), that the Bible also speaks of mountains being raised up and valleys being lowered, that God promises that He will never again flood the entire earth, and that today, a worldwide flood is physically impossible. This all fits quite nicely together. Furthermore, it fits together nicely with this verb, which is a causative perfect. God caused a future worldwide flood to be impossible, and He caused this to happen previous to the giving of this covenant.


So, in the pre-deluvian state, the mountains were not as tall nor were the ocean floors as deep. The effect of the tremendous amount of water on the earth was to cause great movements of the earth, both up and down, the end result being more dramatic. All of the forces at work are perhaps not given to us.


We are not given much by way of details when it comes to the earth. It is logical that, after 40 days of rain, the earth would have been pounded down more. The only thing which I can come up with, which would have an opposite effect, are great earthquakes and volcanic activity. Possibly huge quantities of water filling up cavernous areas underground set a great many earthquakes and volcanoes into motion. We have all witnessed, either in person, or by television or the print media, just how devastating a hurricane can be. The flood was far and away much more dramatic than any hurricane that man has ever witnessed, with huge amounts of water coming up from under the ground, which then, in huge quantities, begins to recede back into the ground.


One source, and I do not know how credible they are, suggests that the tremendous weight of the water would have caused massive earth movements as well as unprecedented volcanic activity. More on this particular topic:


http://creation.com/images/pdfs/cabook/chapter14.pdf


In any case, God promises Noah and his family and all of their descendants that there would never again be a flood to devastate the entire earth. Furthermore, we know that it would be impossible for the earth to be flooded entirely today.


Gen 9:8–11 And God speaks to Noah, and to his sons with him, saying, “Behold! I, even I, am establishing My covenant with you, and with your seed after you; and with every living creature that is with you, of the birds, of the cattle, and of every animal of the earth with you; from all that go out from the ark, to every animal of the earth. And I have [caused to be] established My covenant with you [all]. Neither shall all flesh be cut off any more by the waters of a flood. Neither shall there any more be a flood to destroy the earth.


You will recall that this is an unconditional covenant, meaning that there is nothing which Noah or his family must do in order to fulfill the terms of this covenant. That is, Noah does not have to promise to be good, or else, God will flood the earth. God’s promise not to flood the earth is unconditional.


As I have pointed out, God made it impossible for the earth to be flooded. The mountains were raised and the valleys were lowered (Psalm 104:5–9), the end result being, the earth is now unable to suffer a worldwide flood.


I tend toward naturalism; that is, I believe that much of God’s interaction with man is a result of normal and natural occurrences, and the function of cause and effect. This does not mean that God cannot or does not do miracles (in the sense of defying the laws of nature), but that He chooses, almost all of the time, not to defy His Own physical, chemical and biological laws. As we saw with the flood of Noah and God saving Noah in the flood through very natural means, that the end result was a much more powerful historical account, one which is being debated even today, whether in person or by a letter to some periodical, or in some online discussion site. Literally, every single day, Noah and the great flood is in some person’s mind, and many times, it becomes a point of debate. Thousands of books have already been written about the flood; thousands more are yet to be written; and it is all because the flood was a series of natural events (for the most part).


None of this means that God is incapable of defying His Own laws, something which He has clearly done in the past (e.g., the turning of water into wine); but God’s power is far more dramatic with far greater historical impact, if it conforms to the laws of His creation.


Is it within the bounds of physics for valleys to sink deeper and for mountains to be raised up? Of course; we have observed this. We see sinkholes on land all of the time, and they happen suddenly, without warning. There have been earthquakes where the ground opens up, where one plate is forced against another, and one moves upward and another down. There is an entire scientific discipline, plate tectonics, based upon these occurrences in nature. In the great flood of Noah, apparently the water coming up from down below was part of the cause of the dramatic shifting of plates which must have taken place before, during and/or after the flood.


——————————


And so says Elohim, “This [is] a sign of My covenant which I am establishing between me and between you [all] and between every soul of life that [is] with you [all], for generations of perpetuity:...

Genesis

9:12

Elohim also said, “This [is] the sign [or, token] of My covenant which I am establishing between Me and you and every living creature that [is] with you, for perpetual generations:...

God also said, “This will be the sign of My covenant that I am establishing between Me, all of you, and every living creature that is with you, for all generations to come:...


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the Lord said, This is the sign of the covenant which I establish between My Word and between you and every living soul that is with you, unto the generations of the world.

Latin Vulgate                          And God said: This is the sign of the covenant which I give between me and you, and to every living soul that is with you, for perpetual generations.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so says Elohim, “This [is] a sign of My covenant which I am establishing between me and between you [all] and between every soul of life that [is] with you [all], for generations of perpetuity:...

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And God said to Noah, This is the sign of the covenant which I make between me and you and every living creature that is with you, for perpetual generations:.

Septuagint (Greek)                And the Lord God said to Noah, This is the sign of the covenant which I set between Me and you, and between every living creature which is with you for perpetual generations.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           God said, "This is the symbol of the covenant that I am drawing up between me and you and every living thing with you, on behalf of every future generation.

Contemporary English V.       The rainbow that I have put in the sky will be my sign to you and to every living creature on earth. It will remind you that I will keep this promise forever.

Easy English                          And God said, `This is the thing that will especially remind you about the *covenant. I have made that *covenant between me and you. And it is also between me and every *creature with you. That is, every *creature that lives. The *covenant will be for always.

Easy-to-Read Version            And God said, “And I will give you something to prove that I made this promise to you. This proof will show that I have made an agreement with you and every living thing on earth. This agreement will continue for all times to come. This is the proof:...

Good News Bible (TEV)         As a sign of this everlasting covenant which I am making with you and with all living beings,...

The Message                         God continued, "This is the sign of the covenant I am making between me and you and everything living around you and everyone living after you.

New Berkeley Version           God further said: This is the sign of the covenant I am making between Me and you and every living thing along with you through all successive generations.

New Life Bible                        Then God said, "This is something special to see for all time, because of the agreement that I am making between Me and you and every living thing that is with you:...


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Then Jehovah God told Noah: 'This is the sign that I have set [as a reminder] of the Agreement of the Ages of Generations between you, Me, and every living creature that is with you:...

Christian Community Bible     God said, “This is the sign of the covenant I make between me and you, and every animal living with you for all future generations.

New American Bible              God said: This is the sign of the covenant that I am making between me and you and every living creature with you for all ages to come:...

NIRV                                      God continued, "My covenant is between me and you and every living thing with you. It is a covenant for all time to come.

New Jerusalem Bible             'And this', God said, 'is the sign of the covenant which I now make between myself and you and every living creature with you for all ages to come:...

Revised English Bible            God said, ‘For all generations to come, this is the sign which I am giving of the covenant between myself and you and all living creatures with you:...


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      God said, "This is the sign of the covenant which I give between you and me and all living souls with you, for generations and forever:...

Complete Jewish Bible           God added, "Here is the sign of the covenant I am making between myself and you and every living creature with you, for all generations to come:...

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 God also said, “This is the attestation of the Covenant which I have made between Myself and you, and between all animal life which is with you for every generation.

NET Bible®                             And God said, "This is the guarantee [Heb "sign."] of the covenant I am making [On the making of covenants in Genesis, see W. F. Albright, "The Hebrew Expression for `Making a Covenant' in Pre-Israelite Documents," BASOR 121 (1951): 21-22.] with you [Heb "between me and between you."] and every living creature with you, a covenant [The words "a covenant" are supplied in the translation for clarification.] for all subsequent [The Hebrew term עוֹלָם (’olam) means “ever, forever, lasting, perpetual.” The covenant would extend to subsequent generations.] generations:...


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                And God said, This is the token of the covenant (solemn pledge) which I am making between Me and you and every living creature that is with you, for all future generations:...

Concordant Literal Version    And saying is Yahweh Elohim to Noah, "This is the sign of the covenant which I am giving between Me and you and every living soul which is with you for generations eonia...

Context Group Version          And God said, This is the sign of the covenant which I make between me and you { pl } and every living creature that is with you { pl }, for perpetual generations:...

English Standard Version      And God said, "This is the sign of the covenant that I make between me and you and every living creature that is with you, for all future generations:...

Green’s Literal Translation    And God said, This is the sign of the covenant which I am about to make between Me and you, and every living soul which is with you, for everlasting generations:...

LTHB                                     And God said, This is the sign of the covenant which I am about to make between Me and you, and every living soul which is with you, for everlasting generations:...

NASB                                     God said, "This is the sign of the covenant which I am making between Me and you and every living creature that is with you, for all successive generations [Or everlasting generations];...

Webster’s Bible Translation  And God said, This [is] the token of the covenant which I make between me and you and every living creature that [is] with you, for perpetual generations.

World English Bible                God said, "This is the token of the covenant which I make between me and you and every living creature that is with you, for perpetual generations:...

Young’s Updated LT             And God says, “This is a token of the covenant which I am giving between Me and you, and every living creature that is with you, to generations age-during.

 

The gist of this verse:          God will give a sign to all creation of His covenant with them.


Genesis 9:12a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun

Strong's #430 BDB #43

zôʾth (זֹאת) [pronounced zoth]

here, this, this one; thus; possibly another

feminine of singular zeh; demonstrative pronoun, adverb

Strong’s #2063 (& 2088, 2090) BDB #260

ʾôwth (אוֹת) [pronounced oath]

sign, a distinguishing mark; token, pledge; remembrance; assurance; a miraculous sign; an omen, a warning

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #226 BDB #16

berîyth (בְּרִית) [pronounced bereeth]

covenant; pact, alliance, treaty, alliance, contract

feminine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #1285 BDB #136


Translation: Elohim also said, “This [is] the sign [or, token] of My covenant... The fact that God is speaking is referenced here suggests that this covenant came along at a different time; but, quite obviously, after the flood.


At this point, God has given several signs to man; therefore, let’s take a brief look at...

The Doctrine of a Sign or Token

1.      Throughout Scripture, there have been many times when God gives mankind some sort of sign of a promise that God has made toward man. Sometimes these are miraculous and sometimes they are within the confines of the scientific laws which God originated. The Bible does not differentiate between the two.

2.      The rainbow is the first sign of God’s covenant to man and it was a sign that He would never again flood the entire earth, destroying all life. Gen. 9:8–17

3.      Circumcision was a sign that Abraham was different from all other men and that this set him apart from all other men. A new race was established based upon Abraham. Gen. 17:11 Ex. 3:12 Judges 6:17

4.      Signs could indicate divine displeasure, as in the signs performed by God through Moses against Egypt. Ex. 4:8 Joshua 24:17

5.      Believers sometimes depended upon God for signs in order to have confidence, e.g. Gideon and the fleece in Judges 6:36–40. However, do not expect God to do this for you, as Jesus said it is a weak and adulterous generation which seeks signs (Matt. 12:39 16:4 Luke 2:34 11:29–30).

6.      Signs were given by our Lord often as an indication of His divine nature. Matt. 12:38 John 4:48 Acts 2:22

7.      His first sign was not only undeniably a miracle, but taught the difference between Himself and Moses. Jesus came that we might have life and more abundantly; with Moses came judgement. John 2:1–11 10:10 Ex. 7:19–21

8.      Signs also confirmed the authority or prophets and teachers. Matt. 16:1 24:30

Some of this came from The Doctrine of Signs and Wonders: http://gracebiblechurchwichita.org/?page_id=537 as well as from The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia; James Orr, Editor; ©1956 Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.; Ⓟ by Hendrickson Publishers; from E-Sword; Topic:  signs. W.E. Vine’s M.A., Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words, published in 1940 and without copyright; taken from e-Sword, Topic: signs. These sources offer a much more complete doctrine.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Genesis 9:12b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

ʾânîy (אָנִי) [pronounced aw-NEE]

I, me; in answer to a question, it means I am, it is I

1st person singular, personal pronoun

Strong’s #589 BDB #58

qûwm (קוּם) [pronounced koom]

raising up, causing to raise up [stand]; establishing; fulfilling; upholding; performing [a testimony, a vow, a commandment, a promise]

masculine singular, Hiphil participle

Strong’s #6965 BDB #877

bêyn (בֵּין) [pronounced bane]

in the midst of, between, among; when found twice, it means between

preposition with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong's #996 BDB #107

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

bêyn (בֵּין) [pronounced bane]

in the midst of, between, among; when found twice, it means between

preposition with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #996 BDB #107

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

bêyn (בֵּין) [pronounced bane]

in the midst of, between, among; when found twice, it means between

preposition

Strong's #996 BDB #107

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

nephesh (נֶפֶש) [pronounced NEH-fesh]

soul, life, living being, desire, volition; will

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #5315 BDB #659

chayyâh (חַיָּה) [pronounced khay-YAWH]

living thing, animal, life, organisms, lifeform; appetite, revival, renewal; community, family, assembled group, allied families, bands

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #2416 BDB #312

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

with, at, near, by, among, directly from

preposition (which is identical to the sign of the direct object); with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #854 BDB #85


Translation: ...which I am establishing between Me and you and every living creature that [is] with you,... God is making another covenant with Noah, his sons, and all life on earth.


Genesis 9:12c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

dôwr (דּוֹר) [pronounced dohr]

generation; race; people; age, period, time period [of a generation], a time slice

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #1755 BDB #189

ʿôwlâm (עוֹלָם) [pronounced ģo-LAWM]

properly what is hidden [time]; of [in] times past, from ancient time, old, antiquity, long duration, everlasting, eternal, forever, perpetuity; for future time, futurity; of the world, worldly

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #5769 BDB #761


Translation: ...for perpetual generations:... This is a covenant which will continue for many generations to come.


——————————


A bow I have given in the cloud and she has been for a sign of a covenant between Me and between the earth.

Genesis

9:13

I have given a rainbow in the cloud, and it will be a sign of [this] covenant between Me and the earth.

I have placed the rainbow in the clouds to be a sign of this covenant between the earth and Me.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                I have set My Bow in the cloud, and it shall be for a token of the covenant between My Word and the earth.

Latin Vulgate                          I will set my bow in the clouds, and it shall be the sign of a covenant between me and between the earth.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        A bow I have given in the cloud and she has been for a sign of a covenant between Me and between the earth.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    I set my bow in the clouds, and it shall be for a sign of a covenant between me and the earth.

Septuagint (Greek)                I set My rainbow in the cloud, and it shall be for a sign of covenant between Me and the earth.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           I have placed my bow in the clouds; it will be the symbol of the covenant between me and the earth.

Easy English                          I put my rainbow in the cloud. The rainbow shall be something that especially reminds you about the *covenant. That is, the *covenant between me and the earth.

Easy-to-Read Version            I have made a rainbow in the clouds. That rainbow is proof of the agreement between me and the earth.

Good News Bible (TEV)         I am putting my bow in the clouds. It will be the sign of my covenant with the world.

New Life Bible                        I will set My rain-bow in the cloud, and it will be something special to see because of an agreement between Me and the earth.

New Living Translation           I have placed my rainbow in the clouds. It is the sign of my covenant with you and with all the earth.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          I have put My bow in the clouds, which will serve as the sign of the Agreement between the earth and Me.

Beck’s American Translation .I have put My rainbow in the clouds to be a sign of the covenant between Me and the world

God’s Word                         I will put my rainbow in the clouds to be a sign of my promise to the earth.

New American Bible              I set my bow in the clouds to serve as a sign of the covenant between me and the earth. Gn 1:28; 8:17; 9:2; Jas 3:7.

Revised English Bible            My bow I set in the clouds

to be a sign of the covenant

between myself and the earth.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      I give my bow in the cloud. It is a sign of a covenant between me and the land..

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 I place my rainbow in the clouds, and it shall be for an evidence of the Covenant between Myself and all the earth.

NET Bible®                             I will place [The translation assumes that the perfect verbal form is used rhetorically, emphasizing the certainty of the action. Other translation options include "I have placed" (present perfect; cf. NIV, NRSV) and "I place" (instantaneous perfect; cf. NEB)] my rainbow [The Hebrew word qesheth (קֶשֶת) [pronounced KEH-sheth] normally refers to a warrior's bow. Some understand this to mean that God the warrior hangs up his battle bow at the end of the flood, indicating he is now at peace with humankind, but others question the legitimacy of this proposal. See C. Westermann, Genesis, 1:473, and G. J. Wenham, Genesis (WBC), 1:196.] in the clouds, and it will become [The perfect verbal form with vav (ו) consecutive here has the same aspectual function as the preceding perfect of certitude.] a guarantee of the covenant between me and the earth.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                I set My bow [rainbow] in the cloud, and it shall be a token or sign of a covenant or solemn pledge between Me and the earth.

Concordant Literal Version    My bow I bestow in a cloud, and it comes to be for a sign of the covenant between Me and the earth.

English Standard Version      I have set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be a sign of the covenant between me and the earth.

The Geneva Bible                  I do set my bow [By this we see that signs or ordinances should not be separate from the word] in the cloud, and it shall be for a token of a covenant between me and the earth.

Syndein/Thieme                      {Rainbow is a Sign of God's Covenant}

I do give {nathan} My bow in the cloud, and it shall be for a token of a covenant between Me and the whole earth {'erets}." {Note: Per Genesis 2:6 there was no rain before Noah. The water came from under the earth. So, the first rainbow was only seen after the flood.}.

Webster’s Bible Translation  I do set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be for a token of a covenant between me and the earth.

World English Bible                I set my rainbow in the cloud, and it will be for a sign of a covenant between me and the earth.

Young’s Updated LT             My rainbow I have given in the cloud, and it has been for a token of a covenant between Me and the earth.

 

The gist of this verse: 


Genesis 9:13a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

qesheth (קֶשֶת) [pronounced KEH-sheth]

bow; bowman, archer; strength, power; rainbow

feminine singular noun with the 1st person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #7198 BDB #905

This is the first occurrence of this word in Scripture.

nâthan (נָתַן) [pronounced naw-THAHN]

to give, to grant, to place, to put, to set; to make

1st person singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #5414 BDB #678

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; among, in the midst of; at, by, near, on, before, in the presence of, upon; with; to, unto, upon, up to; in respect to, on account of; by means of, about, concerning

primarily a preposition of proximity; however, it has a multitude of functions

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʿânân (עָנָן) [pronounced ģaw-NAWN]

cloud (as a veiling over or covering of heaven)

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #6051 BDB #777

This is the first occurrence of this word in Scripture.


Translation: I have given a rainbow in the cloud,... The Hebrew word for rainbow and bow are the same; they have roughly the same shape. It is very likely that man had hunting bows prior to the flood; although we do not have any Scriptural confirmation of that (as far as I can recall). This is also the first time that we have the Hebrew word for cloud.


The first Hebrew word to be examined is naturally qesheth (קֶשֶת) [pronounced KEH-sheth] and it comes from a word which means bending. It is usually translated bow or in a way related to the bow (as in Gen. 27:3 48:22 and over a dozen other passages). It is logical, though not conclusive, to assume that we are speaking of a rainbow, which, from the ground, appears to be an arc. The Greek word used in the Septuagint also means bow. It is used in conjunction with the word for arrows, which speaks of lightning in Habak. 3:9–11. The use of qesheth in Ezek. 1:28a seems to further indicate that we are speaking of a rainbow (As the appearance of the rainbow in the clouds on a rainy day; so was the appearance of Your surrounding radiance). Furthermore, we have a parallel passage to this in Rev. 4:3 and 10:1 in which the Greek word used means rainbow exclusively.


The Torah points, out, as do several authors, that this rainbow here is not the first rainbow seen by man. However, it now takes on new meaning as a sign between God and man that God will not destroy the earth again with a flood. Since the rainbow is the prism effect which occurs when light is shined through raindrops (or through a mist), this would be likely. However, prior to the flood, the earth was surrounded by an atmosphere or a band of water vapor, which may have curtailed the rainbow effect until after the flood. There is no serious theological problem here, no matter which position is taken.


This is not something which had to occur immediately after the flood. There may or may not have been an observable rainbow in the sky at this time; and recall that the rain had stopped for quite awhile before Noah poked the hole (window) in the ark. However, it no doubt rained again; and this rain would have struck great fear into the hearts of those on earth. Recall that it did not rain at all prior to the flood; therefore, when it rains again, this is a great cause for concern, because the people on earth would naturally associate the rain with flooding and terrific destruction. Therefore, God gives the people some assurances, so that every rain did not bring a panic attack upon them.


This may have been given on the first observed rainbow and this promise could have been given later. A rainbow did not have to be even present in the sky for this promise to be made.


My assumption would be that, prior to a rain, God would have made this promise. So, the people have exited the ark and they are making their life; and then, before it rains for the first time, God speaks to them to reassure them about the coming rain. This way, the rainbow in the sky would have had the maximum assurance to them. V. 14 will further affirm that God gives this assurance before or during the first rain.


Genesis 9:13b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person feminine singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾôwth (אוֹת) [pronounced oath]

sign, a distinguishing mark; token, pledge; remembrance; assurance; a miraculous sign; an omen, a warning

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #226 BDB #16

berîyth (בְּרִית) [pronounced bereeth]

covenant; pact, alliance, treaty, alliance, contract

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #1285 BDB #136

bêyn (בֵּין) [pronounced bane]

in the midst of, between, among; when found twice, it means between

preposition with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong's #996 BDB #107

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

bêyn (בֵּין) [pronounced bane]

in the midst of, between, among; when found twice, it means between

preposition

Strong's #996 BDB #107

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: ...and it will be a sign of [this] covenant between Me and the earth. God has promised that He would never again destroy the earth with a flood. It is the rainbow that He will use as a sign or a token of this promise.


——————————


And he has been in My bringing a cloud over the earth and was seen the rainbow in the cloud.

Genesis

9:14

And it has been when I have brought a [rain] cloud over the earth that the rainbow in the cloud is seen.

And when I bring a rain cloud over the earth, the rainbow in the cloud will also be seen, as a token of My covenant to you.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And it shall be that when I spread forth My glorious cloud over the earth, the bow shall be seen in the day (time), while the sun is not sunk (or hidden) in a cloud.

Latin Vulgate                          And when I shall cover the sky with clouds, my bow shall appear in the clouds.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And he has been in My bringing a cloud over the earth and was seen the rainbow in the cloud.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And it shall come to pass, when I bring clouds over the earth, that the bow shall be seen in the clouds;...

Septuagint (Greek)                And it shall be when I gather clouds upon the earth, that My rainbow shall be seen in the cloud.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       When I send clouds over the earth, and a rainbow appears in the sky,...

Easy-to-Read Version            When I bring clouds over the earth, you will see the rainbow in the clouds.

Good News Bible (TEV)         Whenever I cover the sky with clouds and the rainbow appears.

The Message                         From now on, when I form a cloud over the Earth and the rainbow appears in the cloud,...

New Berkeley Version           When I collect My clouds above the earth, then the bow shall appear in the clouds...


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

Beck’s American Translation Whenever I bring clouds over the earth and the rainbow is seen in the clouds, 15 then I will remember My covenant with you and every living being of every kind of flesh: Never again will the waters become a flood and destroy every living thing. V. 15 was included for context.

God’s Word                         Whenever I form clouds over the earth, a rainbow will appear in the clouds.

NIRV                                      Sometimes when I bring clouds over the earth, a rainbow will appear in them.

Revised English Bible            When I bring clouds over the earth,

the rainbow will appear in the clouds.