Genesis 42

Written and compiled by Gary Kukis

Genesis 42:1–38

Joseph’s Brothers Come to Egypt to Buy Grain


These studies are designed for believers in Jesus Christ only. If you have exercised faith in Christ, then you are in the right place. If you have not, then you need to heed the words of our Lord, Who said, “For God so loved the world that He gave His only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son, so that every [one] believing [or, trusting] in Him shall not perish, but shall be have eternal life! For God did not send His Son into the world so that He should judge the world, but so that the world shall be saved through Him. The one believing [or, trusting] in Him is not judged, but the one not believing has already been judged, because he has not believed in the Name of the only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son of God.” (John 3:16–18). “I am the Way and the Truth and the Life! No one comes to the Father except through [or, by means of] Me!” (John 14:6).


Every study of the Word of God ought to be preceded by a naming of your sins to God. This restores you to fellowship with God (1John 1:8–10). If there are people around, you would name these sins silently. If there is no one around, then it does not matter if you name them silently or whether you speak aloud.


Document Navigation

Preface

Quotations

Outline of Chapter

Charts, Graphics, Short Doctrines

Doctrines Alluded to

Chapters Alluded to

Dictionary of Terms

Introduction and Text

First Verse

Addendum

A Complete Translation

Chapter Word Clouds


Links to the word-by-word, verse-by-verse studies of Genesis (HTML) (PDF) (that is what this document is). This incorporates 2 previous studies done in the book of Genesis. However, much of this material was thrown together without careful editing. Therefore, from time to time, there will be concepts and exegetical material which will be repeated, because there was no overall editing done once all of this material was combined.

 

There is a second, less complete set of weekly lessons of Genesis (HTML) (PDF). Every word of that study can be found in the word-by-word, verse-by-verse studies.

 

This study makes reference to a wide-range of sources. There are quotations from doctrinal teachers, of course; but from Catholic commentaries and from other sources as well. Wherever I found relevant truth, I quoted from it or was inspired by it. Even though it is clear that some churches have a better concept of our reason for being here, that does not mean that there is no truth to be found anywhere else. So, from time to time, I will quote from John Calvin, even though I do not subscribe to 5-point Calvinism; I will quote from some Catholic sources, even though I believe that they are very wrong regarding Mary, the pope, apostolic succession and other such doctrines. The intention is for this to be the most thorough and accurate study of Genesis available anywhere.

 

Also, it is not necessary that you read the grey Hebrew exegesis tables. They are set apart from the rest of the study so that you can easily skip over them (based upon the suggestion of a friend). However, if you ever doubt the translation of a word, phrase or a verse, these translation tables are then available.


Preface: When the first year of famine comes upon the land, Jacob and his family are hit hard, and he directs his sons to go to Egypt to buy grain. They go to Egypt and are put face to face with their half-brother Joseph, whom they do not recognize. He accuses them of being spies in the land, and uses this ruse (1) to find out about the family and (2) to find out how guilty his brothers felt about selling Joseph into slavery. Joseph keeps one son behind in prison (Simeon) and sends the rest home with their grain and with the silver that they brought to buy grain. Their instructions are to return with Benjamin, the youngest brother and Joseph’s only full brother. When they arrive home and discuss this with their father, Jacob forbids it.


There are many chapter commentaries on the book of Genesis. This will be the most extensive examination of Genesis 42, where you will be able to examine in depth every word of the original text. Every attempt has been made to make this both a complete and self-contained study. Therefore, all references, vocabulary, and related concepts should be found within this extensive study. Easy access links to more in-depth studies of some vocabulary words, concepts and doctrines are also provided.


Quotations:


Outline of Chapter 42:

 

Introduction

 

         vv.     1–

         vv. 

         vv. 

         vv. 

         vv. 

 

Addendum


Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines:

 

         Preface               Quotations

         Introduction         The Prequel of Genesis 42

         Introduction         The Principals of Genesis 42

         Introduction         The Places of Genesis 42

         Introduction         The Patriarchal Timeline for Genesis 42

         Introduction         A Synopsis of Genesis 42

         Introduction         Hajime Murai’s Chiasmos of Genesis 42:1–38

         Introduction         Paragraph Divisions of Modern Translations for Genesis 42 (from Dr. Bob Utley)

         Introduction         Why Does God Allow Great Disasters?

         Introduction 

         Introduction 

 

         v. 

         v. 

         v. 

         v. 

         v. 

         v. 

         v.       6              Joseph and his Brothers in Egypt (a graphic)

         v. 

         v.       7              Joseph’s possible motivations

         v. 

         v.       8              Why Joseph’s Brothers Do Not Recognize Him

         v. 

         v.       9              Joseph’s possible motivations

         v. 

         v.      10              A Review of Genesis 42:5–10

         v. 

         v. 

         v. 

         v. 

         v. 

         v. 

         v. 

         v. 

         v. 

         v.      19              Why did Joseph change his mind?

         v. 

         v. 

         v. 

         v.      26              Preparing the Grain for Transport (a graphic)

         v. 

         v.      27              Classifying Various Bible Translations

         v. 

         v. 

 

         Summary            A Set of Summary Doctrines and Commentary

         Summary            B. H. Carroll Summarizes Genesis 42 (along with a portion of Genesis )

         Addendum          Edersheim Summarizes Genesis 42

         Summary 

 

         Addendum          Why Genesis 42 is in the Word of God

         Addendum          What We Learn from Genesis 42

         Addendum          Josephus’ History of this Time Period

         Addendum          A Complete Translation of Genesis 42

         Addendum          Word Cloud from a Reasonably Literal Paraphrase of Genesis 42

         Addendum          Word Cloud from Exegesis of Genesis 42


Chapter Outline

 

Charts, Graphics, Short Doctrines

Beginning of Document

Doctrines Covered or Alluded to

Chapters of the Bible Alluded to

Definition of Terms

Introduction and Text

Addendum

www.kukis.org

 

Exegetical Studies in Genesis


Doctrines Covered or Alluded To

 

 

 

Jehovah Witnesses/Jesus, the God-Man

 

 

 

 

Additional doctrines and links are found in Definition of Terms below.


Chapters of the Bible Alluded To and/or Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

 

Deuteronomy 22

 

 


Many who read and study this chapter are 1st or 2nd generation students of R. B. Thieme, Jr., so that much of this vocabulary is second nature. One of Bob’s contributions to theology is a fresh vocabulary along with a number of concepts which are theologically new or reworked, yet still orthodox. Therefore, if you are unfamiliar with his work, the definitions below will help you to fully understand all that is being said. Also, I have developed a few new terms and concepts which require definition as well.

In addition, there are other more traditional yet technical theological terms which will be used and therefore defined as well.

Sometimes the terms in the exegesis of this chapter are simply alluded to, without any in-depth explanation of them. Sometimes, these terms are explained in detail and illustrated. A collection of all these terms is found here: (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Definition of Terms

Rebound (Restoration to fellowship with God)

In the New Testament, this is naming your sins to God, so that you are both restored to temporal fellowship with God and are then filled with the Spirit of God. In the Old Testament, naming your sins to God would result in a restoration of fellowship and, in some cases, the empowerment of the Holy Spirit once again (the Holy Spirit was not given to all Old Testament believers). See the Doctrine of Rebound (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Some of these definitions are taken from

http://gracebiblechurchwichita.org/

http://rickhughesministries.org/content/Biblical-Terms.pdf

http://www.gbible.org/index.php?proc=d4d

http://www.wordoftruthministries.org/terms-and-definitions/

http://www.theopedia.com/


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


——————————


An Introduction to Genesis 42


I ntroduction: Genesis 42, we will bring Joseph together face to face with his brothers for the first time in 20+ years. Joseph will recognize his brothers; they will not recognize him.


In this and subsequent chapters, Joseph is going to say and do some very odd things regarding his brothers. There is a reason for all the things that Joseph does; he is not just randomly giving his brothers jazz.


With the exception of the flood narrative, there are no other parts of Genesis as carefully organized as the autobiographical writings of Joseph.




It is important to understand what has gone before.

The Prequel of Genesis 42

 

Gen. 42 will begin with

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


We need to know who the people are who populate this chapter.

The Principals of Genesis 42

Characters

Commentary

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


We need to know where this chapter takes place.

The Places of Genesis 42

Place

Description

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


The Patriarchal Timeline for Genesis 42


Legend

Birth or death

God speaks with Abraham

Historical incidents (most of which are related to Abraham)

Parenthetical dates (2065 b.c.) simply refer to taking the date assigned by the chronologist and using Scripture to determine the next date.

The entire Abrahamic Timeline (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

The entire Patriarchal Timeline (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

With Abraham, there are continual references to his age, which helps to determine relative dates. There are far fewer references to the ages of Isaac, Jacob and Joseph, which means that there is more guesswork involved in determining dates during their lifetimes.


MacDonald

(N. Berkeley Bible)

Reese’s Chronology Bible

Bible Hub

Ages

Scripture

Event/Description

2234 b.c.

2097 b.c.

 

 

Gen. 11:24

Terah, Abram’s father, is born. Gen 11:24–26 Nahor lived 29 years and fathered Terah. After he fathered Terah, Nahor lived 119 years and fathered other sons and daughters. Terah lived 70 years and fathered Abram, Nahor, and Haran.

 

1978 b.c.

 

 

Gen. 11:25

Death of Nahor, Abram’s uncle

 

1969 b.c.

 

Noah is 950

Gen. 9:28–29

Death of Noah

2164 b.c.

1967 b.c.

 

 

Gen. 11:26–27

Abraham (Terah’s son) and Lot (Haran’s son) born in Ur of the Chaldeans. Abram would be the 43rd generation from Adam. Gen 11:26 Terah lived 70 years and fathered Abram, Nahor, and Haran.

2078 b.c.

1881 b.c.

2080 b.c.

Abraham is 86

Gen. 16:15–16

Ishmael born to Abraham and Hagar in the land of Canaan. Gen 16:16 Abram was 86 years old when Hagar bore Ishmael to him.

2064 b.c. (2066 b.c.)

 

2066 b.c.

Abraham is 100

Gen. 21:1–7 1Chron. 1:34

Isaac born to Abraham. Isaac would be the 44th generation from Adam. Gen 21:5 Abraham was 100 years old when his son Isaac was born to him.

 

1841–

1816 b.c.

 

 

Gen. 25:12–16 1Chron. 1:29–31

Ishmael’s children.

 

1834 b.c.

1829 b.c. (Klassen)

2054 b.c.

 

Gen. 22:1–19

Abraham is told by God to go to the land of Moriah to offer up his son Isaac to God as a sacrifice. This was a 3-day journey away. They then go to Beer-sheba, which could simply indicate that they are returning home to Beer-sheba.

Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge puts this date at 1872 b.c., based upon Antiquities by Josephus.

(2029 b.c.)

1830 b.c.

2030 b.c.

Abraham is 137

Gen. 23:1–20

The death of Sarah. She dies in Kirjatharba, it is Hebron, in the land of Canaan. Gen 23:1 Now Sarah lived 127 years; these were all the years of her life. She is buried in a cave of the field of Machpelah before Mamre; it is Hebron, in the land of Canaan, purchased by Abraham from the sons of Heth.

(2026 b.c.)

 

 

 

Gen. 24:1–67 Gen. 25:20

Isaac (Abraham’s son) and Rebecca. Gen. 25:20 Isaac was 40 years old when he took as his wife Rebekah daughter of Bethuel the Aramæan from Paddan-aram, and sister of Laban the Aramæan. At this time, Isaac is living in the Negev. It is likely that Abraham lived there as well; or near to there.

 

 

2026 b.c.

Isaac is 40

Gen. 25:20

Isaac marries Rebecca. Gen. 25:20

 

1826 b.c.

 

 

Gen. 25:1

Abraham marries Keturah. Smith puts the date at 1860 b.c.; and Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge at 1853 b.c.

 

 

 

 

Gen. 25:2–4 1Chron. 1:32–33

Abraham’s fathers children by Keturah.

 

1817 b.c.

 

Shem is 600

Gen. 11:11

Death of Shem.

2004 b.c.

1807 b.c.

2006 b.c.

Abraham is 160; Isaac is 60

Gen. 25:19, 21–26

Jacob & Esau born to Isaac. Gen 25:26 After this, his brother came out grasping Esau's heel with his hand. So he was named Jacob. Isaac was 60 years old when they were born. Therefore, Abraham would be 160 years old.

(1991 b.c.)

 

 

 

Gen. 25:5–6

Isaac is the heir of all things that Abraham has (but, most importantly, of the covenant of God with Abraham).

1989 b.c.

1792 b.c.

1991 b.c.

Abraham is 175

Gen. 25:7–10

Abraham dies. Gen 25:7 This is the length of Abraham's life: 175 years. He is buried in the cave of Machpelah near Mamre, in the field of Nephron (this would be with Sarah).

 

 

 

 

Gen. 25:11

God blesses Isaac.

(1943 b.c.)

1788 b.c.

 

 

Gen. 25:17

The death of Ishmael. Gen 25:17 This is the length of Ishmael's life: 137 years. He took his last breath and died, and was gathered to his people.

 

 

 

Eber is 464

Gen. 11:17

Death of Eber.

 

1782 b.c.

1978 b.c.

 

Gen. 25:27–34

Jacob obtains Esau’s birthright for a mess of pottage.

 

1782 b.c.

1740 b.c. (Klassen)

 

 

Gen. 26:1–5

A famine in the land; God renews covenant with Isaac at Gerar.

 

 

 

 

Gen. 26:6–10

Rebecca and Isaac in Gerar.

 

 

 

 

Gen. 26:11–16

Isaac is blessed by God in Gerar.

 

1782 b.c.

1735 b.c. (Klassen)

 

 

Gen. 26:17–22

Strife between Isaac and Philistines in and near Gerar.

 

1767 b.c.

 

 

Gen. 26:34–35

Esau marries two Canaanite women.

 

1757–

1739 b.c.

1733 b.c.

(Klassen)

 

 

Gen. 26:23–25

Isaac makes an altar in Beer-sheba.

(1943 b.c.)

1744 b.c.

 

Ishmael is 137

Gen. 25:17–18

The death of Ishmael.

 

1738 b.c.

c 1732 b.c.

(Klassen)

1977 b.c.

 

Gen. 26:26–33

Isaac’s alliance with Abimelech at Beersheba.

(1929 b.c.)

1737 b.c.

1730 b.c. (Klassen)

1929 b.c.

 

Gen. 27:1–46

Jacob by deception receives a final blessing from Isaac that was meant for Esau.

 

 

 

 

Gen. 28:1–5

Jacob goes to his Uncle Laban’s home in Padan-aram for a wife.

 

 

1928 b.c.

 

Gen. 28:10–22

Jacob’s dream; God speaks to Jacob.

 

 

 

 

Gen. 28:6–9

Esau marries a daughter of Ishmael.

 

 

1906 b.c. (For descendants)

 

Gen. 36:1–42

Esau’s marriages and descendants.

 

1736 b.c.

1730 b.c. (Klassen)

1928 b.c.

 

Gen. 29:1–14

Jacob in Haran (Charan).

 

1736–

1729 b.c.

1730–

1723 b.c. (Klassen)

 

 

Gen. 29:15–20

Jacob works 7 years to marry Rachel, but is deceived by Laban, and Jacob marries Leah, her older sister.

 

1729 b.c.

1724 b.c. (Klassen)

1921 b.c.

 

Gen. 29:21–31

Jacob marries Rachel

(1915 b.c.)

1729–

1716 b.c.

1723–

1710 b.c. (Klassen)

1921 b.c.

1916 b.c. (Rachel bears Joseph)

 

Gen. 29:32–34

Gen. 30:1–6

Gen. 29:35

Gen. 30:9, 7–8, 10–24

Jacob has 12 children by his wives, Rachel and Leah; and by their personal servants as well. Reese breaks the timeline down in smaller increments in his book.

1915 b.c.

 

 

 

Gen. 

Joseph is born.

 

1711 b.c.

 

 

Gen. 36:31–33

1Chron. 1:43–44

Gen. 26:34–39

1Chron. 1:45–50

Gen. 36:40–43

1Chron. 1:51–54

The kings of Edom.

(1909 b.c.)

1716 b.c.

1710 b.c. (Klassen)

 

 

Gen. 30:25–43

Gen. 31:1–16

Jacob’s final years with Laban.

 

 

 

 

Gen. 31:17–55

Jacob’s departure from Laban.

 

 

1908 b.c.

 

Gen. 32:1–23

Jacob returns to Canaan.

 

 

1906 b.c.

 

Gen. 32:24–32

Gen. 35:10

Jacob wrestles with the angel.

 

 

1906 b.c.

 

Gen. 33:1–16

Jacob meets Esau face to face.

 

1715 b.c.

1710 b.c. (Klassen)

1906 b.c.

 

Gen. 33:17–20

The resumption of Jacob’s journey.

 

1711–

1708 b.c.

1706–

1705 b.c. (Klassen)

 

 

Gen. 38:1–5

1Chron. 2:3

Judah fathers 3 sons.

 

1700 b.c.

1687 b.c. (Klassen)

1906 b.c.

 

Gen. 34:1–31

Dinah, daughter of Judah, is defiled.

 

 

1906 b.c.

 

Gen. 35:1–15

Jacob returns to Bethel.

 

1700 b.c.

1710 b.c. (Klassen)

1903 b.c.

 

Gen. 35:16–19 48:7 35:20–22

Rachel dies when giving birth to Benjamin.

(1898 b.c.)

 

 

 

Gen. 35:27 37:1

The return to Hebron.

 

1699 b.c.

 

Joseph is 17

Gen. 37:2–11

Joseph—his early days and his dreams.

 

 

 

 

Gen. 37:12–35

Joseph in Shechem and Dothan.

1897 b.c.

 

1898 b.c.

 

Gen. 37:36 39:1

Joseph is sold into slavery, to end up in Egypt.

 

c1699–

1690 b.c.

1898 b.c.

 

Gen. 39:2–6

Joseph enjoys prosperity in Egypt.

 

c1695 b.c.

1707 b.c. (Klassen)

1898 b.c.

 

Gen. 38:6–11

Judah and Tamar.

 

1692 b.c.

 

 

Gen. 38:12–26

Judah’s wife dies.

 

1692 b.c.

1691 b.c. (Klassen)

 

 

Gen. 38:27–30

1Chron. 2:4

The birth of Pharez, the 41st generation from Adam.

 

c1690 b.c.

1689 b.c. (Klassen)

1889 b.c.

 

Gen. 39:7–19

Joseph flees adultery.

 

 

1889 b.c.

 

Gen. 39:20–23

Joseph is put into jail; yet prospers in jail.

(1887 b.c.)

1688 b.c.

1887 b.c.

 

Gen. 40:1–23

Joseph gives the interpretation of the dreams of the baker and the butler.

1884 b.c.

1687 b.c.

 

Isaac is 180

Gen. 35:28–29

The death of Isaac. Now the days of Isaac were 180 years. (Gen. 35:28)

(1885 b.c.)

1686 b.c.

1886 b.c.

 

Gen. 41:1–37

Joseph interprets the Pharaoh’s dream.

 

 

1886 b.c.

 

Gen. 41:38–44

Joseph is made governor.

 

 

 

 

Gen. 41:45

Joseph marries Asenath.

1884 b.c.

1686–

1679 b.c.

1886 b.c. (Beginning)

 

Gen. 41:46–49

The 7 years of plenty.

 

1685–

1683 b.c.

 

 

Gen. 41:50–53

Sons are born to Joseph.

 

1685–

1681 b.c.

 

 

Ex. 6:16 Num. 3:17 1Chron. 6:1, 16

The descendants of Levi are born.

 

1679–

1672 b.c.

1875 b.c.

 

Gen. 41:54–57

The seven years of famine.

(1876 b.c.)

1678 b.c.

1677 b.c. (Klassen)

1875 b.c.

 

Gen. 42:1–44:34

Joseph provides his family with food.

 

 

1875 b.c.

 

Gen. 45:1–15

Joseph reveals himself to his brothers.

 

 

1875 b.c.

 

Gen. 45:16–28

Jacob hears that his son, Joseph, is still alive, and he prepares to travel to Egypt himself.

 

1677 b.c.

 

 

Ruth 4:18 1Chron. 2:5

Birth of Hezron, the 40th generation.

1873 b.c.

1677 b.c.

1875 b.c.

 

Gen. 46:1–7, 28

Jacob goes to Egypt after God’s assurance in Beersheba.

 

 

1875 b.c.

Jacob is 130

Gen. 46:8–27 Ex. 1:1–5

Summary of the 70 who came to Egypt. Compare Gen. 47:8–9 and 46:27 for Jacob’s age.

 

 

1875 b.c.

 

Gen. 46:29–34 47:1–12

The people of Joseph are established in Egypt.

 

1676–

1675 b.c.

 

 

Gen. 47:13–21

Joseph continues as prime minister in Egypt, exercising wise leadership during the famine.

 

 

 

 

Gen. 47:22–26

The land of the priests in Egypt.

 

1672–

1593 b.c.

 

 

1Chron. 2:6–8

Zerah, the brother of Pharez, and his descendants.

 

1671 b.c.

1660 b.c. (Klassen)

 

 

Gen. 48:1–22

Blessings to Manasseh and Ephraim.

 

1660 b.c.

1665 b.c. (Klassen)

 

 

 

Birth of Berith to Ephraim.

 

 

 

 

Gen. 47:28–31

The last days of Jacob; his charge to Joseph.

 

 

1859 b.c.

 

Gen. 49:1–32

Jacob speaks to his sons, giving them their final blessings and encouraging them.

1857 b.c.

1660 b.c.

1859 b.c.

Jacob is 147

Gen. 49:33

The death of Jacob.

 

 

1859 b.c.

 

Gen. 50:1–14

The burial of Jacob.

 

 

 

 

Gen. 50:15–21

The fears of Joseph’s brothers after the death of Jacob.

 

1638 b.c.

1644 b.c. (Klassen)

 

 

 

Birth of Resheph (who is in the line between Ephraim and Joshua).

 

1625 b.c.

1620 b.c. (Klassen)

 

 

Num. 26:58

Birth of Aram (Levi’s grandson and Moses’ father.

 

1623 b.c.

1604 b.c. (Klassen)

 

 

 

The birth of Ram, the 39th generation.

 

1615 b.c.

1625 b.c. (Klassen)

 

 

 

The birth of Telah, in the line between Ephraim and Joshua.

 

 

 

 

Gen. 50:22–23

Joseph’s last days.

 

1606 b.c.

 

 

Gen. 50:24–25

Joseph’s last words.

1805 b.c. (1805 b.c.)

 

1806 b.c.

Joseph is 110

Gen. 50:26 Ex. 1:6

The death of Joseph. His brothers also die.

 

1606–

1462 b.c.

 

 

Gen. 47:27 Ex. 1:7

The population explosion among the Jews living in Egypt.


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Bibliography


Bibliography

MacDonald’s timeline is from: http://www.bibleistrue.com/qna/qna63.htm accessed October 11, 2011 and August 12, 2014. Included in MacDonald’s timeline is a timeline for Egypt interspersed.

See http://www.bibleistrue.com/qna/qna63dating.htm for his justification of his timeline.


The Bible Hub timeline (accessed January 11, 2015) appears to be pretty thorough, but no one specifically is credited.

From: http://www.christianshepherd.org/bible_study_guides/abram_to_the_exodus.pdf (Christian shepherd). This source believes that the Jews live only a short time in Egypt (210 years).

The Reese Chronological Bible; KJV translation; Editor: Edward Reese; ©1977 by Edward Reese and Klassen’s dating system ©1975 by Frank R. Klassen; Ⓟ1980 by Bethany House Publishers, South Minneapolis, MN; pp. 18–19, 54–74.


The Modern Language Bible (The New Berkeley Version), Revised Edition; ©1969 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.; pp. 10–54.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Here is what to expect from Genesis 42:

A Synopsis of Genesis 42

 

 

 

 

Like all chapters of the Word of God, you need more than just the simple plot outline to understand what God wants us to know.

Chapter Outline

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Like most of Joseph’s writings, not only did he produce a wonderful narrative of his life, but it was also really well-organized throughout.

The Chiasmos structure has parallels in the first and last statement; in the second and second to the last statement, etc. Very often, the most important element of the narrative is the middle statement (s).

Hajime Murai’s Chiasmos of Genesis 42:1–38

A       (42:1-4)      Jacob did not send Benjamin with the rest (בנימין)

         B       (42:5-16)    Joseph examined his brother (קות)

                  C      (42:17-20)  Only one of your brothers need be confined in this prison, while the rest of you may go and take home provisions for your starving families (42:19)

                            D      (42:21-23)  Brothers repented their sin

                  C'      (42:24-26)  Simeon was left, Brothers got grain

         B'      (42:27-34)  Brothers spoke about Joseph's examination (קות)

A'      (42:35-38)  “My son shall not go down with you” (בנימן)

A chiasmos can make a narrative easier to remember; but often, the most important point is the one in the middle of the chiasmos.

From bible.literarystructure.info accessed November 21, 2016 (slightly edited).

Chapter Outline

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The New American Bible (2011) summarizes Gen. 42: The first journey of the brothers to Egypt. Its cause is famine, which was also the reason Abraham and Sarah undertook their dangerous journey to Egypt. The brothers bow to Joseph in v. 6, which fulfills Joseph’s dream in 37:5–11. Endowed with wisdom, Joseph begins a process of instruction or “discipline” for his brothers that eventually forces them to recognize the enormity of their sin against him and the family. He controls their experience of the first journey with the result that the second journey in chaps. 43–44 leads to full acknowledgment and reconciliation.


Paragraph Divisions of Modern Translations for Genesis 42 (from Dr. Bob Utley)

NASB

NKJV

NRSV

TEV

NJB (FOLLOWS MT)

Joseph's Brothers Sent to Egypt

Joseph's Brothers Go To Egypt

Joseph's Brothers Journey to Egypt During the Famine

Joseph's Brothers Go to Egypt to Buy Grain

The First Meeting Between Joseph and His Brothers

Gen. 42:1-5

Gen. 42:1-5

Gen. 42:1-5

Gen. 42:1-4

Gen. 42:1-4

 Gen. 42:6-7

 

 

Gen. 42:5-7 a

Gen. 42:5-7

 

 

 

Gen. 42:7 b

 

 

 

 

Gen. 42:8-9

Gen. 42:8-17

 

 

 

Gen. 42:10-11

 

 

 

 

Gen. 42:12

 

 

 

 

Gen. 42:13

 

 Gen. 42:8-17

 Gen. 42:6-17

 Gen. 42:6-17

Gen. 42:14-17

 

Gen. 42:18-25

Gen. 42:18-24

Gen. 42:18-25

Gen. 42:18-20 a

Gen. 42:18-24

 

 

 

Gen. 42:20-21

 

 

 

 

Gen. 42:22-24

 

 

The Brothers Return to Canaan

 

Joseph's Brothers Return to Canaan

Jacob's Sons Return to Canaan

Gen. 42:26-28

Gen. 42:25-28

 Gen. 42:26-28

Gen. 42:25-28

Gen. 42:25-28

Simeon is Held Hostage

 

 

 

 

Gen. 42:29-34

Gen. 42:29-34

Gen. 42:29-34

Gen. 42:29-34

Gen. 42:29-34

 

 

 

Gen. 42:35-36

Gen. 42:35-36

Gen. 42:35-38

Gen. 42:35-38

Gen. 42:35-38

Gen. 42:37

Gen. 42:37-38

 

 

 

Gen. 42:38

 

From Dr. Bob Utley, Copyright © 2014 Bible Lessons International; www.freebiblecommentary.org; from e-sword; Gen. 3931 chapter comments).

Chapter Outline

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In Gen. 42, we reunite Joseph with his brothers, although they will not recognize him (he does know who they are). The drought has gone throughout Egypt and the land of Canaan, and to many surrounding areas. This is a disaster brought on by God, but according to His perfect purpose.


This narrative will move seamlessly from Egypt back to the Land of Promise, back to the family of Jacob. It is quite extraordinary as to how this is done. We end the previous chapter with people coming from all over the earth to buy grain from Egypt, and we then return to Jacob’s family (minus Joseph) who are facing the exact same hardships—famine in their land. They are in the first year of the drought, and they recognize that they are in trouble. The famine is so severe that, they understand that they will begin to die out as a family without the food of the earth.


I realize that few people, when they finish reading Gen. 41 and move into chapter 42 that they do not realize that this narrative is a milestone in literature. We have traveled to a new place, but without any change of circumstances. Notice the transition:


Genesis 41:56 So when the famine had spread over all the land, Joseph opened all the storehouses and sold to the Egyptians, for the famine was severe in the land of Egypt.


Notice that Joseph does not just open up the storehouses and tell the people, “Come on down and get whatever you need.” Even though the storehouses were filled with the grain of Egyptians at the order of Pharaoh, it was now possessed by the state and the state was justified in selling the stored grain back to the people.


Gen. 41:57 provides a marvelous segue from Egypt back to Canaan.


Genesis 41:57 Moreover, all the earth came to Egypt to Joseph to buy grain, because the famine was severe over all the earth.


The famine is severe in all the land, and all the occupants of the land came to Egypt to buy grain (notice again, it is sold; it is not given away). This logically leads us to a small family in Canaan, whose patriarch is Jacob, to use as examples of those in the land who are suffering from the famine. And so Jacob sends his sons (all but one) to buy grain in Egypt.


This is such a wonderful change of scenery in the book; and I am unaware of any narratives of this era which present such an extensive, multi-continent narrative like this. We have suddenly moved from Egypt, in the continent of Africa, to Canaan.


Genesis 42:1 And when Jacob saw that there was grain in Egypt, Jacob said to his sons, “Why do you look upon one another?”


However, before we begin our study of Gen. 42, let’s examine the concept of disaster in the lives of mankind.


We often have a difficult time with understanding human misery and suffering which is brought on by natural disaster. Anyone would be hard-pressed to explain each and every individual case, however, in general:

Why Does God Allow Great Disasters?

1.      Some of those affected by natural disaster are under divine discipline.

2.      Some of those affected by natural disaster are under suffering for blessing.

3.      God cannot reach some people except through personal misery and suffering—I personally had to be brought to a point of personal suffering before I would investigate the claims of Jesus Christ.

4.      God allows some to witness through their unselfish aide to those in need during times of disaster.

5.      God tests some people and their faith in Him through natural disaster.

Because of our own hard-heartedness, some people refuse to face God and the claims of Jesus Christ apart from suffering. For some reason, this upsets those who have rejected the gospel of Jesus Christ. They do not like organizations like Samaritan’s Purse, for instance, bringing presents to children on Christmas, and including with the present a tract telling about the love of Jesus Christ for them. However, sometimes when people have very little by way of material comfort, and someone expresses to them the love of Christ through a present—something they never asked for or expected—many times this reaches the heart of such a person, receiving the love of Jesus Christ through one of us.

Chapter Outline

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Had the book of Genesis been passed down from generation to generation as sort of a fable, then we would not expect it to lack detail in certain areas. Bear in mind that fifteen or so years have passed since we have heard anything about Jacob and his eleven sons. One would expect that we would have some information about them over these past twenty or so years. However, all we will have is sketchy information of their lives and conversations outside of Joseph's periphery; information would could be obtained through direct interview at a later time (which Joseph certainly did). The only portions of lives of his brothers which we know about which may have been coterminous with Joseph's time in Egypt are from Gen. 38; which we already examined.


——————————


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Kukis slavishly literal:

 

Kukis moderately literal:

And so sees Jacob that there [is] grain in Egypt. And so says Jacob to his sons, “For why are you [all] looking at one another?” And so he says, “Behold, I have heard that there [is] grain in Egypt. Go down there and buy [grain] for us from there and we will live and we will not die.”

Genesis

42:1–2

Jacob learned that there [was] grain in Egypt, so he [lit., Jacob] said to his sons, “Why are you [all] looking at one another?” Then he said, “Listen, I have heard that there [is] grain [down] in Egypt. Go down there and buy [grain] for us from there so that we will live and not die.”

Kukis not-so-literal paraphrase:

When Jacob found out that there was grain for sale in Egypt, he said to his sons, “Why are you all just sitting around looking at each other?” Then he said, “Listen, I have heard that there is grain down there in Egypt. I want you all to go down there and buy grain for us so that we will live and not die of starvation.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:

 

Ancient texts:                       Note: I compare the Hebrew text to English translations of the Latin, Syriac (= Aramaic) and Greek texts, using the Douay-Rheims translation; George Lamsa’s translation, and Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton’s translation as revised and edited by Paul W. Esposito, respectively. I often update these texts with non-substantive changes (e.g., you for thou, etc.). I often use the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible instead of Brenton’s translation, because it updates the English text.

 

The Septuagint was the earliest known translation of a book (circa 200 b.c.). Since this translation was made before the textual criticism had been developed into a science and because different books appear to be translated by different men, the Greek translation can sometimes be very uneven.

 

When there are serious disparities between my translation and Brenton’s (or the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible), I look at the Greek text of the Septuagint (the LXX) to see if a substantive difference actually exists (and I reflect these changes in the English rendering of the Greek text). I use the Greek LXX with Strong’s numbers and morphology available for e-sword. The only problem with this resource (which is a problem for similar resources) is, there is no way to further explore Greek verbs which are not found in the New Testament. Although I usually quote the Complete Apostles’ Bible here, I have begun to make changes in the translation when their translation conflicts with the Greek and note what those changes are.

 

The Masoretic text is the Hebrew text with all of the vowels (vowel points) inserted (the original Hebrew text lacked vowels). We take the Masoretic text to be the text closest to the original. However, differences between the Masoretic text and the Greek, Latin and Syriac are worth noting and, once in a great while, represent a more accurate text possessed by those other ancient translators.

 

In general, the Latin text is an outstanding translation from the Hebrew text into Latin and very trustworthy (I say this as a non-Catholic). Unfortunately, I do not read Latin—apart from some very obvious words—so I am dependent upon the English translation of the Latin (principally, the Douay-Rheims translation).

 

Underlined words indicate differences in the text.

 

Bracketed portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls are words, letters and phrases lost in the scroll due to various types of damage. Underlined words or phrases are those in the Dead Sea Scrolls but not in the Masoretic text.

 

I will only list the translation from the Dead Sea Scrolls if it exists and if it is different from the Masoretic text.

 

The Targum of Onkelos is actually the Pentateuchal Targumim, which are The Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan Ben Uzziel. On the Pentateuch With The Fragments of the Jerusalem Targum From the Chaldee by J. W. Etheridge, M.A. From http://www.becomingjewish.org/texts/targum/onkelos_genesis.html and first published in 1862.

 

The very fact that we have ancient Greek, Latin, Syriac and Arabic translations of the Bible testifies to its accuracy. There may be a difference word or phrase here or there; the Greek may have a singular where the Hebrew has a plural, but there is no set of doctrines in the Latin Bible which are any different from those found in the Greek Bible or the Syriac Bible. These different cultures when they chose to translate the Bible chose to translate it as accurately as possible. Where human viewpoint would expect to find doctrinal differences between the Bible of the Hebrews, of the Greeks or of the Romans, no such differences exist.


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so sees Jacob that there [is] grain in Egypt. And so says Jacob to his sons, “For why are you [all] looking at one another?” And so he says, “Behold, I have heard that there [is] grain in Egypt. Go down there and buy [grain] for us from there and we will live and we will not die.”

Dead Sea Scrolls                   .

Targum (Onkelos)                  And Jakob saw that corn was sold in Mizraim, and Jakob said to his sons, Whylook you (on each other)? And he said, Behold, I have heard that corn is sold in Mizraim: go down thither, and buy us from thence, and we shall live, and not die.

Targum (Pseudo-Jonathan)   And Jakob saw that provisions might be bought and that they brought corn from Mizraim; and Jakob said to his sons, Why are you afraid to go down to Mizraim? And he said, Behold, I have heard that corn is sold in Mizraim: go down thither and buy for us from thence, that we may live and not die.

Revised Latin Vulgate            And Jacob hearing that food was sold in Egypt, said to his sons: Why are ye careless? I have heard that wheat is sold in Egypt: go ye down, and buy us necessaries, that we may live, and not be consumed with want.

Aramaic ESV of Peshitta        Now Ya'aqub saw that there was grain in Egypt, and Ya'aqub said to his sons, "Why do you look at one another?" He said, "Behold, I have heard that there is grain in Egypt. Go down there, and buy for us from there, so that we may live, and not die."

Peshitta (Syriac)                    NOW when Jacob saw that there was grain in Egypt, Jacob said to his sons, Fear not. Behold, I have heard that there is grain in Egypt; go down there, and buy for us from there; that we may live, and not die.

Septuagint (Greek)                Joseph's brothers come to buy corn. Gn.42.1-24

And Jacob having seen that there was a sale of corn in Egypt, said to his sons, Why are you indolent? Behold, I have heard that there is corn in Egypt; go down thither, and buy for us a little food, that we may live, and not die.

NETS (Greek)                        .

Brenton’s Septuagint             .

 

Significant differences: 


Limited Vocabulary Translations:

 

Bible in Basic English             Now Jacob, hearing that there was grain in Egypt, said to his sons, Why are you looking at one another? And he said, I have had news that there is grain in Egypt: go down there and get grain for us, so that life and not death may be ours.

Easy English                          Joseph and his brothers

Jacob heard that there was corn in Egypt. Then he said to his sons, ‘Do not just stand there while you look at each other!’ Jacob said, ‘Look! I have heard that there is corn in Egypt. Go down there and buy corn for us. Then we can stay alive. Then we will not die.’

Easy-to-Read Version            .

God’s Word                         Jacob [Israel] Sends Ten Sons to Egypt

When Jacob found out that grain was for sale in Egypt, he said to his sons, “Why do you keep looking at each other? I’ve heard there’s grain for sale in Egypt. Go there and buy some for us so that we won’t starve to death.”

Good News Bible (TEV)         .

The Message                         When Jacob learned that there was food in Egypt, he said to his sons, “Why do you sit around here and look at one another? I’ve heard that there is food in Egypt. Go down there and buy some so that we can survive and not starve to death.”

Names of God Bible               .

NIRV                                      Joseph’s Brothers Go Down to Egypt

Jacob found out that there was grain in Egypt. So he said to his sons, “Why do you just keep looking at one another?” He continued, “I’ve heard there’s grain in Egypt. Go down there. Buy some for us. Then we’ll live and not die.”

New Simplified Bible              When Jacob learned that there was grain in Egypt, he said to his sons: »Why are you doing nothing?« He said: »I have heard that there is grain in Egypt. Go down there and buy some for us from that place, so that we may live and not die.«


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Joseph’s brothers arrive in Egypt

When Jacob learned that there was grain in Egypt, he said to his sons, “Why are you staring blankly at each other? I’ve just heard that there’s grain in Egypt. Go down there and buy some for us so that we can survive and not starve to death.”

Contemporary English V.       .

The Living Bible                     When Jacob heard that there was grain available in Egypt he said to his sons, “Why are you standing around looking at one another? I have heard that there is grain available in Egypt. Go down and buy some for us before we all starve to death.”

New Berkeley Version           .

New Century Version             The Dreams Come True

Jacob learned that there was grain in Egypt, so he said to his sons, “Why are you just sitting here looking at one another? I have heard that there is grain in Egypt. Go down there and buy grain for us to eat, so that we will live and not die.”

New Life Version                    .

New Living Translation           Joseph’s Brothers Go to Egypt

When Jacob heard that grain was available in Egypt, he said to his sons, “Why are you standing around looking at one another? I have heard there is grain in Egypt. Go down there, and buy enough grain to keep us alive. Otherwise we’ll die.”


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Now, Jacob had noticed that they were still selling [grain] in Egypt. So he said to his sons: 'Why don't you do something? Look; I've heard that there is grain in Egypt. Go there and buy us a little food, so we don't starve to death.'

Beck’s American Translation .

International Standard V        Joseph’s Brothers Visit Egypt

Eventually, Jacob observed that there was grain in Egypt, so he asked his sons, “Why do you keep on staring at one another? Pay attention now! I’ve heard that there is grain in Egypt, so go down there and buy some grain for us, so we can live, instead of dying.”

Revised Knox Bible                The news that there was corn to be bought in Egypt reached Jacob among the rest; and he said to his sons, What means this lethargy? They tell me there is corn for sale in Egypt; why do you not go down there, and buy enough for us to live on, instead of waiting till we starve?

Today’s NIV                          .

Translation for Translators     Joseph's brothers went to Egypt to buy grain, but didn't realize they were buying it from their brother

When someone told Jacob that there was grain in Egypt that people could buy, he said to his sons, “◂Why do you just sit there looking at each other?/Do not just sit there looking at each other!► [RHQ] We need some grain!” He said to them, “Someone told me that there is grain for sale in Egypt. Go down there and buy some for us, in order that we can stay alive and not die!”


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Awful Scroll Bible                   Jacob was to perceive, that there persist that broken apart in Egypt. Jacob was to say to his sons: Yous were to perceive it. Even was he to say: I am to have heard, that there persist that broken apart in Egypt. Be going down there and be buying grain, that we were to live - were we to die?

Conservapedia                       Jacob could see that victuals could be had in Egypt. So he said to his sons, "Why are you standing around looking at yourselves?" And he said, "Look: I've heard that victuals can be found in Egypt. Now go down there and buy some for us from there, so that we can live, rather than die."

Ferrar-Fenton Bible                Joseph’s Brothers are sent to Egypt to buy Corn, and terrified by being called Spies

Jacob also learnt there was corn in Mitzeraim, so Jacob said to his sons, " Why do you look at each other ? '' He also said, " I have heard that there is corn in Mitzeraim. Descend to there and buy for us from it, that we may live and not die."

God’s Truth (Tyndale)           When Jacob saw that there was corn to be sold in Egypt, he said unto his sons: why are you negligent? behold, I have heard that there is corn to be sold in Egypt. Get you there and buy us corn from there, that we may live and not die.

HCSB                                     Joseph’s Brothers in Egypt

When Jacob learned that there was grain in Egypt, he said to his sons, “Why do you keep looking at each other? Listen,” he went on, “I have heard there is grain in Egypt. Go down there and buy some for us so that we will live and not die.”

H. C. Leupold                         Now when Jacob saw that there was grain in Egypt, Jacob said to his sons: Why do ye look at one another? He further said: See, I have heard that there is grain in Egypt. Go down there and buy some for us there, that we may live and not die.

Lexham English Bible            Joseph’s Brothers Go to Egypt for Food

When Jacob realized that there was grain in Egypt, Jacob said to his sons, "Why do you look at one another?" Then he said, "Look, I have heard that there is grain in Egypt. Go down there and buy grain for us there that we may live and not die."

NIV, ©2011                             Joseph’s Brothers Go to Egypt

When Jacob learned that there was grain in Egypt, he said to his sons, “Why do you just keep looking at each other?” He continued, “I have heard that there is grain in Egypt. Go down there and buy some for us, so that we may live and not die.”

Tree of Life Version                Joseph Meets His Brothers

Now Jacob saw that there was grain in Egypt, so Jacob said to his sons, “Why are you looking at each other?” Then he said, “Look! I’ve heard that there’s grain in Egypt. Go down there and buy some grain for us there so that we’ll live and not die.”


Catholic Bibles (those having the imprimatur):

 

Christian Community (1988)  The sons of Jacob go down to Egypt

When Jacob heard there was wheat in Egypt he said to his sons, “Why do you stand looking at one another? I’ve heard there is grain in Egypt, so go down and buy some for us so that we may stay alive and not die!”

The Heritage Bible                 And Jacob saw there was grain in Egypt, and Jacob said to his sons, Why do you look at one another? And he said, Behold, I have attentively heard that there is grain in Egypt; descend there, and buy grain for us there, and we will live, and not die.

New American Bible (2002)   When Jacob learned that grain rations were available in Egypt, he said to his sons: "Why do you keep gaping at one another? I hear," he went on, "that rations of grain are available in Egypt. Go down there and buy some for us, that we may stay alive rather than die of hunger."

New American Bible (2011)   The Brothers’ First Journey to Egypt.*

When Jacob learned that grain rations were for sale in Egypt, he said to his sons: “Why do you keep looking at one another?” He went on, “I hear that grain is for sale in Egypt. Go down there and buy some for us, that we may stay alive and not die.” Acts 7:12.

New Jerusalem Bible             Jacob, seeing that there were supplies to be had in Egypt, said to his sons, 'Why do you keep staring at one another? I hear', he said, 'that there are supplies in Egypt. Go down and procure some for us there, so that we may survive and not die.'

New RSV                               .

Revised English Bible            WHEN Jacob learnt that there was grain in Egypt, he said to his sons, “Why do you stand staring at each other? I hear there is grain in Egypt. Go down there, and buy some for us to keep us alive and save us from starving to death.”


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           Now Ya‘akov saw that there was grain in Egypt; so Ya‘akov said to his sons, “Why are you staring at each other? Look,” he said, “I’ve heard that there’s grain in Egypt. Go down there and buy some for us from there, so that we can stay alive and not die!”

exeGeses companion Bible   .

Hebraic Transliteration           .

Hebrew Names Version         .

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               When Jacob saw that there were food rations to be had in Egypt, he said to his sons, “Why do you keep looking at one another? Now I hear,” he went on, “that there are rations to be had in Egypt. Go down and procure rations for us there, that we may live and not die.”

Judaica Press Complete T.    .

Kaplan Translation                 Joseph's Vindication

Jacob learned that there were provisions in Egypt, and he said to his sons, 'Why are you fantasizing [(Radak). Or, 'why are you looking at one another' (Septuagint); or, 'Why are you showing off' (Rashi; Rashbam; Taanith 10b); or, 'Why are you afraid' (Targum Yonathan).]?' 'I have heard that there are supplies in Egypt,' he explained. 'You can go there and buy food. Let us live and not die.' The Kaplan Translation, particularly in Exodus through Deuteronomy, takes note of historic rabbinic opinions.

Natural Israelite Bible             .

Orthodox Jewish Bible           Now when Ya’akov saw that there was shever (grain) in Mitzrayim, Ya’akov said unto his banim, Why do ye look one upon another?

And he said, Hinei, I have heard that there is shever (grain) in Mitzrayim; get you down to there, and buy for us from there; that we may live, and not die.

Restored Names Version       .

The Scriptures 1998              .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

The Amplified Bible                Joseph’s Brothers Sent to Egypt

Now when Jacob (Israel) learned that there was grain in Egypt, he said to his sons, “Why are you staring at one another [in bewilderment and not taking action]?” He said, “I have heard that there is grain in Egypt; go down there and buy [some] grain for us, so that we may live and not die [of starvation].”

The Expanded Bible              The Dreams Come True

Jacob ·learned [Lsaw] that there was grain in Egypt, so he said to his sons, “Why are you just sitting here looking at one another? I have heard that there is grain in Egypt. Go down there and buy grain for us to eat, so that we will live and not die.”

The Geneva Bible                  .

Kretzmann’s Commentary    Verses 1-7

The Arrival in Egypt

Now when Jacob saw that there was corn in Egypt, having undoubtedly gotten the information from his Canaanite neighbors, many of whom were merchants, Jacob said unto his sons, Why do ye look one upon another? The mention of Egypt caused the brethren to look upon one another with a helpless and suspicious questioning, for their conscience reminded them of the fact that Joseph had been sold into Egypt.

And he said, Behold, I have heard that there is corn in Egypt, grain which people could buy for their own needs; get you down thither, and buy for us from thence; that we may live, and not die. All this appears to have happened at a family council at which Jacob, as the head of the family or tribe, presided. He saw no need for a long discussion or for hesitation: it was a matter of life and death.

NET Bible®                             Joseph’s Brothers in Egypt

When Jacob heard [Heb “saw.”] there was grain in Egypt, he [Heb “Jacob.” Here the proper name has been replaced by the pronoun (“he”) in the translation for stylistic reasons.] said to his sons, “Why are you looking at each other?” He then said, “Look, I hear that there is grain in Egypt. Go down there and buy grain for us [Heb “and buy for us from there.” The word “grain,” the direct object of “buy,” has been supplied for clarity, and the words “from there” have been omitted in the translation for stylistic reasons.] so that we may live [Following the imperatives, the prefixed verbal form with prefixed vav expresses purpose of result.] and not die [The imperfect tense continues the nuance of the verb before it.].” When it comes to making an actual material change to the text, the NET Bible® is pretty good about indicating this. Since most of these corrections will be clear in the more literal translations below and within the Hebrew exegesis itself, I will not continue to list every NET Bible® footnote. Language footnotes will be placed in the Hebrew exegesis. Some footnotes will quoted elsewhere in this document.

Syndein/Thieme                     {Chapter 42 Really Starts in Chapter 41 Verse 54}

{Brothers Reap the Whirlwind}

Now when Jacob kept on seeing that there was corn in Egypt, Jacob kept on saying unto his sons, "Why do you look one upon another?" {idiom meaning they were standing around doing nothing but looking at each other to see who would act!} And he {Jacob} kept on saying, "Behold, I have heard {shama'} that there is corn in Egypt. Go there and buy . . . so we may keep on living and not keep on dieing {slowly starving to death}.

The Voice

Famine in this part of the world normally involves a drought that extends for years. Only those with access to bodies of fresh water can survive. The Egyptians are perfectly positioned to use the Nile River to irrigate their crops during a drought. Most of the land of Canaan, on the other hand—where Jacob and his sons still live—has little fresh water even when there is no drought. Although some grain can be moved up and down the Nile or across the Mediterranean over established trade routes, the amount of grain needed to keep large populations alive cannot be moved across land or sea. So people have to go where the food is, or they starve to death. Israel knows he is out of options at home, so he has to look abroad.

 

Now when Jacob found out there was grain to be had in Egypt, he talked to his sons about it.

Jacob: Why do you just keep sitting here looking at each other? Listen! I’ve heard they have grain for sale in Egypt! Go down there, and buy grain for us so that we have enough to live and won’t die of hunger.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Brenner’s Mechanical Trans....and Ya'aqov [He restrains] saw that there was barley in Mitsrayim [Troubles] and Ya'aqov [He restrains] said to his sons, why do you look at yourselves, and he said, look, I heard that there is barley in Mitsrayim [Troubles], go down unto there and exchange for us from there and we will live and we will not die...

American KJV                        .

Concordant Literal Version    And seeing is Jacob that, forsooth, there are victuals in Egypt. And saying is Jacob to his sons, "Why are you staring at one another? And saying is he, "Behold! I hear, forsooth, that there are victuals in Egypt. Go down there and purchase for us thence a little food that we will live, and not die.

A Conservative Version         .

Context Group Version          Now Jacob saw that there was grain in Egypt, and Jacob said to his sons, Why do you {pl} look one on another? And he said, Look, I have heard that there is grain in Egypt: you {pl} get down there, and buy for us from there; that we may live, and not die.

Darby Translation                  .

Emphasized Bible                  .

English Standard Version      When Jacob learned that there was grain for sale in Egypt, he said to his sons, "Why do you look at one another?" And he said, "Behold, I have heard that there is grain for sale in Egypt. Go down and buy grain for us there, that we may live and not die."

Evidence Bible                       .

Green’s Literal Translation    .

God’s Truth (Tyndale)           .

King James 2000 Version      .

21st Century KJV                   .

Modern KJV                           .

NASB                                     Joseph’s Brothers Sent to Egypt

Now Jacob saw that there was grain in Egypt, and Jacob said to his sons, “Why are you staring at one another?” He said, “Behold, I have heard that there is grain in Egypt; go down there and buy some for us from that place, so that we may live and not die.”

New European Version          Jacob’s Sons Meet Joseph in Egypt

Now Jacob saw that there was grain in Egypt, and Jacob said to his sons, Why do you look at one another? He said, Behold, I have heard that there is grain in Egypt. Go down there, and buy for us from there, so that we may live, and not die.

New King James Version       Joseph’s Brothers Go to Egypt

When Jacob saw that there was grain in Egypt, Jacob said to his sons, “Why do you look at one another?” And he said, “Indeed I have heard that there is grain in Egypt; go down to that place and buy for us there, that we may live and not die.”

Owen's Translation                .

Third Millennium Bible            .

Updated Bible Version 2.11   .

A Voice in the Wilderness      .

Webster’s Bible Translation  .

World English Bible                Now Jacob saw that there was grain in Egypt, and Jacob said to his sons, “Why do you look at one another?” He said, “Behold, I have heard that there is grain in Egypt. Go down there, and buy for us from there, so that we may live, and not die.”

Young's Literal Translation     .

Young's Updated LT              And Jacob sees that there is corn in Egypt, and Jacob saith to his sons, `Why do you look at each other?' He says also, “Lo, I have heard that there is corn in Egypt, go down there, and buy for us from there, and we live and do not die.”

 

The gist of this passage:     Jacob’s family is out of grain; so Jacob asks his sons, “Why are you sitting around looking at each other? I hear there is grain for sale in Egypt; go there so that we do not all starve.”


Genesis 42:1a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

râʾâh (רָאָה) [pronounced raw-AWH]

to see, to look, to look at, to view, to behold; to observe; to perceive, to understand, to learn, to know

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #7200 BDB #906

Yaʿăqôb (יַעֲקֹב) [pronounced yah-ģuh-KOHBV]

supplanter; insidious, deceitful; to circumvent; heel; and is transliterated Jacob

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3290 BDB #784

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

yêsh (יֵש) [pronounced yaysh]

being, substance, existence; used as a substitute for to be (without reference to number or tense); there [is, are]; to be present, to be ready, to exist

substantive; the verb to be may be implied

Strong’s #3426 BDB #441

The substantive yêsh often acts as a substantive plus the absolute status quo verb to be; e.g., [if] there be (1Sam. 20:8), there is (Esther 3:8), there shall be (Jer. 31:6). However, this acts not as a mere copula [pronounced KOP-ye-la], but existence is emphasized. In the KJV, the verbal portion of this is often italicized. The second word in the second line of Job 6:6 is the substantive of existence or being—or is there, or does there exist. We often render this there is, even though there is no verb.

shêber (שֵבֶר) [pronounced SHAY-ber]

a breaking, fracture, breach [of a wall]; the breaking open [of a dream], an interpretation or solution [of a dream]; destruction (ruin, shattering) [of a kingdom; of men]; a breaking [of the mind], terror; quarries; a crushing [of corn, grain]; corn, grain [which has been crushed or threshed]

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #7667 & 7668 BDB #991

Also spelled sheber (שֶבֶר) [pronounced SHEH-ber].

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

Mitserayim (מִצְרַיִם) [pronounced mits-RAH-yim]

double straights; transliterated Mizraim; also Egypt, Egyptians

masculine singular, proper noun

Strong’s #4714 BDB #595


Translation: Jacob learned that there [was] grain in Egypt,... Recall that there are no actual chapter divisions, although, certainly, one author left off writing here and another one picked up there. However, this continues from the previous chapter. In the previous chapter, there was a great 7 year famine throughout Egypt and Canaan and in other surrounding areas.


At this point, we do not know how far we are into this famine; whether a year or two. However, Jacob has found out that Egypt has a lot of grain. How would he have found this out? Why is the verb to see used? Very likely, Jacob saw people from his general area who had gone to Egypt and had returned with grain.


Genesis 42:1b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend; to decide; to answer

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

Yaʿăqôb (יַעֲקֹב) [pronounced yah-ģuh-KOHBV]

supplanter; insidious, deceitful; to circumvent; heel; and is transliterated Jacob

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3290 BDB #784

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

bânîym (בָּנִים) [pronounced baw-NEEM]

sons, descendants; children; people; sometimes rendered men; young men, youths

masculine plural noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

mâh (מָה) [pronounced maw]

what, how, why

interrogative; exclamatory particle

Strong’s #4100 BDB #552

Lâmed + mâh together literally mean for why. They can be rendered why, for what reason, to what purpose, for what purpose, indicating an interrogatory sentence. BDB also offers the rendering lest. Gesenius, perhaps for this passage alone (1Chron. 15:13), offers the rendering on account of [that] which, because that.

râʾâh (רָאָה) [pronounced raw-AWH]

to see each other, to look at each other, to face, to view each other

3rd person masculine plural, Hithpael imperfect; pausal form

Strong's #7200 BDB #906


Translation: ...so he [lit., Jacob] said to his sons, “Why are you [all] looking at one another?” Jacob looks at his sons, and they are sitting around looking at one another, while they are running out of food. Jacob tells them that they cannot continue to just sit (stand) around looking at each other. “What exactly do you think you can accomplish by that?” he implies.

 

The NET Bible: The point of Jacob’s question is that his sons should be going to get grain rather than sitting around doing nothing. Jacob, as the patriarch, still makes the decisions for the whole clan.


With this first sentence, we know that the brothers are not taking huge flocks throughout the land; that they are mostly all living at home; that they are just sitting around getting hungry. Their lives over this first year of famine have become rather desperate.


Genesis 42:1 And when Jacob saw that there was grain in Egypt, Jacob said to his sons, “Why do you look upon one another?”


Interestingly enough, it is Jacob who prods his sons to go to Egypt. Reuben does not say, “I think what we ought to do is go to Egypt to buy grain.” As the eldest brother, he should be making such suggestions by this time; thinking ahead, concerning himself with the needs of the family. Although he is not the patriarch, he is the oldest of the sons. Yet, again and again, he does not assume a full-on leadership role.


In the ancient world, leadership falls upon the first son, and yet, this is another instance where Reuben does not exhibit the leadership that he ought (I say this, as the firstborn of a family who also exhibited no leadership potential either).


As we near the end of the book of Genesis, keep in the back of your mind that, we are concerned with these sons in particular: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah and Joseph. The line of promise will go through one of these men, and there are reasons why they are the only ones named in this narrative and why when the sons of Israel speak, only these voices are heard. So, when any of these men say or do anything related to their own personal character and their relationship to God, it will be noted. In some narratives, we might read, and the brothers said; but whenever we are in a narrative that counts, we will find the name or names of one or more of these particular brothers.


The short explanation is this: Reuben, Simeon, Levi and Judah are the oldest sons; so, if the leadership mantle is not taken up by Reuben, then it falls to the next brother Simeon; if Simeon does not take up the mantle of leadership, then it falls to Levi; and then to Judah. And we have to bear in mind that, for the most part, these sons seem to reveal little or no spiritual progress in their lives. Of all the brothers, Only Joseph reveals a strong faith in God. So, wouldn’t the mantle of leadership go to him as the spiritually mature brother?


So far, we have seen that Reuben has not taken up his role as leader of his younger brothers. We have seen that Simeon and Levi overreact to situations and are quite violent. All of the brothers, save Joseph and Benjamin, are scheming (a trait which seems to run in the family). Now Simeon and Levi will not actually have speaking roles in the upcoming chapters—we already know their character and their distorted views of justice.


Also, Benjamin will be in view, but for different reasons.


One of the reasons that some scholars have questioned the time of writing of Genesis is, it concerns itself with things it should not know about. How do these writers of Genesis know who God is looking at? How do they know who would eventually become the line of the Messiah? There is only one line followed from beginning to end of the Bible, and that is the line of the humanity of Jesus. Flipping from one book to the next, we find that this line begins with Adam, goes through Seth, eventually finds its way to Abraham (then Isaac and then Jacob); and, eventually to David. The Messiah is also known as David’s Greater Son. On several occasions, the Lord is called Son of David.


Much of this information is found in the book of Genesis, written around 2000 b.c. and earlier; and the Davidic Covenant does not occur until a thousand years later, where the line of David will be revealed to be the line of the Messiah—revealed to David by a God of grace. It is not until the Davidic Covenant that we find out, God will be blessing the line of David—and from him would come David’s Greater Son (Jesus Christ). So, if a person has a difficult time believing in prophecy, then stories which focus on the leadership and the very specific line of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob become very troublesome, indeed.


Have you ever known anyone to speak of the lottery of life? Have you known of politicians who often indicate that Charley Brown is successful because he was in the right place at the right time and he bought the right lotto ticket (I am not speaking literally about the lottery ticket). There are 12 sons of Jacob; so to a person who thinks this way, every son has a 1 in 12 chance of being in the line of promise. But that is not how God sees it. God knows what these young men will do in life; God knows the end from the beginning. Therefore, He will, from time to time, indicate the line of promise, hundreds of years before He states it outright.


I have no problem with the predictive nature of Genesis, because the co-Author of this book is God the Holy Spirit, Who is outside of time and not confined by time. So all the issues of the Messiah and the Jewish people are known to Him with complete perfection. Now, the human authors know some things, but their understanding of the future is not nearly as clear and perspicuous.


Throughout Scripture, we know that each book (or portion of a book) reflects both the sensibilities of a specific author (like Jacob or Joseph or Moses); and that we can often identify that author, not just because he is talking about his life, but because his style of writing is much different from the other authors. Abraham, Jacob and Joseph wrote very lengthy narratives; but these narratives are quite different in style—Joseph having by far the most sophisticated style of writing (I have not studied comparative ancient literature, but this would be a fascinating subject, if Joseph’s writing was included, as I believe that he is one of the early writers who mastered the 3rd person omniscient writing style).


However, even though each portion of Scripture represents the very specific viewpoint of the human author; it is also the Word of God, authored by God the Holy Spirit. So, Joseph may be writing about these particular brothers simply because they were the oldest, and he remembered them more specifically; but God the Holy Spirit sees that their names are included, so that we understand why the line of promise goes through one brother, but not another. There is no lottery of life with God.


I also believe that, there are certain passages, where the human author is thinking and saying one thing; but God the Holy Spirit is thinking and saying something else—and that these trains of thought are conveyed by the very same words (Gen. 22 Psalm 22 and Isa. 53 are good examples of this).


Genesis 42:1 And when Jacob saw that there was grain in Egypt, Jacob said to his sons, “Why do you look upon one another?”


So, the family of Jacob realizes that they are in trouble. They have had a bad year and they have not produced enough grain for the upcoming year. And, at this point, all these boys are only able to look at one another. No one proposes a solution. No one takes the lead. Jacob points out the problem, and the first voice we ought to here is Reuben, saying, “Here is what I, as the eldest, propose that we do.” Jacob looks at his 11 sons, and no one says anything. No one shows initiative or leadership.


The actual leader of this family is already living in Egypt.


We have spent several chapters with Joseph in Egypt, who went there as a slave, was then put into prison, and most recently has been elevated to the #2 position in all of Egypt. However, with Gen. 42, we return to Canaan, to his father and brothers, and their struggles with having a very bad year in this first year of the famine.


Genesis 42:1 And when Jacob saw that there was grain in Egypt, Jacob said to his sons, “Why do you look upon one another?”


The famine has come to Canaan, and the sons of Jacob and their families are feeling the pinch as well. This is a very serious problem, where this family of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob could starve to death without grain.


It is reasonable to assume that hundreds of thousands of people in Canaan will die over the next 7 years of famine, which probably ended up dramatically reducing the population of those in Canaan considerably. It is likely that this was warning discipline for this land (remember what God did to Sodom and Gomorrah).


——————————


Genesis 42:2a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend; to decide; to answer

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

hinnêh (הִנֵּה) [pronounced hin-NAY]

lo, behold, or more freely, observe, look here, look, listen, note, take note, duly note [that]; pay attention, get this, check this out

interjection, exclamatory particle, demonstrative particle

Strong’s #2009 (and #518, 2006) BDB #243

This seems to attempt to take others and put them in the place of the person saying this (so that they see the same thing); or to grab the attention of the reader. From the many times I have seen this word used in a narrative, I believe that we may update the translation to, he observed [that]; he saw; suddenly, unexpectedly, dramatically. This goes along with the idea that this word is to cause us to see things from the viewpoint of someone in the narrative.

When this is a part of the narrative, but not a part of what a person is saying, the intent of this word appears to be something which is observed by those in the narrative. Understood in this way, this might be reasonably translated I see, he sees. I have taken some liberties with this word in 1Kings 2:29 and translated this word right now.

shâmaʿ (שָמַע) [pronounced shaw-MAHĢ]

to listen [intently], to hear, to listen and obey, [or, and act upon, give heed to, take note of], to hearken to, to be attentive to, to listen and be cognizant of

1st person singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #8085 BDB #1033

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

yêsh (יֵש) [pronounced yaysh]

being, substance, existence; used as a substitute for to be (without reference to number or tense); there [is, are]; to be present, to be ready, to exist

substantive; the verb to be may be implied

Strong’s #3426 BDB #441

sheber (שֶבֶר) [pronounced SHEH-behr]

corn, grain

masculine singular noun (3)

Strong’s #7668 BDB #991

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

Mitserayim (מִצְרַיִם) [pronounced mits-RAH-yim]

double straights; transliterated Mizraim; also Egypt, Egyptians

masculine singular, proper noun

Strong’s #4714 BDB #595


Translation: Then he said, “Listen, I have heard that there [is] grain [down] in Egypt. Jacob is not a complete recluse. He knows what is going on around him, and he is aware that there is grain (or corn) to be found in Egypt. They purchased this grain in the previous year, and it is clear that there is a lot of grain remaining.


As we know from the Joseph narratives, he has set enough grain aside to last for 7 years of famine.


The sons of Jacob would not be thinking about the next 6 years; they would only be concerned with this upcoming year, thinking that they might do better in the coming year.


Genesis 42:2b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

yârad (יָרַד) [pronounced yaw-RAHD]

descend, come down, go down

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperative

Strong’s #3381 BDB #432

shâm (שָם) [pronounced shawm]

there; at that time, then; therein, in that thing

adverb with the directional hê

Strong’s #8033 BDB #1027

This simply means there; hê acts almost like a demonstrative.

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

shâbar (שָבַר) [pronounced shawb-VAHR]

purchase, buy [grain]

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperative

Strong’s #7666 BDB #991

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition; with the 1st person plural suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

shâm (שָם) [pronounced shawm]

there; at that time, then; therein, in that thing

adverb of place

Strong’s #8033 BDB #1027


Translation: Go down there and buy [grain] for us from there... Joseph apparently knows that grain is available in Egypt and that it is being sold to all the peoples of Canaan.


Genesis 42:2c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

châyâh( חָיָה) [pronounced khaw-YAW]

to live, to have life, to revive, to recover health, to be healed, to be refreshed

1st person plural, Qal imperfect

Strong's #2421 & #2425 BDB #310

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

mûwth (מוּת) [pronounced mooth]

to die; to perish, to be destroyed; to be put to death; to die prematurely [by neglect of wise moral conduct]

1st person plural, Qal imperfect

Strong's #4191 BDB #559


Translation: ...so that we will live and not die.” The family of Jacob, at this point, are on the verge of starving. Jacob can look into the future, and, based upon what they have, can tell that they have only a limited amount of time remaining. It was a simple choice—you either go to get food or they would die of starvation.


In v. 2 we have a pleonasm—where more words are used that is needed in order to convey meaning. It is a figure of speech used for emphasis. When Jacob says so that we may live and not die he is emphasizing the dire straights in which they found themselves due to the depression.


Genesis 42:2 And he said, “Behold, I have heard that there is grain in Egypt. Go down there and buy for us from there, so that we may live and not die.”


Obviously, Jacob is in desperate straights; and he recognizes that starvation of his family is imminent. Therefore, he tells his sons that he knows that Egypt has grain; so they need to go there and buy the grain.


We have no idea how Jacob finds out about this—that there is grain in Egypt—but he does. In my own life, I have had access to information which changed my actions (for instance, my present gym membership is a result of a chance encounter with a friend at a gym that I normally did not go to). Many years ago, someone attempted to give me information, which could have been very helpful, but I did not pursue it. He said, “Why don’t you come by my office; I need to tell you something.” This person was looking out for me, and I cannot tell you for the world why I never went by and talked to him. What he was going to warn me about, way, way in advance, was a plan to have me fired (which plan succeeded). He knew about this near the beginning of the school year; and in looking back, I could not tell you why I never went to talk with him. Maybe I was overwhelmed with that school year, I don’t know.


My point is, we are exposed from time to time to words and our response to those words can result in a great change in our lives (I realize that the gym illustration is quite trivial, but it was the first thing that came to mind). When I was quite young and looking for a job as a teacher, I was going to try to interview with some schools in Texas by phone. However, it was because I spoke directly to a secretary there who told me that all I needed to do was show up in person and I would be hired. Apart from that conversation—and I do not even recall the district where she was—I might not have flown to Texas to take some interviews. That flight out to Texas changed my life completely, which only took place because of a few words that secretary said.


Most obviously, when a person begins to understand the importance of the Word of God and places himself (or herself) under the teaching of a well-qualified pastor-teacher, that is potentially a life-changing event. God saw to it that Jacob was made aware of grain being up for purchase in Egypt. This bit of information (and we have no idea how Jacob became aware of this) will change the lives of all Jacob’s sons and their families.


——————————



And so go down brothers of Joseph ten to buy grain from Egypt. And Benjamin a brother of Joseph, did not send Jacob with his brothers for he said, “Lest his meeting of harm.”

Genesis

42:3–4

So Joseph’s ten brothers went down to buy grain from Egypt. And Jacob did not send Benjamin, Joseph’s brother, [along] with his brothers, for he said, “Lest he meet [with] harm.”

So Joseph’s ten brothers went down to purchase grain from Egypt, but Jacob did not send Benjamin, Joseph’s eleventh brother, worried that he might be harmed.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so go down brothers of Joseph ten to buy grain from Egypt. And Benjamin a brother of Joseph, did not send Jacob with his brothers for he said, “Lest his meeting of harm.”

Dead Sea Scrolls                   .

Targum (Onkelos)                  And the ten brothers of Joseph went down to buy corn from Mizraim; but Benjamin, the brother of Joseph, Jakob sent not with his brethren; for he said, Lest death should befall him.

Targum (Pseudo-Jonathan)   And the ten brothers of Joseph went down to buy corn from Mizraim. But Benjamin, Joseph's brother, Jakob sent not down with his brethren; for he said, Behold, he is a youth, and I fear lest death should befall him.

Revised Douay-Rheims         So the ten brethren of Joseph went down, to buy corn in Egypt: Whilst Benjamin was kept at home by Jacob, who said to his brethren: Lest perhaps he take any harm in the journey.

Latin Vulgate                          .

Aramaic ESV of Peshitta        Yoseph's ten brothers went down to buy grain from Egypt. But Ya'aqub did not send Benjamin, Yoseph's brother, with his brothers; for he said, "Lest perhaps harm happen to him."

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And so Josephs ten brothers went down to buy grain in Egypt. But Benjamin, Josephs brother, Jacob did not send with his brothers; for he said, Lest some misfortune might befall him.

Septuagint (Greek)                And the ten brethren of Joseph went down to buy corn out of Egypt. But Jacob sent not Benjamin, the brother of Joseph, with his brethren; for he said, Lest, haply, disease befall him.

NETS (Greek)                        .

Brenton’s Septuagint             .

 

Significant differences: 


Limited Vocabulary Translations:

 

Bible in Basic English             So Joseph's ten brothers went down to get grain from Egypt. But Jacob did not send Benjamin, Joseph's brother, with them, for fear, as he said, that some evil might come to him.

Easy English                          So 10 of Joseph’s brothers went down to buy corn in Egypt. Jacob did not send Benjamin (Joseph’s brother) with the other brothers. Jacob was afraid that Benjamin might suffer something bad.

Easy-to-Read Version–2006  .

International Children’s B.     .

God’s Word                         .

Good News Bible (TEV)         So Joseph's ten half brothers went to buy grain in Egypt, but Jacob did not send Joseph's full brother Benjamin with them, because he was afraid that something might happen to him.

The Message                         .

Names of God Bible               .

NIRV                                      So ten of Joseph’s brothers went down to Egypt to buy grain there. But Jacob didn’t send Joseph’s brother Benjamin with them. He was afraid Benjamin might be harmed.

New Simplified Bible              .


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           So Joseph’s ten brothers went down to buy grain in Egypt. However, Jacob didn’t send Joseph’s brother Benjamin along with his brothers because he thought something bad might happen to him.

Contemporary English V.       .

The Living Bible                     So Joseph’s ten older brothers went down to Egypt to buy grain. However, Jacob wouldn’t let Joseph’s younger brother Benjamin go with them, for fear some harm might happen to him as it had to his brother Joseph.

New Berkeley Version           .

New Century Version             So ten of Joseph’s brothers went down to buy grain from Egypt. But Jacob did not send Benjamin, Joseph’s brother, with them, because he was afraid that something terrible might happen to him.

New Life Version                    .

New Living Translation           .


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Therefore, JoSeph's ten brothers went down to Egypt to purchase grain. However, JoSeph's brother BenJamin wasn't sent along with his brothers, 'So he doesn't get sick,' Jacob said.

Beck’s American Translation .

International Standard V        So ten of Joseph’s brothers left to buy grain from Egypt. Jacob would not send Joseph’s brother Benjamin to accompany them, because he was saying, “I’m afraid that he’ll come to some kind of harm.”

New Advent (Knox) Bible       So ten of Joseph’s brethren went down into Egypt to buy corn there; only Benjamin his father kept at home, saying to the others, Some harm might befall him on the way.

Today’s NIV                          .

Translation for Translators     So Joseph's ten older brothers went down to Egypt to buy some grain. But Jacob did not send Benjamin, Joseph's younger brother, to go with the others, because he was afraid/worried that something terrible might happen to him like what happened to Joseph.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Awful Scroll Bible                   Joseph's ten brothers were to go down to buy grain the grain of Egypt. Yet Benjamin, Joseph's brother - is Jacob to have sent out with his brothers? - For he is to have said: Lest harm was to meet with him.

Conservapedia                       Joseph's ten brothers went down to buy cereal grains in Egypt. But Jacob did not send Benjamin, Joseph's full brother, with the other brothers. He said to himself, "Perhaps something bad will happen to him if he goes."

Ferrar-Fenton Bible                Therefore ten brothers of Joseph went down to buy corn from the Mitzeraim. But Jacob did not send Benjamin the own brother of Joseph with his other brothers, for he said, "I fear an injury might happen to him . "

God’s Truth (Tyndale)           So went Josephs ten brethren down to buy corn in Egypt, for Ben Jamin Josephs brother would not Jacob send with his other brethren: for he said: some misfortune might happen him.

HCSB                                     So 10 of Joseph’s brothers went down to buy grain from Egypt. But Jacob did not send Joseph’s brother Benjamin with his brothers, for he thought, “Something might happen to him.”

Jubilee Bible 2000                  And Joseph’s ten brethren went down to buy wheat in Egypt. But Jacob did not send Benjamin, Joseph’s brother, with his brethren; for he said, Lest peradventure disaster befall him.

H. C. Leupold                         So the brethren of Joseph went down—ten men—to buy grain in Egypt. But Benjamin, the brother of Joseph, Jacob did not send with his brethren, For, he said, lest harm befall him.

Lexham English Bible            .

NIV, ©2011                             .

Tree of Life Version                So Joseph’s brothers went down, ten of them, to buy grain from Egypt. But Benjamin, Joseph’s brother, Jacob did not send, for he said, “An accident might happen to him.”


Catholic Bibles (those having the imprimatur):

 

Christian Community (1988)  Joseph’s brothers—ten of them—went down to Egypt to buy wheat but Jacob did not send Benjamin, Joseph’s brother, for he said, “Something might happen to him.”

The Heritage Bible                 And Joseph’s ten brothers descended to buy grain in Egypt. And Jacob did not send Benjamin, Joseph’s brother, with his brothers, because he said, Lest hurt happen to him.

New American Bible (2002)   So ten of Joseph's brothers went down to buy an emergency supply of grain from Egypt. It was only Joseph's full brother Benjamin that Jacob did not send with the rest, for he thought some disaster might befall him.

New American Bible (2011)   .

New Jerusalem Bible             So ten of Joseph's brothers went down to procure grain in Egypt. But Jacob did not send Joseph's brother Benjamin with his brothers. 'Nothing must happen to him,' he thought.

New RSV                               .

Revised English Bible            So ten of Joseph's brothers went down to buy grain from Egypt, but Jacob did not let Joseph's brother Benjamin go with them, for fear that he might come to harm.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           Thus Yosef’s ten brothers went down to buy grain from Egypt, except for Binyamin, Yosef’s brother. Ya‘akov did not send him with his brothers, because he was afraid something might happen to him.

exeGeses companion Bible   And the ten brothers of Yoseph

descend to market for kernels of grain in Misrayim:

and Yaaqov

sends not Ben Yamin the brother of Yoseph

with his brothers;

for he says, Lest mischief confronts him.

Hebraic Roots Bible               .

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               So ten of Joseph’s brothers went down to get grain rations in Egypt; for Jacob did not send Joseph’s brother Benjamin with his brothers, since he feared that he might meet with disaster.

Judaica Press Complete T.    .

Kaplan Translation                 Joseph's ten brothers went to buy grain in Egypt. But Jacob did not send Joseph's brother Benjamin along with the others. 'Something might happen to him,' he said.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           Achei Yosef asarah (Yosef’s ten brothers) then went down to buy grain in Mitzrayim.

But Binyamin, achi Yosef, Ya’akov sent not with his achim; for he said, Lest ason (evil, harm) befall him.

The Scriptures 1998              .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

The Amplified Bible                So ten of Joseph’s brothers went down to buy grain in Egypt. But Jacob did not send Benjamin, Joseph’s [younger] brother, with his brothers, for he said, “I am afraid that some harm or injury may come to him.”

The Expanded Bible              So ten of Joseph’s brothers went down to buy grain from Egypt. But Jacob did not send Benjamin, Joseph’s brother, with them, because he was afraid that ·something terrible [a fatal accident; harm; tragedy] might happen to him.

The Geneva Bible                  .

Kretzmann’s Commentary    And Joseph's ten brethren went down to buy corn in Egypt, to obtain provisions for the family. But Benjamin, Joseph's brother, his full brother by Rachel,Jacob sent not with his brethren; for he said, Lest peradventure mischief befall him. Benjamin was now just entering manhood, being about twenty-one years old or somewhat more. Jacob had given him all the affection which he had formerly felt for Joseph, and his objection that some accident to life and limb might befall Benjamin was founded upon the fact that he believed Joseph to have been killed by wild beasts.

NET Bible®                             So ten of Joseph’s brothers went down to buy grain from Egypt. But Jacob did not send Joseph’s brother Benjamin with his brothers, for he said, “What if some accident happens [Heb “encounters.”] to him?”

Syndein/Thieme                     And Joseph's ten brothers kept on going down to buy corn in Egypt. {Jacob's New 'Favorite' - Benjamin Did not Go to Egypt} Benjamin, Joseph's brother, Jacob sent not with his brethren for he said, "In case perhaps some harm/mischief {'acown} befall him."

The Voice                               So ten of Joseph’s brothers went down to buy grain in Egypt. But Jacob didn’t send Joseph’s brother Benjamin with the others, because he was afraid something might happen to him.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Brenner’s Mechanical Trans....and the ten brothers of Yoseph [Adding] went down to exchange grain from Mitsrayim [Troubles], and Binyamin [Son of the right hand], brother of Yoseph [Adding], Ya'aqov [He restrains] did not send with his brothers given that he said, otherwise harm will meet us,...

Concordant Literal Version    And down are going ten brothers of Joseph to purchase cereals from Egypt. Yet Benjamin, Joseph's brother, Jacob does not send with his brothers, for, says he, "Lest meet will he with a mishap.

Context Group Version          .

Darby Translation                  And Joseph's ten brethren went down to buy [grain] out of Egypt. But Benjamin, Joseph's brother, Jacob sent not with his brethren; for he said, Lest mischief may befall him.

Emphasized Bible                  .

English Standard Version      .

Brenner’s Mechanical Trans..

Evidence Bible                       .

Green’s Literal Translation    .

H. C. Leupold                         .

Jack Ballinger’s translation    .

Modern English Version         Joseph’s ten brothers went down to buy grain in Egypt. But Jacob did not send Benjamin, Joseph’s brother, with his brothers for he said, “Perhaps some harm might happen to him.”

Modern KJV                           .

NASB                                     Then ten brothers of Joseph went down to buy grain from Egypt. But Jacob did not send Joseph’s brother Benjamin with his brothers, for he said, “I am afraid that harm may befall him.”

New European Version          .

New King James Version       .

Owen's Translation                .

Stuart Wolf                             .

Third Millennium Bible            .

Updated Bible Version 2.11   .

A Voice in the Wilderness      .

Webster’s Bible Translation  .

World English Bible                .

Young's Literal Translation     .

Young’s Updated LT             And the ten brothers of Joseph go down to buy corn in Egypt, and Benjamin, Joseph’s brother, Jacob has not sent with his brothers, for he said, “Lest mischief meet him.”

 

The gist of this passage:     Ten of Joseph’s brothers are sent to Egypt to buy grain. Jacob would not allow his youngest son to go, afraid for his life.


Genesis 42:3

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

yârad (יָרַד) [pronounced yaw-RAHD]

to descend, to come down, to go down

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #3381 BDB #432

ʾachîym (אַחִים) [pronounced awhk-EEM]

brothers, kinsmen, close relatives; tribesmen; fellow-countrymen

masculine plural construct

Strong's #251 BDB #26

Yôwçêph (יוֹסֵף) [pronounced yoh-SAYF]

he adds, he increases; transliterated Joseph

proper masculine noun

Strong’s #3130 BDB #415

ʿasârâh (עַשָׂרָה) [pronounced ģah-saw-RAW]

ten

feminine numeral

Strong’s #6235 BDB #796

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

shâbar (שָבַר) [pronounced shawb-VAHR]

to purchase, to buy [grain]

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #7666 BDB #991

bar (בַּר) [pronounced bahr]

field, open field, country; corn, corn separated from its chaff

masculine singular noun3

Strong’s #1250 BDB #135

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

Mitserayim (מִצְרַיִם) [pronounced mits-RAH-yim]

double straights; transliterated Mizraim; also Egypt, Egyptians

masculine singular, proper noun

Strong’s #4714 BDB #595


Translation: So Joseph’s ten brothers went down to buy grain from Egypt. At Jacob’s insistence, ten of Joseph’s brothers went down to purchase grain from Egypt.


Genesis 42:3 And Joseph's ten brothers went down to buy grain in Egypt.


It should be mentioned that, Judah has somehow reunited with his family. They appear to be estranged in Gen. 38; but here, he would have been included in the 10 sons. Let me suggest that this famine has brought Judah and his family (such that it is) back into the fold—perhaps out of desperation.


You will recall that Judah separated from his family and he began a new life apart from his brothers (probably as a result of what they had all done to Joseph); and now Judah had some very serious responsibilities. He had a family for which he was responsible, a son by a deceased wife and twins by his present wife—the result of a levirate marriage and a woman that he chose not to engage in further sex with. No doubt there is a fascinating story there where Judah realizes that he must reconnect with his family or possibly face starvation.


The 10 sons are sent to Egypt. Benjamin, the youngest, is not. He remains with his father.


Genesis 42:4a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Bineyâmin (בִּנְיָמִן) [pronounced bin-yaw-MIN]

transliterated Benjamin, it means son of [my] right hand

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1144 BDB #122

Also spelled Bineyâmîyn (בִּנְיָמִין) [pronounced bin-yaw-MEEN].

ʾâch (אָח) [pronounced awhk]

brother, half-brother; kinsman or close relative; one who resembles

masculine singular construct

Strong's #251 BDB #26

Yôwçêph (יוֹסֵף) [pronounced yoh-SAYF]

he adds, he increases; transliterated Joseph

proper masculine noun

Strong’s #3130 BDB #415

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

shâlach (שָלַח) [pronounced shaw-LAKH]

to send, to send for [forth, away], to dismiss, to deploy, to put forth, to stretch out, to reach out

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect; what is sent (messengers, a message) is implied

Strong’s #7971 BDB #1018

Yaʿăqôb (יַעֲקֹב) [pronounced yah-ģuh-KOHBV]

supplanter; insidious, deceitful; to circumvent; heel; and is transliterated Jacob

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3290 BDB #784

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

with, at, near, by, among, directly from

preposition (which is identical to the sign of the direct object)

Strong's #854 BDB #85

ʾachîym (אַחִים) [pronounced awhk-EEM]

brothers, kinsmen, close relatives; tribesmen; fellow-countrymen

masculine plural noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #251 BDB #26

The NET Bible: Heb “But Benjamin, the brother of Joseph, Jacob did not send with his brothers.” The disjunctive clause highlights the contrast between Benjamin and the other ten.


Translation: And Jacob did not send Benjamin, Joseph’s brother, [along] with his brothers... However, Jacob did not send Benjamin, Joseph’s eleventh brother. Jacob was quite concerned that this youngest brother would not be returned to him. Obviously after losing Joseph, this was of great concern to Jacob.


Genesis 42:4b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend; to decide; to answer

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

The NET Bible: The Hebrew verb אָמַר (’amar, “to say”) could also be translated “thought” (i.e., “he said to himself”) here, giving Jacob’s reasoning rather than spoken words.

pen (פֶּן) [pronounced pen]

lest, peradventure, or else, in order to prevent, or, so that [plus a negative]

conjunction

Strong's #6435 BDB #814

qârâʾ (קָרָא) [pronounced kaw-RAW]

to encounter, to befall, to meet; to assemble [for the purpose of encountering God or exegeting His Word]; to come, to assemble

Qal infinitive construct with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #7122 & #7125 BDB #896

ʿâçôwn (אָסוֹן) [pronounced aw-SOWN]

mischief, evil, harm, hurt

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #611 BDB #62

The NET Bible: The Hebrew noun אָסוֹן (’ason) is a rare word meaning “accident, harm.” Apart from its use in these passages it occurs in Exodus 21:22-23 of an accident to a pregnant woman. The term is a rather general one, but Jacob was no doubt thinking of his loss of Joseph.


Translation: ...for he said, “Lest he meet [with] harm.” Even though it sounds as if Jacob is speaking, it is very likely that this is what he was thinking. Jacob was worried that his youngest son would be harmed, just as Joseph had been (Jacob believed that Joseph had been killed by a wild animal—his sons never told him what really happened).


Even though there are twelve sons of Joseph and twelve tribes of Israel, note that God the Holy Spirit does not give equal time to all twelve brothers in Genesis. Some of them we know only by name. It is just like the twelve disciples of our Lord Jesus—we know a lot about two or three Apostles, a little about five or six of them, and practically nothing about the rest. Even though this is the writing of Joseph, he is guided by God the Holy Spirit Who properly edits this material.


Jacob had a particular fondness for Joseph and Benjamin because they were his youngest sons and they were the sons of his right woman, Rachel, who had died. Whereas his favoritism is explainable and understandable, it should never have been revealed to the other sons. Not only had Jacob not learned from his mistakes, but he went from having some spiritual maturity and retrogressed into a bitter, self-centered, self-pitying old man. Therefore, he treats Benjamin differently from the other brothers. It will become clear, however, that they had adjusted to this, and accepted it as a part of life.


Notice that Benjamin is called Joseph's brother. The other sons of Jacob are actually half-brothers to Joseph and Benjamin, all having different mothers from them. However, Joseph and Benjamin had the same mother and therefore, Benjamin is called Joseph's brother.


Genesis 42:4 But Benjamin, Joseph's brother, Jacob did not send with his brothers. For he said, “Lest perhaps mischief happen to him.”


Jacob holds back on Benjamin, his youngest son, his only surviving son by Rachel (Jacob does not know that Joseph is still alive). Benjamin is obviously his favorite son. Jacob rightfully does not trust his other sons to look after Benjamin. He is certainly not going to let Benjamin travel to Egypt with his older brothers.


As an aside, why is Joseph enjoying great success in Egypt; and Benjamin has, so far, been undistinguished in his life? God took Joseph away from his home environment and threw him into the midst of at least 2 unjust circumstances. These circumstances accelerated Joseph’s spiritual growth. Pressure can often bring out the best in us if we respond to that pressure with the application of Bible doctrine. If we respond to pressure with human viewpoint thinking, then that pressure can bring out the worst in us.


Benjamin has been under the close supervision of Jacob, and we ought to know by now, Jacob, despite God giving him every chance in the world, struggles with the application of doctrine to life. In fact, let me suggest that, after Joseph disappeared, Jacob’s life has retrogressed, spiritually speaking. Both Joseph and Jacob were presented with sets of difficult circumstances—and Joseph thrived and Jacob took it all very personally. Joseph applied divine viewpoint to life and his father Jacob mostly applied human viewpoint to his life. Joseph grew spiritually; his father Jacob retrogressed.


If anything, Joseph was being held back by his father. Joseph experienced accelerated growth when he faced difficult circumstances of unjust treatment, and he mixed that with his positive volition towards God and God’s Word.


How did Joseph have God’s Word? Let me suggest, as I have on many occasions, that the History of Man of God was passed along verbally, often from father to son; and with each generation, more information was added. I believe that the people of this era were more intelligent than we are today; and therefore, could hear and retain such information better than we could today.


As an aside, no one is strictly a product of his environment. We all have free will and the free will is active in good times and bad. Two great examples of this are the Pharaoh during the time of Joseph; and the Pharaoh during the time of Moses. The first Pharaoh heard truth and he responded positively to it. He did not even require proof. He heard the truth, he believed it, and then he placed Joseph in charge of the economic future of Egypt, which was a very bold move. The truth of Joseph’s interpretation was proven in time; but Pharaoh recognized that truth from the very beginning. He had the dreams, he heard Joseph’s interpretation of them, and this all rang true to him.


Pharaoh2, the one that Moses stood before, heard the truth, saw great signs and wonders, which backed up that truth, and continued to reject the truth. Even when he lacked the strength to stand up to and reject the truth, God gave him that inner strength to do so.


You can come from the same family, have a very similar upbringing, and yet two brothers can respond very differently to the gospel and to the teaching of the Word of God.


Reuben, Simeon, Levi and Judah all grew up in a similar environment. However, at some point in the upcoming narrative, the 4th oldest son, Judah, will take the lead; and he will supplant his older 3 brothers in the plan of God. And we know from Gen. 38 that Judah is not a man that we would have predicted to show any spiritual progress.


——————————



And so go sons of Israel to buy in a midst of the goers, for was the famine in a land of Canaan.

Genesis

42:5

Therefore, the sons of Israel went to purchase [grain] in the midst of those going [as well], for the famine was in the land of Canaan.

Therefore, the sons of Israel went to purchase [grain] along with many others who went, as the famine was great in the land of Canaan.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so go sons of Israel to buy in a midst of the goers, for was the famine in a land of Canaan.

Dead Sea Scrolls                   .

Targum (Onkelos)                  And the sons of Israel came to buy corn among them who came; for the famine was in the land of Kenaan.

Targum (Pseudo-Jonathan)   And the sons of Israel went every one by one door, lest the evil eye should have sway over them, as they went together to buy among the Kenaanites who went also to buy; because the famine was in the land of Kenaan.

Revised Douay-Rheims         And they entered into the land of Egypt with others that went to buy. For the famine was in the land of Chanaan.

Latin Vulgate                          .

Aramaic ESV of Peshitta        The sons of Yisrael came to buy among those who came, for the famine was in the land of Canaan.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And the sons of Israel came to buy grain with those that came; for the famine was severe in the land of Canaan.

Septuagint (Greek)                And the sons of Israel came to buy with those that came, for the famine was in the land of Chanaan.

NETS (Greek)                        .

Brenton’s Septuagint             .

 

Significant differences: 


Limited Vocabulary Translations:

 

Bible in Basic English             And the sons of Israel came with all the others to get grain: for they were very short of food in the land of Canaan.

Easy English                          So Israel’s sons came to buy corn together with other people. There was *famine in the country called Canaan.

Easy-to-Read Version–2006  The famine was very bad in Canaan, so there were many people from Canaan who went to Egypt to buy grain. Among them were the sons of Israel.

International Children’s B.     Along with many other people, the sons of Jacob, also called Israel, went to Egypt to buy grain. This was because the people in the land of Canaan were hungry also.

God’s Word                         Israel’s sons left with the others who were going to buy grain, because there was also famine in Canaan.

Good News Bible (TEV)         The sons of Jacob came with others to buy grain, because there was famine in the land of Canaan. Joseph, as governor of the land of Egypt, was selling grain to people from all over the world.

The Message                         So Israel’s sons joined everyone else that was going to Egypt to buy food, for Canaan, too, was hit hard by the famine.

Names of God Bible               .

NIRV                                      Israel’s sons were among the people who went to buy grain. There wasn’t enough food in the land of Canaan.

New Simplified Bible              Israel’s sons left with the others who were going to buy grain. This is because there was also famine in Canaan.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Israel’s sons came to buy grain with others who also came since the famine had spread to the land of Canaan.

Contemporary English V.       So Jacob's sons joined others from Canaan who were going to Egypt because of the terrible famine.

The Living Bible                     So it was that Israel’s sons arrived in Egypt along with many others from many lands to buy food, for the famine was as severe in Canaan as it was everywhere else.

New Berkeley Version           .

New Century Version             Along with many other people, the sons of Israel went to Egypt to buy grain, because the people in the land of Canaan were also hungry.

New Life Version                    So the sons of Israel joined those who were coming to buy grain for there was no food in Canaan.

New Living Translation           So Jacob’s sons arrived in Egypt along with others to buy food, for the famine was in Canaan as well.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Of course, the Sons of IsraEl [traveled along with] many others to buy [grain], because the famine had affected the entire land of CanaAn.

Beck’s American Translation .

International Standard V        Israel’s sons went in a caravan that included others who were going to Egypt to buy grain, because the famine pervaded the land of Canaan, too.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       So they made their way into Egypt with others who were going there to buy; the whole of Chanaan was by now famine-stricken.

Today’s NIV                          .

Translation for Translators     So Jacob's sons went down from Canaan to Egypt to buy grain, and others went too, because there was a famine in Canaan also.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Awful Scroll Bible                   The sons of Isra-el were to come and buy grain, among those coming, for the famine is on the solid grounds of Canaan.

Conservapedia                       So the sons of Israel came to buy food, among everyone else that were coming. The famine had affected the country of Canaan as well.

Ferrar-Fenton Bible                Thus the sons of Israel went down to buy corn, together with other travellers, for there was a famine in the land of Canan.

God’s Truth (Tyndale)           And the sons of Israel came to buy corn among other that came, for there was dearth also in the land of Canaan.

HCSB                                     .

Jubilee Bible 2000                  .

H. C. Leupold                         And the sons of Israel came to buy grain together with others that came; for the famine was in the land of Canaan.

Lexham English Bible            Then the sons of Israel went to buy grain amid those [other people] who went [as well], for there was famine in the land of Canaan.

NIV, ©2011                             .

Tree of Life Version                .


Catholic Bibles (those having the imprimatur):

 

Christian Community (1988)  .

The Heritage Bible                 .

New American Bible (2002)   Thus, since there was famine in the land of Canaan also, the sons of Israel were among those who came to procure rations.

New American Bible (2011)   .

New Jerusalem Bible             Thus the sons of Israel were among the other people who came to get supplies, there being famine in Canaan.

New RSV                               Thus the sons of Israel were among the other people who came to buy grain, for the famine had reached the land of Canaan.

Revised English Bible            Thus the sons of Israel went with everyone else to buy grain because of the famine in Canaan.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           .

exeGeses companion Bible   And the sons of Yisra El come

to market for kernels among those who come:

for the famine is in the land of Kenaan.

Hebraic Roots Bible               .

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               Thus the sons of Israel were among those who came to procure rations, for the famine extended to the land of Canaan.

Judaica Press Complete T.    .

Kaplan Translation                 Israel's sons came to buy rations along with the others who came because of the famine in Canaan.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           And the Bnei Yisroel came to make purchase among those that were coming; for the ra’av (famine) was in Eretz Kena’an.

The Scriptures 1998              And the sons of Yisra’ĕl went to buy grain among those who journeyed, for the scarcity of food was in the land of Kenaʽan.


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

The Amplified Bible                So the sons of Israel came [to Egypt] to buy grain along with the others who were coming, for famine was in the land of Canaan also.

The Expanded Bible              Along with many other people, the sons of Israel [CJacob’s other name] went to Egypt to buy grain, because ·the people in the land of Canaan were also hungry [Lthere was famine in the land of Canaan].

The Geneva Bible                  .

Kretzmann’s Commentary    And the sons of Israel came to buy corn among those that came; for the famine was in the land of Canaan. They were only a few of a great number that came down from Canaan to buy a supply of grain for their needs, that were thus dependent upon the generosity of the Egyptian ruler for their food.

NET Bible®                             So Israel’s sons came to buy grain among the other travelers [Heb “in the midst of the coming ones.”], for the famine was severe in the land of Canaan.

Syndein/Thieme                     .

The Voice                               So the sons of Israel decided to go down and buy grain along with many others, because the famine had reached the land of Canaan.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Brenner’s Mechanical Trans....and the sons of Yisra'el [He turns El] came to exchange in the midst of the ones coming given that the hunger existed in the land of Kena'an [Lowered],...

Concordant Literal Version    And coming are the sons of Israel to purchase in the midst of the comers, for the famine comes to be in the land of Canaan.

Context Group Version          .

Darby Translation                  .

Emphasized Bible                  .

English Standard Version      Thus the sons of Israel came to buy among the others who came, for the famine was in the land of Canaan.

Brenner’s Mechanical Trans..

Evidence Bible                       .

Green’s Literal Translation    And among those coming, the sons of Israel came to buy. For the famine was in land of Canaan.

H. C. Leupold                         .

Jack Ballinger’s translation    .

Modern English Version         .

Modern KJV                           .

NASB                                     So the sons of Israel came to buy grain among those who were coming, for the famine was in the land of Canaan also.

New European Version          .

New King James Version       And the sons of Israel went to buy grain among those who journeyed, for the famine was in the land of Canaan.

Owen's Translation                .

Stuart Wolf                             .

Third Millennium Bible            .

Updated Bible Version 2.11   .

A Voice in the Wilderness      .

Webster’s Bible Translation  .

World English Bible                .

Young's Literal Translation     .

Young’s Updated LT             And the sons of Israel come to buy in the midst of those coming, for the famine has been in the land of Canaan.

 

The gist of this passage:     Because the famine was in Canaan as well, many groups of people were going to Egypt for grain; and the sons of Israel were among them.


Genesis 42:5a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

bôwʾ (בּוֹא) [pronounced boh]

to come in, to come, to go in, to go, to enter, to advance; to attain

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #935 BDB #97

bânîym (בָּנִים) [pronounced baw-NEEM]

sons, descendants; children; people; sometimes rendered men; young men, youths

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

Yiserâʾêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

God prevails; contender; soldier of God; transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun; God-given name to Jacob; and national name for the Jewish people

Strong’s #3478 & #3479 BDB #975

The NET Bible: The name Israel means "God fights" (although some interpret the meaning as "he fights [with] God"). See Gen 32:28.

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

shâbar (שָבַר) [pronounced shawb-VAHR]

to purchase, to buy [grain]

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #7666 BDB #991

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

tâveke (תָּוֶ) [pronounced taw-VEKE]

midst, among, middle

masculine singular construct

Strong's #8432 BDB #1063

With the bêyth preposition, tâveke can mean in the middle of, in the midst of; into, among. In the Hebrew, this is spelled בְּתוֹ. With the 1st person plural suffix, it means in our midst. With the 2nd person masculine plural suffix, it can mean in your midst, among you. With the 3rd person masculine plural suffix, it can mean in their midst, among them.

bôwʾ (בּוֹא) [pronounced boh]

ones entering [coming, going, advancing] [in]; those entering [going, coming (in)]

masculine plural, Qal active participle; with the definite article

Strong’s #935 BDB #97


Translation: Therefore, the sons of Israel went to purchase [grain] in the midst of those going [as well],... There were many who were going down to Egypt to purchase grain. This suggests that there may have been many caravans that went into Egypt.


Genesis 42:5b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

râʿâb (רָעָב) [pronounced raw-ĢAWBV]

famine, hunger; scarcity of grain; used figuratively for a lack of God’s Word

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #7458 BDB #944

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

masculine singular construct

Strong's #776 BDB #75

Kenaʿan (כְּנַעַן) [pronounced keNAH-ģahn]

which possibly means merchant and is transliterated Canaan

masculine proper noun; territory; pausal form

Strong’s #3667 BDB #488


Translation: ...for the famine was in the land of Canaan. The reason there were so many going down to Egypt is because there was famine in the land of Canaan. This was the first year of the famine. This famine would last for 7 years, but only Joseph and a few people in Egypt knew and believed this.


We are not given any details, other than there were a number of people who learned that there was grain to be bought in Egypt, and that Joseph's brothers were in a group who petitioned Joseph for food. They did not all travel together, but they did arrive together and awaited an audience with the second-in-command.


Genesis 42:5 And the sons of Israel came to buy among those that came, for the famine was in the land of Canaan.


The proper noun Israel does not apply to a nation; it applies to the person of Jacob, who is named Israel by God. There is no nation Israel as of yet. So, in this passage, the sons of Israel refer literally to the 10 brothers who come to Egypt; in Joshua 5:3 10:12, this same phrase refers to the army of Israel (the men of Israel); and in Rom. 9:27, this phrase refers to all of the descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (who is Israel).


Just as words and phrases can have different meanings, depending upon context; the same is true for many words and phrases in Scripture. Even though a word may have a specific meaning—and one that appears to be fairly consistent—we need to be careful when evaluating that word or phrase under different settings. The sons of Israel is a good example of this.


According to Gen. 42:5, thousands of people from all over Canaan traveled to Egypt to purchase grain.


——————————



And Joseph he [was] the governor over the land, he [was] the seller [of grain] to all people of the land. And so come brothers of Joseph and so they bow to him, [two] noses ground-ward.

Genesis

42:6

Now Joseph [was] the governor over the land [and] he [was] the one selling [grain] to all the people of the land. So Joseph’s brothers came in and bowed to him, [their] faces toward the ground.

Now Joseph was the governor over the land and he was the one in charge of selling grain to all the people of the land. And Joseph’s brothers came in before him and bowed to him, their faces to the ground.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And Joseph he [was] the governor over the land, he [was] the seller [of grain] to all people of the land. And so come brothers of Joseph and so they bow to him, [two] noses ground-ward.

Dead Sea Scrolls                   .

Targum (Onkelos)                  And Joseph, who was ruler over the land, was he who sold the corn to all the people of the earth. And the brothers of Joseph came, and bowed before him with their faces upon the ground.

Targum (Pseudo-Jonathan)   And Joseph was ruler over the land; and he knew that his brethren had come to buy; for he had appointed notaries at the gates of the city to register daily, of every one who came, his name and the name of his father; and he it was who sold corn to all the people of the land.

And the brethren of Joseph came. And they looked through all the streets, and public places, and hospices, but could not find Him. And they came unto his house, and worshipped him with their faces to the ground.

Revised Douay-Rheims         .

Latin Vulgate                          And Joseph was governor in the land of Egypt, and corn was sold by his direction to the people. And when his brethren had bowed down to him,...

Aramaic ESV of Peshitta        Yoseph was the governor over the land. It was he who sold to all the people of the land. Yoseph's brothers came, and bowed themselves down to him with their faces to the earth.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    Now Joseph was the governor over the land, and he it was who sold the grain to all the people of the land; and Josephs brothers came, and bowed down themselves before him with their faces to the ground.

Septuagint (Greek)                And Joseph was ruler of the land; he sold to all the people of the land. And the brethren of Joseph, having come, did reverence to him, bowing with the face to the ground.

NETS (Greek)                        .

Brenton’s Septuagint             .

 

Significant differences: 


Limited Vocabulary Translations:

 

Bible in Basic English             Now Joseph was ruler over all the land, and it was he who gave out the grain to all the people of the land; and Joseph's brothers came before him and went down on their faces to the earth.

Easy English                          At that time, Joseph was governing over the country called Egypt. He sold corn to all the people in that country. Joseph’s brothers came and they *bowed in front of him. They *bowed with their faces to the ground.

Easy-to-Read Version–2006  Joseph was the governor of Egypt at the time. He was the one who checked the sale of grain to people who came to Egypt to buy it. Joseph’s brothers came to him and bowed before him.

International Children’s B.     .

God’s Word                         .

Good News Bible (TEV)         The sons of Jacob came with others to buy grain, because there was famine in the land of Canaan. Joseph, as governor of the land of Egypt, was selling grain to people from all over the world. So Joseph's brothers came and bowed down before him with their faces to the ground. A portion of v. 5 is included for context.

The Message                         Joseph was running the country; he was the one who gave out rations to all the people. When Joseph’s brothers arrived, they treated him with honor, bowing to him.

Names of God Bible               Joseph Sends Nine of His Brothers Back to Canaan

As governor of the country, Joseph was selling grain to everyone. So when Joseph’s brothers arrived, they bowed in front of him with their faces touching the ground.

NIRV                                      .

New Simplified Bible              As governor of the country, Joseph was selling grain to everyone. So when Joseph’s brothers arrived, they bowed in front of him with their faces touching the ground.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           As for Joseph, he was the land’s governor, and he was the one selling grain to all the land’s people. When Joseph’s brothers arrived, they bowed down to him, their faces to the ground.

Contemporary English V.       .

The Living Bible                     Since Joseph was governor of all Egypt, and in charge of the sale of the grain, it was to him that his brothers came, and bowed low before him, with their faces to the earth.

New Berkeley Version           .

New Century Version             .

New Life Version                    .

New Living Translation           Since Joseph was governor of all Egypt and in charge of selling grain to all the people, it was to him that his brothers came. When they arrived, they bowed before him with their faces to the ground.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Well, since JoSeph was the ruler of the land, he's the one who sold [food] to all the people who were coming from these lands; so JoSeph's brothers came to him and had to bow with their faces to the ground before him.

Beck’s American Translation .

International Standard V        Joseph’s Brothers Encounter Joseph

Meanwhile, Joseph continued to be ruler over the land, in charge of selling to everyone in the land. Joseph’s brothers appeared and bowed down to him, face down [Lit. faces to the ground].

New Advent (Knox) Bible       .

Today’s NIV                          .

Translation for Translators     At that time Joseph was the governor of Egypt. He was the one who sold grain to people who came from all over Egypt and from many other countries [HYP] to buy grain. So when Joseph's brothers arrived, they were told that it was necessary for them to talk with Joseph. So they went to him and prostrated themselves before him with their faces to the ground.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Awful Scroll Bible                   Joseph is the lord over those solid grounds, selling to the people, from those solid grounds. Joseph's brothers were to come, and were to bow down to their noses, on those solid grounds.

Conservapedia                       Joseph was the man in authority over the land, and he was the one selling food to all the people of the land. Joseph's brothers came, and bowed themselves down to him, noses to the ground. The word rendered "selling" here actually translates as "retailing."

Ferrar-Fenton Bible                Joseph was then Protector over all the country, to distribute to all the people of the land, and Joseph's brothers came and bowed to him, face to the ground.

God’s Truth (Tyndale)           And Joseph was governor in the land, and sold corn to all the people of the land. And his brethren came, and fell flat on the ground before him.

HCSB                                     Joseph was in charge of the country; he sold grain to all its people. His brothers came and bowed down before him with their faces to the ground.

Jubilee Bible 2000                  And Joseph was the lord over the land, and he it was that sold the wheat to all the people of the land; and Joseph’s brethren came and bowed down themselves before him with their faces to the earth.

H. C. Leupold                         Now Joseph, he was the governor over the land, and he it was that sold grain to all the people of the land. Now the brethren of Joseph came and did obeisance before him with their faces to the ground.

Lexham English Bible            .

NIV, ©2011                             .

Tree of Life Version                6 Now Joseph was the ruler over the land. He was the provider of grain for all the people of the earth. 7 Then Joseph’s brothers came and bowed down to him with faces to the ground. The portion that we see as the latter half of v. 6 is considered the first half of v. 7 in the TLV.


Catholic Bibles (those having the imprimatur):

 

Christian Community (1988)  .

The Heritage Bible                 And Joseph, - he was the governor over the land, he was the one selling to all the people of the earth - and in came Joseph’s brothers, and prostrated themselves before him with their nostrils to the earth. Gen 37:7-9

New American Bible (2002)   It was Joseph, as governor of the country, who dispensed the rations to all the people. When Joseph's brothers came and knelt down before him with their faces to the ground, he recognized them as soon as he saw them. But he concealed his own identity from them and spoke sternly to them. "Where do you come from?" he asked them. They answered, "From the land of Canaan, to procure food." V. 7 is included for context.

New American Bible (2011)   Joseph, as governor of the country, was the one who sold grain to all the people of the land. When Joseph’s brothers came, they bowed down to him with their faces to the ground. Ps 105:21.

New Jerusalem Bible             It was Joseph, as the man in authority over the country, who allocated the rations to the entire population. So Joseph's brothers went and bowed down before him, their faces touching the ground.

New RSV                               .

Revised English Bible            .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           The sons of Isra’el came to buy along with the others that came, since the famine extended to the land of Kena‘an. Yosef was governor over the land; it was he who sold to all the people of the land. Now when Yosef’s brothers came and prostrated themselves before him on the ground, Yosef saw his brothers and recognized them; but he acted toward them as if he were a stranger and spoke harshly with them. V. 5 and a portion of v. 7 are included for context.

exeGeses companion Bible   ...and Yoseph is the governor over the land

and he markets the kernels

to all the people of the land.

And the brothers of Yoseph come

and prostrate with their nostrils to the earth:...

Hebraic Roots Bible               .

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               Now Joseph was the vizier of the land; it was he who dispensed rations to all the people of the land. And Joseph’s brothers came and bowed low to him, with their faces to the ground.

Judaica Press Complete T.    .

Kaplan Translation                 Joseph was like a dictator over the land, since he was the only one who rationed out food for all the people. When Joseph's brothers arrived, they prostrated themselves to him, with their faces to the ground.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           And Yosef was the Shalit Al HaAretz, and he it was that sold to kol Am HaAretz: and Achei Yosef came, and prostrated themselves before him with their faces to the ground.

The Scriptures 1998              .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

The Amplified Bible                Now Joseph was the ruler over the land, and he was the one who sold [grain] to all the people of the land; and Joseph’s [half] brothers came and bowed down before him with their faces to the ground.

The Expanded Bible              Now Joseph was ·governor [administrator] over ·Egypt [Lthe land]. He was the one who sold the grain to people ·who came to buy it [Lof the land/earth]. So Joseph’s brothers came to him and bowed facedown on the ground before him.

The Geneva Bible                  .

Kretzmann’s Commentary    And Joseph was the governor over the land, and he it was that sold to all the people of the land. As the ruler of the country by Pharaoh's decree and as the chief overseer of the store-houses, Joseph exercised the greatest care in selling to strangers, and it seems to have been the rule that the foreigners were to be presented to him in person. And Joseph's brethren came, and bowed down themselves before him with their faces to the earth, the dream of Joseph being thus fulfilled, Chapter 37:7-8.

NET Bible®                             Now Joseph was the ruler of the country, the one who sold grain to all the people of the country [The disjunctive clause either introduces a new episode in the unfolding drama or provides the reader with supplemental information necessary to understanding the story.]. Joseph’s brothers came and bowed down before him with [The word “faces” is an adverbial accusative, so the preposition has been supplied in the translation.] their faces to the ground.

Syndein/Thieme                     And Joseph . . . {was} the governor/'administrative ruler' {shalliyt} over the land, and he caused to sell {the grain} to all the people of the land. And Joseph's brethren kept on coming, and kept on bowing themselves down before him with their faces to the earth.

The Voice                               Since Joseph was in charge of Egypt, he was the one responsible for selling the grain to the people who came from the various lands. When it was their turn, Joseph’s brothers came and bowed down before him with their faces to the ground.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Brenner’s Mechanical Trans....and Yoseph [Adding] was the governor upon the land making exchange to all the people of the land and the brothers of Yoseph [Adding] came and they bent themselves down to him, nostrils unto the land,...

Concordant Literal Version    And Joseph, he has authority over the land. He is the retailer to all the people of the land. And coming are the brothers of Joseph and prostrating to him, nostrils to the earth.

Context Group Version          And Joseph was the governor over the land { or earth }; it was he who sold to all the people of the land { or earth }. And Joseph's brothers came, and bowed down to him with their faces to the land { or earth }.

Darby Translation                  .

Emphasized Bible                  .

English Standard Version      Now Joseph was governor over the land. He was the one who sold to all the people of the land. And Joseph's brothers came and bowed themselves before him with their faces to the ground.

Evidence Bible                       .

Green’s Literal Translation    And Joseph was the potentate over the land, the one selling to all the people of the earth. And Joseph's brothers came in and bowed to him, face down to the earth..

H. C. Leupold                         .

Jack Ballinger’s translation    Now Joseph was the ruler [administrator] over the land; he was the one who sold to all the people of the land. And Joseph's brothers came and bowed down to him with their faces to the ground.

Modern English Version         .

Modern KJV                           .

NASB                                     Now Joseph was the ruler over the land; he was the one who sold to all the people of the land. And Joseph’s brothers came and bowed down to him with their faces to the ground.

New European Version          .

New King James Version       .

Owen's Translation                .

Brenner’s Mechanical Trans..

Stuart Wolf                             .

Third Millennium Bible            .

Updated Bible Version 2.11   .

A Voice in the Wilderness      And Joseph was lord over the land; and it was he who sold to all the people of the land. And Joseph's brothers came and bowed down before him, their faces to the earth.

Webster’s Bible Translation  .

World English Bible                .

Young's Literal Translation     .

Young’s Updated LT             And Joseph is the ruler over the land, he who is selling to all the people of the land, and Joseph’s brothers come and bow themselves to him—face to the earth.

 

The gist of this passage:     Because Joseph was ruler of the land and in charge of selling grain to the people, his brother’s came to him to purchase grain. They bowed before him (not knowing who he is).


Genesis 42:6a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Yôwçêph (יוֹסֵף) [pronounced yoh-SAYF]

he adds, he increases; transliterated Joseph

proper masculine noun

Strong’s #3130 BDB #415

hûwʾ (הוּא) [pronounced hoo]

he, it; him, himself as a demonstrative pronoun: that, this (one); same

3rd person masculine singular, personal pronoun; sometimes the verb to be, is implied

Strong’s #1931 BDB #214

shallîyţ (שַלִּיט) [pronounced shahl-LEET]

having mastery, domineering; imperious; as a substantive, ruler, governor, master

masculine singular adjective; used here as a substantive; with the definite article

Strong’s #7989 BDB #1020

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of relative proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: Now Joseph [was] the governor over the land... Joseph was the 2nd highest ranking official in the land, just below the Pharaoh.


Land here refers to the land of Egypt.


Genesis 42:6b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

hûwʾ (הוּא) [pronounced hoo]

he, it; him, himself as a demonstrative pronoun: that, this (one); same

3rd person masculine singular, personal pronoun; sometimes the verb to be, is implied

Strong’s #1931 BDB #214

shâbar (שָבַר) [pronounced shawb-VAHR]

the seller [vendor, trafficker] [of grain]

Hiphil participle with the definite article

Strong’s #7666 BDB #991

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

ʿam (עַם) [pronounced ģahm]

people; race, tribe; family, relatives; citizens, common people; companions, servants; entire human race; herd [of animals]

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #5971 BDB #766

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: ...[and] he [was] the one selling [grain] to all the people of the land. Joseph had the responsibility of overseeing the sale of grain—which had been put aside for 7 years at his request—so that Egypt had grain when no other country did. People from all over that land, as far away as Canaan, obviously, came to purchase grain from him.


There were granaries established all over Egypt, in various cities. It is possible that one particular outlet was established for neighboring countries.


Joseph sold this grain—God the Holy Spirit tells us this three times (Gen. 41:56–57 42:6). There is no welfare here. The government did not collect this grain like a bank and then return it to the people. Joseph both sold it to the Egyptians and sold it to other countries. This brought great wealth into Egypt.


Because Joseph was in charge of selling the grain, his brothers, Jacob’s sons, would be eventually routed to him.


Two translations tie Joseph’s position unmistakably to his brothers coming to him.

 

New Living Translation           Since Joseph was governor of all Egypt and in charge of selling grain to all the people, it was to him that his brothers came. When they arrived, they bowed before him with their faces to the ground.

Translation for Translators     At that time Joseph was the governor of Egypt. He was the one who sold grain to people who came from all over Egypt and from many other countries [HYP] to buy grain. So when Joseph's brothers arrived, they were told that it was necessary for them to talk with Joseph. So they went to him and prostrated themselves before him with their faces to the ground.


It is because Joseph is in charge of selling the grain that his brothers encounter him. Both of these translations add a few words, but they emphasize why Joseph encounters his brothers.

Genesis 42:6c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

bôwʾ (בּוֹא) [pronounced boh]

to come in, to come, to go in, to go, to enter, to advance; to attain

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #935 BDB #97

ʾachîym (אַחִים) [pronounced awhk-EEM]

brothers, kinsmen, close relatives; tribesmen; fellow-countrymen

masculine plural construct

Strong's #251 BDB #26

Yôwçêph (יוֹסֵף) [pronounced yoh-SAYF]

he adds, he increases; transliterated Joseph

proper masculine noun

Strong’s #3130 BDB #415


Translation: So Joseph’s brothers came in... Joseph’s brothers come in, suggesting perhaps that there were walls or some kind of enclosure, through which they passed.


Genesis 42:6d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

shâchah (שָחַה) [pronounced shaw-KHAW]

to bow down, to prostrate oneself, to do obeisance to; to honor [with prayers]; to do homage to, to submit to

3rd person masculine plural, Hithpael imperfect

Strong’s #7812 BDB #1005

John Owens has hithpalel.

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾaphayim (אַפַיִם) [pronounced ah-fah-YIM]

face; noses, nostrils, but is also translated brows, face; anger, fierce anger, fierce wrath

masculine dual noun

Strong’s #639 BDB #60

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earthward (all or a portion thereof), on [toward, upon] the earth [ground]; on [upon, toward] the land [territory, country, continent; ground, soil]

feminine singular noun with the directional hê

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: ...and bowed to him, [their] faces toward the ground. Essentially, the man who stands before them has the power over their life and death and the lives of their families. The brothers show him every respect. They bow deeply before Joseph, their faces toward the ground.

 

The NET Bible: Here is the beginning of the fulfillment of Joseph’s dreams (see Gen 37). But it is not the complete fulfillment, since all his brothers and his parents must come. The point of the dream, of course, was not simply to get the family to bow to Joseph, but that Joseph would be placed in a position of rule and authority to save the family and the world (41:57).


When Joseph's brothers saw him for the first time, he was introduced to them as royalty and using his Egyptian name rather than his Hebrew name. Consciously, they will not recognize Joseph; however, subconsciously, they will make a connection and some of the brothers will think about Joseph and feel guilty about what they did during this interview with the Grand Vizier.


genesis42.gif

Genesis 42:6 And Joseph was the potentate over the land. He was the one selling to all the people of the earth. And Joseph's brothers came and bowed down themselves before him, their faces to the earth.


Now we bring the narratives together again—the narrative of Joseph in Egypt and the narrative of the brothers in Canaan. This is masterfully done, by the way. Gen. 42:1–5 describes Joseph’s brothers in Canaan; Gen. 41 is all about Joseph in Egypt; and Gen. 42:6 brings them all together.


How many times have you read a book or watched a movie, and you are following one group of characters into a specific set of circumstances; and then, the plot turns to another set of characters in specific circumstances; and then these two sets of characters are brought together through happenstance? This is quite impressive when it is done well.


Joseph’s brothers come before him and bow before him, in respect, and in fulfillment of the prophetic dreams which Joseph had.


Joseph and his Brothers in Egypt (a graphic); from sawyou.com; accessed November 30, 2016


So, we have two different realities, two different sets of people in two different lands, being brought together by the circumstances of this famine.


This sort of thing, by the way, is the basis of classical music and even much of pop music. Since you are more likely familiar with pop music, you may know that a song has a particular tune and melody and rhythm; but there is the bridge, which may use different cords, or a different beat; and this leads back to the original tune. This is particularly impressive when this different tunes are intertwined in some way, or lead in and out from one to the other. Sometimes, one tune might be superimposed upon another, which can be very satisfying to the ears (of all things, Walk Through the Fire from Buffy the Vampire Slayer comes to mind). Mark Steyn once did this same thing verbally, when sitting in for Rush Limbaugh in 2016, and he very movingly told about the Party at the End of the World, weaving together two different stories in a masterful way.


This is what Joseph has done with this narrative. He begins the narrative where he is with his brothers in Canaan, but they plot against him and sell him into slavery. The brothers remain in Canaan and Joseph is taken to Egypt. We follow some of the lives of the brothers in Canaan, but we mostly follow Joseph’s life in Egypt.


There is the narrative of Joseph in Egypt; but there is also the narrative of his brothers in Canaan; and then, these two sets of people find themselves thrown together, under a very real set of circumstances. Both sets of people interact with entirely different agendas.


There is a famine throughout the land of Canaan and Egypt. The sons of Jacob come to realize that they do not have enough grain to get through the next season; and their father tells them to go to Egypt. So all 10 brothers go. Joseph, whom they sold into slavery, is already in Egypt (they have no idea that they will be meeting with him); and the 12th brother, Benjamin, is kept back at home by Jacob.


This is the first year of the famine, and Jacob has come to realize that his family does not have enough food to survive. Because there is grain in Egypt, he sends his sons to Egypt to buy grain.


Genesis 42:6 Now Joseph was governor over the land. He was the one who sold to all the people of the land. And Joseph's brothers came and bowed themselves before him with their faces to the ground. (ESV)


You will note the much different attitude of that era. The poor are not demanding that they be subsidized by the wealthy. The sons from Canaan recognize the authority and the foresight of Joseph, who is a great leader in the land of Egypt. They show him great respect. They have no idea that this man before them is their estranged brother, whom they sold into slavery.


The word used here to describe Joseph’s position is shallîyţ (שַלִּיט) [pronounced shahl-LEET], which means, having mastery, domineering; imperious; as a substantive, ruler, governor, master. Strong’s #7989 BDB #1020. It is combined with the words over the land; the land here referring to Egypt, where they all were.


——————————



And so sees Joseph his brothers and so he recognizes them and so he makes himself foreign unto them and so he speaks with them harshly and so he says unto them, “From where have you [all] come?” And so they say, “From a land of Canaan to buy food.”

Genesis

42:7

So Joseph saw his brothers and he recognized them, but he made himself foreign to them. He spoke harshly with them and said to them, “From where have you [all] come?” They answered, “From the land of Canaan to buy food.”

Joseph saw his brothers and he recognized them, but he made himself seem Egyptian to them. He spoke with a strong Egyptian accent, asking them, “From where have you come?” They answered, “We have come from the land of Canaan in order to buy food from you.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so sees Joseph his brothers and so he recognizes them and so he makes himself foreign unto them and so he speaks with them harshly and so he says unto them, “From where have you [all] come?” And so they say, “From a land of Canaan to buy food.”

Dead Sea Scrolls                   .

Targum (Onkelos)                  And Joseph saw his brothers, and knew them, and considered what he should say to them. And he spake with them severely, and said to them, Whence come you? And they said, From the land of Kenaan, to buy corn.

Targum (Pseudo-Jonathan)   And Joseph saw his brethren, and recognised them; but he made himself as a stranger in their eyes, and spake hard words to them, and said to them, Whence come yon? And they said, From the land of Kenaan, to buy corn.

Revised Douay-Rheims         And he knew them, he spoke as it were to strangers somewhat roughly, asking them: Whence came you? They answered: From the land of Chanaan, to buy necessaries of life.

Latin Vulgate                          .

Aramaic ESV of Peshitta        Yoseph saw his brothers, and he recognised them, but acted like a stranger to them, and spoke roughly with them. He said to them, "Where did you come from?" They said, "From the land of Canaan to buy food."

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And Joseph saw his brothers and recognized them, but he deceived them and spoke harshly to them; and he said to them, Where have you come from? And they said, We came from the land of Canaan to buy grain.

Septuagint (Greek)                And when Joseph saw his brethren, he knew them, and estranged himself from them, and spoke hard words to them; and said to them, Whence are you come? And they said, Out of the land of Chanaan, to buy food.

NETS (Greek)                        .

Brenton’s Septuagint             .

 

Significant differences: 


Limited Vocabulary Translations:

 

Bible in Basic English             And when Joseph saw his brothers, it was clear to him who they were, but he made himself strange to them, and talking roughly to them, said, Where do you come from? And they said, From the land of Canaan, to get food.

Easy English                          Joseph saw his brothers and he knew them. However, he behaved as if they were strangers. Joseph spoke severely to his brothers. ‘Where do you come from?’ he asked.

The brothers replied, ‘We have come from the country called Canaan to buy food.’

Easy-to-Read Version–2006  Joseph saw his brothers and recognized them, but he acted like he didn’t know them. He was rude when he spoke to them. He said, “Where do you come from?”

The brothers answered, “We have come from the land of Canaan to buy food.”

International Children’s B.     .

God’s Word                         .

Good News Bible (TEV)         .

The Message                         .

Names of God Bible               .

NIRV                                      Joseph saw his brothers, he recognized them. But he pretended to be a stranger. He spoke to them in a mean way. “Where do you come from?” he asked.

“From the land of Canaan,” they replied. “We’ve come to buy food.”

New Simplified Bible              Joseph recognized his brothers the moment he saw them. Even so, he acted as if he did not know them and spoke harshly to them: »Where did you come from?« They answered: »From Canaan, to buy food.«


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           When Joseph saw his brothers, he recognized them, but he acted like he didn’t know them. He spoke to them with a harsh tone and said, “Where have you come from?”

And they said, “From the land of Canaan to buy food.”

Contemporary English V.       They did not recognize Joseph, but right away he knew who they were, though he pretended not to know. Instead, he spoke harshly and asked, "Where do you come from?" "From the land of Canaan," they answered. "We've come here to buy grain."

The Living Bible                     Joseph recognized them instantly, but pretended he didn’t.

“Where are you from?” he demanded roughly.

“From the land of Canaan,” they replied. “We have come to buy grain.”

New Berkeley Version           .

New Century Version             When Joseph saw his brothers, he knew who they were, but he acted as if he didn’t know them. He asked unkindly, “Where do you come from?”

They answered, “We have come from the land of Canaan to buy food.”

New Life Version                    When Joseph saw his brothers, he knew who they were. But he acted like a stranger and spoke sharp words to them. He said, "Where have you come from?" They answered, "From the land of Canaan, to buy food."

New Living Translation           Joseph recognized his brothers instantly, but he pretended to be a stranger and spoke harshly to them. “Where are you from?” he demanded.

“From the land of Canaan,” they replied. “We have come to buy food.”


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          But when JoSeph saw his brothers (because he recognized them), he hid himself in front of them and spoke harshly to them, asking, 'Where are you coming from?

And they replied, '[We came from] the land of CanaAn, to buy food.'

Beck’s American Translation .

International Standard V        As soon as Joseph saw his brothers, he knew who they were, but he remained disguised and asked them gruffly, “Where are you from?”

“From the land of Canaan,” they replied. “We’re here [The Heb. lacks We’re here] to buy food.”

New Advent (Knox) Bible       Egypt was under the control of Joseph: it was at his discretion that corn was sold to foreign nations. And when his brethren came and did him reverence, he recognized them; but he treated them as strangers, and talked roughly to them. Whence come you? he asked. From the land of Chanaan, they said, to buy food. V. 6 is included for context.

Today’s NIV                          .

Translation for Translators     As soon as Joseph saw his brothers, he recognized them. But he pretended that he did not know them. He spoke harshly to them, saying, “Where do you come from?” One of them replied, “We have come from Canaan land, to buy some grain.”


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Awful Scroll Bible                   Joseph was to perceive his brothers, and was to recognize them - were they to recognize him? - He was to speak obdurately to them, and was to say: Where have yous come from? They were to say: From the solid grounds of Canaan, to buy grain and food.

Conservapedia                       Joseph saw his brothers, and recognized him. But he represented himself as a foreigner to them, and spoke to them in an obstinate manner. He asked them, "Where have you come from?" And they said, "From the land of Canaan, to buy food."

Ferrar-Fenton Bible                When Joseph saw them he scrutinized and recognized them, but spoke to them harshly, and asked, "From what country do you come ? " They replied, " From the land of Canan, to buy food."

God’s Truth (Tyndale)           When Joseph saw his brethren, he knew them: But made strange unto them, and spoke roughly unto them saying: From where come ye? and they said: out of the land of Canaan, to buy victual. Joseph knew his brethren, but they knew not him.

HCSB                                     .

Jubilee Bible 2000                  .

Lexham English Bible            .

NIV, ©2011                             .

H. C. Leupold                         .

Tree of Life Version                When Joseph saw his brothers, he recognized them, but he made himself unrecognizable to them. Then he spoke harshly and said to them, “Where have you come from?”

“From the land of Canaan,” they said, “to buy grain as food.”


Catholic Bibles (those having the imprimatur):

 

Christian Community (1988)  .

The Heritage Bible                 And Joseph saw his brothers, and recognizing, he recognized them, and spoke hard to them; and he said to them, From where have you come? And they said, From the land of Canaan to buy food.

New American Bible (2002)   .

New American Bible (2011)   He recognized them as soon as he saw them. But he concealed his own identity from them and spoke harshly to them. “Where do you come from?” he asked them. They answered, “From the land of Canaan, to buy food.”

New Jerusalem Bible             As soon as Joseph saw his brothers he recognised them. But he did not make himself known to them, and he spoke harshly to them. 'Where have you come from?' he asked. 'From Canaan to get food,' they replied.

New RSV                               .

Revised English Bible            Now Joseph was governor of the land, and it was he who sold the grain to all its people. Joseph's brothers came and bowed to the ground before him, and when he saw his brothers he recognized them but, pretending not to know them, he greeted them harshly. “Where do you come from?” he demanded. “From Canaan to buy food,” they answered. V. 6 is included for context.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           Now when Yosef’s brothers came and prostrated themselves before him on the ground, Yosef saw his brothers and recognized them; but he acted toward them as if he were a stranger and spoke harshly with them. He asked them, “Where are you from?” They answered, “From the land of Kena‘an to buy food.” So Yosef recognized his brothers, but they didn’t recognize him. A portion of v. 6 and all of v. 8 are included for context.

exeGeses companion Bible   ...and Yoseph sees his brothers

and he recognizes them;

but they recognize him not;

and he words sternly to them:

and he says to them, Whence come you?

And they say, From the land of Kenaan

to market for kernels for food.

Hebraic Roots Bible               .

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               When Joseph saw his brothers, he recognized them; but he acted like a stranger toward them and spoke harshly to them. He asked them, “Where do you come from?” And they said, “From the land of Canaan, to procure food.”

Judaica Press Complete T.    .

Kaplan Translation                 Joseph recognized his brothers as soon as he saw them. But he behaved like a stranger and spoke harshly to them. 'Where are you from?' he asked.

'From the land of Canaan - to buy food,' they replied.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           And Yosef saw his achim, and he recognized them, but made himself a stranger unto them, and spoke roughly unto them; and he said unto them, From where come ye? And they said, From Eretz Kena’an to buy ochel.

The Scriptures 1998              .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

The Amplified Bible                When Joseph saw his brothers he recognized them, but [hiding his identity] he treated them as strangers and spoke harshly to them. He said to them, “Where have you come from?” And they said, “From the land of Canaan, to buy food.”

The Expanded Bible              When Joseph saw his brothers, he ·knew who they were [recognized them], but he ·acted as if he didn’t know them [treated them as strangers/foreigners]. He asked ·unkindly [harshly], “Where do you come from?”

The Geneva Bible                  .

Kretzmann’s Commentary    And Joseph saw his brethren, and he knew them, but made himself strange unto them, and spake roughly unto them, he literally spoke to them hard things;and he said unto them, Whence come ye? And they said, From the land of Canaan to buy food. It was an easy matter for Joseph, even after the lapse of some twenty years, to recognize his brothers; their number, their language, their clothing, their manner indicated at once who they were. But not one of them would have looked for Joseph in the person of this despotic Egyptian, whose dress and language were entirely foreign to them. Joseph purposely spoke harshly to them, in order to sound them out, to find whether their hearts had changed in the last two decades. Though he still loved them, his treatment would provide some wholesome discipline for them.

NET Bible®                             When Joseph saw his brothers, he recognized them, but he pretended to be a stranger [Heb “said.”] to them and spoke to them harshly. He asked, “Where do you come from?” They answered, “From the land of Canaan, to buy grain for food.”

Syndein/Thieme                     And Joseph kept on seeing his brothers, and he recognized them, but made himself unrecognizable unto them, and 'intensively communicated categorically roughly' {dabar} unto them. And he kept on saying unto them, "From where have you come and why? " And they kept on saying, "From the land of Canaan to buy food."

The Voice                               The moment Joseph saw his brothers, he recognized them even though nearly 20 years had passed since last he saw them, but he treated them like strangers and spoke gruffly to them.

Joseph: Where do you come from?

Joseph’s Brothers: We come from the land of Canaan to buy food.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Brenner’s Mechanical Trans....and Yoseph [Adding] saw his brothers and he recognized them and he made himself unrecognizable to them and he spoke to them hard, from where did you come, and they said, from the land of Kena'an [Lowered] to exchange foodstuff,...

Concordant Literal Version    And seeing is Joseph his brothers, and is recognizing them. Yet foreign makes he himself to them, and is speaking with them obstinately, and is saying to them, "Whence come you? And saying are they, "From the land of Canaan, to purchase food.

Context Group Version          And Joseph saw his brothers, and he recognized them, but made himself strange to them, and spoke roughly with them; and he said to them. From where do you {pl} come? And they said, From the land of Canaan to buy food.

Darby Translation                  .

Emphasized Bible                  .

English Standard Version      Joseph saw his brothers and recognized them, but he treated them like strangers and spoke roughly to them. "Where do you come from?" he said. They said, "From the land of Canaan, to buy food."

Evidence Bible                       .

Green’s Literal Translation    And Joseph saw his brothers and recognized them; but he remained a stranger to them and spoke harsh things to them, and said to them, From where have you come? And they said, From the land of Canaan to buy food.

H. C. Leupold                         .

Jack Ballinger’s translation    .

Modern English Version         Joseph saw his brothers, and he recognized them, but he pretended to be a stranger to them and spoke harshly to them. He said to them, “From where do you come?”

And they said, “From the land of Canaan to buy food.”

Modern KJV                           .

NASB                                     When Joseph saw his brothers he recognized them, but he disguised himself to them and spoke to them harshly. And he said to them, “Where have you come from?” And they said, “From the land of Canaan, to buy food.”

New European Version          .

New King James Version       .

Owen's Translation                .

Brenner’s Mechanical Trans..

Stuart Wolf                             .

Third Millennium Bible            .

Updated Bible Version 2.11   .

A Voice in the Wilderness      .

Webster’s Bible Translation  .

World English Bible                Joseph saw his brothers, and he recognized them, but acted like a stranger to them, and spoke roughly with them. He said to them, “Where did you come from?” They said, “From the land of Canaan, to buy food.”

Young's Literal Translation     .

Young’s Updated LT             And Joseph sees his brothers, and discerns them, and makes himself strange unto them, and speaks with them sharp things, and says unto them, “From whence have you [all] come?” and they say, “From the land of Canaan—to buy food.”

 

The gist of this passage:     Joseph recognizes his brothers, but they do not know him. He speaks roughly to them, asking them from where they have come. They tell him, “From the land of Canaan; we are here to purchase grain.”


Genesis 42:7a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

râʾâh (רָאָה) [pronounced raw-AWH]

to see, to look, to look at, to view, to behold; to observe; to perceive, to understand, to learn, to know

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #7200 BDB #906

Yôwçêph (יוֹסֵף) [pronounced yoh-SAYF]

he adds, he increases; transliterated Joseph

proper masculine noun

Strong’s #3130 BDB #415

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʾachîym (אַחִים) [pronounced awhk-EEM]

brothers, kinsmen, close relatives; tribesmen; fellow-countrymen

masculine plural noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #251 BDB #26


Translation: So Joseph saw his brothers... The idea here is, he sees his brothers and he recognizes them. Later, we will find out that, even though 20 years have passed, he knows each and every one of them.


Although I am positive that my understanding of Joseph’s motivation is correct, there is certainly the question, was Joseph expecting this? Did this catch him by surprise? Did he muse to himself, a ways into the famine, I wonder if my brothers will come up here to buy grain? Whereas, I believe his motivation can be reasonably ascertained, I don’t think that we know this. Joseph is a very intelligent man, so he would not need time to consider what will he say if he meets his brothers. My guess is, Joseph may or may not have considered that he would see his brothers again because of the famine; but that this meeting caught him by surprise. I don’t think that he pondered these questions, wondering, what should I do if 6 of my brothers show up? What should I do if all 11 brothers show up? It may have occurred to him, but it seems unnecessary for him to have a plan in place for that possibility.


Let’s put it this way—you are in an unfamiliar city and an acquaintance of yours lives there. Do you mentally consider all the possible circumstances of running into that person? Probably not (unless you are half psycho). At most, it occurs to you that it could happen. Let me suggest that, in his position of authority, Joseph has a lot on his mind; he has a lot going on. I doubt that he spends much time sitting around thinking, I wonder if...


Genesis 42:7b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

nâkar (נָכַר) [pronounced naw-KAHR]

to regard, to recognize, to acknowledge; to discern, to distinguish

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong’s #5234 BDB #647


Translation: ...and he recognized them,... Joseph did not just recognize them, he knew each and every brother by name.

 

Kretzmann correctly observes: It was an easy matter for Joseph, even after the lapse of some twenty years, to recognize his brothers; their number, their language, their clothing, their manner indicated at once who they were. But not one of them would have looked for Joseph in the person of this despotic Egyptian, whose dress and language were entirely foreign to them.


Genesis 42:7c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

nâkar (נָכַר) [pronounced naw-KAHR]

properly: to be foreign, to be strange; to be known, to be recognized; to dissimulate, to feign

3rd person masculine singular, Hithpael imperfect

Strong’s #5234 BDB #649

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied) with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #413 BDB #39


Translation: ...but he made himself foreign to them. Joseph has spent 20 years with the Egyptians, a longer period of time than he had lived in Canaan. He has lived closely with the Egyptians, so he has picked up their language and probably speaks it flawlessly and without an accent by this time.


It is also likely that he now dresses like an Egyptian and, if there was any normal way to do his beard and hair, then he probably conformed to that. My memory is, the Egyptians tended to be clean-shaven.


Genesis 42:7d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

dâbar (דָּבַר) [pronounced dawb-VAHR]

to speak, to talk [and back with action], to give an opinion, to expound, to make a formal speech, to speak out, to promise, to propose, to speak kindly of, to declare, to proclaim, to announce

3rd person masculine singular, Piel imperfect

Strong’s #1696 BDB #180

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

with, at, near, by, among, directly from

preposition (which is identical to the sign of the direct object) with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #854 BDB #85

qâsheh (קָשֶה) [pronounced kaw-SHEH]

hard, severe, difficult, fierce, intense, vehement, stiff, harsh, hardened, stubborn; heavy; powerful, strong

feminine plural adjective/noun

Strong’s #7186 BDB #904


Translation: He spoke harshly with them... Joseph did not necessarily say, “What the hell are you sons-a-bitches doing here?” It is likely that he spoke like an Egyptian trying to speak the Hebrew dialect and he may have seemed to struggle with it, using a strong Egyptian accent.


Later, the brothers would all tell Jacob that this man spoke harshly to them (v. 30), so that would suggest more that the tone of his voice was harsh and powerful.


Genesis 42:7a-e And Joseph saw his brothers, and he knew them, but remained a stranger to them, and spoke roughly to them.


Joseph knew who these men were. They did not expect to see him; nor did they recognize him.


Joseph speaks roughly to his brothers, which perhaps means that he sounds as if he is in a bad mood. Roughly is the Hebrew word qâsheh (קָשֶה) [pronounced kaw-SHEH], which means, hard, severe, difficult, fierce, intense, vehement, stiff, harsh, hardened, stubborn; heavy; powerful, strong. Strong’s #7186 BDB #904. He sounds tough, hardened, harsh. This is not something which is unexpected. His attitude does not surprise the sons of Jacob.


The people of Canaan would have seemed uncivilized and unclean to the people of Egypt; and it would be quite natural for a potentate in Egypt to look down upon the vermin coming from elsewhere in the world.


The brothers would have had some understanding of Egypt. Their grandfather Abraham had been to Egypt; and they had cousins who were part Egyptian (the sons of Ishmael). We do not know how well Jacob’s sons understood the culture of Egypt.


The sons of Jacob do know enough not to exhibit arrogance before a ruler in Egypt; they bow low before him. Joseph’s tone of voice would have been understandable to them, although they would not have known what he was saying (he was speaking Egyptian and this was being translated for the brothers). So they understood the harsh tone in his voice before they knew exactly what he was saying.


Joseph is intentionally remaining unknown to his older brothers. Joseph is going to do some things which may strike us as odd, but reasons for his behavior can be ascertained. There is no reason to think that Joseph has not forgiven his brothers; and he has forgiven them because he understands the plan of God in his life (which he will later state). However, even though he recognizes that he is in Egypt, placed there by God to provide for his brothers, this does not mean that he wants to reunite with his brothers. For the time being, Joseph will intentionally remain a stranger to his brothers, and not belie any characteristic that they find to be familiar.


Genesis 42:7e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend; to decide; to answer

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied) with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #413 BDB #39

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʾayin (הַיִן) [pronounced AH-yin]

where; with regards to time it means to what point; with ʿad, it means how long

adverb

Strong’s #370 BDB #32

bôwʾ (בּוֹא) [pronounced boh]

to come in, to come, to go in, to go, to enter, to advance; to attain

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #935 BDB #97


Translation: ...and said to them, “From where have you [all] come?” He asks them where did they come from.


Genesis 42:7f

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend; to decide; to answer

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

masculine singular construct

Strong's #776 BDB #75

Kenaʿan (כְּנַעַן) [pronounced keNAH-ģahn]

which possibly means merchant and is transliterated Canaan

masculine proper noun; territory; pausal form

Strong’s #3667 BDB #488

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

shâbar (שָבַר) [pronounced shawb-VAHR]

to purchase, to buy [grain]

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #7666 BDB #991

ʾôkel (אֹכֶל) [pronounced OH-kehl]

food, grain, meal; prey, meat; provisions

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #400 BDB #38

The NET Bible: The verb is denominative, meaning “to buy grain”; the word “food” could simply be the direct object, but may also be an adverbial accusative.


Translation: They answered, “From the land of Canaan to buy food.” It says that they said, suggesting that two or more of them said these two phrases: from a land of Canaan and to buy food. They do not construct a complete Hebrew sentence, and this is probably because they do not think that he speaks their language very well.


Genesis 42:7 And Joseph saw his brothers, and he knew them, but remained a stranger to them, and spoke roughly to them. And he said to them, “Where do you come from?” And they said, “From the land of Canaan to buy food.”


Joseph’s attitude, his language, and his interaction with them does not belie his actual relationship with them.


The sons of Israel will assume that they are being subjected to the same scrutiny as everyone else; and they are not surprised to meet such a stern man in charge of the grain distribution.


The Egyptian ruler before whom they stand is actually their brother—the brother they assume is dead or enslaved. His head and beard are likely shaved and he is speaking in Egyptian in harsh tones. There is nothing about him that seems like their brother, whom they have not seen for 20 years.


——————————



And so recognizes Joseph his brothers and they do not recognize him.

Genesis

42:8

Joseph recognized his brothers but they did not recognize him.

Joseph recognized his brothers but they did not recognize him.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so recognizes Joseph his brothers and they do not recognize him.

Dead Sea Scrolls                   .

Targum (Onkelos)                  And Joseph knew his brothers, but they did not know him.

Targum (Pseudo-Jonathan)   Now Joseph recognised his brethren, because, when separated from them, they had the token of the beard; but they did not recognise him, because (at that time) he had not the token of the beard, and at this hour he had it.

Revised Douay-Rheims         .

Latin Vulgate                          And though he knew his brethren, he was not known by them.

Aramaic ESV of Peshitta        Yoseph recognised his brothers, but they did not recognise him.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And Joseph recognized his brothers, but they did not recognize him.

Septuagint (Greek)                And Joseph knew his brethren, but they knew not him.

NETS (Greek)                        .

Brenton’s Septuagint             .

 

Significant differences: 


Limited Vocabulary Translations:

 

Bible in Basic English             Now though Joseph saw that these were his brothers, they had no idea who he was.

Easy English                          So Joseph knew his brothers, but they did not know him.

Easy-to-Read Version–2006  .

International Children’s B.     .

God’s Word                         .

Good News Bible (TEV)         Although Joseph recognized his brothers, they did not recognize him.

The Message                         .

Names of God Bible               .

NIRV                                      .

New Simplified Bible              .


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           .

Contemporary English V.       They did not recognize Joseph, but right away he knew who they were, though he pretended not to know. Instead, he spoke harshly and asked, "Where do you come from?" "From the land of Canaan," they answered. "We've come here to buy grain." The CEV combines vv. 7 and 8.

The Living Bible                     The Living Bible does not repeat this phrase.

New Berkeley Version           .

New Century Version             Joseph knew they were his brothers, but they did not know who he was.

New Life Version                    .

New Living Translation           .


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Well, although JoSeph recognized his brothers, they didn't recognize him.

Beck’s American Translation .

International Standard V        But Joseph had already recognized his brothers, even though they had not recognized him.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       Well as he knew them, his brethren did not know him again, and his mind went back to the dreams he had had, long ago. You are spies, he told them; you have come to find out where our country’s defences are weak. V. 9 is included for context.

Today’s NIV                          .

Translation for Translators     .


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Awful Scroll Bible                   Joseph was to recognize his brothers - are they to have recognized him? -

Conservapedia                       .

Ferrar-Fenton Bible                Although Joseph recognized his brothers they did not recognize him, — but Joseph remembered the dream which he dreamed to himself, and said to them, "You are spies ; come to survey the nakedness of the land." V. 9 is included for context.

God’s Truth (Tyndale)           .

HCSB                                     .

Jubilee Bible 2000                  .

Lexham English Bible            .

NIV, ©2011                             .

H. C. Leupold                         Now Joseph recognized his brethren, but they on their part did not recognize him.

Tree of Life Version                .


Catholic Bibles (those having the imprimatur):

 

Christian Community (1988)  .

The Heritage Bible                 .

New American Bible (2002)   When Joseph recognized his brothers, although they did not recognize him, he was reminded of the dreams he had about them. He said to them: "You are spies. You have come to see the nakedness of the land [The nakedness of the land: the military weakness of the land, like human nakedness, should not be seen by strangers.]." V. 9 is included for context.

New American Bible (2011)   .

New Jerusalem Bible             .

New RSV                               .

Revised English Bible            .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           .

exeGeses companion Bible   .

Hebraic Roots Bible               .

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               For though Joseph recognized his brothers, they did not recognize him.

Judaica Press Complete T.    .

Kaplan Translation                 .

Orthodox Jewish Bible           And Yosef recognized his achim, but they recognized not him.

The Scriptures 1998              So Yosĕph recognised his brothers, but they did not recognise him.


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

The Amplified Bible                .

The Expanded Bible              Joseph ·knew they were [recognized] his brothers, but they did not ·know who he was [recognize him].

The Geneva Bible                  .

Kretzmann’s Commentary    Verses 8-20

In Prison as Spies

And Joseph knew his brethren, but they knew not him.

NET Bible®                             .

Syndein/Thieme                     And Joseph kept on recognizing his brothers, but they did not recognize him.

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Brenner’s Mechanical Trans..

Concordant Literal Version    And recognizing is Joseph his brothers, yet they do not recognize him.

Context Group Version          .

Darby Translation                  .

Emphasized Bible                  .

English Standard Version      .

Evidence Bible                       .

Green’s Literal Translation    .

H. C. Leupold                         .

Jack Ballinger’s translation    .

Modern English Version         .

Modern KJV                           .

NASB                                     But Joseph had recognized his brothers, although they did not recognize him.

New European Version          .

New King James Version       .

Owen's Translation                .

Brenner’s Mechanical Trans..

Stuart Wolf                             .

Third Millennium Bible            .

Updated Bible Version 2.11   .

A Voice in the Wilderness      .

Webster’s Bible Translation  And Joseph knew his brethren, but they knew not him.

World English Bible                .

Young's Literal Translation     .

Young’s Updated LT             And Joseph discerns his brothers, but they have not discerned him.

 

The gist of this passage:     Joseph recognizes his brothers, but they do not recognize him.


Genesis 42:8a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

nâkar (נָכַר) [pronounced naw-KAHR]

to contemplate, to behold, to recognize, to acknowledge, to be acquainted with, to know, to know how, to care for

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect

Strong’s #5234 BDB #647

Yôwçêph (יוֹסֵף) [pronounced yoh-SAYF]

he adds, he increases; transliterated Joseph

proper masculine noun

Strong’s #3130 BDB #415

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʾachîym (אַחִים) [pronounced awhk-EEM]

brothers, kinsmen, close relatives; tribesmen; fellow-countrymen

masculine plural noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #251 BDB #26


Translation: Joseph recognized his brothers... After 20 years, some people change dramatically—weight gain affects a person’s appearance more than anything else. Obviously, 2 decades of life changes the way someone looks. However, there are often so many familiar characteristics that, Joseph clearly recognized most of his brothers, and, by process of elimination, recognizes the others.


It is even possible that Joseph expected to see his brothers, based on the circumstances of their countries. This is within the realm of possibility.


Joseph last saw his brothers when some of them were in their late twenties and thirties. There was not as much change physically in them. They all spoke Hebrew through an interpreter and he recognized their voices and recognized them as a group. He is speaking to them and has not yet decided what he is going to do. Since he was not recognized, Joseph pumps them for information concerning his brother and his father. Since he is not recognized, Joseph wants to make the most of this and yet keep his identity a secret.


Genesis 42:8b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

hêm (הֵם) [pronounced haym]

they, those; themselves; these [with the definite article]

3rd person masculine plural personal pronoun; sometimes the verb to be is implied

Strong’s #1992 BDB #241

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

nâkar (נָכַר) [pronounced naw-KAHR]

to contemplate, to behold, to recognize, to acknowledge, to be acquainted with, to know, to know how, to care for

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil perfect with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5234 BDB #647


Translation: ...but they did not recognize him. Joseph’s brothers never expect to see him again. There are millions of people living in Egypt; 20 or so years have passed, and his brothers do not expect to see him ever again. Furthermore, Joseph is going to look Egyptian and he will speak the language of the Egyptians through a translator. So, it will never occur to the brothers that Joseph is anything but an Egyptian.


When Joseph's brothers come to him to buy grain, they do not recognize him. Whereas, this has never caused me any problems, I have heard that some people cannot believe that all 10 brothers do not recognize Joseph. This is easy to explain.

Why Joseph’s Brothers Do Not Recognize Him

1.      The brothers had no idea what had happened to Joseph; they did not know where he was taken by the traders, who they sold him to, or if he was even alive. Most of them appear to have guilty consciences that trouble them for several years. Did any of them think that they would see Joseph again? That seems unlikely. Whether any of them might have expected to see Joseph when in Egypt again, we don’t know. But, they would have expected a servant.

2.      It seems likely that, in general, most of the brothers never expected to see Joseph again and did not look for him to appear.

3.      Joseph spoke Egyptian before them, probably with very little accent (not that they would hear an accent), and his interpreter spoke to them.

4.      They sold Joseph into slavery when he was a lad in his late teens or early twenties; he was now thirty-seven; people change a great deal during those years. His voice would have changed slightly (even more hidden since he did not speak to them in Hebrew) and his physical appearance would have changed a great deal.

5.      Joseph wore Egyptian clothes, lived in a palace, had servants under him and had authority that these brothers could not even imagine. It would never occur to them that Joseph would be number two man in Egypt.

6.      Joseph had an Egyptian name given to him by Pharaoh by which he was known and this is the name his brothers heard when they were brought to him.

 

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Genesis 42:8 And Joseph knew his brothers, but they did not know him.


Interestingly enough, the first portion of v. 7 is repeated, but with different words. He hears their voices and they hear his voice.


Joseph recognizes his brothers, but they do not recognize him. About 22 years have transpired since Joseph has seen his brothers, and they are certainly recognizable. If you have been to a 20 or 25 year reunion, there are people at that reunion that you recognize immediately. You remember their names, their reputations and your interactions with them. Certainly, you run into some people you think, “I have never seen this person before in my life;” even though they sat next to you Algebra I and Geometry over a period of two years. Even more telling than looks are a person’s mannerisms and voice.


To his brothers, Joseph appeared to be an Egyptian ruler speaking the Egyptian language of that time (through an interpreter). But Joseph quickly recognized his brothers by their voices and by their mannerisms, and how they interacted with one another. Some things never change; or barely change.


It is not out of the question that Joseph realized that, at some point, that he would see his brothers during this famine. His brothers never expected to see him again. And the last place they would have expected to see him is in an Egyptian palace running the place (I have assumed that they meet with Joseph not out in the open air but in a palace of sorts).


——————————



And so remembers Joseph the dream which he dreamed regarding them; and so he says unto them, “Spies you [are], to observe nakedness of the land you all have come in.”

Genesis

42:9

Joseph then remembers the dream which he dreamed about them, and so he said to them, “You [are] spies; you [all] have come into Egypt to observe the exposed land.”

Joseph then remembered the dream that he had about his brothers, and therefore, he said to them, “You are all spies. You have come into this land to examine it.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so remembers Joseph the dream which he dreamed regarding them; and so he says unto them, “Spies you [are], to observe nakedness of the land you all have come in.”

Dead Sea Scrolls                   .

Targum (Onkelos)                  And Joseph remembered the dreams which he had dreamed of them; and he said to them, You are spies; to see the ruin [Sam. Vers. "the shame of the land."] of the land are you come.

Targum (Pseudo-Jonathan)   And Joseph remembered the dreams be had dreamed of them. And he said to them, You are spies: to see the nakedness of the shame of the land are you come.

Revised Douay-Rheims         And remembering the dreams, which formerly he had dreamed, he said to them: You are spies. You are come to view the weaker parts of the land.

Latin Vulgate                          .

Aramaic ESV of Peshitta        Yoseph remembered the dreams which he dreamed about them, and said to them, "You are spies! You have come to see the nakedness of the land."

Peshitta (Syriac)                    Then Joseph remembered the dreams which he had dreamed about them, and said to them, You are spies; you have come to get a report about the land.

Septuagint (Greek)                And Joseph remembered his dream, which he saw; and he said to them, Ye are spies; to observe the marks of the land are you come.

NETS (Greek)                        .

Brenton’s Septuagint             .

 

Significant differences: 


Limited Vocabulary Translations:

 

Bible in Basic English             Then the memory of his dreams about them came back to Joseph, and he said to them, You have come secretly to see how poor the land is.

Easy English                          Joseph remembered the dreams that he had had about his brothers. He said to them, ‘You are *spies. You have come to discover whether this country, Egypt is weak.’

Easy-to-Read Version–2006  Joseph recognized his brothers, but they did not know who he was. Then Joseph remembered the dreams that he had dreamed about his brothers.

Joseph said to his brothers, “You have not come to buy food! You are spies. You came to learn where we are weak.”

International Children’s B.     And Joseph remembered his dreams about his brothers bowing to him. He said to them, “You are spies! You came to learn where the nation is weak!”

God’s Word                         .

Good News Bible (TEV)         .

The Message                         .

Names of God Bible               .

NIRV                                      Then Joseph remembered his dreams about them. So he said to them, “You are spies! You have come to see the places where our land isn’t guarded very well.”

New Simplified Bible              .


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Joseph remembered the dreams he had dreamed about them, and said to them, “You are spies. You’ve come to look for the country’s weaknesses.”

Contemporary English V.       .

The Living Bible                     Then Joseph remembered the dreams of long ago! But he said to them, “You are spies. You have come to see how destitute the famine has made our land.”

New Berkeley Version           .

New Century Version             And Joseph remembered his dreams about his brothers bowing to him. He said to them, “You are spies! You came to learn where the nation is weak!”

New Life Version                    Joseph remembered the dreams he had had about them. He said to them, "You are spies. You have come to find the weak places in our land."

New Living Translation           Although Joseph recognized his brothers, they didn’t recognize him. And he remembered the dreams he’d had about them many years before. He said to them, “You are spies! You have come to see how vulnerable our land has become.” V. 8 is included for context.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Then JoSeph remembered his dreams and the things that he saw, and he said to them: 'You are spies! Why, you've come here to spy in our land!'

Beck’s American Translation .

International Standard V        Furthermore, Joseph remembered the dreams that he had about them. So he accused them, “You’re spies! You’ve come here to spy on our undefended territories [Lit. to scout the nakedness of the land]!”

New Advent (Knox) Bible       .

Today’s NIV                          .

Translation for Translators     And then Joseph remembered what he had dreamed about them many years previously. But he decided not to tell them yet that he was their younger brother. He said to them, “You are spies! You have come to find out whether we will be able to defend ourselves if you attack us!”


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Awful Scroll Bible                   Joseph was to recall the dreams he is to have dreamed, and was to say: Yous are to be spying, to look for that exposed on these solid grounds are yous to have come!

Conservapedia                       Joseph, remembering his dreams about them, said to them, "You are spying. You came here to see our country's weak spots." Literally, "see the nakedness," which here refers to a deficiency in a country's defenses.

Ferrar-Fenton Bible                .

God’s Truth (Tyndale)           And Joseph remembered his dreams which he dreamed of them, and said unto them: you are spies, and to see where the land is weak is your coming.

HCSB                                     .

Jubilee Bible 2000                  .

Lexham English Bible            .

NIV, ©2011                             Then he remembered his dreams about them and said to them, “You are spies! You have come to see where our land is unprotected.”

H. C. Leupold                         .

Tree of Life Version                Then Joseph remembered the dreams he had dreamed about them. He said to them, “You’re spies! You’ve come to see the undefended places in the land.”


Catholic Bibles (those having the imprimatur):

 

Christian Community (1988)  And he remembered the dreams he once had concerning them. He told them, “You are spies, and it is to discover the weak points of the land that you have come.”

The Heritage Bible                 .

New American Bible (2002)   .

New Jerusalem Bible             Joseph remembered the dreams he had had about them, and said to them, 'You are spies. You have come to discover the country's weak points.'

New RSV                               .

Revised English Bible            He remembered the dreams he had had about them and said, “You are spies; you have come to spy out the weak points in our defences.”


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           Remembering the dreams he had had about them, Yosef said to them, “You are spies! You’ve come to spot our country’s weaknesses!”

exeGeses companion Bible   .

Hebraic Roots Bible               .

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               Recalling the dreams that he had dreamed about them, Joseph said to them, “You are spies, you have come to see the land in its nakedness.”

Judaica Press Complete T.    .

Kaplan Translation                 He remembered what he had dreamed about them [See Genesis 37:7,9, 42:6.]. 'You are spies!' he said to them. 'You have come to see where the land is exposed to attack [Literally, 'the nakedness of the land.' They spoke Hebrew rather than Canaanite (a language related to Egyptian), and hence, the story that they came from Canaan could be suspect.].'

Orthodox Jewish Bible           And Yosef remembered the chalomot which he dreamed about them, and said unto them, Ye are meragelim (spies); to see the ervat ha’aretz (nakedness of the land) ye came.

The Scriptures 1998              .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

The Amplified Bible                Joseph remembered the dreams he had dreamed about them, and said to them, “You are spies; you have come [with a malicious purpose] to observe the undefended parts of our land.”

The Expanded Bible              And Joseph remembered his dreams ·about his brothers bowing to him [Lwhich he dreamed about them; 37:5–11]. He said to them, “You are spies! You came to ·learn where the nation is weak [Lsee the nakedness of the land]!”

The Geneva Bible                  .

Kretzmann’s Commentary    And Joseph remembered the dreams which he dreamed of them, and said unto them, Ye are spies; to see the nakedness of the land ye are come, the open, unfortified places of the country, where an attack by a hostile army would be successful. It was a particularly hard test which Joseph determined upon, but in no manner to be compared to the distress of thirteen years as slave which be had to bear on their account.

NET Bible®                             Then Joseph remembered18 the dreams he had dreamed about them, and he said to them, “You are spies [Joseph wanted to see how his brothers would react if they were accused of spying.]; you have come to see if our land is vulnerable [Heb “to see the nakedness of the land you have come.”]!”

Syndein/Thieme                     {Joseph Pretends He does not know them and is Rough to see their True Feelings}

And Joseph kept on remembering the dreams which he dreamed of them and kept on saying unto them, "You are spies {ragal}! To see the 'lack of fortifications'/nakedness {`ervah} of the land you are come!"

{Note: For one of the few times, they tell the truth. Part of the problem with lying is people do not believe you when you do tell the truth! Reaping the whirlwind!}

The Voice                               Although Joseph recognized them, they did not recognize him. He then remembered the dreams he had as a young man regarding his brothers.

Joseph: You are spies! You have come to see how this famine has weakened our defenses so you can attack us. V. 8 is included for context..


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Brenner’s Mechanical Trans....and Yoseph [Adding] remembered the dreams which he visualized to them and he said to them, you are spies, you came to see the nakedness of the land,...

Concordant Literal Version    And remembering is Joseph the dreams which he dreamed concerning them. And saying is he to them, "Spies are you. To see the nakedness of the land you come.

Context Group Version          And Joseph remembered the dreams which he dreamed of them, and said to them, You {pl} are spies; to see the nakedness of the land { or earth } you {pl} have come.

Darby Translation                  And Joseph remembered the dreams that he had dreamt of them; and he said to them, Ye are spies: to see the exposed places of the land ye are come.

Emphasized Bible                  .

English Standard Version      And Joseph remembered the dreams that he had dreamed of them. And he said to them, "You are spies; you have come to see the nakedness of the land."

Evidence Bible                       .

Green’s Literal Translation    And Joseph remembered the dreams which he had dreamed about them. And he said to them, You are spies! You have come in to see the bareness of the land.

H. C. Leupold                         .

Jack Ballinger’s translation    .

Modern English Version         .

Modern KJV                           .

NASB                                     Joseph remembered the dreams which he had about them, and said to them, “You are spies; you have come to look at the undefended parts of our land.”

New European Version          .

New King James Version       .

Owen's Translation                .

Brenner’s Mechanical Trans..

Stuart Wolf                             .

Third Millennium Bible            .

Updated Bible Version 2.11   .

A Voice in the Wilderness      .

Webster’s Bible Translation  .

World English Bible                .

Young's Literal Translation     .

Young’s Updated LT             And Joseph remembers the dreams which he dreamed of them, and says unto them, “You [all] are spies; to see the nakedness of the land you [all] have come.”

 

The gist of this passage:     Joseph thinks about the dreams which he had dreamed about brothers; and he accuses them of being spies who had come to look over the land.


Genesis 42:9a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

zâkar (זָכַר) [pronounced zaw-KAHR]

to remember, to recall, to call to mind

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #2142 BDB #269

Yôwçêph (יוֹסֵף) [pronounced yoh-SAYF]

he adds, he increases; transliterated Joseph

proper masculine noun

Strong’s #3130 BDB #415

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

chălôwm (חָלוֹם) [pronounced khuh-LOHM]

dream

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #2472 BDB #321

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom; where; in that, in which, in what

relative pronoun; sometimes the verb to be is implied

Strong's #834 BDB #81

châlam (חָלַם) [pronounced khaw-LAHM]

to dream; to be healthy, to be strong

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #2492 BDB #321

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510