2Samuel 19

 

2Samuel 19:1–24

David’s Long Return to Jerusalem


These studies are designed for believers in Jesus Christ only. If you have exercised faith in Christ, then you are in the right place. If you have not, then you need to heed the words of our Lord, Who said, “For God so loved the world that He gave His only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son, so that every [one] believing [or, trusting] in Him shall not perish, but shall be have eternal life! For God did not send His Son into the world so that He should judge the world, but so that the world shall be saved through Him. The one believing [or, trusting] in Him is not judged, but the one not believing has already been judged, because he has not believed in the Name of the only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son of God.” (John 3:16–18). “I am the Way and the Truth and the Life! No one comes to the Father except through [or, by means of] Me!” (John 14:6).


Every study of the Word of God ought to be preceded by a naming of your sins to God. This restores you to fellowship with God (1John 1:8–10). If there are people around, you would name these sins silently. If there is no one around, then it does not matter if you name them silently or whether you speak aloud.


These exegetical studies are not designed for you to read each and every word. For instance, the Hebrew exegesis is put into greyish tables, so that if you want to skip over them, that is fine. If you question a translation, you can always refer back to the appropriate Hebrew tables to sort it all out.

 

The intent is to make this particular study the most complete and most accurate examination of 2Samuel 19 which is available in writing. The idea is to make every phrase, verse and passage understandable; and to make application of all that is studied.

 

Besides teaching you the doctrinal principles related to this chapter, this commentary is also to help bring this narrative to life, so that you can understand the various characters, their motivations, and the choices that they make. Ideally, you will be able to visualize the peoples and armies as they move across the landscape of the Land of Promise.


J. Vernon McGee: When Absalom died, however, David's heart broke. Why? He was not sure of the young man's salvation; he was not sure where his son was. Frankly, I believe that David felt his son was not saved, and that is why he was so stricken with grief.

 

R. B. Thieme, Jr.: In arrogance, David lost track of the big picture and was disorganized of mind, and preoccupied with himself. Footnote

 

2Sam. 19:7 (Joab is speaking to David): Now, therefore, go and speak to your soldiers—they will understand your being so conflicted—however, if you do not speak to them, then I swear by Jehovah that no man will remain with you this night, and that the evil of having no support among the people will be greater than any other evil which has come upon you from your youth until now.”

 

2Sam. 19:19–20 (Shimei is speaking to David): “Do not impute iniquity to me, my lord and please do not remember the things which your servant said and did when you were leaving Jerusalem. Please do not dwell on these things. I know what I did was very wrong. I have come to you this day, the first from all the house of Joseph, to meet my lord, the king.”

 

2Sam. 19:27b–28 (Mephibosheth is speaking to David): “You, my lord, have been like an angel from God. Therefore, do what you believe to be right. Wasn’t the house of my father considered for death as rivals of my lord? Yet you placed me among the people at your dinner table. Therefore, I have no right to beg from you any additional benefits.”

 

Kukis (quotes taken from this study): We might have a good president now and again, or some good leaders in Congress, but there will always be attacks of evil forces, looking to turn and confuse anyone who is willing to return to their own vomit.

 

Kukis: Greed is not what you have or don’t have; greed is a mental attitude; greed occurs in the soul.

 

Kukis: When a politician brands a certain populace as greedy, they simply want to tax that people more than they do at present. It does not mean they are going to tax them and give that money to you.

 

2Sam. 19:43f But the men of Judah were more stubborn and severe than the men of Israel.


Outline of Chapter 19:

 

Introduction

 

         vv.     1–4           David’s Emotional Arrogance

         vv.     5–7           Joab Braces David

         vv.     8a–e          David Speaks to His Troops

         vv.     8f–10         Arguments in Northern Israel

         vv.    11–15         David Turns the Hearts of the Judæans

         vv.    16–23         Shimei ben Gera’s Public Apology to David

         vv.    24–30         Mephibosheth Comes to David

         vv.    31–39         David and His Wealthy Benefactor Barzillai

         vv.    40–43         Unrest Between (Northern) Israel and Judæa

 

Addendum


Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines:

 

         Introduction         The Principals of 2Samuel 19

         Introduction         The Prequel of 2Samuel 19

         Introduction         Prequel to 2Samuel 19 by Bible.org

         Introduction         The Abbreviated Davidic Timeline

         Introduction         Alternative Outlines

         Introduction         Gill’s Synopsis of 2Samuel 19

 

         v.       1              Introductory Points to 2Samuel 19

         v.       1              David’s Grief for Absalom

         v.       1              Emotional Arrogance

         v.       3              David’s Army

         v.       4              David’s Failure as King/Joab’s Faithfulness

         v.       6              Reversionism and Reverse Process Reversionism

         v.       6              Because of Arrogance, David Lacks Appreciation for his Troops

         v.       7              Huddle-hands graphic

         v.       8              David’s Recovery

         v.       8              David’s Recovery Part II

         v.       8              Joab’s Part in David’s Recovery

         v.      10              Bible.org on Power Changing Hands in the Ancient World

         v.      10              Matthew Henry on the Return of the King

         v.      11              How David’s Decisions Parallel the Decisions of God

         v.      12              Why does northern Israel speak of bringing David back, but Judah does not?

         v.      13              Amasa or Joab—who will head David’s army?

         v.      13              Assume the opposite; let’s assume that David chose Amasa to replace Joab

         v.      16              Map of the Jordan River in Central Israel

         v.      17              Now, who is Ziba again?

         v.      25              Mephibosheth Bows Before David (graphic) by Paul Hardy

         v.      26              Why Ziba Would Deceive King David

         v.      27              What happened between Ziba and Mephibosheth

         v.      29              Ziba’s Story versus Mephibosheth’s Account

         v.      29              Links to the Doctrine of Happiness

         v.      30              David’s Marvelous Decision Regarding Mephibosheth and Ziba

         v.      32              L. G. Merritt’s Doctrine of Wealth (edited)

         v.      36              The Expositor’s Bible Commentary on Barzillai

         v.      38              The Doctrine of Barzillai and Chimham

         v.      39              Parallel Meetings and Events

         v.      41              One Possible Explanation for the Perceived Slight

         v.      43              Judah and Israel Talking Past Each Other

 

         Addendum          What We Learn from 2Samuel 19

         Addendum          Josephus’ History of this Time Period

         Addendum          Edersheim Summarizes 2Samuel 19

         Addendum          A Complete Translation of 2Samuel 19

         Addendum          Word Cloud from a Reasonably Literal Paraphrase of 2Samuel 19

         Addendum          Word Cloud from Exegesis of 2Samuel 19


Chapter Outline

 

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines

Beginning of Document

Doctrines Covered and Alluded to

Chapters of the Bible Alluded To

Psalms Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Other Chapters of the Bible Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Definition of Terms

Introduction

 

Addendum

www.kukis.org

 

Exegetical Studies in Samuel


Pre-Introduction Links

Doctrines Covered and Alluded To

Chapters of the Bible Alluded To or Psalms Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Definition of Terms


Doctrines Covered

Doctrines Alluded To

Emotional Arrogance

 

The Bible, Wealth and Private Property

 

Wealth

 

 

Wealthy Men in the Bible


Chapters of the Bible Alluded To

2Samuel 15

 

2Samuel 18

2Samuel 20


Psalms Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

 

 

 

 


Other Chapters of the Bible Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

 

 

 

 



Many who read and study this chapter are 1st or 2nd generation students of R. B. Thieme, Jr., so that much of this vocabulary is second nature. One of Bob’s contributions to theology is a fresh vocabulary along with a number of concepts which are theologically new or reworked, yet still orthodox. Therefore, if you are unfamiliar with his work, the definitions below will help you to fully understand all that is being said. In addition to this, I will use a number of other more traditional technical theological terms which will be used and therefore defined as well.

Definition of Terms

Abuse of Authority Arrogance

This is where a person in authority considers himself too smart and too good to consider the suggestions of his underlings. He automatically reacts negatively to the suggestions of certain people below him. Or he rejects philosophies and approaches which rejection has been ingrained in his soul from his early age.


Another form of this is where a person in authority abuses or takes advantage of those under his authority.

Addictive Behavior Arrogance

Some sins are naturally addictive—alcohol and drug usage are examples of this. Quite obviously, a person drinks or takes a particular drug because they like the way it makes them feel. It titillates their emotions and causes their mind and/or body to feel good. Most often, it removes them from their circumstances, which they may find difficult. At the same time, this addictive behavior begins to consume their life.

Anadiplosis

An anadiplosis [pronounced An-a-dee-PLOH-sihs] is repeating a word from the end of a sentence at the beginning of the next sentence.

Criminal arrogance

Criminal arrogance seeks to solve problems by violence and/or by criminal actions. The modus operandi of a person in criminal arrogance is criminal behavior. Believers are susceptible to this kind of arrogance just as unbelievers are.

Emotional Arrogance

Emotional arrogance is where you allow your emotions to dominate your life, and you will set aside truth (in any of the 3 categories) in order to satiate your own emotions. This doctrine is covered in full below.

Emotional Revolt

The emotional revolt of the soul is the condition of the soul when the soul’s self-consciousness makes decisions because it has yielded itself to a strong emotional state.

Epanadiplosis

An epanadiplosis [pronounced EHP-an-a-dee-PLOH-sihs], where a word is used at the beginning and at the end of a sentence, in indicates that this gives a full circle of an event, from beginning to end. Footnote There is a completeness in this statement, a completeness which also causes the hearer to pay attention to what has been said.

Hyperbole

A figure of speech in which exaggeration is used for emphasis or effect, as in I could sleep for a year or This book weighs a ton. Footnote

Interlocking Systems of Arrogance

The interlocking systems of arrogance refers to many clusters of sins which have a tendency to interlock with one another. That is, a believer who goes into interlocking systems of arrogance through one gate (or entrance), is likely to interlock with another cluster of sins if he remains out of fellowship. We have simple examples of this in life. A person might begin to smoke marijuana, which is illegal. Some time later, he may take other drugs (this is why marijuana is often called a gateway drug). He may also become involved in anti-authority actions, extreme liberal philosophy and politics, and break more and greater laws. He may involve himself with a woman with the same weaknesses, and they become involved in sexual arrogance together (his norms and standards being wiped out by his changing mores). He enters in the gate of smoking marijuana which makes him vulnerable to a number of other clusters of sins.

Laws of Divine Establishment

Since the world appears to be made up of mostly unbelievers, God must have some kind of plan for the unbelievers while they are alive. These are called the laws of divine establishment, and they are applicable to both believers and unbelievers. These are the laws which protect the freedom of a nation, and allow for evangelism and for the teaching of the Word of God. See the Laws of Divine Establishment (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Metonym

A metonym is where one word stands in for another word (or for several words). The headline which reads: California Elects Jerry Brown actually means the voters of California elect Jerry Brown.

Personal Sense of Destiny

A person so in tune with the will of God (by means of knowledge of doctrine), that they understand their reason for being alive and they execute the plan of God almost as if God were whispering into their ear what to do (God does not whisper into anyone’s ears today). This doctrine can be found at Grace Bible Church, Wenstrom , Grace and Truth Bible Ministries and Robt McLaughlin.

Rational Arrogance

1.      Rational arrogance is the vanity of intellectual arrogance, or the elitism of the genius I.Q. Elitism might be defined for this study as that arrogant consciousness of pride in belonging to a select or favorite group of people. People with a high I.Q. have a tendency to look down their noses at those who are less fortunate.

2.      Rational arrogance is the vanity of giving precedence to human I.Q. and intellectual attainment over spiritual I.Q. and momentum from doctrine. The human viewpoint of life rejects or sets aside divine viewpoint.

3.      Rational arrogance generally afflicts those believers in Jesus Christ whose superior I.Q. or educational background gives them a false sense of elitism or

4.      All too often, intellectual arrogance compromises Bible doctrine by attempting to reconcile those things found in the Word of God with philosophical and scientific speculation.

5.      Because rational or intellectual arrogance is so anthropocentric, it has a tendency to accept as fact theories and philosophical speculations in the field of rationalism and empiricism, and make them a part of Christian doctrine.

6.      This doctrine is found at the Free Republic Website as gate #9 (points taken from there) and at Robert McLaughlin’s website.

Rebound (Restoration to fellowship with God)

In the New Testament, this is naming your sins to God, so that you are both restored to temporal fellowship with God and are then filled with the Spirit of God. In the Old Testament, naming your sins to God would result in a restoration of fellowship and, in some cases, the empowerment of the Holy Spirit once again (the Holy Spirit was not given to all Old Testament believers).

Reverse Process Reversionism

Reverse Process Reversionism is the final stage of reversionism where everything that is worthwhile and valuable in life is rejected; everything that is useless and nonsense is accepted. Prolonged residence in the cosmic system causes a complete reversal of all mandates, all priorities, and all norms and standards related to the plan of God. Christian degeneracy reaches its peak in reverse process reversionism. The believer in reverse process reversionism cannot be distinguished in any way from an unbeliever, though he cannot lose his salvation. In reverse process reversionism, degeneracy is defined as decline from the normal standards of the plan of God. Therefore, the believer retrogresses into below normal stages of reversionism, and totally reverts from the divine standards found in the Word of God.

Reversionism

A state of being or a set of actions where a person reverts back to a former state, habit, belief, or practice of sinning. Reversionism is the status of the believer who fails to execute the plan of God for the Church Age. He returns to his pre-salvation modus operandi and modus vivendi. This doctrine is covered at the Grace Bible Church website; at Angel Fire.com; at He-Ekklesia under the 8 Stages of Reversionism; and at the Lake Erie Bible Church website.

Sexual arrogance; sexual addiction

This is the point where sexual desire overrides all else in a person’s psyche. It overrides reason, compassion, protocol. Just as the drug addict might be willing to do nearly anything for a fix; so the sexually addicted will be willing to do and even risk anything in order to fulfill their lusts. For the sexual addict, the object of his sexual lust is simply an object; his sexual lust does not indicate any sort of love is involved; not even like.

Some of these definitions are taken from

http://gracebiblechurchwichita.org/?page_id=1556

http://www.bibledoctrinechurch.org/?subpages/GLOSSARY.shtml

http://rickhughesministries.org/content/Biblical-Terms.pdf

http://www.gbible.org/index.php?proc=d4d

http://www.wordoftruthministries.org/termsanddefs.htm

http://www.realtime.net/~wdoud/topics.html

http://www.theopedia.com/


One never knows what will be found in any chapter of the Word of God. When I began this chapter, and even at the completion of the 3 translations, it seemed like there might not be a lot to discuss. However, as I got further into it, I became amazed as to how many different doctrinal discussions this chapter stimulates.


——————————


An Introduction to 2Samuel 19


I ntroduction: 2Sam. 19 is about David returned to Jerusalem as king and the interaction with his people as he returns. We focus on some individuals who David meets on the way back—not necessarily every person that he met on his return—and we will see how David deals with each person, based on his previous interactions with this person, and based upon what they have said and done.


Even though the actual arc of this narrative is a week or two, the change in David and his focus is dramatic. He goes from a low point in reverse process reversionism to being able to interact with his subjects and to make good decisions regarding them.


All of this takes place in a backdrop of a split between northern and southern Israel. This is a long-term process which began in the book of Judges and will culminate at the death of Solomon (David’s son and the next king).


We need to know who the people are who populate this chapter. This chapter has a huge cast of characters.

The Principals of 2Samuel 19

Characters

Biographical Material

King David

King David has been in exile, leaving Jerusalem voluntarily when Absalom marched into Jerusalem. David’s army has defeated Absalom’s army, killed Absalom; and this chapter is about David returning to Jerusalem.

Joab

Joab is David’s nephew and his main general and one of the few people who can level with David. In this chapter, Joab gets David off his crying jag concerning Absalom (who Joab killed), and Joab will get David back on track as the king of Israel.

Abishai

Abishai is one of David’s greatest generals and the brother of Joab. When Shimei comes to David, Abishai will suggest that he be executed right on the spot.

Shimei

When David was leaving Jerusalem, Shimei came out and said a lot of mean things to David. David could have had Shimei killed then, but he did not. Now that David is victorious over Absalom, Shimei comes to David, apologizes and essentially throws himself at David’s mercy.

Mephibosheth

Mephibosheth is the lame son of Jonathan, someone who David sought out and treated very well. David expected Mephibosheth to accompany him when he left Jerusalem, but Mephibosheth did not. Mephibosheth explains why in this chapter.

Barzillai

Barzillai is a very wealthy man who help to feed David’s army. David, in this chapter, will offer Barzillai a permanent position working for him. Barzillai will decline the offer.

People

Often when we find the word people in this and previous chapters, it refers to those who followed King David out of Jerusalem; and primarily to those in his army. This would include those who left Jerusalem with him and those who joined up with David later on.

Israel

When used in apposition to the people, Israel refers to those who supported Absalom in the revolution.

The Men of Israel

In the latter portion of this chapter, Israel will refer to northern Israel, and they will have a dispute with the tribe of Judah.

The Men of Judah

The people of Judah finally put together a celebration for David, but do not really include the men of Israel in the planning or in the celebration itself. Only about half of northern Israel gets there in time to celebrate the king’s return.

Minor Characters

Biographical Material

Absalom

Absalom is the son who rebelled against David and was killed by Joab in the previous chapter. David mourns his loss greatly.

Zadok and Abiathar

These men are the two priests in Jerusalem, and David sends a message to them to find out why Judah has not organized some sort of a welcoming celebration on his behalf.

Amasa

Amasa is David’s bastard nephew who headed up Absalom’s army. In David’s message to Zadok and Abiathar, he offers to make Amasa a general in his army.

Ziba

Ziba was Saul’s slave who became quite prosperous at the death of Saul. David reassigned him back to being the slave for Mephibosheth. In a previous chapter, Ziba told David that his master, Mephibosheth, remained in Jerusalem to see if he might be proclaimed king. In that chapter, David assigned all of Mephibosheth’s land to him.

Chimham

He appears to be a son of Barzillai, and Barzillai will offer him up to serve David instead of himself.

These minor characters are mentioned only incidentally. They have non-speaking roles in this chapter.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


It is important to understand what has gone before.

The Prequel of 2Samuel 19

All of this started with David chasing skirt perhaps a decade ago in Jerusalem when his soldiers were in the field at war. He had gone way to far by committing adultery with a married woman, and then he had her husband killed.


The prophet Nathan came to David, and got David to come to the point of realizing that what he did was so very wrong. Once David recognized his own sin, then God put David under a great deal of discipline and pressure, designed to bring him out of this state of sexual arrogance (which had interlocked with criminal arrogance).


The child that came out of that illicit union died. The great pressure that David found himself under were the natural results of his failure as a parent, and his sexual arrogance in collecting wives and mistresses. His sons, which were, for all intents and purposes, wards of the state, grew up without a father to guide them, as a true father would have done. David could not give them all his time, so they grew up the best they could, being raised by their mothers.


His son Absalom eventually rebelled against him, setting into motion a play to take David’s power from him. He drove David out of Jerusalem. David left quickly with a scratch army and, before he had crossed over the River Jordan, David had set up a system of spies and an intelligence network, so that he could determine which military moves to make.


Absalom associated himself with Ahithophel, who was a brilliant tactician, and Ahithophel gave Absalom a plan which would have probably succeeded. However, this plan did not appeal to Absalom’s arrogance. Ahithophel was going to gather up some shock troops and go right after David, right then and there. He would return to Jerusalem after defeating David in battle. Ahithophel would have been the star of this plan and not Absalom. So when Hushai, David’s mole, presented a plan to Absalom, Absalom liked that plan because Absalom was the star of that plan. Absalom had more hands on in Hushai’s plan than in Ahithophel’s plan, which was another reason why Absalom liked it. Some people like to manage everything, which pretty much describes Absalom. Absalom, pretty much on his own, set himself up as the new king of Israel—he did this by himself, never having done it before, and right under the nose of his overindulgent father. Therefore, Absalom believed that he had things worked out, as long as he was in charge. When Hushai said, “You need to gather all the people of Israel and lead them into battle yourself;” Absalom thought that was a good idea. He had never done this before, but that’s okay, because he had never decided to become king before, and he did pretty well with that. So Absalom is blindly arrogant. He doesn’t know what he doesn’t know; he does not recognize an upper limit to his abilities.


When it came to the difference between himself and his son Absalom, his son was the newest model. He was younger and better looking, more progressive and more relatable. Although there was no indication whatsoever that Absalom had the ability to actually lead his country Israel, apart from being David’s son, he received a fairly significant backing from the people, many of whom were unhappy with David’s skirt chasing and killing (information which sure got out into the public by this time).


In the previous chapter, David’s army went up against Absalom’s army and defeated them. Joab killed Absalom. 2Sam. 18 end with David mourning over his son’s death, which is how this chapter begins.

Much of this was taken from 2Sam. 18 (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Bible.org presents a rather colorful approach to introducing this chapter, and therefore it is included.

Prequel to 2Samuel 19 by Bible.org

David has sinned by committing adultery with Bathsheba and by having her husband killed (by none other than Joab, a central figure in our text). God has indicted David for his sin through Nathan the prophet, and David has repented. Nevertheless, there are certain consequences he will have to face. There was the rape of his daughter Tamar by her half-brother, Amnon. Then there was the murder of Amnon by his half-brother, Absalom. Absalom fled to Geshur, where he was given sanctuary by his grandfather, Talmai. Through the intervention and intrigue of Joab, David was pressured into allowing Absalom to return to Jerusalem. In time, Absalom succeeded in undermining the reign of his father, David, and precipitated a revolution which forced David, his family, and his supporters to flee to the wilderness. God spared David, gave his army victory over the rebel forces, and providentially removed Absalom through Joab, who killed Absalom in spite of David's specific orders not to harm him.


Now, David is about to return to Jerusalem to resume his reign over the nation Israel. To win the favor of the people (and perhaps to remove a thorn in his own flesh), David removes Joab as commander of his armed forces, replacing him with Amasa. It looks as though Joab is finished, and yet by the end of our text, it is Amasa who is finished, killed by Joab. Once again Joab is named as the commander of Israel's armed forces. Who could have imagined such a thing?


It doesn't stop here, however. David has been forced to flee Jerusalem due to the revolution instigated by Absalom. While he never abdicated his throne, Absalom acted as king for a few days, until he was defeated in battle and his life was ended by Joab. David is invited to return to Jerusalem to resume his rule over the nation Israel. But on the way there is strife between the men of Judah (David's tribe) and the men from the other tribes in Israel. Somewhere between the Jordan river and Jerusalem, a rebellion is instigated by Sheba, and the Israelites forsake David as their king, returning to their homes. Through a strange twist of fate (humanly speaking), Sheba is cornered in an Israelite fortified city. Through the intervention of a wise woman of that city, Sheba is put to death, the city is delivered, and the division of Israel is reversed. To sum up these events: (1) David is king; (2) David is not king; (3) David is invited to be king again; (4) David's kingdom is divided; (5) David's kingdom is united.


On top of all this is an incredible display of gore and violence. This story would most certainly receive an "R" rating for its violence. Joab "underhandedly" (pardon the pun) runs his sword through Amasa, spilling his intestines on the path; then the army of David stops to gawk at the sight of this man wallowing in his own blood. The grand finale is the beheading of Sheba, whose head is then tossed over the wall of the city to Joab and his army outside.


This fascinating story has all the makings of a movie. But it is not for this reason alone (not even for this reason primarily) that we should read it carefully. This is inspired religious history; it is history most likely penned by a prophet, so it is a story with a message for us to hear and to heed. Let us approach our study then with expectant hearts and minds, ready to hear and to heed what God has to say to each of us through it.

From https://bible.org/seriespage/david%E2%80%99s-return-jerusalem-2-samuel-199-2026 accessed January 25, 2014.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


This timeline is simply a shortened version of the David Timeline (HTML) (PDF), with a few principle events of David’s life recorded, along with the events of this chapter. Bracketed dates are derived from the Scripture, based upon author’s original premises.

The Abbreviated David Timeline

Fenton-Farrar

(F. L. Smith)

Bible Truth 4U

Reese’s Chronology Bible

Scripture

Narrative

[1085 b.c.]

1040 b.c.

[1055 b.c.]

Ruth 4:22

David is born.

1055 b.c.

(c. 1010 b.c.)

1010 b.c.

1025 b.c.

2Sam. 2:1–4

David becomes king over Judah (the southern kingdom). David is 30. 2Sam. 5:4 David was 30 years old when he began to reign. He reigned 40 years.

1048 b.c.

(c. 1004 b.c.)

1003 b.c.

1018 b.c.

2Sam. 5:1–3

1Chron. 11:1–3

David becomes king over all Israel. He is still ruling from Hebron. David is approximately 37 years old, according to Bible Truth 4U.

1035 b.c.

 

1005 b.c.

c. 1016 b.c. (Klassen)

2Sam. 11:2–25

David’s sin with Bathsheba. He has her husband, Uriah the Hittite, killed in battle.

1023 b.c.

 

992 b.c.

2Sam. 17:24–18:18

David’s army defeats Absalom’s army in battle and Absalom is subsequently killed. Absalom is approximately 30 years old (Reese). According to Reese, David would be 63 years old and according to Fenton-Farrar, he would be 62 years old.

1023 b.c.

 

 

2Sam. 18:19–19:8

David reacts to Absalom’s death.

1023 b.c.

 

 

2Sam. 19:9–20

David returns to Jerusalem.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


It is always helpful to see how someone else views the same chapter. This is a fairly difficult chapter, so I will include material from a number of different commentators.

Alternative Outlines

Adam Clarke’s Outline:

I.       David continues his lamentation for his son, and the people are greatly discouraged. 2Sam. 19:1–4.

II.      Joab reproves and threatens him with the general defection of the people. 2Sam. 19:5–7.

III.     David lays aside his mourning, and shows himself to the people, who are thereby encouraged. 2Sam. 19:8.

IV.     The tribes take counsel to bring the king back to Jerusalem. 2Sam. 19:9–12.

V.      He makes Amasa captain of the host in place of Joab. 2Sam. 19:13.

VI.     The king, returning, is met by Judah at Gilgal. 2Sam. 19:14–15.

VII.    Shimei comes to meet David, and entreats for his life, which David grants. 2Sam. 19:16–23.

VIII.   Mephibosheth also meets him, and shows how he had been slandered by Ziba. 2Sam. 19:24–30.

IX.     David is met by Barzillai, and between them there is an affecting interview. 2Sam. 19:31–40.

X.      Contention between the men of Judah and the men of Israel, about bringing back the king. 2Sam. 19:41–43.

Matthew Henry’s Outline:

I.       His return to himself, by the persuasion of Joab (2Sam. 19:1–8).

II.      His return to his kingdom from his present banishment.

         1.      The men of Israel were forward of themselves to bring him back (2Sam. 19:9–10).

         2.      The men of Judah were dealt with by David's agents to do it (2Sam. 19:11–14) and did it (2Sam. 19:15).

III.     At the king's coming over Jordan, Shimei's treason is pardoned (2Sam. 19:16–23), Mephibosheth's failure is excused (2Sam. 19:24–30), and Barzillai's kindness is thankfully owned, and recompensed to his son (2Sam. 19:31–39).

IV.     The men of Israel quarrelled with the men of Judah, for not calling them to the ceremony of the king's restoration, which occasioned a new rebellion, an account of which we have in the next chapter (2Sam. 19:40–43).

Arno Gaebelein outlines 2Sam. 19, The Return of the King

1.      The continued grief of the king (2Samuel 19:1-8)

2.      The return of the king (2Samuel 19:9-16)

3.      Mercy shown to Shimei (2Samuel 19:17-23)

4.      Mephibosheth's joy (2Samuel 19:24-30)

5.      Barzillai and Chimham (2Samuel 19:31-40)

6.      Strife between Judah and Israel (2Samuel 19:41-43)

Adam Clarke, Commentary on the Bible; from e-Sword, 2Sam. 19 (chapter comments).

Matthew Henry, Commentary on the Whole Bible; from e-Sword, 2Sam. 19 (chapter comments).

Gaebelein outline is from http://www.studylight.org/com/gab/view.cgi?bk=9&ch=19 accessed January 26, 2014.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


I used Gill’s summary here, with a great deal of editing.

Gill’s Synopsis of 2Samuel 19

David had been indulging in too much grief for the death of his son—so much so that he is rebuked by Joab, and threatened with a revolt of the people from him, if he did not change his conduct, which he accordingly did. 2Sam. 19:1–8

At this, the men of Israel were the first that moved for the bringing him back to Jerusalem, and the men of Judah were solicited to join with them in it. 2Sam. 19:8f–9

David, by letter, influences the people of Judah, to organize a celebration for his return. 2Sam. 19:10–15

When leaving Jerusalem, Shimei ben Gera had cursed David. In this chapter, Shimei comes to David and asks his pardon. David forgive him. 2Sam. 19:16–23

Mephibosheth, the son of Jonathan, explained why he could not accompany David. As a result, he had half his land restored to him, which had been given to his servant, Ziba. 2Sam. 19:24–30

Barzillai, who had very liberally supplied the king, was allowed to return to his own city, and Chimham his son was taken under David’s wing. 2Sam. 19:31–39

Finally, there is a contention arose between the men of Israel and of Judah about the restoration of the king, which results in an insurrection, as the next chapter shows. 2Sam. 19:40–43

Some additional things ought to be said about this chapter. Most narrative chapters are presented in a linear, chronological way. The chapters are often filled and defined by many wâw consecutives followed by imperfect verbs. This is not the case in this chapter. Nor is there a clear divide between topics. Several times in this chapter it appears that David is crossing over the Jordan River. However, he is going over from the east side of the river to the west. This requires him only one crossing. David meets and speaks with 3 people. It appears that there is some overlap in his interaction with Barzillai and with Shimei. However, all or most of his conversation with Mephibosheth will take place in Jerusalem, where, logically, had to take place after this chapter is completed and David himself is back in Jerusalem.

So for reasons which are not entirely clear, this chapter is put together very differently from most other narrative chapters. About the only thing which is reasonable is, David’s conversations with 3 men upon exiting Jerusalem parallel the 3 conversations which he has upon his return to Jerusalem. However, since these conversations may have taken place east of the Jordan, on the Jordan, west of the Jordan and/or in Jerusalem; we match them up topically with the previous conversations.

Another oddity of this chapter is, there is a much larger cast of characters, which includes 6 characters with speaking parts; 6 secondary characters; and 3 sets of people.

Dr. John Gill, John Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible; from e-Sword, 2Sam. 19 (chapter comments) (heavily edited).


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


One of the things which I have noticed in this chapter is, the verse divisions are done quite poorly. Many translations begin paragraphs in the middle of a verse; and some even begin a passage in the middle of a verse. On many occasions, the thought of one verse continues into the thought of another—that keeping the verses separate was not necessarily the best thing to do. These choices will be obvious when looking through the translations of each verse or set of verses (I have begun to combine verses where one commonly leads into the next).


The chapter divisions were also problematic in this portion of 2Samuel. What happens in the previous chapter leads us directly into this chapter; and this chapter bleeds into the next chapter. That is, we cannot consider 2Sam. 19 unless we know what happened in 2Sam. 18 (which is included in the Prelude to this Chapter); and 2Sam. 20 requires us to know the contents of this chapter, in order to fully understand what occurs there.


There is also an oddity in this overall chapter. What appears to be occurring is a celebration and a re-coronation of David. All of Judah and half of Israel shows up for this (2Sam. 19:40). However, the actual fact that this is a celebration of the re-coronation of David is nowhere clearly stated in this chapter. The idea that this is a celebration is logically derived from the material in this chapter. Footnote


There is another oddity—David does not appear to seek God’s counsel at any time in this or the next chapter, nor does he appear to receive any guidance from his priests. He will use his priests, but only to get a message to the people of Judah. God’s name will be mentioned, but only incidentally. This does not mean that David is acting totally outside of God’s will. At the beginning of this chapter, he will clearly be outside of God’s will, as he cannot seem to cope with the death of his son, Absalom. However, afterwards, he makes good decisions regarded the several people which he speaks to when return to Jerusalem. If you have doctrine in your soul, you do not need to inquire of God every 15 seconds, “Should I make a left turn or a right turn?”


——————————


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


David’s Emotional Arrogance


The last verse in the English of 2Sam. 18, is actually the first verse in the Hebrew Bible. In most of the Hebrew Bibles in 2Sam. 19, the verses are numbered one-off from the numbering in this chapter.


And so is agitated the king and so he goes up upon the roof-chamber of the gate and so he weeps. And thus he said in going, “My son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom! Who gives my dying, me, instead of you, Absalom, my son, my son.”

2Samuel

18:33

(19:1 in Hebrew)

The king is [clearly] agitated as he goes up to the roof-chamber over the gate, and he is weeping. While going up, he said, “My son, Absalom, my son, my son Absalom! Would that I had died instead of you, Absalom, my son, my son!”

The king was clearly agitated as he went up to the roof-chamber situated over the gate, and he began to weep when he could not be seen. As he went up, he kept saying, “Absalom, my son, my son—O that I might have died in your place, my son Absalom.”


When this verse is put together with the verse which follows, it will be clear that they belong together. The chapter divisions and verse delineations were added long after the text had been written, and this was done more for convenience than anything else. However, because this was added later, the divisions are not always accurate. This particular section is a problem; and it will become obvious at the end of this chapter that it should have been continued, at least partway into the next chapter.


David has just received the news that his army was victorious against Absalom; but also that Absalom died in the battle. Obviously, King David is very upset over the loss of his son.


Interestingly enough, even though Job initiated the execution of Absalom, it does not appear that David knows this.

 

J. Vernon McGee makes this observation: The news of Absalom's death was a real heartbreak to David. He had a tender love for his son, and he was extremely grieved when the boy died. Why? There are several reasons. First of all, I do not think that David was sure about the salvation of Absalom. You will recall that when David's first son by Bathsheba was born, he became very sick, and David fasted and prayed for him. When David heard that the little boy was dead, he arose, bathed, went to the house of God to worship, and then was ready for a good dinner. His servants could not understand his action. He made it very clear to them when he said, "I am going to him some day. He will not return to me, but it will be a great day when I go to him." He knew where the little fellow was. When Absalom died, however, David's heart broke. Why? He was not sure of the young man's salvation; he was not sure where his son was. Frankly, I believe that David felt his son was not saved, and that is why he was so stricken with grief. Also, even though David was a great king, he was a poor father; I am sure David realized this. He never quite succeeded in being the father he should have been, and Absalom was evidence of this failure. Footnote


——————————


This verse helps to introduce us to 2Sam. 19.

Introductory Points to 2Samuel 19

1.      David has not fully thought out the logical end to the revolution.

2.      The revolution will end with him dead or with Absalom dead. There is no other ending. Even Absalom would not agree to splitting up the kingdom.

3.      Much of this is David’s fault, although Absalom makes these decisions as an adult. David did not discipline Absalom as a young boy; he did not give Absalom enough direction as a young boy.

4.      Therefore, Absalom grew up with great personal arrogance; and with no respect for authority.

5.      King David’s only chance to have gotten Absalom was to exercise justice over love after Amnon raped Tamar; and then after Absalom killed Amnon. David was unable to act in justice, which led to this revolt.

6.      There is the added problem that Absalom was probably not saved. This also greatly bothered King David.

7.      Joab could have sat David down before he went off to war and explained what had to happen, but he did not. David may not have been cooperative. Furthermore, my guess is that Joab hoped that David would sort through the logical end of this revolution on his own.

8.      When Joab returns victorious, and David is sobbing and weeping over Absalom; then Joab will have to sit David down and give him the facts of life and death.

 


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Kukis slavishly literal:

 

Kukis moderately literal:

And so [it] is made known to Joab, “Behold, the king is weeping; and so he mourns upon Absalom.”

2Samuel

19:1

(19:2 in Hebrew)

[It] was made known to Joab, “Listen, the king is weeping; in fact, he is mourning over Absalom.”

Kukis not so literal:

Then a message was brought Joab: “Listen, the king is weeping; in fact, he is mourning because of the death of Absalom.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:

 

Ancient texts:                       Note: I compare the Hebrew text to English translations of the Latin, Syriac and Greek texts, using the Douay-Rheims translation Footnote ; George Lamsa’s translation, and Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton’s translation as revised and edited by Paul W. Esposito, respectively. I often update these texts with non-substantive changes (e.g., you for thou, etc.). I often use the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible instead of Brenton’s translation, because it updates the English text.

 

The Septuagint was the earliest known translation of a book (circa 200 b.c.). Since this translation was made before the textual criticism had been developed into a science and because different books appear to be translated by different men, the Greek translation can sometimes be very uneven.

 

When there are serious disparities between my translation and Brenton’s (or the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible), I look at the Greek text of the Septuagint (the LXX) to see if a substantive difference actually exists (and I reflect these changes in the English rendering of the Greek text). I use the Greek LXX with Strong’s numbers and morphology available for e-sword. The only problem with this resource (which is a problem for similar resources) is, there is no way to further explore Greek verbs which are not found in the New Testament. Although I usually quote the Complete Apostles’ Bible here, I have begun to make changes in the translation when their translation conflicts with the Greek and note what those changes are.

 

The Masoretic text is the Hebrew text with all of the vowels (vowel points) inserted (the original Hebrew text lacked vowels). We take the Masoretic text to be the text closest to the original. However, differences between the Masoretic text and the Greek, Latin and Syriac are worth noting and, once in a great while, represent a more accurate text possessed by those other ancient translators.

 

In general, the Latin text is an outstanding translation from the Hebrew text into Latin and very trustworthy (I say this as a non-Catholic). Unfortunately, I do not read Latin—apart from some very obvious words—so I am dependent upon the English translation of the Latin (principally, the Douay-Rheims translation).

 

Underlined words indicate differences in the text.

 

Bracketed portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls are words, letters and phrases lost in the scroll due to various types of damage. Underlined words or phrases are those in the Dead Sea Scrolls but not in the Masoretic text.

 

I will only list the translation from the Dead Sea Scrolls if it exists and if it is different from the Masoretic text.


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          And it was told Joab, that the king wept and mourned for his son. It is interesting that the Catholic Bibles below are off one verse, in accordance with the Hebrew Bible; but the Latin Vulgate matches up with the commonly accepted verse numbering. Verses were numbered long after the fact, so chapter and verse divisions are somewhat arbitrary (which is quite clear when comparing this chapter to the previous and subsequent chapters).

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so [it] is made known to Joab, “Behold, the king is weeping; and so he mourns upon Absalom.”

Peshitta (Syriac)                    AND it was told Joab, Behold, the king is weeping and mourning for Absalom.

Septuagint (Greek)                And they brought Joab word, saying, Behold, the king weeps and mourns for Absalom.

 

Significant differences:           The Latin has son instead of Absalom.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       Someone told Joab, "The king is crying because Absalom is dead."

Easy English                          Joab speaks to David and David returns to Jerusalem

Someone told Joab, `The king is crying. He is very sad about Absalom.'.

Easy-to-Read Version            People told the news to Joab. They told Joab, “Look, the king is crying and very sad for Absalom.”

New Berkeley Version           About 979 b.c.

The information was brought to Joab, “See, the king is weeping and lamenting over Absalom.”

New Century Version             Joab Scolds David

People told Joab, "Look, the king is sad and crying because of Absalom."

New Life Bible                        Then Joab was told, "See, the king is crying. He is filled with sorrow for Absalom."

New Living Translation           Joab Rebukes the King

Word soon reached Joab that the king was weeping and mourning for Absalom. Verses 19:1-43 are numbered 19:2-44 in Hebrew text.

The Voice

David should never be counted out. Hours before, Absalom has everything going his way, and David is run out of his kingdom. Smart and fierce, he doesn't spend all those years hiding from Saul and fighting with little or no resources for nothing. Although he orders his generals to be merciful to his son Absalom, his forces win a great victory against the rebel forces, and David's general Joab kills Absalom and removes a threat to the security of the kingdom.

 

But David's reaction again is tender; although his son might have killed him if he'd been given the chance, David laments his death. As king, as father, and as follower of the Lord, he knows he could have done better; but now it is too late, and all he can do is mourn the consequences of his past actions.

Joab heard the news that David was weeping and mourning for Absalom, and the mood shifted from celebration to sorrow, for all the soldiers heard that the king was grieving for his son. V. 2 is included for context.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

Beck’s American Translation Joab Corrects David

Joab was told, “The king is weeping and mourning for Absalom.”

New Advent (Knox) Bible       Word came back to Joab that the king was in tears, mourning over his son; and the news of the royal grief went round among the army, so that the victory they had won that day issued only in lament. V. 2 is included for context.

New American Bible (2002)   The king was shaken, and went up to the room over the city gate to weep. He said as he wept, "My son Absalom! My son, my son Absalom! If only I had died instead of you, Absalom, my son, my son!"

Joab was told that the king was weeping and mourning for Absalom;... This is 2Sam. 19:1–2 in the Catholic Bible.

New American Bible (2011) Footnote    Joab Reproves David.

Joab was told, "The king is weeping and mourning for Absalom,"...

NIRV                                      Someone told Joab, "The king is sobbing over Absalom. He's filled with sadness because his son has died."

New Jerusalem Bible             The king shuddered. He went up to the room over the gate and burst into tears; and, as he wept, he kept saying, 'Oh, my son Absalom! My son! My son Absalom! If only I had died instead of you! Oh, Absalom my son, my son!'

Word was brought to Joab, 'The king is weeping and mourning for Absalom.' This is 2Sam. 19:1–2 in the Catholic Bible.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      The king was agitated, and ascended to the upper-room over the gate weeping. As he went, he said thus, "My son Absalom! My son, my son Absalom! Who would give me to die instead of you, Absalom, my son, my son?"

It was told Joab, "The king weeps and mourns here over Absalom." 2Sam. 18:33 is included for context.

Bible in Basic English             And word was given to Joab that the king was weeping and sorrowing for Absalom.

The Expanded Bible              Joab Scolds David

People told Joab, "Look, the king is ·sad [mourning] and crying ·because of [for] Absalom."

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 Then the king trembled, and went up the stairs of the gate,. and wept, You have gone, my son, Absalom! My son, my son, Absalom! I wish I myself had died instead of youl Absalom! my son! But it was reported to J’oab, “The king is weeping and lamenting over Absalom!” I am unsure about this copy of the Ferar-Fenton Bible. It does not always run true to the other FF version I have. This is 2Sam. 19:1–2 in the FF Bible.

HCSB                                     It was reported to Joab, "The king is weeping. He's mourning over Absalom."


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           Yo'av was told, "The king is weeping, mourning for Avshalom."

exeGeses companion Bible   DAVID REBUKED FOR MOURNING

And they tell Yah Ab, and behold,

the sovereign weeps and mourns for Abi Shalom:...

Orthodox Jewish Bible           And it was told Yoav, Hinei, HaMelech weepeth and mourneth for Avshalom.

The Scriptures 1998              And it was reported to Yoʼa, “See, the sovereign is weeping and mourning for Ashalom.”


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And it is declared to Joab, `Lo, the king is weeping and mourning for Absalom;...

Context Group Version          And it was told Joab, Look, the king weeps and mourns for Absalom.

English Standard Version      Joab Rebukes David

It was told Joab, "Behold, the king is weeping and mourning for Absalom."

Green’s Literal Translation    And it was announced to Joab, Behold, the king is weeping and mourning over Absalom.

Kretzmann’s Commentary    Reinstated in his Royal Power

And it was told Joab, Behold, the king weepeth and mourneth for Absalom. He was immersed in his immoderate and sinful grief for Absalom, and did not even take time to greet his victorious army upon its return.

NASB                                     Joab Reproves David's Lament

Then it was told Joab, "Behold, the king [2 Sam 18:5, 14] is weeping and mourns for Absalom."

Syndein/Thieme                     {Note: Some time passes now and Joab has arrived in Mahanaim. And, a report is made to him on the condition of the King.}

{Verses 1-8: David's recovery from Arrogance}

And it was told Joab, "Behold, the king keeps on weeping while he keeps on mourning/grieving for Absalom. {Note: RBT says this is an abnormal weeping beyond that which is warranted for a believer. This is emotion dominating the soul and replacing thought - especially overriding his divine viewpoint (which should always dominate the emotions). David knew better (see David II Samuel 12:22-24 when his son with Bathsheba had died - at that time, he understood that he would see the child again). David is now inside interlocking systems of arrogance.}.

Young’s Updated LT             And it is declared to Joab, “Lo, the king is weeping and mourning for Absalom.”

 

The gist of this verse:          Joab receives an official report that, after this great victory in war, King David is weeping over the death of his son Absalom.


2Samuel 19:1a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

nâgad (נָגַד) [pronounced naw-GAHD]

to be made conspicuous, to be made known, to be expounded, to be explained, to be declared, to be informed

3rd person masculine singular, Hophal imperfect

Strong's #5046 BDB #616

The Hophal is the passive of the Hiphil (causative stem) and the rarest of the seven stems. There is never a hint of reflexive in this stem and the agent of the verb is often not given in the immediate context. Most grammar books call it simply the causative passive stem.

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

Yôwʾâb (יוֹאָב) [pronounced YOH-awbv]

Yah is father and is transliterated Joab

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #3097 BDB #222


Translation: [It] was made known to Joab,... You will recall that the king held back and waited for news at the allied city, while Joab led the troops to war against Absalom and his revolutionary troops. The idea was, all the rebel army had to do was kill one man—David—and the war was over. This worked both ways, although David does not admit this to himself. If his army kills Absalom, the revolution is over.


Even though there were actual differences in the philosophy and governing of David and his son Absalom, the entire civil war is based primarily on superficial aspects of Absalom. He is younger, more dynamic and he appears to be a nicer guy, more concerned with the downtrodden and those having recent problems. He is the man who seems to care, which is a big factor in U.S. elections.


Application: As an example, the stock market was quite powerful and moved upward throughout 95% of George Bush’s presidency. Footnote All during that time, I did not hear a single liberal say, “Look, I don’t like Bush, I don’t like his policies, but I must admit that his presidency is good for country and the business investment, as per the stock market.” However, when the economy of President Obama is discussed, nearly every time liberals will tout the upward growth of the stock market as proof of a strong economy. In both cases, the stock market has been pushed up by factors unrelated to the true economy (during Bush’s presidency, the stock market was fueled, in part, to a housing bubble, which involved a lot of loans—many of them fraudulent—and a lot of building; under Obama, the fed is pouring $85 billion per month into the bond market). In both cases, the rising start market is based upon artificial stimulants.


My point in all of this is, Absalom was not superior to David in a single area except that he was younger and therefore better looking, having David’s genes. For this, and because of Absalom’s chicanery, Israel was embroiled in a civil war which will continue to bubble up.


Joab killed Absalom, and sent his troops into retreat. Joab did not pursue them to punish them. With Absalom, there is no reason for them to fight. Again, the armies were lined up behind two men, and the killing of either man would end the war.


Then Joab sent two men to report this to David. Now, Joab receives a message while in the field or returning from this battle. He is going to be quite disturbed over this.

2Samuel 19:1b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

hinnêh (הִנֵּה) [pronounced hin-NAY]

lo, behold, or more freely, observe, look here, look, listen, note, take note; pay attention, get this, check this out

interjection, demonstrative particle

Strong’s #2009 (and #518, 2006) BDB #243

This seems to attempt to take others and put them in the place of the person saying this (so that they see the same thing); or to grab the attention of the reader. From the many times I have seen this word used in a narrative, I believe that we may update the translation to, he observed [that]. This goes along with the idea that this word is to cause us to see things from the viewpoint of someone in the narrative.

meleke (מֶלֶ) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572

bâkâh (בַּכָה) [pronounced baw-KAW]

weeping [for] (in grief, humiliation, or joy), weeping [bitterly], weeping upon, crying [for], bewailing

Qal active participle

Strong’s #1058 BDB #113


Translation:...“Listen, the king is weeping;... The king has been involved in a revolt by his oldest son remaining, Absalom, and this revolt has just now been put down. And yet, when David hears that his son has been killed, he begins weeping. He has gone up to an upper room chamber to be alone, but it is quite obvious that everyone can hear him crying.


2Samuel 19:1c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâbal (אָבַל) [pronounced awb-VAHL]

to mourn, to act like a mourner, to go through the motions a ceremonies of mourning

3rd person masculine singular, Hithpael imperfect

Strong’s #56 BDB #5

Generally speaking, the Qal is found in poetry and the Hithpael in prose.

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of relative proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

ʾĂbîyshâlôwm (אֲבִישָלוֹם) [pronounced ub-ee-shaw-LOHM]

my father is peace and is transliterated Absalom

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #53 BDB #5

An alternate form of this word is ʾAbeshâlôwm (אַבְשָלוֹם) [pronounced ahbe-shaw-LOHM].


Translation: ...in fact, he is mourning over Absalom.” In the second half of this report, the messenger tells Joab why David is mourning. He is mourning over the death of his son, Absalom.


One needs to ask, why is David grieving so much here, whereas, back a few chapters, when his infant died, he got up, cleaned himself up, and went to worship God?

David’s Grief for Absalom

1.      When Nathan first exposed David to his own sin, the first consequence was the death of his infant son by Bathsheba, after a desperate illness.

2.      David laid on the floor next to his infant child and petitioned God with prayer to let this little guy live. However, this child died.

3.      David then got up, cleaned himself up, and went to worship God, saying, “He will not return to me; I will go to him.” (referring to his infant son who died).

4.      However, here, David is moaning and groaning over the death of his son, Absalom; so much so, that his army is embarrassed that they participated in a battle that resulted in the death of Absalom.

5.      Joab will have to step in and brace David as strongly as David has ever been braced.

6.      We would have expected David to be further along spiritually at this point, and yet he has seemed to retrogress. What is going on?

7.      There is a clear difference between David’s relationship with Absalom and his unnamed son. His unnamed son was less than a year old, had almost no personality, and did not have many recognizable traits. However, with Absalom, David both knows this young man (although he seems to have an idealized version of Absalom in his mind) and Absalom looks like a young David. David sees him as his successor.

8.      What David is clearly unable to see is just how wicked Absalom is.

9.      There is something more here. It is very possible that Absalom is not a believer in the Revealed God of Israel. Throughout our history of Absalom, at no time does he express faith in the Revealed God or any reverence toward Him. In fact, on one occasion, Absalom uses the concept of sacrifices to God to explain his move to Hebron; which move allows him to foment revolution against David.

10.    This would be the greatest loss to David. Not only is Absalom gone, but David will never see this young man again, as he rejected David’s God.

11.    Add to this that David is in emotional arrogance. He sees his grief as far more important than the direction of the nation over which he is king.

12.    Because of his own personal grief and emotion, David is unable to do and say the right thing as king.

13.    David has to shake off this little pity party that he is throwing for himself.

14.    

You cannot hold a position of power and authority and spend your time concerned about your own problems.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Much of this comes from the teaching of R. B. Thieme, Jr.

For many people, I recognize that a doctrine like this is a bit much. However, as has been discussed in previous chapters, it is clear that we need a better explanation for David’s actions beyond him simply being out of fellowship or in reversionism. The full explanation can be found in 2Samuel 11 (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Emotional Arrogance Introduction

1.      Emotional arrogance or the arrogance of emotion is one of the gates of the interlocking systems of arrogance.

2.      The interlocking systems of arrogance refers to many clusters of sins which have a tendency to interlock with one another. That is, a believer who goes into interlocking systems of arrogance through one gate (or entrance), is likely to interlock with another cluster of sins if he remains out of fellowship. We have simple examples of this in life. A person might begin to smoke marijuana, which is illegal. Some time later, he may take other drugs (this is why marijuana is often called a gateway drug). This is similar to how the interlocking systems of arrogance works—this person would have never considered taking heroin or crack or anything like this, but he takes marijuana, and, after a few months or a few years, is ready to consider taking other drugs. The gateway drug of marijuana interlocks with other systems of drugs, which also pull the drug-taker into their sphere of influence.

3.      Now, the taking of drugs actually is one of the interlocking systems of behavior known as the arrogance of addictive behavior. Some sins are naturally addictive—alcohol and drug usage are examples of this. Quite obviously, a person drinks or takes a particular drug because they like the way it makes them feel. It titillates their emotions and causes their mind and/or body to feel good. Most often, it removes them from their circumstances, which they may find difficult. At the same time, this addictive behavior begins to consume their life.

4.      Addictive behavior arrogance will often cause a person to become involved in anti-authority actions, extreme liberal philosophy and politics, and break more and greater laws. He may involve himself with a woman with the same weaknesses, and they become involved in sexual arrogance together (his norms and standards being wiped out by his changing mores). He enters in the gate of smoking marijuana which makes him vulnerable to a number of other clusters of sins.

         1)      The Bible often speaks of such a person as a dog returning to his vomit. (Prov. 26:11 2Peter 2:22). He rejects something which is clearly wrong, but, upon entering into one of the arrogance gates, he returns to this thing which he rejected before, and decides he might want to try it.

         2)      This principle is found to be true not only when a person is inside the interlocking systems of arrogance, but when he is in reversionism as well.

5.      The whole idea is, once you have entered into one of these arrogance gates, you become vulnerable to many of the other arrogance gates, which you were not vulnerable to before. This is exactly like the person who smokes marijuana, and then begins to experiment with other drugs, which such a person would have never taken before.

6.      One of those clusters of sins is known as emotional arrogance (it is also called irrational arrogance).

Emotional Arrogance

1.      Emotional or irrational arrogance is the antithesis of rational arrogance.

         1)      Rational arrogance uses human viewpoint and academic theory as the criterion for life instead of Bible doctrine.

         2)      Irrational arrogance uses feeling and emotion as the criterion for life instead of Bible doctrine.

2.      Normal emotional function responds to the thinking of the precordial frontal lobes of the soul.

         1)      In the human soul, there exists both male and female parts. The intellect is the male part of the soul; emotion is the female part of the soul.

         2)      Emotions are designed, under normal living, to respond to the content of your intellect and to the standards developed from your thinking. When your standards are met in any field of life, your emotions respond.

         3)      Emotion is normal only when under the authority of thought. Just as your volition must be under human authorities of establishment and under the divine authority of the Word of God, so emotion is only normal when it is subordinate to thinking.

         4)      Emotion is a responder and reflector of thinking or lack of thinking in a normal person. Emotion is the feeling and responding reflexes of the soul.

         5)      As a system of feeling and response, emotion in itself does not contain any of the following.

                  (1)     Emotion has no ability to reason. The ability to reason is lost if emotion dominates the

                  (2)     Emotion has no capability of thought. Emotion was not designed for thinking, but for responsive stimulation.

                  (3)     Emotion has no doctrinal content or criteria.

                  (4)     Emotion has no common sense. So if emotion dominates the soul, there is no common

                  (5)     Emotion has no vocabulary as a tool for mental function. To be able to think, you must have a vocabulary.

3.      Emotion is never the criterion for Christian experience. You are not saved or spiritual because you feel saved or spiritual. Your feelings have absolutely nothing to do with your spiritual status quo. However, your emotions can respond to your spiritual growth or to doctrines you finally understand, just as your emotions respond to other things.

4.      The criterion for Christianity is two-fold.

         1)      Positive criterion: Bible doctrine, the systematic theology of reason.

         2)      Negative criterion: emotion, a system of feeling, which when used as criterion leads to the distortion of the protocol plan of God.

5.      Under the principle of irrational arrogance, emotion becomes a major distraction to the execution of the protocol plan of God. Preoccupation with self in arrogance enjoys substituting emotional stimulation for Bible doctrine, therefore forcing doctrine out of your life. This is why people seek guidance in their decision making from others.

6.      Emotion rejects the three R's of operation Z: reception, retention, and recall of doctrine, all of which require the function of the frontal lobe inside the divine dynasphere.

7.      Emotion is not involved in the process of learning doctrine. Emotion benefits from doctrine learned. To the extent that you get emotional about some doctrinal point, you lose your objectivity and your ability to actually take in doctrine. When arrogance gives precedence to emotion or how one feels, it results in false doctrine, rejection of eternal security, drug abuse, and involvement in the phallic

8.      Emotional arrogance concludes the following blasphemies.

         1)      A person is not saved unless he feels saved.

         2)      A person is not spiritual without an ecstatic experience.

9.      Abnormal emotion is the impulsive function related to arrogance. Emotional stress causes the believer to act on impulse rather than the application of Bible doctrine.

         1)      The emotion of fear causes flight.

         2)      The emotion of disgust causes repulsion.

         3)      The emotion of anger causes violence.

         4)      Instincts are reflex behavior based on emotion rather than on thought.

10.    Therefore, emotions are feeling functions, and they should never become the criterion for

11.    Emotional arrogance converts reality into illusion and hallucination, making another giant step in the drive toward unreality, which explains why so many believers are psychopathic. Therefore, emotional arrogance always collapses under pressure.

12.    Definition and description of emotion.

         1)      Emotion is defined as a complex, biochemical, physiological process or function concerned with somatic expression of feeling. Emotion is the basis for thymopathic behavior, disturbance of effects.

         2)      There are two functions of the emotion.

                  (1)     The conscious sensation of emotions in the soul responding to the intellect.

                  (2)     The effect of emotions on the organic functions of the body. Both of these are misconstrued in Christianity today.

         3)      The conscious sensation of emotion in the soul is the mechanism of emotions in the brain. The effects of emotion on the organic function of the body is a parasympathetic effect of the transmission of too many or too few motor nerve impulses to the muscles of the body.

         4)      The prefrontal lobes are the cortical areas associated with thought and decisions. Normal emotions respond to thought in the prefrontal lobes. In cases where the prefrontal lobes have been removed, such as a frontal lobotomy, such individuals still have emotional activity. Therefore, you can have a lot of emotional activity without ever having a thought! Such emotional activity is unstable, coming and going with extreme rapidity. So while the removal of the prefrontal lobes may eliminate thought, it does not eliminate emotional activity.

         5)      Emotion without thought is a disaster to the soul. Such sins as anger, rage, fear, worry, anxiety, and hatred are classified as emotional activity.

         6)      Emotion is related to human power and influence, but never to divine power and Bible doctrine. Emotional arrogance is a denial of divine power available to every Church Age believer. Doctrine is stored and utilized in the prefrontal lobes, not in the emotions.

13.    The cosmic believer has three emotional malfunctions.

         1)      He makes a god out of his emotions. Phil 3:18-19.

         2)      His emotions distract him from the protocol plan of God. Rom 16:17-18.

         3)      His emotions hinder his perception of Bible doctrine. 2Cor 6:11-12.

14.    Irrational arrogance makes emotion the criterion for the Christian way of life. Phil 3:18-19, "For many [cosmic believers] keep walking [modus operandi in cosmic system] concerning whom I have communicated to you many times and now continue communicating, even though weeping, that they are enemies of the cross of Christ; whose end is destruction [sin unto death], whose god is his emotions, whose fame is by means of dishonor, who keeps thinking about earthly things."

         1)      In any given generation, the "many" or the majority of believers execute this blasphemous, emotional way of life.

         2)      The apostle Paul wept because divine power is available to every Church Age believer, yet it is rarely utilized. Most believers are content to live out their lives in a very conventional, ordinary way without ever realizing that God has given us greater power than He ever gave to Old Testament believers, except to a few.

         3)      How can believers be the enemies of the cross? Because they are grieving the same Holy Spirit who sustained our Lord on the cross. These believers live in the arrogance complex, their lives reflecting Satan's modus operandi and policy as the ruler of this world. These cosmic believers live outside the divine dynasphere in Satan's cosmic system.

         4)      The outcome of the cross was that our Lord demonstrated that by utilizing the omnipotence of the Holy Spirit inside the divine dynasphere, you can bear anything in life. There is no suffering, no disaster, no tragedy, no heartache too great for us to bear. We have the same divine dynasphere and the same power available as our Lord had.

         5)      So those who make emotion their criterion and associate emotion with Christianity are the enemies of the cross. Their arrogance is too subtle for most to see, but it is obvious to those who understand the great power experiment of the Church Age.

         6)      Any believer living outside the divine dynasphere is an enemy of the cross. He is a cosmic, carnal believer, and he will wind up in either moral or immoral degeneracy; both are equally

         7)      Attaining "fame by dishonor" violates the principle that if God doesn't promote you, you're not

15.    Emotional arrogance distracts from the execution of the protocol plan of God. Rom 16:17-18, "Now I urge you, brethren, be alert for those who are causing dissensions and apostasies contrary to doctrine which you have learned. For such believers do not obey our Lord Jesus Christ, but their emotions, serving themselves. And by their smooth and flattering speech they deceive the right lobes of the ignorant [of Bible doctrine]."

         1)      Alertness is impossible apart from epistemological rehabilitation and cognition of doctrine.

         2)      All dissension and apostasy has one root: arrogance.

         3)      Our Lord set up the pattern and gave the mandates with regard to the great power experiment of the Church Age. But arrogant believers have rejected the protocol plan of God and the mandates of our Lord. Arrogance rejects authority.

16.    Emotional arrogance hinders the believer from epistemological rehabilitation and cognition of Bible doctrine. 2Cor 6:11-12 "O you Corinthians, our mouth has been opened face to face with you; our [Paul, Apollos, Timothy] right lobes have been enlarged [by Bible doctrine]. Therefore, you have not been hindered by us, but you have been hindered by your own emotions."

         1)      The Corinthians were generally bright with high human I.Q.s. But the issue is spiritual I.Q., living in the divine dynasphere, learning from the teaching of God the Holy Spirit.

         2)      The enlargement of the right lobes refers to the studying and teaching of the doctrinal

         3)      It was not lack of good Bible teaching that hindered the Corinthian believers from executing the protocol plan of God. They were hindered by their own emotional arrogance.

17.    Characteristics of emotional arrogance.

         1)      Emotional arrogance is vulnerable to flattery, because flattery encourages unreality about

         2)      Emotional arrogance encourages fear because emotion cannot think under pressure. Courage is thinking under pressure.

         3)      Emotional arrogance produces personality disturbances, called psycho-neurotic disorders. Psycho-neurotic personalities use arrogance to try to deal with stress, but instead of solving stress, they manufacture anxiety, piling more pressure on their life. Emotional arrogance cannot handle anxiety. Phobic, depressive, obsessive, and compulsive reactions result from emotional arrogance.

         4)      Emotion has no vocabulary, no ability to think, and no problem solving capabilities.

         5)      The guilt complex causes pressure, for it is an emotion which is much stronger than doctrine in you.

         6)      One way of allowing your emotions to dominate is through drug addiction. Drugs are a stimulus to the emotional pattern, wiping out the thinking pattern. In this euphoric state, you cannot cope with life.

         7)      The modern tongues movement is the expression of emotions dominating the soul. Emotional arrogance is the function of demon possession among unbelievers and demon influence among both believers and unbelievers.

18.    Decisions made by emotional arrogance are generally wrong decisions from a position of weakness. In the formative years, emotions dominate the soul, so you should never marry your first

19.    Knowledge of doctrine is the environment for thinking, not emotion or ecstatics. Emotion has no rationale for application to the stresses of life. Emotional arrogance uses illusion, hallucination, and fantasizing to cope with stress.

20.    The cure for emotional arrogance is discipline and authority resulting in enforced humility. One of the greatest things that can happen to anyone is to be born into a family where the parents are very strict and enforce discipline and force you to respect them. In this way, even if you have a tendency toward arrogance, your parents keep you related to reality under enforced humility. In the local church, this enforced humility comes from discipline under the pastor.

21.    Emotional arrogance not only eliminates rational thinking in the soul, but produces arrogant preoccupation with the insignificant. Arrogant preoccupation with the insignificant not only destroys any true scale of values in life, but develops an arrogant self-centeredness which destroys capacity for life, love and happiness.

22.    Details of life are the means of living, but they are neither the motivation nor the capacity for living. Thought is motivation for life. Arrogance always wants more and bigger details of life to the exclusion of reality; then your happiness comes to depend on these. But the details of life are the means of living, not the means for capacity for life or happiness. When you are motivated for living because of such details as transportation, food, shelter, recognition, and fame, you have used arrogance to eliminate capacity for life, love and happiness. Without capacity of thought, details will make you miserable. Again, knowledge is the environment for thinking - not emotion.

23.    Doctrine is the environment for decisions, not emotion.

24.    Emotions are wonderful when they are the result of thinking; that's what emotions are for. They are the nerve extensions of thought in the soul. Therefore, emotions are designed to enjoy life.

Much of this doctrine came from a post in Free Republic. Accessed January 18, 2014. It has been edited and modified.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Joab is a realist, and there are times in government where there is no time for self-pity (actually, in life, there is really no time for self-pity). What David is doing here could destroy his own leadership and authority, which would in turn destroy the country. All Israel could be consumed in revolution. There is clearly strife between those who backed David and those who backed Absalom; and there is also strife between the northern and southern sections of Israel. There will be another revolution which breaks out in the next chapter. Therefore, David has to get his act together, which requires him to be operating on divine viewpoint.


All of this is going on because David is still an emotional mess. He entered into interlocking systems of arrogance through the sexual arrogance gate, and this has interlocked with criminality arrogance. Those who have opposed David are in authority arrogance, political arrogance, or the feet-of-clay syndrom arrogance.


Therefore, all of this is one big mess which needs to be cleared up, and David has to be a leader extraordinare in order for him to pull the country together.


Application: Presidents do face personal problems when leading the United States. A great president has to put these problems aside, because what he is doing in leading the nation is much greater in importance. A great president needs to have the right kinds of voices speaking to him. David has Nathan the prophet and Joab the general. These men can say nearly anything to David and he will listen to them. He may not like what they have to say, but he will still listen and take what they say seriously.


Application: Most people do not have a clue about having authority. They think authority means, they can tell everyone else what to do, and then sit back and watch them do it. David, if he gets this wrong—and he is heading in that direction—could cause strife and disruption in his country for the next few hundred years. Authority means responsibility and authority means being able to put your own agenda aside for a bigger purpose.


Application: We have in office right now the worst president of my lifetime (President Obama; I write this in 2014). Nothing which he has done has worked, and he ought to know this. Everything which he has done has had dire consequences for literally millions of people. However, he has a point of view, and he is unable to recognize that his approach to things is not working. There is no one who can come to him, like Nathan or like Joab, and say, “Sir, you have it all wrong. This is how you are affecting the nation. And nearly every time you speak, you drive a wedge further and further in between the people of this country.”


Application: However, so that you do not misunderstand this—getting the right person in office is not the key. We have a country where the population is confused and completely out of step with God’s plan, including believers in Jesus Christ. Over half the people in the United States want things to be accepted in this land which go against the laws of divine establishment (gay marriage, marijuana use), which things will not only act as a cancer in our nation, but be used to attack Christianity. It is the thinking of this nation which is out-of-synch with God’s plan, and this is why we have a lousy president.


Application: We have a government which is spiraling out of control, a Congress which is unwilling to do anything to fix anything, but they are very willing to spend money; and we had a presidential candidate in 2012 who was the perfect candidate for this mess: Mitt Romney. He had dealt successfully with large organizations with many moving parts; and he knew how to deal with huge budgets. The 2012 election should not have been close. The problem is, our public is confused about the most basic issues, and they are confused because they do not have any truth in their souls (not establishment truth and not Bible doctrine truth). There are a huge number of people who vote Democrat because this means that they might not have to ever work again; that the Democrats will find new ways to funnel money to them without them having to go to the trouble of getting a job. That is completely divorced from truth and integrity.


Application: As I have mentioned in previous applications, I am not looking to get another hundred people to vote Republican. What I would like to see is the Word of God taught carefully, word-by-word, verse-by-verse in as many churches as possible. This will turn our country around.


Application: Also, so that there is no misunderstanding, we will never come to a point where America is fixed. We might have a good president now and again, or some good leaders in Congress, but there will always be attacks of evil forces, looking to turn and confuse anyone who is willing to return to their own vomit.


To the reader: Do not worry; not every verse will require this much explanation. This sets us up for David’s exit from the interlocking systems of arrogance leaving through the emotional arrogance gate.


——————————


And so is the deliverance in the day the that to mourning to all the people for they heard in the day the that, so say, “Has grieved the king upon his son.”

2Samuel

19:2

The victory in that day became mourning to all the people because they [lit., the people] heard in that day, [the message which] said, “The king is grieving because of [the death of] his son.”

Consequently, the victory that day was turned to mourning for David’s supporters because they heard that the king was grieving because of his son’s death.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          And the victory that day was turned into mourning unto all the people: for the people heard say that day: The king grieveth for his son.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so is the deliverance in the day the that to mourning to all the people for they heard in the day the that, so say, “Has grieved the king upon his son.”

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And there was mourning that day among all the people; for the people heard that day how the king was grieved for his son.

Septuagint (Greek)                And the victory was turned that day into mourning to all the people, for the people heard it said that day, The king grieves after his son.

 

Significant differences:           the Syriac is missing the word victory, deliverance.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       David's army found out he was crying because his son had died, and their day of victory suddenly turned into a day of sadness.

Easy English                          David's army had won the battle that day. But then they heard that David was very sad about his son. So, it became a sad day for the army too.

Easy-to-Read Version            {David’s army} had won the battle that day. But the joy of victory had turned to sadness for all the people. It was a very sad day because the people heard, “The king is very sad for his son.”

The Message                         The day's victory turned into a day of mourning as word passed through the army, "David is grieving over his son."

New Century Version             David's army had won the battle that day. But it became a very sad day for all the people, because they heard that the king was very sad for his son.

New Life Bible                        So the happiness of winning the battle that day was changed to sorrow for all the people. For they heard that day, "The king is filled with sorrow for his son."

New Living Translation           As all the people heard of the king's deep grief for his son, the joy of that day's victory was turned into deep sadness.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Then a message was sent to JoAb that the king was crying and mourning over AbSalom rather than celebrating a victory, and that his people had gone into mourning, because they heard that the king was [disturbed over the death of] his son. V. 1 is included for context. .

NIRV                                      The army had won a great battle that day. But their joy turned into sadness. That's because someone had told the troops, "The king is filled with sorrow because his son is dead."

New Jerusalem Bible             And for the entire army that day, victory was turned to mourning, the troops having learnt that the king was grieving for his son.

New Simplified Bible              David’s army found out he was crying because his son died. Suddenly their day of victory turned into a day of sadness.

Revised English Bible            Joab was told that the king was weeping and mourning for Absalom, and that day’s victory was turned for the whole army into mourning, because the troops heard how the king grieved for his son; they stole into the city like men ashamed to show their faces after fleeing from a battle. Vv. 1 & 3 are included for context.

Today’s NIV                          And for the whole army the victory that day was turned into mourning, because on that day the troops heard it said, "The king is grieving for his son."


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      The salvation that day was mourned by all the people. For the people heard it said that day, "The king grieves for his son."

Bible in Basic English             And the salvation of that day was changed to sorrow for all the people: for it was said to the people, The king is in bitter grief for his son.

The Expanded Bible              David's army had won the battle that day. But ·it became a very sad day for all the people [Lthe victory that day turned to mourning], because they heard that the king was ·very sad [grieving] for his son.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 Consequently to ·· day's victory will become a sorrow to all the army? for the army will hear it said now that the king laments it, because of his son,...

NET Bible®                             So the victory of that day was turned to mourning as far as all the people were concerned. For the people heard on that day, "The king is grieved over his son." When it comes to making an actual material change to the text, the NET Bible® is pretty good about indicating this. Since most of these corrections will be clear in the more literal translations below and within the Hebrew exegesis itself, I will not continue to list every NET Bible® footnote.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           Thus the victory that day was turned into mourning for all the people, for the people heard it said that day that the king was grieving for his son;...

exeGeses companion Bible   ...and the salvation that day

becomes mourning to all the people:

for that day the people hear say

that the sovereign writhes for his son:...

Orthodox Jewish Bible           And the teshu'ah (salvation, deliverance) on that day was turned into evel (mourning) unto kol HaAm; for the people heard say that day how HaMelech was grieved for bno.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Emphasized Bible                  So the victory, on that day, was turned into mourning, with all the people,—for the people heard, on that day, saying, The king is distressed for his son.

English Standard Version      So the victory that day was turned into mourning for all the people, for the people heard that day, "The king is grieving for his son."

Green’s Literal Translation    And the deliverance on that day became mourning to all the people, for the people had heard on that day, saying, The king is grieving for his son.

Kretzmann’s Commentary    And the victory, the deliverance or salvation from the hands of the murderous rebels under the leadership of Absalom, was turned into mourning unto all the people; for the people heard say that day how the king was grieved for his son. But while they respected his fatherly grief and, in a measure, shared his sorrow, they were gradually filled with dissatisfaction over the fact that the king did not seem to have one word of cheer or appreciation for them.

New RSV                               So the victory that day was turned into mourning for all the troops; for the troops heard that day, `The king is grieving for his son.'

Syndein/Thieme                     {Low Morale of the People}

Consequently, the victory on that day was turned into mourning for the entire army. {Note: The army did not celebrate their great victory. The entire army now was under 'a guilt complex' and self pity. They risked their lives, friends had died, and now were infected with guilt and self-pity.} Because on that day, the army heard it said that the king was grieving for his son.

Webster’s Bible Translation  And the victory that day was [turned] into mourning to all the people: for the people heard it said that day how the king was grieved for his son.

 

The gist of this verse:          Whereas the people of Israel should have been celebrating, they instead had become sad, as they knew the king was mourning for his son, who led the failed revolution against him.


2Samuel 19:2a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person feminine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

teshûwʿâh (תְּשוּעָה) [pronounced te-shoo-ĢAW]

deliverance, salvation

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #8668 BDB #448

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article)

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

hûwʾ (הוּא) [pronounced hoo]

that, this

masculine singular, demonstrative pronoun (with the definite article)

Strong’s #1931 BDB #214

The bêyth preposition, yôwm and hûw (with definite articles) mean in that day, on that day, in [on] the same day.

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾêbel (אֵבֶל) [pronounced AY-behl]

mourning [for the dead]; the rites of mourning; mourning clothing; a period of mourning

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #60 BDB #5

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

the whole, all of, the entirety of, all; can also be rendered any of

masculine singular construct followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

ʿam (עַם) [pronounced ģahm]

people; race, tribe; family, relatives; citizens, common people; companions, servants; entire human race; herd [of animals]

masculine singular collective noun with the definite article

Strong’s #5971 BDB #766


Translation: The victory in that day became mourning to all the people... The people who supported David were victorious over Absalom, his revolutionary son. There should have been great excitement and great celebration. However, the people were sad instead, as if in a period of mourning.


2Samuel 19:2b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

shâmaʿ (שָמַע) [pronounced shaw-MAHĢ]

to listen [intently], to hear, to listen and obey, [or, and act upon, give heed to, take note of], to hearken to, to be attentive to, to listen and be cognizant of

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #8085 BDB #1033

ʿam (עַם) [pronounced ģahm]

people; race, tribe; family, relatives; citizens, common people; companions, servants; entire human race; herd [of animals]

masculine singular collective noun with the definite article

Strong’s #5971 BDB #766

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article)

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

hûwʾ (הוּא) [pronounced hoo]

that, this

masculine singular, demonstrative pronoun (with the definite article)

Strong’s #1931 BDB #214

The bêyth preposition, yôwm and hûw (with definite articles) mean in that day, on that day, in [on] the same day.


Translation: ...because they [lit., the people] heard in that day,... There was a message which was spread around, and it is unclear whether a messenger announced this, or if Joab told his military heads and they passed the word on down. Or, this could have been simply rumored about, in explanation as to why King David was not out in front of them praising them and their fearlessness.


2Samuel 19:2c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend; to answer

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

ʿâtsab (עָצַב) [pronounced ģaw-TSAHBV]

to be pained [in pain], to be hurt, to be grieved, to be afflicted

3rd person masculine singular, Niphal perfect

Strong’s #6087 BDB #780

meleke (מֶלֶ) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of relative proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

bên (בֵּן) [pronounced bane]

son, descendant

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119


Translation:...[the message which] said, “The king is grieving because of [the death of] his son.” The message was the David was grieving the loss of his son. This is actually quite sad, because Absalom brought this on himself. He would have been in line to become king, but he was not willing to wait. So he rebelled against his father, which meant either he or his father would die.


David should have been a realist, given the circumstances, but he was heartbroken over his son. And yet, there was no other possible outcome. In that day, a revolution was not over until either the king or the revolutionary leader was dead. There could have been no other outcome that left David alive and the king over all Israel.


So, his army returns to him, pumped up and excited over their victory, looking forward to a good meal, perhaps some wine and some celebration. And they would have expected their king to be there with them, thanking them, giving them words of appreciation. Yet, when they come to Mahanaim, David is in an upstairs room crying about his son, the revolutionist.

 

Peter Pett: For David's grieving had become common knowledge with the result that those who had naturally wanted to celebrate the great victory did not do so lest they upset the king. Instead they themselves began to feel one with his grief. It was adversely affecting the whole of the army who had fought so expertly for David. Footnote

 

Guzik: There is such a thing as excessive mourning - mourning that is basically rooted in unbelief and self indulgence. In 1Thessalonians 4:13, Paul warned Christians: I do not want you to be ignorant, brethren, concerning those who have fallen asleep, lest you sorrow as others who have no hope. Some Christians sorrow at times in death or tragedy like those who have no hope in God and this is wrong to do. Footnote


Unfortunately, in this case, David might be sorrowing as one who has no hope, as it is very possible that Absalom never believed in the God of David.


It should be noted that the mental attitude and the actions of a leader have an effect upon those under him. When the press has as much power as they do (particularly in previous decades), if they have a general attitude, then this is also picked up and reflected by the people.


——————————


And go by stealth the people in the day the that to go in the city as which go by stealth the people the shamed ones to retreat in the war.

2Samuel

19:3

The people went secretly in that day to go into the city, the people went secretly like [they are] ashamed [as if] retreating in war.

Those in David’s army went secretly that day into Mahanaim, as if they were the ones retreating in war.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          And the people shunned the going into the city that day as a people would do that hath turned their backs, and fled away from the battle.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And go by stealth the people in the day the that to go in the city as which go by stealth the people the shamed ones to retreat in the war.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And the people concealed themselves as they entered into the city that day, as people who are ashamed steal away when they flee from battle.

Septuagint (Greek)                And the people stole away that day to go into the city, as people steal away when they are ashamed as they flee in the battle.

 

Significant differences:           The word shunned found in the Latin does not sound right.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           So that day the troops crept back into the city like soldiers creep back ashamed after they've fled from battle.

Contemporary English V.       The troops were sneaking into Mahanaim, just as if they had run away from a battle and were ashamed.

Easy English                          The men returned to the city quietly that day. They behaved like men who had run away from a battle. They were as quiet as men who felt ashamed.

Good News Bible (TEV)         They went back into the city quietly, like soldiers who are ashamed because they are running away from battle.

The Message                         The army straggled back to the city that day demoralized, dragging their tails.

New Berkeley Version           The troops re-entered the city furtively that day, like people stealing away, who have been shamed by being routed in battle.

New Century Version             The people came into the city quietly that day. They were like an army that had been defeated in battle and had run away.

New Life Bible                        So the people were quiet as they went in secret into the city that day. They acted like people who are ashamed when they run away from a battle.

New Living Translation           They crept back into the town that day as though they were ashamed and had deserted in battle.

The Voice                               They crept back to the city as though they had lost the battle rather than saved the kingdom.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          And the people had just melted away into the city like men who were running from a battle.

Christian Community Bible     The people quietly entered the city that day, like those fleeing from battle in shame.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       They would not even return that day to the city, feeling such shame as a broken and routed army feels;...

New American Bible (2011)   The soldiers stole into the city that day like men shamed by flight in battle.

NIRV                                      The men came quietly into the city that day. They were like fighting men who are ashamed because they've run away from a battle.

New Jerusalem Bible             And that day the troops came furtively back into town, like troops creeping shamefacedly away when deserting in battle.

New Simplified Bible              The troops returned to Mahanaim without celebration. It was as if they ran away from battle and were ashamed.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      The people stole into the city that day, coming as people stealing in, embarrassed to flee in war.

Bible in Basic English             And the people made their way back to the town quietly and secretly, as those who are shamed go secretly when they go in flight from the war.

The Expanded Bible              The ·people [men; soldiers] ·came into the city quietly [Lstole/crept into the city] that day. They were like an army that had been ·defeated in battle and had run away [Lshamed for fleeing in battle].

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 ...and the forces will have to skulk into the city to-day, like an army skulks in when it is ashamed by flying from battle;...

HCSB                                     So they returned to the city quietly that day like people come in when they are humiliated after fleeing in battle.

NET Bible®                             That day the people stole away to go to the city the way people who are embarrassed steal away in fleeing from battle.

New Heart English Bible        The people sneaked into the city that day, as people who are ashamed steal away when they flee in battle.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           ...so that the people entered the city furtively that day, the way that people who are ashamed creep away when fleeing a battlefield.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           And the people stole that day into the Ir [Machanayim] as people being ashamed steal in when they flee in milchamah.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                The people slipped into the city stealthily that day as humiliated people steal away when they flee in battle.

A Conservative Version         And the people slipped away that day into the city, as people who are ashamed sneak away when they flee in battle.

English Standard Version      And the people stole into the city that day as people steal in who are ashamed when they flee in battle.

Kretzmann’s Commentary    And the people, the soldiers of the army, infected with the gloom which hung over the entire city and its vicinity, gat them by stealth that day into the city, instead of entering in military order and with shouts of victory, they stole away in small groups and crept into the city as unobtrusively as possible, as people being ashamed steal away when they flee in battle, like disgraced fugitives who find it impossible to face their friends and relatives.

New RSV                               The troops stole into the city that day as soldiers steal in who are ashamed when they flee in battle.

Syndein/Thieme                     {Military is Snubbed (Always seems to be the way)}

Consequently on that day {of victory over a much larger army} the army returned to the city by stealth . . . like an army that has been disgraced sneaks back when they have 'fled in panic' in battle. {Note: This day would be celebrated in the future. But on this day, because of David's emotional arrogance, his army was denied a great victory greeting in the city. They had to sneak back in like they were cowards and ran from the battle. Seems that an arrogant population always forgets the men who risked all to protect them and their freedoms just as soon as the immediate danger is over.}.

World English Bible                The people got them by stealth that day into the city, as people who are ashamed steal away when they flee in battle.

Young’s Updated LT             And the people steal away, on that day, to go in to the city, as the people steal away, who are ashamed, in their fleeing in battle.

 

The gist of this verse:          Instead of the men marching as victors into the city of Mahanaim, they quietly enter into the city, as if they had retreated or deserted in battle.


2Samuel 19:3a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

gânab (גָּנַב) [pronounced gaw-NAHBV]

to go [do something] by stealth; to steal away

3rd person masculine singular, Hithpael imperfect

Strong’s #1589 BDB #170

ʿam (עַם) [pronounced ģahm]

people; race, tribe; family, relatives; citizens, common people; companions, servants; entire human race; herd [of animals]

masculine singular collective noun with the definite article

Strong’s #5971 BDB #766

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article)

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

hûwʾ (הוּא) [pronounced hoo]

that, this

masculine singular, demonstrative pronoun (with the definite article)

Strong’s #1931 BDB #214

The bêyth preposition, yôwm and hûw (with definite articles) mean in that day, on that day, in [on] the same day.

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

bôwʾ (בּוֹא) [pronounced boh]

to come in, to come, to go in, to go, to enter, to advance

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #935 BDB #97

ʿîyr (עִיר) [pronounced ģeer]

encampment, city, town

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #5892 BDB #746


Translation: The people went secretly in that day to go into the city,... Those who supported David were behaving as if they had been the ones who were defeated in war. They returned secretly or stealthily to Mahanaim, which is their home base. A victorious army ought to be returning in formation with shouts of comradery and trumpets playing. Instead, they sneak back into the city, as if they have done something wrong.


The city suggests that this was a return to one, particular city. The soldiers did not all return to their individual hometowns.

 

Matthew Henry: What a damp and disappointment it was to David’s army to find the king in tears for Absalom's death, which they construed as a token of displeasure against them for what they had done, whereas they expected him to have met them with joy and thanks for their good services. Footnote

 

The Pulpit Commentary: Naturally, the people...were pained at this seeming ingratitude to them for their brave exertions in his behalf, and at what they must have regarded as indifference to the welfare of the nation. Footnote


2Samuel 19:3b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kaph or ke (כְּ) [pronounced ke]

like, as, according to; about, approximately

preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #453

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced ash-ER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

Together, kaʾăsher (כַּאֲשֶר) [pronounced kah-uh-SHER] means as which, as one who, as, like as, as just; because; according to what manner, in a manner as. Back in 1Sam. 12:8, I rendered this for example.

gânab (גָּנַב) [pronounced gaw-NAHBV]

to go [do something] by stealth; to steal away

3rd person masculine singular, Hithpael imperfect

Strong’s #1589 BDB #170

ʿam (עַם) [pronounced ģahm]

people; race, tribe; family, relatives; citizens, common people; companions, servants; entire human race; herd [of animals]

masculine singular collective noun with the definite article

Strong’s #5971 BDB #766

kâlam (כָלַם) [pronounced kaw-LAHM]

those being ashamed, those being put to shame, disgraced ones

masculine plural, Niphal participle

Strong's #3637 BDB #483

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

nûwç (נוּס) [pronounced noose]

to flee, to flee from, to escape, to depart, to retreat, to hasten quickly [away]

Qal infinitive construct with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #5127 BDB #630

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

milechâmâh (מִלְחָמָה) [pronounced mil-khaw-MAW]

battle, war, fight, fighting; victory; fortune of war

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4421 BDB #536


Translation: ...the people went secretly like [they are] ashamed [as if] retreating in war. They returned to Mahanaim as if they had been defeated in war, as if they had been shamed, and they were retreating from war. And these are the victors. What David did and said made them feel great shame and disappointment.

 

John Gill: [The soldiers] did not march into it in companies, in a public and triumphant manner, as conquerors used to do; but entered in a private manner, one by one, or a very few together, not caring to be seen or known, least of all by the king...as if they had been conquered, and...had acted a cowardly part, and ran away; and so cared not to be seen, lest they should be reproached...for their cowardice. Footnote

 

Arthur Pink: In due time Joab and his victorious army arrived at Mahanaim, to receive the congratulations of the king and wait upon him for further instructions. But instead of meeting them with warm gratitude for the signal service they had rendered him and his kingdom, David conducted himself in such a way as to make the army conclude the sovereign was filled with regret at their achievements, Consequently, instead of there being joyous celebrations over the victory, the spirit of the camp was greatly dampened. Instead of being thankful that his kingdom had been mercifully delivered, David was completely overwhelmed with grief over the death of his wayward son, aid all were made to suffer in consequence. Footnote

 

Jamieson, Fausset and Brown: The rumor of the king`s disconsolate condition spread a universal and unseasonable gloom. His troops, instead of being welcomed back (as a victorious army always was) with music and other demonstrations of public joy, slunk secretly and silently into the city, as if ashamed after the commission of some crime. Footnote


Let’s look at David’s army for a moment.

David’s Army

1.      The men who supported David showed great personal character.

2.      Many of them left with David out of Jerusalem. They just picked up and left. Some brought their wives, apparently, but they made an instantaneous choice.

3.      Many of these men may have wanted to stay in Jerusalem and face Absalom and his army as they showed up. David did not order them to do so, because that would have resulted in a great many casualties in an area with a large civilian population.

4.      David’s army accepted David’s authority and left Jerusalem with him.

5.      It is apparent that men from all over Israel, when they realized what was going on, found David and joined up with him.

6.      As a leader, David has a great responsibility at this point. All of those who support him would be subject to death at the hand of Absalom as traitors if David does not lead them to victory.

7.      These are extraordinary men with an extraordinary leader.

8.      This army has just saved David and his family; and his ended the revolutionary war in Israel. A victory celebration in Mahanaim is what ought to occur next.

9.      It is the military which protects the freedom of a nation; and law enforcement which preserves peace within a nation. Life under Absalom would have been tyranny.

10.    David must rise to the occasion of this victory, no matter how emotionally distraught he is. His future, his legacy and the future of Israel all depend upon what he does.

Joab will guide David into making the right decisions, which will help to lead him out of the interlocking systems of arrogance.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


David should be at the front gate, hobnobbing with the men, with a smile on his face, and with great appreciation for those who supported him. There ought to be feasting, with great animals on spigots and wine being passed around. Men should be breaking into songs; there should be thunderous cheers which erupt frequently. There ought to be public prayers to God. The men ought to be happy; David ought to be happy; their wives and children ought to be happy. This should be a great celebration of victory, but because of David, it is not.


——————————


And the king covered his faces and so cries out the king in a voice great, “My son, Absalom; Absalom, my son, my son.”

2Samuel

19:4

The king covered his face and he [lit., the king] cried out with a loud voice, “My son, Absalom; Absalom, my son my son.”

The king covered his face and cried out with a loud voice, “My son, Absalom; Absalom, my son my son.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          And the king covered his head, and cried with a loud voice: O my son Absalom, O Absalom my son, O my son.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And the king covered his faces and so cries out the king in a voice great, “My son, Absalom; Absalom, my son, my son.”

Peshitta (Syriac)                    But the king covered his face, and cried with a loud voice, saying, O my son Absalom, O Absalom, my son, my son!

Septuagint (Greek)                And the king hid his face. And the king cried with a loud voice, My son Absalom! Absalom my son!

 

Significant differences:           The Greek has one less my son at the end.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       David held his hands over his face and kept on crying loudly, "My son, Absalom! Absalom, my son, my son!"

The Message                         And the king held his face in his hands and lamented loudly, O my son Absalom, Absalom my dear, dear son!

New Living Translation           The king covered his face with his hands and kept on crying, "O my son Absalom! O Absalom, my son, my son!"

The Voice                               The king covered his face, and he continued to cry loudly.

David: O my son Absalom. O Absalom, my son, my son!


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Well, the king refused to show his face, for he kept crying and sobbing, 'O my son AbSalom! AbSalom! O my son!'

New Advent (Knox) Bible       ...and all the while the king hid his face away, and went on crying aloud, My son Absalom, Absalom, my son, my son!

New American Bible (2011)   Meanwhile the king covered his face and cried out in a loud voice, "My son Absalom! Absalom! My son, my son!" 2 Sm 15:30.

NIRV                                      The king covered his face. He sobbed out loud, "My son Absalom! Absalom, my son, my son!"

New Jerusalem Bible             The king had covered his face and kept crying aloud, 'My son Absalom! Oh, Absalom my son, my son!'

New Simplified Bible              David held his hands over his face and kept on crying loudly. »My son, Absalom! Absalom, my son, my son!«


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      But the king obscured his face. The king cried with a great voice, "My son Absalom, Absalom, my son, my son!"

Bible in Basic English             But the king, covering his face, gave a great cry, O my son Absalom, O Absalom, my son, my son!

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 ...for the king hides his face, and the king shrieks with a loud voice, ` My son, Absalom! Absalom! My son! My son l ' "

HCSB                                     But the king hid his face and cried out at the top of his voice, "My son Absalom! Absalom, my son, my son!"

NET Bible®                             The king covered his face and cried out loudly [Heb "with a great voice."], "My son, Absalom! Absalom, my son, my son!"


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           Meanwhile, the king covered his face and cried aloud, "Oh, my son Avshalom! Oh, Avshalom, my son, my son!"

exeGeses companion Bible   And the sovereign muffles his face

and the sovereign cries with a great voice,

O my son Abi Shalom!

O Abi Shalom! My son - my son!

Orthodox Jewish Bible           But HaMelech covered his face, and HaMelech cried with a kol gadol, O beni Avshalom, O Avshalom, beni, beni!

The Scriptures 1998              And the sovereign covered his face, and the sovereign cried out with a loud voice, “O my son Ashalom! O Ashalom, my son, my son!”


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Emphasized Bible                  But, the king, muffled his face, and the king made outcry, with a loud voice,—O my son Absolom, O Absolom, my son, my son!

English Standard Version      The king covered his face, and the king cried with a loud voice, "O my son Absalom, O Absalom, my son, my son!"

Kretzmann’s Commentary    But the king covered his face, in unrestrained grief and shame, and the king cried with a loud voice. O my son Absalom, O Absalom, my son, my son! He had almost worked himself into a hysteria over the loss of his worthless son, the rebel against the entire kingdom.

Syndein/Thieme                     {David's loss of Poise - in Emotional Arrogance}

Meanwhile the king covered his face, and the king screamed/wailed with a loud voice, "O my son Absalom, O Absalom, my son, my son!"

Young’s Updated LT             And the king has covered his face, yea, the king cries—a loud voice—“My son Absalom, Absalom, my son, my son.”

 

The gist of this verse:          While his heroic troops are returning, the king has hidden himself away, where he keeps crying out of his dead son, Absalom.


2Samuel 19:4a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

meleke (מֶלֶ) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572

lâʾaţ (לָאַט) [pronounced law-AHT]

to cover

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #3813 BDB #521

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

pânîym (פָּנִים) [pronounced paw-NEEM]

face, faces, countenance; presence; person; surface

masculine plural noun (plural acts like English singular); with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #6440 BDB #815


Translation: The king covered his face... The covering of the face indicated that the king was in deep mourning. Such a one did not want to be seen and did not want to see (see 2Sam. 15:30). Footnote This really sent the wrong message to his troops. They just fought valiantly for him, and he is acting as if they have ruined his life.


It is not clear if David went out much. However, he had to come out of this room he had taken, as it is known that he has a covering over his face. We do not know how long this went on for. It appears for the better part of a day or two; perhaps more.


2Samuel 19:4b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

zâʿaq (זָעַק) [pronounced zaw-ĢAHK]

to cry out, to call, to cry

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #2199 BDB #277

meleke (מֶלֶ) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572

qôwl (קוֹל) [pronounced kohl]

sound, voice, noise; loud noise, thundering

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #6963 BDB #876

gâdôwl (גָּדוֹל) [pronounced gaw-DOHL]

large, great or mighty [in power, nobility, wealth; in number, or magnitude and extent], loud, older, important, distinguished; vast, unyielding, immutable, significant, astonishing

masculine singular adjective

Strong’s #1419 BDB #152

bên (בֵּן) [pronounced bane]

son, descendant

masculine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

ʾĂbîyshâlôwm (אֲבִישָלוֹם) [pronounced ub-ee-shaw-LOHM]

my father is peace and is transliterated Absalom

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #53 BDB #5

ʾĂbîyshâlôwm (אֲבִישָלוֹם) [pronounced ub-ee-shaw-LOHM]

my father is peace and is transliterated Absalom

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #53 BDB #5

bên (בֵּן) [pronounced bane]

son, descendant

masculine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

bên (בֵּן) [pronounced bane]

son, descendant

masculine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119


Translation: ...and he [lit., the king] cried out with a loud voice, “My son, Absalom; Absalom, my son my son.” All King David can concentrate on is his son, Absalom, who is dead. This seems to be David’s mournful refrain, repeated again and again.

 

Gill writes: [David], upon first hearing the news, and had continued a few hours, it would have been more excusable; but to continue some days, as it is very probably it did, was very unbecoming. Footnote

 

Matthew Henry: How he prolonged his passion, even till the army had come up to him, which must be some time after he received the first intelligence. If he had contented himself with giving vent to his passion for an hour or two when he first heard the news, it would have been excusable, but to continue it thus for so bad a son as Absalom...was very unwise and very unworthy. Footnote

 

Arthur Pink: This was not the initial outburst of David's anguish, but the prolonged...sorrow after the army had returned. The king was quite overcome, insensible to the pressing requirements of the hour and the needs of his subjects. This is what inordinate grief produces: it makes one so self-centered that the interests of others are ignored. It thoroughly unfits for the discharge of our duties. It so takes the eye off God that we are wholly occupied with distressing circumstances. Footnote


V. 4: The king covered his face and he [lit., the king] cried out with a loud voice, “My son, Absalom; Absalom, my son my son.” What does all of this repetition means? He says my son, then he says Absalom’s name a couple of times; and then he says, my son, my son. And this does not go on for a few hours; it appears to continue for a few days. This means that David is not thinking, but he is emoting. How he feels—his grief—he deems more important than anything else. He has a responsibility as king toward his soldiers, and yet, it is as if they do not matter to him. David is clearly is controlled by his emotions. He cannot function as king and he cannot function as a representative of God as long as his emotions control him. David will need someone to come along and throw cold water in his face. He needs someone to slap him a few times, to snap him out of it. Joab will do this. He will come to David and give him a reasoned explanation why what David is doing is wrong, and why he needs to get a hold of himself.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Nation Israel is teetering at this point. David is out of commission and Joab, his top general, needs to snap him out of it.

David’s Failure as King/Joab’s Faithfulness

1.      David previously had requested that his son Absalom be spared. David issued this order at an officer’s call, in the presence of all the officers. The troops were thrown into immediately confusion. David should not have been in the field in the first place and he almost handicapped his army from the start.

2.      A person suffering from arrogance cannot function as his position requires. This is another reason why David needed to be left in Mahanaim while Joab led the army.

3.      Instead of using his volition in self-control and using poise in his grief, David uses his free will to get into various parts of interlocking systems of arrogance. This demoralized all the army in Mahanaim. The nation is very close to anarchy.

4.      The army has just defeated Absalom and put down the anarchy of revolution. David must step up as their king. Otherwise, these men will ask themselves, what did they just fight and risk their lives for? To be under this man who cannot stop crying?

5.      This is complete confusion, and, as we studied in the previous chapter, Joab knew that Absalom had to be killed, and he would do it himself if need be. So we have one order from the commander-in-chief, and the intention to disobey that direct order at the highest level. The revolution only ends with David or Absalom dead. Joab recognized this; David did not.

6.      Although David is no longer in sexual arrogance or criminal arrogance, he is still in the sphere of emotional arrogance, which has interlocked with the arrogance of unhappiness.

7.      David’s emotional state, brought on by the death of Absalom, and his great unhappiness, have shut down his rational thinking at a time when his military needs him.

8.      Only enforced and/or genuine humility could help David at this point.

9.      Joab is going to have to step in and reach David’s soul, just as Nathan the prophet was able to reach into David’s soul before. Joab has to get David to set aside his unhappiness and to recognize reality.

10.    Buried in David’s soul are the laws of divine establishment. He understands the military. That has been much of his life. Joab has to reach him right there.

11.    On any given day, there are people with extreme difficulties and tragedies in their lives. However, because of the laws of divine establishment, people are able to drive to work, to work, and to go to Bible class even, despite having sin natures and despite personal failures and tragedies in their lives.

12.    Joab and David are both required to keep this nation together; Joab has done his part, and now David has to step up to do his.

13.    What Joab says and what David does will be the key to the stability of Israel under David.

Some of the points are taken from R. B. Thieme, Jr.’s 1972 David series, lesson 631_0484, 09/05/1980.


——————————


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Joab Braces David


And so comes in Joab unto the king the house and so he says, “You have put to shame the day faces of all your servants, the ones saving your soul the day and the soul of your sons and your daughters and a soul of your women and a soul of your concubines; for [you] love those hating you and to hate those loving you for you have made it clear the day for nothing to you commanders and servants; for I know the day for if Absalom [were] alive and all of us the day dying ones for then right in your [two] eyes.

2Samuel

19:5–6

Joab then went in to the house [of] the king and he said, “You have put to shame today the faces of all your servants, those who saved your life today and the lives of your sons and daughters and the lives of your wives and the lives of your mistresses; for [you] love those who hate you and you hate those who love you; for you have made it clear today that your commanders and enlisted men [lit., servants] [mean] nothing to you. I know today that if Absalom [were] alive and all of us were dead, then [that would be] right in your eyes.

Joab then went into the house of the king and he said, “Today, you have shamed and humiliated all of your servants who saved your life today, as well as the lives of your sons and daughters, and your wives and mistresses. Apparently, you love those who hate you and you hate those who love you. By your self-centered actions today, you have made it obvious that your commanders and enlisted men mean nothing to you. In fact, I believe if Absalom were alive today and the rest of us dead, you would have preferred that.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          Then Joab going into the house to the king, said: You have shamed this day the faces of all your servants, that have saved your life, and the lives of your sons, and of your daughters, and the lives of your wives, and the lives of your concubines. You lovest them that hate you, and you hatest them that love you: and you have shewn this day that you carest not for your nobles, nor for your servants: and I now plainly perceive that if Absalom had lived, and all we had been slain, then it would have pleased you.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so comes in Joab unto the king the house and so he says, “You have put to shame the day faces of all your servants, the ones saving your soul the day and the soul of your sons and your daughters and a soul of your women and a soul of your concubines; for [you] love those hating you and to hate those loving you for you have made it clear the day for nothing to you commanders and servants; for I know the day for if Absalom [were] alive and all of us the day dying ones for then right in your [two] eyes.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And Joab came into the kings house and said to him, You have shamed this day the faces of all your servants who this day have saved your life and the lives of all your sons and your daughters and the lives of your wives and the lives of your concubines, Because you have loved your enemies and hated your friends. For you have declared this day that you have neither noblemen nor servants; for this day I perceive that if Absalom were alive and all of us were dead, it would have pleased you better.

Septuagint (Greek)                And Joab went in to the king, into the house, and said, You have this day shamed the faces of all your servants that have delivered you this day, and have saved the lives of your sons and of your daughters, and the lives of your wives, and of your concubines, forasmuch as you love them that hate you, and hate them that love you; and you have this day declared, that your princes and your servants are nothing in your sight; for I know this day, that if Absalom were alive, and all of us were dead today, then it would have been right in your sight.

 

Significant differences:           None.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Joab came to the king inside and said, "Today you have humiliated all your servants who have saved your life today, not to mention the lives of your sons, your daughters, your wives, and your secondary wives, by loving those who hate you and hating those who love you! Today you have announced that the commanders and their soldiers are nothing to you, because I know that if Absalom were alive today and the rest of us dead, that would be perfectly fine with you!

Contemporary English V.       Joab went to the house where David was staying and told him: You've made your soldiers ashamed! Not only did they save your life, they saved your sons and daughters and wives as well. You're more loyal to your enemies than to your friends. What you've done today has shown your officers and soldiers that they don't mean a thing to you. You would be happy if Absalom was still alive, even if the rest of us were dead.

Easy English                          Then Joab went into the king's house. Joab said to the king, `Today you have made your men feel ashamed. Those men have saved your life. They have saved the lives of your sons and daughters. They have saved the lives of your wives and *concubines. You love the people who hate you. And you hate the people who love you. You have clearly shown that your officers and their men have no value to you. You do not care whether we die. You would be happy if Absalom was alive today instead of us.

Easy-to-Read Version            Joab came into the king’s house. Joab said to the king, “You are humiliating every one of your officers! Look, those officers saved your life today. And they saved the lives of your sons and daughters and your wives and women servants [Or, "concubines," slave women who were like a wives to a man.]. You love the people who hate you, and you hate the people who love you. Today you have made it clear that your officers and men mean nothing to you. I can see that you would be perfectly happy if Absalom had lived and all of us had been killed today!

Good News Bible (TEV)         Joab went to the king's house and said to him, "Today you have humiliated your men---the men who saved your life and the lives of your sons and daughters and of your wives and concubines. You oppose those who love you and support those who hate you! You have made it clear that your officers and men mean nothing to you. I can see that you would be quite happy if Absalom were alive today and all of us were dead.

The Message                         But in private Joab rebuked the king: "Now you've done it--knocked the wind out of your loyal servants who have just saved your life, to say nothing of the lives of your sons and daughters, wives and concubines. What is this--loving those who hate you and hating those who love you? Your actions give a clear message: officers and soldiers mean nothing to you. You know that if Absalom were alive right now, we'd all be dead--would that make you happy?

New Berkeley Version           But Joab broke in on the king in the house, exclaiming, “You have today covered with shame the faces of all your men who have just now saved your life, the lives of your sons and your daughters, your wives, and your concubines, by cherishing those who hate you and hating those who love you! You have made it clear this day that officers and men nothing to you, because now I know that, if Absalom were alive and all of us today were dead, it would be acceptable in your eyes!

New Century Version             Joab went into the king's house and said, "Today you have shamed all your men. They saved your life and the lives of your sons, daughters, wives, and slave women. You have shamed them because you love those who hate you, and you hate those who love you. Today you have made it clear that your commanders and men mean nothing to you. What if Absalom had lived and all of us were dead? I can see you would be pleased.

New Living Translation           Then Joab went to the king's room and said to him, "We saved your life today and the lives of your sons, your daughters, and your wives and concubines. Yet you act like this, making us feel ashamed of ourselves. You seem to love those who hate you and hate those who love you. You have made it clear today that your commanders and troops mean nothing to you. It seems that if Absalom had lived and all of us had died, you would be pleased.

The Voice                               Then Joab came into the king's presence.

Joab: Today you have shamed the men who saved your life, who have saved the lives of your sons and daughters, and the lives of your wives and concubines, 6 all because of your love for those who hated you and your hatred of those who love you! You've made it perfectly clear where your affections are-that your officers and men mean nothing to you, and that you'd gladly trade our lives for Absalom's.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Finally, JoAb went into the king's house, and said: 'You've disgraced all your servants who fought to save you today, as well as your sons, your daughters, your wives, and your concubines; because, you're indicating that you love the ones who hated you, and that you hate those who love you. Why, you're giving the impression that your leaders and your servants are nothing, and that if AbSalom were alive today and all the rest of us were dead, it would be a better thing in your eyes.

Christian Community Bible     Joab then came to the king’s house and said, “You have today put to shame all your servants who saved your life, the lives of your sons and daughters, and of your wives and concubines. Yes, you love those who hate you and hate those who love you. For you have made it clear today that your commanders and guards mean nothing to you. I know that if Absalom were alive today and all of us dead, you would be pleased.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       At last Joab made his way into the royal lodging, and said to the king, Here is a fine day's work, to make all thy followers go about hanging their heads! The men who have saved thee and thy sons and daughters, thy wives and concubines, from peril of death! Nothing but love for thy enemies, nothing but hatred for thy friends; never a thought, this day, for thy own captains and thy own men! If we were all dead, and Absalom still lived, I warrant thou hadst been the better pleased.

New American Bible (2002)   Then Joab went to his residence and said: "Though they saved your life and your sons' and daughters' lives, also the lives of your wives and those of your concubines, you have put all your servants to shame today by loving those who hate you and hating those who love you. For you have shown today that officers and servants mean nothing to you. Indeed I am now certain that if Absalom were alive today and all of us dead, you would think that more suitable.

New American Bible (2011)   So Joab went to the king's residence and said: "Though they saved your life and your sons' and daughters' lives, and the lives of your wives and your concubines, you have put all your servants to shame today by loving those who hate you and hating those who love you. For you have announced today that officers and servants are nothing to you. Indeed I am now certain that if Absalom were alive today and all of us dead, that would be fine with you.

NIRV                                      Then Joab went into the king's house. He said to him, "Today you have made all of your men feel ashamed. They have just saved your life. They have saved the lives of your sons and daughters. And they have saved the lives of your wives and concubines. "You love those who hate you. You hate those who love you. The commanders and their troops don't mean anything to you. You made that very clear today. I can see that you would be pleased if Absalom were alive today and all of us were dead.

New Jerusalem Bible             Joab went inside to the king and said, 'Today you have made all your servants feel ashamed-today, when they have saved your life, the lives of your sons and daughters, the lives of your wives and the lives of your concubines!-because you love those who hate you and hate those who love you. Today you have made it plain that commanders and soldiers mean nothing to you -- for today I can see that you would be content if we were all dead, provided that Absalom was alive!

New Simplified Bible              Joab went to the house where David was staying and told him: »You have made your soldiers ashamed! They saved your life and the lives of your sons and daughters and wives as well.

»You are more loyal to your enemies than to your friends. You show your officers and soldiers that they do not mean a thing to you. You would be happy if Absalom was still alive even if the rest of us were dead.

Today’s NIV                          Then Joab went into the house to the king and said, "Today you have humiliated all your men, who have just saved your life and the lives of your sons and daughters and the lives of your wives and concubines. You love those who hate you and hate those who love you. You have made it clear today that the commanders and their men mean nothing to you. I see that you would be pleased if Absalom were alive today and all of us were dead.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      Joab came to the king's house and said, "Today you shamed the faces of all your servants escaping your soul today, the souls of your sons and daughters, the souls of your women, and the souls of your concubines! You love your haters, and hate your lovers! For today you told nothing to the leaders and servants. Today I know that if Absalom lived, and we all died today, then it would be right in your eyes.

Bible in Basic English             And Joab came into the house to the king and said, Today you have put to shame the faces of all your servants who even now have kept you and your sons and your daughters and your wives and all your women safe from death; For your haters, it seems, are dear to you, and your friends are hated. For you have made it clear that captains and servants are nothing to you: and now I see that if Absalom was living and we had all been dead today, it would have been right in your eyes.

The Expanded Bible              Joab went into the king's house and said, "Today you have ·shamed [humiliated] all your men. They ·saved [rescued; Tdelivered] your life and the lives of your sons, daughters, wives, and ·slave women [Lconcubines; Csecondary wives; 3:7]. You have shamed them because you love those who hate you, and you hate those who love you. Today you have made it clear that your commanders and men mean nothing to you. What if Absalom had lived and all of us were dead? I can see you would be ·pleased [content].

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 Joab consequently went to the king, Do you wish to insult to their faces to-day all your Omcers who have preserved your life, and the lives of your sons and daughters; and the lives of your wives, and the lives of your slave- wives? You love your enemies, and hate your friends! For you make. it eyes !

HCSB                                     Then Joab went into the house to the king and said, "Today you have shamed all your soldiers--those who rescued your life and the lives of your sons and daughters, your wives, and your concubines. You love your enemies and hate those who love you! Today you have made it clear that the commanders and soldiers mean nothing to you. In fact, today I know that if Absalom were alive and all of us were dead, it would be fine with you!

NET Bible®                             So Joab visited [Heb "came to."] the king at his home. He said, "Today you have embarrassed all your servants who have saved your life this day, as well as the lives of your sons, your daughters, your wives, and your concubines. You seem to love your enemies and hate your friends! For you have as much as declared today that leaders and servants don't matter to you. I realize now [Heb "today."] that if [The translation follows the Qere, 4QSama, and many medieval Hebrew mss in reading לוּ (lu, “if”) rather than MT לֹא (lo’, “not”).] Absalom were alive and all of us were dead today [The Lucianic Greek recension and Syriac Peshitta lack "today."], it would be all right with you.

NIV – UK                                Then Joab went into the house to the king and said, `Today you have humiliated all your men, who have just saved your life and the lives of your sons and daughters and the lives of your wives and concubines. You love those who hate you and hate those who love you. You have made it clear today that the commanders and their men mean nothing to you. I see that you would be pleased if Absalom were alive today and all of us were dead.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           Yo'av went inside to the king and said, "Today you made all your servants feel ashamed. They saved your life today, and the lives of your sons, daughters, wives and concubines. But you love those who hate you and hate those who love you. Today you said that princes and servants mean nothing to you - for I can see today that it would have pleased you more if Avshalom had lived today, and we had all died!

exeGeses companion Bible   And Yah Ab comes to the sovereign in the house

and says,

This day you shame the faces of all your servants,

who this day rescued your soul

and the souls of your sons and of your daughters

and the souls of your women

and the souls of your concubines;

for you love your haters and hate your beloved:

for this day you tell

that you regard neither governors nor servants:

and I perceive this day,

that had Abi Shalom lived

we had all died this day,

and it had been straight in your eyes.

Hebrew Names Version         Yo'av came into the house to the king, and said, You have shamed this day the faces of all your servants, who this day have saved your life, and the lives of your sons and of your daughters, and the lives of your wives, and the lives of your concubines; in that you love those who hate you, and hate those who love you. For you have declared this day, that princes and servants are nothing to you: for this day I perceive that if Avshalom had lived, and all we had died this day, then it had pleased you well.

Judaica Press Complete T.    And Joab came to the king, into the house; and he said, "Today you have embarrassed all your servants, who have today saved your life, the lives of your sons and daughters, the lives of your wives, and the lives of your concubines. By loving those that hate you, and hating those that love you; for on this day you have declared that you regard neither princes nor servants, since I perceive today that if Absalom had lived and we all had died today, then it would have been proper in your eyes.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           And Yoav came into the bais to HaMelech, and said, Thou hast disgraced this day the faces of all thy avadim, which this day have saved thy nefesh, and the nefesh of thy banim and of thy banot, and the nefesh of thy nashim, and the nefesh of thy pilagshim (concubines); In that thou lovest thine enemies, and hatest thy friends. For thou hast declared this day, that thou hast no regard for sarim nor avadim; for this day I perceive, that if Avshalom had lived, and this day all we were mesim (dead ones), then it would have been yashar in thy sight.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                And Joab came into the house to the king and said, You have today covered the faces of all your servants with shame, who this day have saved your life and the lives of your sons and your daughters and the lives of your wives and concubines. For you love those who hate you and hate those who love you. You have declared today that princes and servants are nothing to you; for today I see that if Absalom had lived and all the rest of us had died, you would be well pleased.

Context Group Version          And Joab came into the house to the king, and said, You have shamed this day the faces of all your slaves, who this day have rescued your life { soul }, and the lives { souls } of your sons and of your daughters, and the lives { souls } of your women { or wives }, and the lives { souls } of your concubines; in that you give allegiance to those that spurn you, and spurn those that give allegiance to you. For you have declared this day, that princes and slaves are nothing to you: for this day I perceive, that if Absalom had lived, and all of us had died this day, then it would have pleased you well.

Green’s Literal Translation    And Joab came in to the king to the house, and said, You have put to shame today the faces of all your servants, those delivering your life today, and the life of your sons, and of your daughters, and the life of your wives, and the life of your concubines, by loving those who hate you, and by hating those who love you, for you have declared today that there are no leaders nor servants to you. For I know today that if Absalom were alive and all of us dead today, that it would be right in your eyes.

Kretzmann’s Commentary    And Joab came into the house to the king and said, in a stern reproof, which was intended to restore the king to his senses, Thou hast shamed this day the faces of all thy servants, behaved in a shameful manner toward them, which this day have saved thy life, and the lives of thy sons and of thy daughters, and the lives of thy wives, and the lives of thy concubines, for, according to Oriental custom, Absalom, if he had been victorious, might have slain the entire royal household; in that thou lovest thine enemies, those that hate thee, as his excessive lamenting for Absalom showed, and hatest thy friends, for that would be the logical conclusion. For thou hast declared this day, by his behavior, that thou regardest neither princes nor servants, for David acted as if they simply did not exist, paying no attention to them; for this day I perceive that, if Absalom had lived and all we had died this day, then it had pleased thee well. It was a rude reproof; with deductions which went too far; but it was intended to jolt David severely, to rouse him from his strange behavior.

Modern KJV                           And Joab came into the house to the king and said, You have today shamed the faces of all your servants. For they have saved your life and the lives of your sons and your daughters today, the lives of your wives, and the lives of your concubines. By loving your enemies and hating those who love you, you have declared today that there are neither commanders nor servants to you. For I know that today if Absalom had lived and all of us had died today, then it would have pleased you very much!

New King James Version       Then Joab came into the house to the king, and said, "Today you have disgraced all your servants who today have saved your life, the lives of your sons and daughters, the lives of your wives and the lives of your concubines, in that you love your enemies and hate your friends. For you have declared today that you regard neither princes nor servants; for today I perceive that if Absalom had lived and all of us had died today, then it would have pleased you well.

New RSV                               Then Joab came into the house to the king, and said, `Today you have covered with shame the faces of all your officers who have saved your life today, and the lives of your sons and your daughters, and the lives of your wives and your concubines, for love of those who hate you and for hatred of those who love you. You have made it clear today that commanders and officers are nothing to you; for I perceive that if Absalom were alive and all of us were dead today, then you would be pleased.

Syndein/Thieme                     {Joab at His Greatest}

Then Joab went to the quarters of the king, and said, "Today . . .you have humiliated/'put to shame' {idiom: literally 'today you have caused shame to the faces of'} all of your troops/soldiers . . . who have just saved your life, and the lives of your sons and of your daughters, and the lives of your wives, and the lives of your mistresses/concubines by loving those who hate you . . .and hating those who love you . . . For you have demonstrated this day, that neither commanders nor troops mean nothing to you . . . Furthermore, I know/conclude this day, that if Absalom were alive and all of us were dead . . . then . . . today . . . you would have been pleased.

A Voice in the Wilderness      And Joab came into the house to the king, and said, Today you have shamed the faces of all your servants who today have delivered your soul, the souls of your sons and daughters, the souls of your wives and the souls of your concubines, to love your enemies and hate your friends. For you have declared today that you regard neither princes nor servants; for today I perceive that if Absalom had lived and all of us had died today, that it would have pleased you well.

Young’s Updated LT             And Joab comes in unto the king to the house, and says, “You have put to shame to-day the faces of all your servants, those delivering your life to-day, and the life of your sons, and of your daughters, and the life of your wives, and the life of your concubines, to love your enemies, and to hate those loving you, for you have declared to-day that you have no princes and servants, for I have known to-day that if Absalom were alive, and all of us to-day dead, that then it were right in your eyes.

 

The gist of this verse:          Joab reads his superior, David, the riot act, and tells David stuff that David ought to know. It boils down to, “Support your troops or you will not longer have their support.”


2Samuel 19:5a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

bôwʾ (בּוֹא) [pronounced boh]

to come in, to come, to go in, to go, to enter, to advance

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #935 BDB #97

Yôwʾâb (יוֹאָב) [pronounced YOH-awbv]

Yah is father and is transliterated Joab

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #3097 BDB #222

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

meleke (מֶלֶ) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572

bayith (בַּיִת) [pronounced BAH-yith]

house, residence; household, habitation as well as inward

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #1004 BDB #108


Translation: Joab then went in to the house [of] the king... Joab is one of the few men who can come in and speak freely to the king. He can level with him. He can say whatever he wants, pretty much with impunity. Given what he says here, my guess is that Joab could care less what David does to him. He is going to lay it on the line. He is going to give King David a piece of his mind.


This is Joab in his finest hour.


While staying at Mahanaim, David is given a house to live in, and apparently he is in it weeping aloud and calling Absalom’s name. It is so loud, everyone knows about it. Again, we do not know the length of time involved here, but it is certainly more than a few hours, and it shows a complete disregard by David for what his soldiers did.

 

I don’t believe that King David ever knew that Joab personally killed Absalom. Footnote J. Vernon McGee agrees with this: Now Joab was responsible for Absalom's death. I am not sure that David ever really comprehended just how his son died. I am sure that he heard quite a few stories relating how it occurred, but David probably did not want to pursue it too far. Footnote


Recall how David found out what happened: One man saw Absalom and he went to Joab and told him about it, saying, “Listen, I know where Absalom is; he is over yonder, hanging in a tree.” Then Joab upbraided this messenger, saying, “Listen, you saw Absalom and you did nothing? Why didn’t you kill him right then and there? I would have rewarded you with 10 pieces of silver and a military promotion.” The man who saw Absalom responded to Joab: “It would not matter even if you had given me a thousand silver coins—I still would not put forth my hand against the king’s son. In fact, if you will recall, the king commanded all of you, in our hearing, ‘Preserve the young man, Absalom, alive, for my sake.’ If I kill the king’s son and then lie about it everything about this will be known to the king; and you would not stand up for me.” Therefore, Joab said, “I will not waste any more time standing around talking to you.” He grabbed 3 spears in his hand, went to the tree where Absalom was hanging and thrust them into Absalom. However, Absalom remained alive, still caught in the oak. Joab’s armor bearers, ten young men, surrounded Absalom and struck him until he died. (2Sam. 18:10–15)


So, although Joab did not strike the final blow that killed Absalom, he made it okay for Absalom to be killed. David ordered that Absalom not be harmed; and Joab put 3 swords into him as he hung from a tree. His own armor bearers finished the job.


Then David is informed of what happened: Then the Cushite came up, and he said to them, “There is good news today for my lord the king, for Jehovah has delivered you from the power of those who have risen up against you.” The king then asked the Cushite “What about the young man, Absalom—is he okay?” And the Cushite clearly answered him, “I wish that all of your enemies would be like that young man. I wish the same for every man who rises up against you to do evil to you.” The king was clearly agitated as he went up to the roof-chamber situated over the gate, and he began to weep when he could not be seen. As he went up, he kept saying, “Absalom, my son, my son—O that I might have died in your place, my son Absalom.” (2Sam. 18:31–33)


David is so upset, that he does not ask any further questions. He just starts crying and mourning the loss of Absalom. David is a war hero. It may not even occur to him that anyone in particular killed Absalom, knowing the chaos of war. Knowing how a general functions in war, it does not even occur to David that Joab may have killed Absalom. In being emotionally distraught, David separates himself from everyone else and just starts crying and calling out Absalom’s name. This is important to know because the man who essentially marked Absalom for death, Joab, is now going to speak harshly to the king. In David’s emotional state, he needs someone who can give him the straight dope; he needs unfiltered clear information to get him on the right track. Had David known what Joab did, he could not have handled Joab’s rebuke.


2Samuel 19:5b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend; to answer

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

bôwsh (בּוֹש) [pronounced bôsh]

to put anyone to shame [especially on account of frustrated endeavors]; to disgrace; to do shameful things, to act shamefully

2nd person masculine singular, Hiphil perfect

Strong’s #954 BDB #101

The two KJV+ versions in e-sword have a different verb; but this is the correct verb.

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article)

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

pânîym (פָּנִים) [pronounced paw-NEEM]

face, faces, countenance; presence; person; surface

masculine plural construct (plural acts like English singular)

Strong’s #6440 BDB #815

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

with a plural noun, it is rendered all of, all; any of

masculine singular construct with a masculine plural noun

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

ʿebed (עֶבֶד) [pronounced ĢEB-ved]

slave, servant; underling; subject

masculine plural noun with a 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5650 BDB #713


Translation: ...and he said, “You have put to shame today the faces of all your servants,... David’s servants are those of his army who went and fought valiantly for David. They have been loyal to David. David was forced out of town and these men went with him (some of the soldiers joined up with him east of the Jordan). They did not have to do this. They could have simply allowed Absalom to be king and gone about their lives; but they joined David against the rebels and they fought and risked their lives and beat down Absalom’s army. And David has shamed these great men today.


Here, the word today simply refers to the period of time that David’s soldiers have been returning to Mahanaim; during which time, David has been crying and mourning for his son Absalom.


2Samuel 19:5c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

mâlaţ (מָלַט) [pronounced maw-LAHT]

the ones delivering [from danger], those saving

masculine plural, Piel participle with the definite article

Strong’s #4422 BDB #572

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

nephesh (נֶפֶש) [pronounced NEH-fesh]

soul, life, living being; breath; mind; desire, volition; will

feminine singular noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5315 BDB #659

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article)

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398


Translation: ...those who saved your life today... The word translated life is nephesh (נֶפֶש) [pronounced NEH-fesh], and it has the technical meaning soul; but it can also mean life. Strong’s #5315 BDB #659. Those men who allied themselves with David saved his life. Absalom would have killed David; there is no doubt about that. Absalom had no love for his father, and part of that was because his father indulged him. There are two things a father cannot do to his son: ignore him or indulge him. Such a man has abandoned all responsibility toward his son in either case, and that son will grow up with no natural love for his father.


The word today does not mean that David’s soldiers were victorious in battle just that day, but this may be understood that David is alive on this day because of what his soldiers did on his behalf.


Application: Freedom, liberty and safety are purchased on the battlefield. Do not understand this to refer to revolutionary activity, but to the establishment army and its exploits. David’s army is the establishment army; Absalom’s army was the revolutionary army. This same principle is true when dealing with foreign powers.


Application: There are a great many people who are concerned that (1) the army of the United States is too big and too powerful; and (2) we act too much like the policemen of the world. First of all, the idea behind having the most powerful military in the world is, you make it nearly impossible for any country to consider direct military action against the United States. That in itself does not eliminate war, but it lessens the chance of World War III. Secondly, we have taken it upon ourselves as a country to deal with certain hot spots and the rise of certain factions (communism, socialism, Islam) which are inherently anti-freedom and pro-revolution. WWII followed quickly on the heels of WWI. These wars were some of the most destructive wars in human history. Since then, the United States has inserted itself into numerous skirmishes around the world, which skirmishes have been fairly limited and confined, where the number of dead has been quite limited. People have complained like crazy over the number of dead Americans in Iraq and Afghanistan under Presidents Bush and Obama, but these are minuscule numbers compared to world wars, where more soldiers would die in a single battle or even in a single day, than have died over the decade of war in those two countries. As has been discussed on many previous occasions, there will be no long-lasting peace in Iraq or Afghanistan, because the armed forces intentionally kept the gospel out of these countries, incorrectly thinking that a democratic government was the key to a stable outcome.


What David cannot do is lose the support of his military. Joab has to reach through David’s emotional revolt and get him to understand this.


2Samuel 19:5d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

nephesh (נֶפֶש) [pronounced NEH-fesh]

soul, life, living being; breath; mind; desire, volition; will

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #5315 BDB #659

bânîym (בָּנִים) [pronounced baw-NEEM]

sons, descendants; children; people; sometimes rendered men

masculine plural noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

bath (בַּת) [pronounced bahth]

daughter; village

feminine plural noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #1323 BDB #123


Translation: ...and the lives of your sons and daughters... David is not thinking clearly about anything. Absalom would not allow anyone in the royal family to live. They would all have claim to the throne. Absalom would have hunted down his own siblings and killed them all. David simply did not understand his own son—at least, not while in this highly emotional state of grieving.

 

Barnes: Had Absalom gained the victory, it is likely that, according to the manner of Oriental despots, he would have sought to secure his throne by killing all possible competitors )Judges 9:5; 1Kings 15:29). Footnote

 

Peter Pett: Loyal Joab rightly decided that it was time that he faced David up with what he was doing. So he went in to him and pointed out that all he was doing was covering with shame those who had so bravely fought for him. They had saved his life, and the lives of his sons and daughters who might well have perished in the reprisals as presenting threats to Absalom's position. And he was failing to show his gratitude. Footnote


This, by the way, is why a child raised by one parent who is fully funded by government is not enough. Such children without the strong hand of a father rarely turn out okay, Absalom being the poster child for lacking the guidance of a father when it was needed. Absalom was never hungry; he was fed at taxpayer expense. But, what he never received was the strong guidance from his father David. It was his mother who raised him.


As an aside, I am not placing blame here on the mother. When many men became kings, they would kill all of their rivals and their families. So raising Absalom to be king was, in part, self-preservation.


However, on the other hand, David will give this guidance to his sons by Bathsheba; his second family, if you will.


2Samuel 19:5e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

nephesh (נֶפֶש) [pronounced NEH-fesh]

soul, life, living being; breath; mind; desire, volition; will

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #5315 BDB #659

nâshîym (נָשִים) [pronounced naw-SHEEM]

women, wives

feminine plural noun; irregular plural of Strong’s #802; with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #802 BDB #61

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

nephesh (נֶפֶש) [pronounced NEH-fesh]

soul, life, living being; breath; mind; desire, volition; will

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #5315 BDB #659

pîylegesh (פִּילֶגֶש) [pronounced pee-LEH-gesh]

mistress, paramour, illicit lover, live-in lover, concubine

feminine plural noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #6370 BDB #811


Translation: ...and the lives of your wives and the lives of your mistresses;... For good measure, Absalom probably would have killed anyone loyal to David, which would have included his wives and mistresses. He developed quite a hatred for his father; and, having no experience or real training, figured that he could do it better.

 

The Pulpit Commentary: what Joab says is true, namely, that Absalom"s success would inevitably have been followed by the massacre, not only of David himself, but of his sons and daughters, and of the women who had accompanied him in his flight. Nor would it have stopped there. but the officers of his court, the captains of his army, his mighties, and all who had long eared for and loved him would have been put to the sword. Footnote


What Absalom lacked was self-control. Whereas, the killing of his half-brother Amnon might be seen as justified (it wasn’t), Absalom went from being a protective older brother to Tamar, to being a man out of control, someone who did not know what he did not know.


Application: At the time that I write this (2014) we have a president with no experience and no real training, and he believed that he could do everything better than his predecessor. One might say that President Obama is essentially the poster boy for an Absalom presidency. However, so far, this man has been nothing but a disaster, spending more money in history than nearly all of his predecessors combined (his accumulated debt is greater than all of his predecessors combined), and yet there is precious little to show for it. There is nowhere you can even find half of the trillions of dollars which he spent as something which lives on beyond his term in office. What he has done is lined the pockets of those who got him into office.


2Samuel 19:6a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾâhêb (אָהֵב) [pronounced aw-HAYVB]

to desire, to breathe after; to love; to delight in; human love [for another] [familial, sexual]; human love [desire, appetite] for [food, drink, sleep, wisdom]; human love [for, to God]; God’s love [toward men, people of Israel, righteousness]; to like

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #157 BDB #12

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

sânêʾ (שָׂנֵא) [pronounced saw-NAY]

to hate; in the participle, it is the ones hating

masculine plural, Qal active participle, with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #8130 BDB #971


Translation: ...for [you] love those who hate you... David’s son, Absalom, hated him; and he loved Absalom. He could not extricate himself emotionally from this son, who reminded David so much of himself. But Absalom had absolutely no feelings for David.


2Samuel 19:6b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

sânêʾ (שָׂנֵא) [pronounced saw-NAY]

to hate, loath; to be hateful, to be filled with animosity

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #8130 BDB #971

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʾâhêb (אָהֵב) [pronounced aw-HAYVB]

lovers; friends; those who are desired or loved, the ones loving

masculine plural, Qal active participle, with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #157 BDB #12


Translation: ...and you hate those who love you;... By David’s words and acts, he has done nothing but shown hatred and disregard for those who risked their lives for him.


R. B. Thieme, Jr. used the term reverse process reversionism to describe this state of mind described here in 2Sam. 19:6. When a person enters into reversionism, he turns against those who love him, and he loves those who are inconsequential. This describes precisely David’s emotional state, which Joab must break through.

Reversionism and Reverse Process Reversionism

Reversionism is an act of reversing or turning in the opposite way, or a state of being so turned. As believers we were designed to execute the plan of God. But in reversionism we turn the other way and cannot be distinguished from our pre-salvation status. We are believers thinking human viewpoint. Reversionism is the act of reverting to a former state, habit, belief, or practice of sinning. Reversionism is the status of the believer who fails to execute the plan of God for the Church Age. He returns to his pre-salvation modus operandi and modus vivendi. Reversionism is a reversal of priorities, attitudes, affections, the object of personal love


Reverse Process Reversionism is the final stage of reversionism, a combination of the sixth and seventh stages. Everything that is worthwhile and valuable in life is rejected; everything that is useless and nonsense is accepted. Prolonged residence in the cosmic system causes a complete reversal of all mandates, all priorities, and all norms and standards related to the plan of God. Christian degeneracy reaches its peak in reverse process reversionism. The believer in reverse process reversionism cannot be distinguished in any way from an unbeliever, though he cannot lose his salvation. In reverse process reversionism, degeneracy is defined as decline from the normal standards of the plan of God. Therefore, the believer retrogresses into below normal stages of reversionism, and totally reverts from the divine standards found in the Word of God.

Much more on this topic can be uncovered by simply googling “reverse process reversionism.” (Use the quotation marks)

These definitions are taken directly from Grace Notes, which are notes of R. B. Thieme, Jr.’s lectures; accessed January 5, 2014.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


When you love some one, you focus your attention on them. You concentrate on them. David’s troops deserve this. They deserve his attention and concentration. They deserve words of praise. They need to see a leader stand before them who can set aside his grief and recognize what they have done for him.

 

Peter Pett on this: David's grief over the loss of his son was so great that it did in fact become an obsession, with the result that he began to behave very foolishly by ignoring the great victory won by his troops and shutting himself away from everyone in deep mourning, and this at the very time when they were expecting a victory celebration. His men had come back filled with elation at their triumph, only to discover that the king whom they had been fighting for could only shut himself away in grief over the richly deserved death of his treacherous son. The consequence was that those who had fought so hard for him were creeping around and filled with shame. In other words, as a leader of men he was failing those who looked up to him, and allowing his personal feelings to affect his behaviour towards those who relied on him. He was allowing his family relations to once again interfere with his duty. The worst side of David's attitude towards his subordinates was coming out. Footnote

 

L. M. Grant: Joab, hard, callous warrior as he was, had no sorrow whatever for Absalom; he was glad he was dead, and had no sympathy for David nor for his mourning. He came to the king with sharply reproving words (vs.5-6), telling him that he had disgraced his servants who had saved his life and the lives of his entire household. In fact, he goes further, declaring that it is evident to Joab that David loved his enemies and hated his friends...He tells him that if all David's men had died and Absalom had lived, David would have been pleased But if this had happened, David too would soon have been killed. Footnote


What appears to be the case is, David is still involved in the residue of interlocking systems of arrogance; and is in emotional reversionism. His thinking is still all backwards, despite some of the good decisions that he has made up to this point in time.

Because of Arrogance, David Lacks Appreciation for his Troops

1.      Involvement in the arrogance complex destroys the capacity to be thankful and grateful. A person in any of the spheres of arrogance is unable to be considerate of others.

2.      The opposite of being in the arrogance complex is having capacity for life and happiness and love. These capacities must include capacity to appreciate what others have done.

3.      Arrogance involvement has led David to be totally lacking in thanksgiving and gratitude. You will note that David has not thanked the Lord or worshiped the Lord. He has never said “Thank you, Father.” He has not expressed gratitude to his military or his officers. He offers no word of comfort for those who have been lost in battle. He thinks of no one other than himself.

4.      The arrogant person is ungrateful, and insensitive to the efforts and kindnesses of others.

5.      In arrogance, David lost track of the big picture and was disorganized of mind, preoccupied with self.

6.      David was alive because of the military victory, and yet he does not thank God for this victory. In his arrogance, he shows no gratitude toward God or man.

7.      Arrogance destroys capacity for love. David has many sons, daughters, wives and mistresses who are saved because of his military and has no gratitude that his way of life will be perpetuated. He is so preoccupied with the dead, so he cannot appreciate what the living have done for him.

8.      However, Joab’s speech will reach David and help to turn him around. You will notice that this is not some rah-rah speech filled with empty platitudes; Joab lays the truth out and David either has to accept it or reject it.

9.      If David rejects the truth, then his country would go down in chaos. If David accepts the truth, then Israel will survive and his way of life will be preserved.

10.    David will listen to Joab, which is one of the greatest decisions that David makes in his life.

11.    At some point in his recovery, David will write a psalm which we will study.

Many of these points are from R. B. Thieme, Jr.’s 1972 David series, lesson #631_0484, 09/05/1980.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


How he reacts to Joab will be key as to whether he will recover or not.


2Samuel 19:6c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

nâgad (נָגַד) [pronounced naw-GAHD]

to make conspicuous, to make known, to expound, to explain, to declare, to inform, to confess, to make it pitifully obvious that

2nd person masculine singular, Hiphil perfect

Strong's #5046 BDB #616

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article)

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

ʾêyn (אֵין) [pronounced ān]

nothing, not, [is] not; not present, not ready; expresses non-existence, absence or non-possession; [there is] no [none, not one, no one, not]

particle of negation; substantive of negation

Strong’s #369 BDB #34

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

sar (שַׂר) [pronounced sar]

chieftain, chief, ruler, official, captain, prince, leader, commander

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #8269 BDB #978

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʿebed (עֶבֶד) [pronounced ĢEB-ved]

slave, servant; underling; subject

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #5650 BDB #713


Translation: ...for you have made it clear today that your commanders and enlisted men [lit., servants] [mean] nothing to you. David ought to be celebrating with his supporters. He ought to be thanking them and wishing them well and visiting those who are wounded. But by David’s actions, he has shown that these men mean nothing to him.


The tragedy is, David is as screwed up emotionally as his son Absalom is. He does not realize just what these men have done on his behalf. He is not functioning as a leader, and these men just fought to keep him as their leader.


Again, this is reverse process reversionism; those who ought to be important to David and ought to be loved and honored by David, are set aside; and the man for whom David ought to have no regard, Absalom, David incessantly mourns over. David does not value those who ought to be important to him; and he places an inordinate amount of value on someone who is worth very little.


2Samuel 19:6d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

yâdaʿ (יָדַע) [pronounced yaw-DAHĢ]

to know, to perceive, to acquire knowledge, to become acquainted with, to know by experience, to have a knowledge of something; to see; to learn; to recognize [admit, acknowledge, confess]

1st person singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #3045 BDB #393

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article)

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

lû (לוּ) [also writteen lûʾ (לוּא)] [pronounced lue]

O that, would that, if only, if

conjunction

Strong’s #3863 (and #3808?) BDB #530

Together, these two particles mean that if. I did not find a specialized combined meaning in BDB.

ʾĂbîyshâlôwm (אֲבִישָלוֹם) [pronounced ub-ee-shaw-LOHM]

my father is peace and is transliterated Absalom

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #53 BDB #5

chêy (חֵי) [pronounced khay]

life, lives, living, being alive, having life, immortality, a long life, sustenance, sustaining life; refreshment; being vigorous; prosperity, welfare, happiness, living prosperously

masculine singular adjective

Strong's #2416 BDB #313

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]; also kol (כַּל) [pronounced kol]

all, all things, the whole, totality, the entirety, everything

masculine singular noun with the 1st person plural suffix

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article)

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

mûwth (מוּת) [pronounced mooth]

dying, perishing; dying ones, ones who are dying [perishing]

masculine plural, Qal active participle

Strong's #4191 BDB #559


Translation: I know today that if Absalom [were] alive and all of us were dead,... Here, Joab makes a pretty amazing statement, but one which is true: David would prefer this day if Absalom were still alive and all of his own soldiers dead.


2Samuel 19:6e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

ʾâz (אָז) [pronounced awz]

then, after that, at that time, in that case (when following an if or though), now, as things are; that being so, therefore, because of that

adverb

Strong’s #227 BDB #23

Literally, these two particles together mean, for then. However, I have simply translated this then, as have ...

yâshâr (יָשָר) [pronounced yaw-SHAWR]

right, correct, accurate, lacking in contradictions, upright, straight, uniform, having internal integrity, even

masculine singular adjective which can act like a substantive

Strong’s #3477 BDB #449

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʿêynayim (עֵינַיִם) [pronounced ģay-nah-YIM]

eyes, two eyes, literal eye(s), spiritual eyes; face, appearance, form; surface

feminine dual noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5869 (and #5871) BDB #744

This phrase is literally in your eyes, but it can be translated in your opinion, in your estimation, to your way of thinking, as you see [it]. The dual and plural forms of this word appear to be identical. Possibly, this could also mean, as you please, as you want, as you desire, whatever you think is right.


Translation: ...then [that would be] right in your eyes. This would be David’s preference, for his loyal soldiers to be dead, and his disloyal son, Absalom, to be alive. The logical end to this would be that David and all of his family would be killed. Absalom could not be allowed to live. Everyone else that David loves would have been killed by Absalom. This is how illogical David is, and how illogical thinking with our emotions makes us.

 

F. B. Meyer: Joab's remonstrance, though expressed in rough and uncourteous phrase, was perfectly just. The royal troops, instead of being welcomed with acclamation, had slunk into the city, as if defeated, immediate steps must be taken to counteract their depression. Private grief must yield to public interests. Footnote

 

Peter Pett on this: This brought David to his senses as he recognised the truth of Joab's words and he consequently left his room of mourning and went and sat in the gate in order to make himself available to his men. The result was that when the news got around his people gladly gathered around him, delighted that he had overcome his grief. Footnote


Joab had to lay it on the line. He had to speak to David as king and as a man who understands the laws of divine establishment, and lay it on the line. This was no time for Joab to mince words. Quite a number of commentators were confused by this.

 

Some commentators made some foolish statements here. Gill said Footnote that this was carrying the matter too far, apparently not understanding the concept of hyperbole. Clark wrote: Joab’s firm reproof was necessary to arouse him to a sense of his duty to his people. But still, in his manner, Joab had far exceeded the bonds of that reverence which a servant owes to his master, or a subject to his prince. Joab was a good soldier, but in every respect a bad man, and a dangerous subject. Footnote Jamieson, Fausset and Brown gave a similar assessment: Joab's remonstrance was right and necessary, but it was made with harshness. He was one of those persons who spoil their important services by the insolence of their manners. Footnote Or, in other words, Joab, be nicer, okay? Joab had to penetrate David’s thick layer of self-pity. What he did was right and on-target. Joab is one of the few men who could fully level with King David.

 

This comes from an attitude of those who aren’t really out there is the world. They make pronouncements from their ivory tower of judgment. The Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge promotes the same foolish viewpoint that Joab’s firm and sensible reproof was necessary to arouse him to a sense of his duty to his people and yet, they quickly add, but, in his manner, Joab far exceeded the bounds of that reverence which a servant owes to his master, or a subject to his prince. Footnote Poppycock! (Another word occurred to me as well) the Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge gets it right to begin with, and then, suddenly becomes overly concerned that Joab might come across as too harsh. Sometimes, a believer has to be harsh. Sometimes you cannot just tippy-toe around every damn thing in the way. At some point you will be asked, “So you are saying, if some nice, kind Buddhist (Muslim, whatever) does not know about Jesus, then he is not saved?” And the answer is, “Hell, yes; now you seem to get it. Jesus died for your sins; Buddha did not do that; Mohammed did not do that. Jesus made provision for your wrongdoing before a righteous God. No other religions leader can make this claim.” When it comes to the truth, truth must be unequivocal. What Joab said was 100% accurate. David could not ask for a better right-hand man at this point.

 

Matthew Henry understands Joab perfectly and eruditely: How plainly and vehemently Joab reproved David for this indiscreet management of himself in this critical juncture. David never more needed the hearts of his subjects than now, nor was ever more concerned to secure his interest in their affections; and therefore whatever tended to disoblige them now was the most impolitic thing he could do, and the greatest wrong imaginable to his friends that adhered to him. Footnote

 

Guzik also gives a correct and simpler understanding of Joab’s approach: Joab gave David a stern wake-up call. "David, your excessive mourning is selfish. It isn't all about you. These loyal, sacrificial supporters of you deserve to feel good about their victory and you are making them feel terrible. Snap out of it."  Footnote

 

Or, as John Wesley wrote: such sharpness of [Joab’s] speech was in a manner necessary to awaken the king out of his lethargy. Footnote


Joab then went into the house of the king and he said, “Today, you have shamed and humiliated all of your servants who saved your life today, as well as the lives of your sons and daughters, and your wives and mistresses. Apparently, you love those who hate you and you hate those who love you. By your self-centered actions today, you have made it obvious that your commanders and enlisted men mean nothing to you. In fact, I believe if Absalom were alive today and the rest of us dead, you would have preferred that. This is exactly what King David needed to hear. He needed to hear some straight talk from Joab.


——————————


First Joab told David exactly what was going on, in no uncertain terms. In this verse, he would tell David what he had to do, and what repercussions would come from him not stepping up.


And now go and speak upon a heart of your servants, for in Yehowah I have sworn that you will not go if stays a man with you the night, and has been evil to you this more than all the evil which has come upon you from your youth as far as now.”

2Samuel

19:7

Now go and speak to the understanding of your soldiers, for I swear by Yehowah that if you do not go, then no man will remain with you this night, and this evil [is] greater to you than all the evil which has come upon you from your youth until now.”

Now, therefore, go and speak to your soldiers—they will understand your being so conflicted—however, if you do not speak to them, then I swear by Jehovah that no man will remain with you this night, and that the evil of having no support among the people will be greater than any other evil which has come upon you from your youth until now.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          Now therefore arise, and go out, and speak to the satisfaction of your servants: for I swear to you by the Lord, that if you will not go forth, there will not tarry with you so much as one this night: and that will be worse to you, than all the evils that have befallen you from your youth until now.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And now go and speak upon a heart of your servants, for in Yehowah I have sworn that you will not go if stays a man with you the night, and has been evil to you this more than all the evil which has come upon you from your youth as far as now.”

Peshitta (Syriac)                    Now therefore arise, go out and speak comfortingly to your servants; for I swear by the LORD, if you do not go out, not a man will remain with you this night; and this will be worse for you than all the evils that have befallen you from your youth until now.

Septuagint (Greek)                And now arise and go forth, and speak comfortably to your servants; for I have sworn by the Lord, that unless you will go forth this day, there shall not a man remain with you this night. And know for yourself, this thing will indeed be evil to you beyond all the evil that has come upon you from your youth until now.

 

Significant differences:           The first set of underlined words all translate the word heart. The Latin and the Syriac both appear to translate the word evil in two different ways.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Now get up! Go out and encourage your followers! I swear to the Lord that if you don't go out there, not one man will stick with you tonight-and that will be more trouble for you than all the trouble that you've faced from your youth until now."

Contemporary English V.       Now get up! Go out there and thank them for what they did. If you don't, I swear by the LORD that you won't even have one man left on your side tomorrow morning. You may have had a lot of troubles in the past, but this will be the worst thing that has ever happened to you!

Easy English                          You should go out and encourage your men. Otherwise, not one man will remain loyal to you tonight. The *Lord knows that this is a serious matter. This will be the worst thing that has ever happened in your life.'

Easy-to-Read Version            Now get up and go speak to your officers. Encourage them! I swear by the Lord that if you don’t go out and do that right now, you won’t have one man with you tonight. And that will be worse than all the trouble you have had since you were a child.”

Good News Bible (TEV)         Now go and reassure your men. I swear by the LORD's name that if you don't, not one of them will be with you by tomorrow morning. That would be the worst disaster you have suffered in all your life."

The Message                         Get hold of yourself; get out there and put some heart into your servants! I swear to GOD that if you don't go to them they'll desert; not a soldier will be left here by nightfall. And that will be the worst thing that has happened yet."

New Century Version             Now go out and encourage your servants. I swear by the Lord that if you don't go out, no man will be left with you by tonight! That will be worse than all the troubles you have had from your youth until today."

New Life Bible                        So now get up and go out and speak in kindness to your servants. I swear by the Lord that if you do not, for sure not a man will stay with you this night. And this will be worse for you than all the bad things that have happened to you since you were young."

New Living Translation           Now go out there and congratulate your troops, for I swear by the Lord that if you don't go out, not a single one of them will remain here tonight. Then you will be worse off than ever before."

The Voice                               Go out now, and speak with kindness and respect to those who have served you. You can still save the day; but I swear by the Eternal One, if you do not alter this mood now, not a single man will be with you tonight, and this will be the greatest disaster ever to wash over you.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          'Now, get up. go out and talk to your servants! Tell them how you really feel! For, I swear by Jehovah, that unless you go out there today, there won't be a man standing with you tonight. Realize that the evil you're doing here is worse that all the evil things that have happened to you since you were young.'

Christian Community Bible     You must now show yourself and say a good word to your guards for, I swear by Yahweh, if you do not, no one will stay with you tonight, and this will be worse than all the evil that has happened to you from your youth to the present day.”

New Advent (Knox) Bible       Bestir thyself, come out and speak to thy men, and earn their good will; I swear by the Lord that if thou dost not come out, not a man will be left to serve thy cause by night-fall; and worse awaits thee than all the troubles which have come upon thee from the days of thy youth till now.

New American Bible (2002)   Now then, get up! Go out and speak kindly to your servants. I swear by the LORD that if you do not go out, not a single man will remain with you overnight, and this will be a far greater disaster for you than any that has afflicted you from your youth until now."

New American Bible (2011)   Now then, get up! Go out and speak kindly to your servants. I swear by the LORD that if you do not go out, not a single man will remain with you overnight, and this will be a far greater disaster for you than any that has come upon you from your youth until now."

NIRV                                      "Now go out there and cheer up your men. If you don't, you won't have any of them left with you by sunset. That will be worse for you than all of the troubles you have ever had in your whole life. That's what I promise you with an oath in the Lord's name."

New Jerusalem Bible             Now get up, come out and reassure your soldiers; for if you do not come out, I swear by Yahweh, not one man will stay with you tonight; and this will be a worse misfortune for you than anything that has happened to you from your youth until now!'

New Simplified Bible              »Now stand up! Go out there and thank them for what they did. If you do not, I swear by Jehovah you will not even have one man left on your side tomorrow morning. You may have had a lot of troubles in the past. But this will be the worst thing that has ever happened to you!«

Revised English Bible            Now go at once and give your servants some encouragement; if you refuse, I swear by the Lord that by nightfall not a man will remain with you, and that would be a worse disaster than any you have suffered since your earliest days.’

Today’s NIV                          Now go out and encourage your men. I swear by the LORD that if you don't go out, not a man will be left with you by nightfall. This will be worse for you than all the calamities that have come on you from your youth till now."


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      Now rise, proceed, and speak toward the heart of your servants. I swear by Yahweh, if you do not proceed, then lodge with no man tonight that does- this evil to you as all the evil will come toward you from your youth until now."

Bible in Basic English             So get up now, and go out and say some kind words to your servants; for, by the Lord, I give you my oath, that if you do not go out, not one of them will keep with you tonight; and that will be worse for you than all the evil which has overtaken you from your earliest years.

The Expanded Bible              Now go out and ·encourage [reassure; speak kindly to] your servants. I swear by the Lord that if you don't go out, ·no man will be left with you by tonight [Lnot one man will stay with you tonight]! That will be worse than ·all the troubles [any disaster/evil] you have had from your youth until today."

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 But, however, get up, and go out, and speak to the hearts of your soldiers,-·-for, by the Ever-Living I swear to you, that, if you delay it, there will not be a single man with you to·night! And that will be worse for you than all the suffering that has come upon you from your youth until now.”

NET Bible®                             So get up now and go out and give some encouragement to [Heb "and speak to the heart of."] your servants. For I swear by the Lord that if you don't go out there, not a single man will stay here with you tonight! This disaster will be worse for you than any disaster that has overtaken you from your youth right to the present time!"

NIV – UK                                Now go out and encourage your men. I swear by the Lord that if you don't go out, not a man will be left with you by nightfall. This will be worse for you than all the calamities that have come on you from your youth till now.' Pr 14:28


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           Now get up, go out and speak heart-to-heart with your servants. For I swear by ADONAI that if you don't go out, not one man will stay here with you tonight - and that will be worse for you than all the misfortunes you have suffered from your youth until now."

exeGeses companion Bible   Now rise, go and word to the heart of your servants:

for I oath by Yah Veh, if you go not forth,

no man stays overnight with you this night:

and this is more vilifying to you

than all the evil that befell you

from your youth until now.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               Now arise, come out and placate your followers! For I swear by the Lord that if [So Septuagint, 4QSama, and some other Hebrew manuscripts, and an ancient masoretic tradition; ordinary texts omit “if.”] you do not come out, not a single man will remain with you overnight; and that would be a greater disaster for you than any disaster that has befallen you from your youth until now.”

Judaica Press Complete T.    And now arise, go out, and speak to the heart of your servants, for I swear by the Lord, that if you do not go forth, not one man will remain with you tonight. Now this will be worse for you than all the misfortune that has befallen you from your youth until now."

Orthodox Jewish Bible           Now therefore arise, go forth, and speak to the lev unto thy avadim; for I swear by Hashem, if thou go not forth, there will not tarry one ish with thee halailah (this night); and that will be worse unto thee than kol hara'ah that befell thee from thy youth until now.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                So now arise, go out and speak kindly and encouragingly to your servants; for I swear by the Lord that if you do not go, not a man will remain with you this night. And this will be worse for you than all the evil that has befallen you from your youth until now.

A Conservative Version         Now therefore arise, go forth, and speak graciously to thy servants. For I swear by LORD, if thou do not go forth, there will not remain a man with thee this night. And that will be worse to thee than all the evil that has befallen. Obviously there is more to this verse, but I cannot locate the rest of it anywhere.

Context Group Version          Now therefore arise, go out, and speak comfortably to your slaves; for I swear by YHWH, if you don't go out, there will not stay a man with you this night: and that will be worse to you than all the evil that has befallen you from your youth until now.

Darby Translation                  But now arise, go forth, and speak consolingly to thy servants; for I swear by Jehovah, if thou go not forth, there will not tarry one with thee this night; and that would be worse to thee than all the evil that has befallen thee from thy youth until now.

English Standard Version      Now therefore arise, go out and speak kindly to your servants, for I swear by the LORD, if you do not go, not a man will stay with you this night, and this will be worse for you than all the evil that has come upon you from your youth until now."

Green’s Literal Translation    And now rise up; go out and speak to the heart of your servants. For I have sworn by Jehovah that if you do not go out, not a man shall remain with you tonight. And this would be worse for you than all the evil that has come on you from your youth until now.

Kretzmann’s Commentary    Now, therefore, arise, go forth, and speak comfortably unto, literally, "to the heart of," thy servants, showing them some measure of appreciation, satisfying and refreshing their minds; for I swear by the Lord, if thou go not forth, there will not tarry one with thee this night, not that he himself would lead the army away, but that the dissatisfaction had reached a stage where this result was inevitable; and that will be worse unto thee than all the evil that befell thee from thy youth until now.

New RSV                               So go out at once and speak kindly to your servants; for I swear by the Lord, if you do not go, not a man will stay with you this night; and this will be worse for you than any disaster that has come upon you from your youth until now.'

Syndein/Thieme                     Now . . . GET UP {an order this is the 'imperative of THREAT' - not the 'imperative of command' since Joab has no authority over David - Joab is stating a fact of what will happen if David does not straighten himself out} . . . therefore . . . GO OUT {another harsh order by the commander in chief to the king} and encourage your troops! {a third strong command to the king} {idiom: literally 'speak to the hearts of your servants'} For I {Joab} 'solemnly swear'/'take an oath' by Jehovah/God, that if you {David} do not go out 'all of the army will desert you by sundown' {idiom: literally: 'not a man will pass the night with you'}. Therefore, this {disaster} will be worse for you than all the disasters/evil which has come upon you 'all of your life'/'from your youth until now'." {Note: Joab is using harsh language to 'slap' David back to reality - in order to save the Nation (it needs a strong king to pull itself back together).}.

Webster’s updated Bible       Now therefore arise, go forth, and speak comfortably to your servants: for I swear by the LORD, if you will not go forth, there will not tarry one with you this night: and that will be worse to you than all the evil that has befallen you from your youth until now.

World English Bible                Now therefore arise, go forth, and speak comfortably to your servants; for I swear by Yahweh, if you don't go forth, there will not stay a man with you this night: and that will be worse to you than all the evil that has happened to you from your youth until now.

Young’s Updated LT             “And now, rise, go out and speak unto the heare of your servants, for by Jehovah I have sworn, that—you are not going out—there does not lodge a man with you to-night; and this is worse for you than all the evil that has come upon you from your youth till now.”

 

The gist of this verse:          Joab indicates to David that speaking to his men is critical. None of them would remain with him that night if he did not.


2Samuel 19:7a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʿattâh (עַתָּה) [pronounced ģaht-TAWH]

now, at this time, already

adverb of time

Strong’s #6258 BDB #773

When followed by an imperative or an interrogative, we + the adverb ʿattâh mean and so, thus, things being so, therefore, now therefore, now then. Sometimes, the concept of time is lost when this combination is used to incite another.

yâtsâʾ (יָצָא) [pronounced yaw-TZAWH]

go [come] out, go [come] forth; rise [up]

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperative

Strong's #3318 BDB #422

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

dâbar (דָּבַר) [pronounced dawb-VAHR]

speak, talk [and back with action], give an [your] opinion, expound, make a formal speech, speak out, promise, propose, declare, proclaim, announce

2nd person masculine singular, Piel imperative

Strong’s #1696 BDB #180

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of relative proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

When not showing a physical relationship between two things, ʿal can take on a whole host of new meanings: on the ground of, according to, on account of, on behalf of, concerning, besides, in addition to, together with, beyond, above, over, by on to, towards, to, against, in the matter of, concerning, as regards to. It is one of the most versatile prepositions in Scripture. This word often follows particular verbs. In the English, we have helping verbs; in the Hebrew, there are helping prepositions.

lêb (לֵב) [pronounced laybv]

heart, inner man, mind, will, thinking; midst

masculine singular construct

Strong's #3820 BDB #524

BDB gives the following definitions: inner man, mind, will, heart, understanding; inner part, midst; midst (of things); heart (of man); soul, heart (of man); mind, knowledge, thinking, reflection, memory; inclination, resolution, determination (of will); conscience; heart (of moral character); as seat of appetites; as seat of emotions and passions; as seat of courage.

ʿebed (עֶבֶד) [pronounced ĢEB-ved]

slave, servant; underling; subject; this can mean military men, soldiers in the plural

masculine plural noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5650 BDB #713


huddlehands.jpg

Translation: Now go and speak to the understanding of your soldiers,... David is conflicted and his soldiers know this. Joab is not telling David to get out there and speak emotionally and get all choked up, but to speak to the understanding of his soldiers; apologize for his mixed up standards, and praise them for their loyalty and bravery.


Joab is not telling David to be phony or to give some kind of a pep talk that is meaningless. They are not all going to put their hands in the middle of a group and give up a group shout. David is to speak to their heart, which means, he should speak to their intelligence and their thinking. His soldiers did what they did out of great loyalty to him. He needs to show loyalty back to them, rather than to Absalom.


Huddle-hands graphic, from Useful Breath blogspot; accessed January 21, 2014.


2Samuel 19:7b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

shâbaʿ (שָבַע) [pronounced shawb-VAHĢ]

to swear, to imprecate, to curse, to swear an oath, to take a solemn oath, to swear allegiance

1st person singular, Niphal imperfect

Strong's #7650 BDB #989

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

In this case, these two words together seem to mean, I will guarantee you that...

The 1985 Tanakh inserts Footnote an if right here, and footnotes it with: So Septuagint, 4QSama, and some other Hebrew manuscripts, and an ancient masoretic tradition; ordinary texts omit “if.”

ʾîm (אִם) [pronounced eem]

if, though; lo, behold; oh that, if only; when, since, though when (or, if followed by a perfect tense which refers to a past event)

primarily an hypothetical particle

Strong's #518 BDB #49

I placed an if in my translation before I was even aware of this.

ʾêyn (אֵין) [pronounced ān]

nothing, not, [is] not; not present, not ready; expresses non-existence, absence or non-possession; [there is] no [none, not one, no one, not]

particle of negation; substantive of negation with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #369 BDB #34

yâtsâʾ (יָצָא) [pronounced yaw-TZAWH]

going [coming] out, going [coming] forth; rising

Qal active participle

Strong's #3318 BDB #422


Translation: ...for I swear by Yehowah that if you do not go,... Essentially, Joab is saying, “I guarantee that, if you do not do this...” This is not an oath; this is not a threat. Joab is looking into the logical future here.


2Samuel 19:7c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾîm (אִם) [pronounced eem]

if, though; lo, behold; oh that, if only; when, since, though when (or, if followed by a perfect tense which refers to a past event)

primarily an hypothetical particle

Strong's #518 BDB #49

The particle ʾîm (אִם) can be used as a demonstrative (lo, behold), an interrogative (usually expecting a negative response and often used with other particles and rhetorically), and as a conditional particle (if, though); an indication of a wish or desire (oh that, if only; this is a rare usage).

Gesenius writes: Its primary power I regard as demonstrative, lo! Behold!  Footnote

When following an oath, either stated or implied, ʾîm, by itself, functions as an emphatic negative. According to the Geneva Bible: The Hebrews in swearing begin commonly with "If" and understand the rest, that is, that God will punish him who breaks the oath: here the wicked show that they are afraid lest that happen to them which they would do to others. Footnote

It is not clear in my Dead Sea Scrolls Bible, because of all the missing text, whether this hypothetical particle is misplaced or in addition to the hypothetical particle which seems to be found a few words earlier.

lûwn (לוּן) [pronounced loon]

to lodge, to pass the night, to spend the night, to lodge for the night, to abide

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #3885 BDB #533

ʾîysh (אִיש) [pronounced eesh]

a man, a husband; anyone; a certain one; each, each one, everyone

masculine singular noun (sometimes found where we would use a plural)

Strong's #376 BDB #35

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

with, at, near, by, among, directly from

preposition (which is identical to the sign of the direct object) with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #854 BDB #85

layelâh (לַיְלָה) [pronounced LAY-law]

night; that night, this night, the night

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3915 BDB #538


Translation: ...then no man will remain with you this night,... Here would be the result of David not going out and speaking to his men. No man would remain with him that night. He would lose all popular support.


Application: We have a situation right today that is analogous to this. President Obama (I write this in early 2014) has said in his campaign speeches that Afghanistan is the good war, and we have soldiers there fighting, on behalf of the United States and behalf of him. This is a very difficult war to justify, and the President has made no effort whatsoever to say why we are there, to say why this is the important war, to lay out his goals and objectives in this war, and to voice support for the men there. He is the commander-in-chief, and he may or may not like that aspect of his presidency, but since ¾ths of the men to die in Afghanistan have died under his watch, it is certainly his duty to show support in every way for these young men and women. As a result, the people of the United States have no support for this war, and the soldiers that President Obama has sent there are essentially hung out to dry. What should they do? Do they continue a mission that does not even interest their president? Or do they just try to survive in any way that they can?


So far, v. 7 reads: “Now go and speak to the understanding of your soldiers, for I swear by Yehowah that if you do not go, then no man will remain with you this night,...” Joab is making it clear that David is on thin ice here. What he does over the next few hours will determine the direction of his reign.


Joab might be exaggerating slightly; but there is a good chance that even he would move out and return to Jerusalem, without his king. And if Joab did, certainly most of the soldiers under him would as well.


These men just risked their lives to support David and to maintain him as their leader. If they return to this emotional wreck who keeps calling out the name of the man who revolted against him, they are going to wonder if they backed the wrong horse.


That David is actually listening to Joab suggests to me that David is not only growing spiritually, but he is getting out of the interlocking systems of arrogance. He will take the advice of Joab to heart and he will act on it. He recognizes that what Joab is saying is true. He does not say, “Look, you are blowing this way out of proportion. I got this wired. Don’t you worry about the politics. I can handle that. You worry about the next battle.” Joab has reached David, and from this point forward, David is going to make a series of good decisions, which decisions are going to perpetuate his kingship for another 7 years (according to the timeline). I would think that it is for longer than that. But, in any case, he will go out properly as a king, picking his successor and setting aside his reign at the end by his own volition. Enough time will pass between this point, and the time that Solomon assumes power, that David will no longer be seen as the deposed king.


2Samuel 19:7d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

râʿaʿ (רָעַע) [pronounced raw-ĢAHĢ]

to make a loud noise; to be evil [from the idea of raging or being tumultuous]; to be bad, to displease; possibly to be unpleasant and embittering; to break, to shatter; to be worse

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #7489 BDB #949

Owen has, instead:

râʿâh (רִַעַה) [pronounced raw-ĢAW]

evil, misery, distress, disaster, injury, iniquity, aberration, that which is morally reprehensible

feminine singular adjective/noun

Strong’s #7451 BDB #949

Because of the feminine singular demonstrative pronoun below, this might be more accurate.

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

zôʾth (זֹאת) [pronounced zoth]

here, this, this one; thus; possibly another

feminine of singular zeh; demonstrative pronoun, adverb

Strong’s #2063 (& 2088, 2090) BDB #260

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

the whole, all of, the entirety of, all; can also be rendered any of

masculine singular construct followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

râʿâh (רִַעַה) [pronounced raw-ĢAW]

evil, misery, distress, disaster, injury, iniquity, aberration, that which is morally reprehensible

feminine singular adjective/noun with the definite article

Strong’s #7451 BDB #949

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced ash-ER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

bôwʾ (בּוֹא) [pronounced boh]

to come in, to come, to go in, to go, to enter, to advance

3rd person feminine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #935 BDB #97

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of relative proximity with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

neʿûrîym (נעוּרִים) [pronounced neģoo-REEM]

childhood, youth (it is always found in the plural, so we might render it youthful years); adolescence

masculine plural noun with a 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5271 BDB #655

ʿad (עַד) [pronounced ģahd]

as far as, even to, up to, until

preposition of duration or of limits

Strong’s #5704 BDB #723

ʿattâh (עַתָּה) [pronounced ģaht-TAWH]

now, at this time, already

adverb of time; pausal form

Strong’s #6258 BDB #773


Translation: ...and this evil [is] greater to you than all the evil which has come upon you from your youth until now.” Joab is not making a threat here. He is not telling David, “Go out and speak to the men; otherwise, I am going to really mess things up for you.” He is warning David that, if he does not speak to his men, and do it right, that they will leave, and this lack of popular support is going to devastate him like no other event in his life.


V. 7 reads: Now go and speak to the understanding of your soldiers, for I swear by Yehowah that if you do not go, then no man will remain with you this night, and this evil [is] greater to you than all the evil which has come upon you from your youth until now.” You will notice that this thought begins and ends with the word ʿattâh (עַתָּה) [pronounced ģaht-TAWH] (actually, there is a wâw conjunction at the beginning). This is known as encircling or as an epanadiplosis [pronounced EHP-an-a-dee-PLOH-sihs], where a word is used at the beginning and at the end of a sentence, in indicates that this gives a full circle of an event, from beginning to end. Footnote There is a completeness in this statement, a completeness which also causes the hearer to pay attention to what has been said. It is extremely important and can mark the end of something (in this case, the end of David’s reign as king).


Even with the defeat of Absalom, David’s kingship is still in a precarious place here. Although the tribes in the north are discussing his return, that same discussion is not taking place in the south (in Judæa).

 

Peter Pett: So now David was urged by Joab to get up from his condition of mourning and speak words of comfort to his servants. And he warned him that if he did not do so the men might well desert him and leave him to his own devices. The consequence was that things would then be worse for him than they had ever been during the days of his worst troubles with Saul, days which Joab also had good cause to remember. Footnote

 

From Bible.org: Joab virtually commands David what he should do next. He should get up, stop his mourning, and go out to the gate to greet the victorious warriors who are still returning from the battle. If he does not do so immediately, Joab assures him that by daybreak there will not be a soldier left with him. The king does what Joab tells him to do. He goes down to the gate, and it is not long before everyone knows he is there and comes before the king. Meanwhile, the Israelites who had joined with Absalom flee to their tents. The war is over. David is once again King of Israel. Footnote


Joab tells David exactly what he needs to do, and David will do what Joab tells him to do. This shows great humility on the part of David, and is key to his getting out of the interlocking systems of arrogance. David is king and he calls the shots; but Joab tells him what to do and he does it. That is difficult for a person with great authority to do. Good advice should be taken; but those in authority have a difficult time taking it.


You may ask, who else is out there? Is there anyone who could replace David? As a matter of fact, there are several. The next chapter will begin with a revolt against David. Joab, if he lacked personal integrity, would have the support of Israel’s army. Several of David’s children are now of age; although we know very little about them. Again, bear in mind that David is at a low ebb of popularity. Certainly, half of Israel supported him, but half did not. If David lost the army, there is no one to protect him; no one to represent him in battle. Since the primary function of a king is to protect a country from outside wars, if David does not have the army on his side, then he has nothing to recommend him as king.

 

The Pulpit Commentary points out: Absalom’s rapid success proved that David had many enemies, and without great prudence he might be left at Mahanaim as powerless as Ishbeshoth had been. Footnote


David has to fix this problem. He needs to re-engage his army, who are among his core supporters. David is not yet recovered from the interlocking systems of arrogance. However, he is grace oriented enough to listen to Joab and to follow his advice. There is nothing worse than a leader of any sort of organization who will not listen to anyone else or will not listen to particular groups because he has decided from the outset that they are wrong.

 

One way of looking at this is, [Joab] advises David to present himself immediately at the head of his troops, to smile upon them, welcome them home, congratulate their success, and return them thanks for their services. Even those that may be commanded yet expect to be thanked when they do well, and ought to be. Footnote (This is according to Matthew Henry). This is not what Joab said, but, this is what he wants David to do.


However, essentially, David has just been braced by Joab, as few have ever done (Nathan the prophet also did the same to David when his sin had become known). David could have reacted against Joab and tried to justify his position; or he could listen to what Joab said. David’s response is fully dependent upon the graciousness in his soul and the wisdom in his heart.


Application: Our own president (I write this in 2014) has said repeatedly that he will not re-litigate old arguments from the past. What he means by this is, he is not going to listen to any arguments from a conservative point of view; despite the fact that, after 5 years, our economy is not much better than when he first became president. This is a good modern-day example of someone in abuse of authority arrogance. President Obama is unable to see past his policies, which are failing; and therefore, refuses to consider other approaches.


David’s reaction is quite amazing, because kings were seen as being divinely chosen (they are; they are appropriate to their population). And their decisions were seen as absolute and issued with the greatest wisdom. Joab is telling David, “You are just a man, no better than any other man. And in your whining over Absalom, you could not be more wrong.” Many a king would have busted Joab down to private; others would have had him publically executed. David listened to him and understood that Joab was right. It is quite unusual that a general would have said this to his king and even more remarkable that the king listened to him. This tells us that David has extricated himself from emotional arrogance and that he is acting under grace.


I want you to notice what David does. At this point, it would be very easy for his emotional arrogance to interlock with abuse of authority arrogance; however, David reveals grace orientation instead, and that leads him out of the interlocking systems of arrogance.

 

I was surprised to read other commentators speak of David being peeved with Joab and later taking it out on him for what he said and did, but I don’t believe that to be the case. Joab told David what he needed to do, and David did it. Arthur Pink agrees with me on this: Joab had pressed upon David the claims of his people, and the king was duly aroused. So far from being angry at and refusing the counsel which he had received, David acted promptly upon it and took his proper place. Footnote


Application: By the way, if you have any authority at all, this will happen to you. There will be a time when someone under your authority comes to you and says, “Listen, you’re wrong.” And there will be some times when that person is right and you are wrong. This might be some kid you a coaching, some child you have just disciplined, a student you just handled incorrectly, and this could be the remarks of a janitor to a CEO who is working late one night. Whether that person is wrong or right, you need to give it consideration and respond graciously. I was a teacher for 29 years, and I can guarantee you that, of the dozens of decisions and approaches and things which I did every hour, some were not right. So, when called on such a decision, I needed the wisdom to be gracious and evaluate the objection. Not always an easy thing to do.


——————————


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


David Speaks to His Troops

 

Arthur Pink: This was no time for David to yield to his private sorrows: public interests urgently required him to bestir himself and grip the helm of state with a firm hand. A most serious and critical situation confronted him, which called for prompt and decisive action. Absalom's rebellion had rent the kingdom asunder, and only a prudent policy, swiftly executed, could hope to restore peace and unity again. There had been a widespread revolt, and David's throne had been shaken to its very foundations. The king himself had been forced to flee from Jerusalem and his subjects had become divided in their interests and loyalty. But God had graciously intervened: the arch-rebel was slain and his forces utterly routed. This was the hour, then, for David to assert his authority, press upon the people the honor of Jehovah's name, take charge of things, and take full advantage of the situation which had swung things so markedly into his favor. Footnote


It is here, and in a few other places, where we recognize one of the great differences between King David and King Saul. It was difficult to get Saul to recognize that he was in the wrong. David, when he was confronted with his wrong-thinking or wrong-doing, responded. When Nathan told him, “You are the man” David did not say, “The hell I am!” Instead, David agreed with him. Here, in this passage, Joab says, “You need to stop your crying and get in front of the troops and let them know that they are appreciated.” Although we do not have a verse where David says, “By golly, you’re right, Joab.” In this verse, David does what he has to do, based upon what Joab tell him to do.


Joab has just excoriated David.

David’s Recovery

1.      There are two ways that David could have reacted to what Joab said:

         1)      David could have taken offense at Joab, justified himself, and explained why his sorrow was so great.

         2)      Or David could have composed himself, and then gone out to encourage and thank his men, as Joab told him to do.

2.      David will take the latter approach.

3.      David has been in and out of various spheres of the arrogance complex, and it is obvious that he is in emotional revolt of the soul—but he shakes it off.

4.      If David’s emotions had complete control over him, he would be unable to hear what Joab had to say to him. He would be unable to function as commander-in-chief.

5.      However, David will put his grief aside, he will dry his tears, and he will speak to the troops.

6.      This is recovery.

7.      David will later express the recovery in his soul when he talks to Shimei, Mephibosheth, and Barzillai.

We will discuss this further.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Application: There are proper times to encourage or to brace those believers in your periphery. This does not mean that you follow people around and tell them what they are doing right and what they are doing wrong; or that you, whenever given the chance, throw in your two cents regarding their mismanagement of their own lives. But now and again, when the time is right, you may find yourself speaking to another believer about spiritual things and about what they ought to be thinking or doing. The Bible does speak of this in the New Testament; and, at the same time, the Bible warns us about judging others. So, great spiritual discernment is required whenever you decide to invade the life of another person. Sometimes the person you are speaking to welcomes your input, and sometimes they don’t. Just like giving the gospel, it requires some spiritual discernment to determine when you offer your advice and when you keep your mouth shut.


You will note that Joab does not hang out with David all the time, telling him what to do. What is happening right here is a rare instance. However, Joab correcting David is important; and here, he has to do it.


Application: Along these same lines, don’t forget that the easiest life to run is the life of another person. This is because they do not have the same weaknesses of the sin nature which you have. It is not out of the question for a person to even have insight regarding the behavior of others, and still be unable to make the right choices for his own life. If this is the case, bear in mind, few alcoholics want drug addicts telling them that they drink too much.


You cannot live another person’s life for them, even though you are convinced that you could do a much better job of it.

Application: In David’s life, this has happened a couple of times. Nathan told him that he was wrong to commit adultery with Bathsheba and then to kill her husband, and that he needed to take stock of that position; and Joab here tells David that he needs to get out in front of the troops and thank them and celebrate with them. In other words, you are probably not going to have the opportunity to dispense your great advice several times a day. Like everything else, when do you know it is the right thing to do and when do you know you should keep your mouth shut? Bible doctrine in the soul.


Application: Let me give you the simplest of examples. I know a lot of believers in Jesus Christ. I also know that they ought to be taking in Bible doctrine and that they are not. So, from time to time, I will mention this to Charley Brown or to Lucy Van Pelt. But I don’t do it daily; and I don’t do it monthly. It should not take a genius to figure out that, you can express your opinion about something like this to the point where it becomes spiritual nagging. You cannot live another person’s life for them, even though you are convinced that you could do a much better job of it.


Speaking of this verse, at first read, it may sound rather confusing. David gets up; but no, then he sits down. The people come to David at the gate; but then they flee, each man to his own tent. These actions will all be unraveled in the exegesis.


One of the keys to this verse is, the people refers to David’s army. Israel refers to the opposing army. This is important, because Israel will mean something different later on in this chapter.


Several Bibles divide up the sections of this chapter in the middle of this verse. This occurs several times in this chapter. Furthermore, the narrative of this chapter continues into the next.


And so rises up the king and so he sits in the gate and to all the people were told, to say, “Behold, the king is sitting in the gate.” And so they come all the people to faces of the king. And Israel fled a man to his tents.

2Samuel

19:8

So the king arose and sat at the gate [to the city] and all of the people were told [this, with an announcement that] said, “Observe, the king is sitting at the gate.” So the people came before the king. At the same time [lit., and], Israel fled, each man to his tent.

So the king arose and sat at the gate to the city, and there was an announcement that went out to all the people, saying, “Be aware, the king now sits at the gate.” Therefore, all of the people came before King David. Simultaneously, Israel fled, each man to his own tent.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          Then the king arose and sat in the gate: and it was told to all the people that the king sat in the gate: and all the people came before the king, but Israel fled to their own dwellings.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so rises up the king and so he sits in the gate and to all the people were told, to say, “Behold, the king is sitting in the gate.” And so they come all the people to faces of the king. And Israel fled a man to his tents.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    Then the king arose and sat in the gate. And they told all the people, saying, Behold, the king is sitting in the gate. And all the people came before the king; for Israel had fled every man to his tent.

Septuagint (Greek)                Then the king arose, and sat in the gate. And all the people reported, saying, Behold, the king sits in the gate. And all the people went in before the king to the gate (for Israel had fled every man to his tent).

 

Significant differences:           The Latin does not appear to have the actual report made to the people, but simply the content of the report.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           So the king went and sat down in the city gate. All the troops were told that the king was sitting in the gate, so they came before the king.

David returns to Jerusalem

Meanwhile, the Israelites had fled to their homes.

Contemporary English V.       David got up and went to the town gate and sat down. When the people heard that he was sitting there, they came to see him. After Israel's soldiers had all returned home,...

Easy English                          So the king got up and he sat by the gate. Someone told the men, `The king is sitting by the gate.' So, they all went to see him.

During this time, the *Israelites had run away to their homes.

Easy-to-Read Version            Then the king went to the city gate [This was where the public meetings were held.]. The news spread that the king was at the gate. So all the people came to see the king.

Good News Bible (TEV)         Then the king got up, and went and sat near the city gate. His men heard that he was there, and they all gathered around him. Meanwhile all the Israelites had fled to their own hometowns.

The Message                         So the king came out and took his place at the city gate. Soon everyone knew: "Oh, look! The king has come out to receive us." And his whole army came and presented itself to the king. But the Israelites had fled the field of battle and gone home.

New Berkeley Version           So the king got up and took his seat in the gate, and when they told all the troops, “Look, the king is sitting at the gate!” they all came before the king.

Now Israel had run, every man for his tent.

New Century Version             So the king went to the city gate [People came here to conduct business. Public meetings and court cases were also held here.]. When the news spread that the king was at the gate, everyone came to see him.

David Goes Back to Jerusalem

All the Israelites who had followed Absalom had run away to their homes.

New Living Translation           So the king went out and took his seat at the town gate, and as the news spread throughout the town that he was there, everyone went to him.

Meanwhile, the Israelites who had supported Absalom fled to their homes.

The Voice                               Then the king got up, went outside, and sat down inside the gate where Absalom had acquired his allies. When the people heard that the king had come out to them, they gathered around him.

The men of Israel who had gone against the king, meanwhile, had fled to their homes.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          So, the king then got up and sat at the gate. And all the people started shouting, 'Look, the king is sitting at the gate.' And all the people gathered to him there.

Now, the army of IsraEl had all retreated to their tents,...

Christian Community Bible     So the king took his seat at the gate and as the people were informed that the king was sitting at the gate, they came before him.

The people of Israel had fled, each man to his own home.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       So the king rose up, and seated himself at the gateway; and there, once the word had gone round that the king was sitting in the gateway, all his followers came into the royal presence.

But the men of Israel had fled home.

New American Bible (2011)   So the king got up and sat at the gate. When all the people were told, "The king is sitting at the gate," they came into his presence.

The Reconciliation.

Now the Israelites had fled to their separate tents,.

NIRV                                      So the king got up and took his seat in the entrance of the city gate. His men were told, "The king is sitting in the entrance of the gate." Then all of them came and stood in front of him.

David Returns to Jerusalem

While all of that was going on, the Israelites had run back to their homes.

New Jerusalem Bible             The king got up and took his seat at the gate. An announcement was made to the whole army: 'The king is sitting at the gate.' And the whole army assembled in front of the king.

Israel had fled, dispersing to their homes.

Revised English Bible            At that the king rose and took his seat by the gate; and when the army was told that the ing was sitting at the gate, they assembled before him there.

MEANWHILE the Israelites had scattered to their homes.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      The king rose and dwelled in the gate. All the people told of it, saying, "The king dwells here in the gate!" All the people came in front of the king, and the men of Israel fled to his tent.

Bible in Basic English             Then the king got up and took his seat near the town-door. And word was given to all the people that the king was in the public place: and all the people came before the king. Now all the men of Israel had gone back in flight to their tents.

The Expanded Bible              So the king went to the city gate [Ca place where public meetings and court cases were held; 15:2]. When the news spread that the king was at the gate, ·everyone [all the soldiers] came to see him.

David Goes Back to Jerusalem

All the Israelites who had followed Absalom [LIsrael] had run away to their ·homes [Ltents].

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 The king consequently arose and sat at the gate; and it was reported The king is now sitting at the gate." So the whole force passed in before the king. But Israel fled each to his own home.

HCSB                                     So the king got up and sat in the gate, and all the people were told: "Look, the king is sitting in the gate." Then they all came into the king's presence. Meanwhile, each Israelite had fled to his tent.

NET Bible®                             So the king got up and sat at the city gate. When all the people were informed that the king was sitting at the city gate, they [Heb "all the people."] all came before him.

David Goes Back to Jerusalem

But the Israelite soldiers [The Hebrew text has simply "Israel" (see 18:16-17).] had all fled to their own homes [Heb "had fled, each to his tent."].

NIV – UK                                So the king got up and took his seat in the gateway. When the men were told, `The king is sitting in the gateway,' they all came before him.

Meanwhile, the Israelites had fled to their homes.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           So the king got up and sat in the city gateway; and when all the people were told, "Now the king is sitting in the gate," they came before the king. Meanwhile, Isra'el had fled, each man to his tent.

exeGeses companion Bible   And the sovereign rises and settles in the portal:

and they tell all the people, saying, Behold,

the sovereign settles in the portal.

And all the people come

at the face of the sovereign:

and Yisra El flees every man to his tent.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               So the king arose and sat down in the gateway; and when all the troops were told that the king was sitting in the gateway, all the troops presented themselves to the king.

Now the Israelites had fled to their homes.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           Then HaMelech arose, and sat in the sha'ar. And they told unto kol haAm, saying, Hinei, HaMelech doth sit in the sha'ar. And kol haAm came before HaMelech: for Yisroel had fled every ish to his ohel.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                Then the king arose and sat in the gate. And all [his followers] were told, The king is sitting in the gate, and they all came before the king. Now Israel [Absalom's troops] had fled, every man to his home.

Context Group Version          Then the king arose, and sat in the gate. And they told to all the people, saying, Look, the king is sitting in the gate: and all the people came before the king. Now Israel had fled every man to his tent.

English Standard Version      Then the king arose and took his seat [ch. 18:4, 24, 33; See Ruth 4:1] in the gate. And the people were all told, "Behold, the king is sitting in the gate." And all the people came before the king.

David Returns to Jerusalem

Now Israel had fled [See ch. 18:17] every man to his own home.

Kretzmann’s Commentary    Then the king, accepting the reproof in the spirit in which it was given, arose and sat in the gate. And they told unto all the people, saying, Behold, the king doth sit in the gate. This news worked a joyful reaction in the hearts of the people. And all the people came before the king, apparently passing before him in review, in order to receive the expressions of his appreciation and gratitude; for Israel had fled every man to his tent, 2Sam. 18:17.

NASB                                     David Restored as King

So the king arose and sat in the gate. When they told all the people, saying, "Behold, the king is sitting [2 Sam 15:2; 18:24] in the gate," then all the people came before the king.

Now Israel [2 Sam 18:17] had fled, each to his tent.

New King James Version       Then the king arose and sat in the gate. And they told all the people, saying, "There is the king, sitting in the gate." So all the people came before the king.

For everyone of Israel had fled to his tent.

New RSV                               Then the king got up and took his seat in the gate. The troops were all told, `See, the king is sitting in the gate'; and all the troops came before the king.

Meanwhile, all the Israelites had fled to their homes.

Syndein/Thieme                     {David Recovers and Understands Joab is Right}

So the king got up, and 'set up {his throne}' in the gate. {Note: This is where a sovereign would place his throne to welcome home a victorious army.} And to all the troops it was reported, "Behold, the king 'is holding court'/'does sit' in the {main} gate. And all the troops assembled before the king . . . {Note: This means there was a belated 'award ceremony'. Metals and other methods of congratulations would have been bestowed on the men at this time. That put a quick end to the grief.}

{Revolution Army Dissolved and Went Home}

for Israel had fled every man to his tent.

A Voice in the Wilderness      And the king arose and sat in the gate. And they announced to all the people, saying, Behold, the king is sitting in the gate. So all the people came before the king. For everyone of Israel had fled to his tent.

World English Bible                Then the king arose, and sat in the gate. They told to all the people, saying, Behold, the king is sitting in the gate: and all the people came before the king. Now Israel had fled every man to his tent.

Young’s Updated LT             And the king rises, and sits in the gate, and to all the people they have declared, saying, “Lo, the king is sitting in the gate;” and all the people come in before the king, and Israel has fled, each to his tents.

 

The gist of this verse:          The king rises up and sits by the gate. After his location is announced, the people come before him. At the same time, his opposition army slinks off to their own tents.


2Samuel 19:8a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

qûwm (קוּם) [pronounced koom]

to stand, to rise up, to get up; to establish, to establish a vow, to cause a vow to stand, to confirm or to fulfill a vow

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #6965 BDB #877

meleke (מֶלֶ) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572


Translation: So the king arose... The verb used here indicates that a person is about to do something which indicates an intent or a purpose. David stands up with the intent of doing something. He may or may not be sitting but, in his soul, he makes a determination of what he is going to do.


2Samuel 19:8b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

yâshab (יָשַב) [pronounced yaw-SHAHBV]

to remain, to stay; to dwell, to live, to inhabit, to reside; to sit

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #3427 BDB #442

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

shaʿar (שַעַר) [pronounced SHAH-ģahr]

gate [control of city can be implied]; area inside front gate; entrance

masculine singular noun with the definite article; pausal form

Strong’s #8179 BDB #1044


Translation: ...and sat at the gate [to the city]... For official proclamations, the king often would go to the gate of the city, and people would come to him. This gate was used for a number of different gatherings—town hall meetings, property purchase, and court proceedings—and here, the king himself will come out to the gate to speak to the people (that is, his army).


2Samuel 19:8c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

the whole, all of, the entirety of, all; can also be rendered any of

masculine singular construct followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

ʿam (עַם) [pronounced ģahm]

people; race, tribe; family, relatives; citizens, common people; companions, servants; entire human race; herd [of animals]

masculine singular collective noun with the definite article

Strong’s #5971 BDB #766

nâgad (נָגַד) [pronounced naw-GAHD]

to make conspicuous, to make known, to expound, to explain, to declare, to inform, to confess, to make it pitifully obvious that

3rd person plural, Hiphil perfect

Strong's #5046 BDB #616


Translation: ...and all of the people were told [this, with an announcement... Through this and the previous chapter, when we have the designation the people, this refers to David’s supporters—both those who remained in the city and those who went out to war on his behalf.


So, some kind of announcement went out to all of David’s troops and supporters. Some would be inside the city; some would be camped outside in front of the city.


2Samuel 19:8d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend; to answer

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

hinnêh (הִנֵּה) [pronounced hin-NAY]

lo, behold, or more freely, observe, look here, look, listen, note, take note; pay attention, get this, check this out

interjection, demonstrative particle

Strong’s #2009 (and #518, 2006) BDB #243

meleke (מֶלֶ) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572

yâshab (יָשַב) [pronounced yaw-SHAHBV]

is inhabiting, was staying, remaining, dwelling, residing; sitting

Qal active participle

Strong's #3427 BDB #442

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

shaʿar (שַעַר) [pronounced SHAH-ģahr]

gate [control of city can be implied]; area inside front gate; entrance

masculine singular noun with the definite article; pausal form

Strong’s #8179 BDB #1044


Translation: ...that] said, “Observe, the king is sitting at the gate.” The message is that the king is sitting at the gate. So the people were to gather there.


Interestingly enough, there does not appear to be a mandate for the people to come to the gate. This may suggest that this is a half-hearted gesture on David’s part. Whereas, it would be interesting to see what transpires, the Bible does not include any of David’s message to his people. What he said apparently worked; but, if I was to make an educated guess here, David came through based upon his political ability and not necessarily by being honest and forthright with his troops. But that is only a guess on my part.


Okay, then, if you are skeptical of my assessment, let me add something else—where is there any mention that David offers up an animal sacrifice, anywhere in this chapter? When he offers up an animal sacrifice, his focus is going to be upon God and not upon himself. David should focus the people upon God and His deliverance here, but we really do not know what David does.


On the positive side, David did go out to the gate to speak to his troops, indicating that he was not so far gone as to ignore Joab’s impassioned advice. Recovery from the interlocking systems of arrogance does not occur overnight.


2Samuel 19:8e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

bôwʾ (בּוֹא) [pronounced boh]

to come in, to come, to go in, to go, to enter, to advance

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #935 BDB #97

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

the whole, all of, the entirety of, all; can also be rendered any of

masculine singular construct followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

ʿam (עַם) [pronounced ģahm]

people; race, tribe; family, relatives; citizens, common people; companions, servants; entire human race; herd [of animals]

masculine singular collective noun with the definite article

Strong’s #5971 BDB #766

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

pânîym (פָּנִים) [pronounced paw-NEEM]

face, faces, countenance; presence

masculine plural construct (plural acts like English singular)

Strong’s #6440 BDB #815

Together, they mean upon the face of, before, before the face of, in the presence of, in the sight of, in front of. When used with God, it can take on the more figurative meaning in the judgment of. This can also mean forwards; the front part [or, the edge of a sword]. Lepânîym (םי.נָפל) can take on a temporal sense as well: before, of old, formerly, in the past, in past times.

meleke (מֶלֶ) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572


Translation: So the people came before the king. The people do come before the king. This chapter does not contains the content of what David said. That suggests that it may have reflected some more human viewpoint. The reason I say this is, we are told what Joab says, which is divine viewpoint all the way. We are not told what David says back to him.

 

Peter Pett: Recognising the rightness and fairness of Joab's diagnosis David arose and went to sit in the gate where the people passed by. And when the news spread around that he was there they all took advantage of it by passing through the gate so as to greet the king. It made them feel that things were back to normal again. Footnote

 

From the Expositor’s Bible Commentary: And very touching it must have been to look on the sad, pale, wasted face of the king, and mark his humble, chastened bearing, and yet to receive from him words of winning kindness that showed him still caring for them and loving them, as a shepherd among his sheep; in no wise exasperated by the insurrection, not breathing forth threatenings and slaughter on those who had taken part against him; but concerned as ever for the welfare of the whole kingdom, and praying for Jerusalem, for his brethren and companions' sakes. Footnote


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Whatever David did, it turned out okay. Did he apologize to his men for his behavior? Did he simply thank his men and tells them job well done?  Did his men pass in review before him, as he held a rock solid salute? We don’t know. We simply know that David, by being there at the gate, did what was necessary to take back his men, so that they did not desert him in their hearts.

David’s Recovery Part II

1.      At some point, there has to be an exit out of the interlocking systems of arrogance. This is it for David.

2.      As we have studied, David had fallen into several spheres of arrogance, and these had interlocked with other spheres. However, with what has happened over the past 10 or so years, God’s discipline and God’s firm hand on David is steering him in the right direction.

3.      David’s crying jag over Absalom? We might see that as an arrogance hangover. A quick jump into emotional arrogance.

4.      However, Joab speaks firmly to David and David hears him.

5.      One of the keys to any of the arrogance gates is, do they turn your life around? Do they color everything else that you do?

         1)      As an aside, remember David’s sexual arrogance. It got to a point where he, in sexual arrogance, then entered into the sphere of criminal arrogance.

         2)      David completely set aside his responsibilities as king and the head of the military because of his own arrogance.

6.      Although it appears at first that David might place his sadness over Absalom over everything else, Joab’s tough talk turns David around.

7.      David set his emotional arrogance aside and does what his position demands that he do.

8.      What appears to be the key is, David, when he is told by Joab what to do, his emotional arrogance does not interlock with abuse of authority arrogance; he is instead grace oriented enough to do what Joab tells him to do. So, this is key in his exit from the interlocking systems of arrogance.

9.      Emotion cannot think; emotion cannot make good decisions. David is going to reveal that he is thinking and that he is making good decisions.

10.    Joab therefore tells David what actions he needs to take.

11.    David recognizes that the character exemplified by his army needs to be exemplified in their leader as well.

12.    David does what Joab tells him to do. He does not react to what Joab tells him to do. That is his exit from the interlocking systems of arrogance.

What David does throughout the rest of the chapter is going to reveal a clear-headedness which could not occur unless David had extricated himself from the interlocking systems of arrogance.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


David does not exit the interlocking systems of arrogance apart from Joab.

Joab’s Part in David’s Recovery

1.      David does not exit the interlocking systems of arrogance without Joab’s insistence here that he go speak to his troops at the gate.

2.      Joab did not generally live David’s life; he did not hang out with David and constantly tell him what to do. This was a rare instance.

3.      However, without Joab’s input, David may not have recovered.

4.      Gal. 6:1–2 Brothers, if someone is caught in any wrongdoing, you who are spiritual should restore such a person with a gentle spirit, watching out for yourselves so you won't be tempted also. Carry one another's burdens; in this way you will fulfill the law of Christ. There is a time when you do this and a time when you hold back.

5.      This is a point at which David is about to make a fatal mistake, and for this reason, Joab steps up and tells David how he is wrong.

6.      No doubt that, throughout his life, David made some mistakes and bad decisions. However, this road he is on here would end his career as king of all Israel. The military would no longer support him. Therefore it is imperative that Joab step up and tell David what he needs to do.

7.      David is still in an emotional hangover, and probably inside the sphere of emotional arrogance. His emotions overshadow his duties and his life.

8.      When Joab steps up and tells him that he needs to get himself out in front of the troops, David has two ways he can go: (1) he can react in arrogance, where emotional arrogance interlocks with abuse of authority arrogance; or (2) he can be grace oriented and listen to what Joab says.

9.      What takes you out of the interlocking systems of arrogance? Grace orientation. David has enough grace orientation in his soul to heed to warning of Joab, and then to act upon it.

10.    What Joab is doing here is rare. Joab does not often correct David. However, this is no recovery apart from Joab.