2Samuel 11

 

2Samuel 11:1–27

David, Bathsheba and Uriah the Hittite


These studies are designed for believers in Jesus Christ only. If you have exercised faith in Christ, then you are in the right place. If you have not, then you need to heed the words of our Lord, Who said, “For God so loved the world that He gave His only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son, so that every [one] believing [or, trusting] in Him shall not perish, but shall be have eternal life! For God did not send His Son into the world so that He should judge the world, but so that the world shall be saved through Him. The one believing [or, trusting] in Him is not judged, but the one not believing has already been judged, because he has not believed in the Name of the only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son of God.” (John 3:16–18). “I am the Way and the Truth and the Life! No one comes to the Father except through [or, by means of] Me!” (John 14:6).


Every study of the Word of God ought to be preceded by a naming of your sins to God. This restores you to fellowship with God (1John 1:8–10). If there are people around, you would name these sins silently. If there is no one around, then it does not matter if you name them silently or whether you speak aloud.


And so the spring time returns—the time of the year when kings go out to battle. Therefore, David deploys Joab and his servants with him and all Israel. And so they destroyed the sons of Ammon when they besieged their capital city Rabbah. (2Sam. 11:1a)

 

J. Vernon McGee: It was the time of the year when kings went forth to war. In other words, in that day the nations had an “open season” on each other like we do today on birds and animals. At a certain season, you can shoot them; at other seasons, you cannot. But, after all, isn’t that true even in modern warfare today? During the monsoons in Vietnam, the war came to a standstill because they got bogged down in the swamps, and the rain kept the planes out of the air. After the monsoons let up, the war was on again. The approach to war in David’s day may have been a great deal more modern than we think. The unfortunate thing about the two world wars is that the greatest suffering was caused by the winter weather rather than by the enemy, but they attempted to carry on the fighting. At least in David’s day, there was a season for warfare. Maybe they were a little more civilized than we are. At least they recognized a time when they could enjoy comparative peace. Footnote

 

But David remained back in Jerusalem. One late afternoon, David rises up from his bed when it is almost evening time, and he walks around the roof of his palace. From his roof, he sees a woman bathing herself, and this woman looks exceptionally beautiful to him. (2Sam. 11:1b–2)

 

Given David’s impotence in war—he had reached the end of his ability to go to war with the younger men—David has what we call today, a mid-life crisis. His life was defined by his work, which was being king of Israel and a tough warrior. All of us reach that point where our abilities begin to wain; and for some of us men, that concerns us. It is clear we are becoming middle age (no, I cannot bring myself to say old). When we come to that point (I write this as a man having passed that point), we sometimes either need to redefine ourselves apart from our work; or we do what we can to reclaim our youth. Don’t misunderstand me—I am not excusing what David does here—I am just trying to put it into perspective.

 

J. Vernon McGee: The sin of David stands out like a tar-baby in a field of snow, like a blackberry in a bowl of cream. It may cause us to miss the greatness of the man. Remember that sin was the exception in David’s life—not the pattern of it. Footnote


Outline of Chapter 11:

 

Forward

 

Introduction

 

         v.       1              David’s Army Goes to War

         vv.     2–5           David Takes Bathsheba

         vv.     6–13         David Attempts to Manipulate Uriah the Hittite to Sleep with His Wife

         vv.    14–17         David Has Joab See that Uriah is Killed in Battle

         vv.    18–21         Joab Instructs a Messenger How to Tell David that Uriah is Dead

         vv.    22–25         Joab’s Messenger Reports to David

         vv.    26–27         Bathsheba Mourns Her Loss and then David Brings Her to the Palace as His Wife

 

Addendum


Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines:

 

         Introduction         Installment Discipline for David

         Introduction         Alternate Outline from Matthew Henry

         Introduction         David’s Sin: What’s the Issue?

         Introduction         Theories on David’s Sin

         Introduction         A Doctrine is Needed to Explain David

         Introduction         The Doctrine of Interlocking Systems of Arrogance

         Introduction         The Gates (Entryways) into Interlocking System of Arrogance

         Introduction         David and the Interlocking Systems of Arrogance

         Introduction         Degeneracy Sins (Addictive Behavior)

         Introduction         Concluding Introductory Remarks about David’s Sin

         Introduction         Loyalty to the Truth Rather than Loyalty to People

 

         v.       1              A Recap of Israel’s War Against the Ammonites and the Aramæan Mercenaries

         v.       1              Maps and Photos of Rabbah

         v.       1              Summary Points from the Doctrine of the Will of God

         v.       1              Commentary on David and His Wives and His Children

         v.       2              David’s Wives and Their Children

         v.       2              David’s Sexual Arrogance and its Application

         v.       2              The Lust of the Eyes Leading to Sin

         v.       2              David’s Lust for Beautiful Women

         v.       3              The Men in Bathsheba’s Life

         v.       3              Escaping Addictive Behavior

         v.       4              David and his Sexual Addiction

         v.       4              David’s Sexual Arrogance

         v.       4              A Brief Exegesis of Proverbs 5

         v.       4              Guzik’s List of the Results of David’s Sin

         v.       6              Good Leadership

         v.       9              Uriah’s Dilemma

         v.       9              Loyalty Versus Integrity

         v.      10              Uriah’s Disobedience of David’s Direct Orders

         v.      10              The Perpetuation of Client Nation U.S.A.

         v.      11              Principles of Integrity and the Application of these Principles

         v.      13              Uriah’s Integrity, David’s Lack of Integrity, and Alcohol

         v.      14              Gill on the Story of Bellerophon

         v.      15              The Specific Interlocking Gates of Arrogance to which David has Succumbed

         v.      15              Several Commentators Almost Discover the Interlocking Systems of Arrogance

         v.      17              Did Others Besides Uriah Die?

         v.      17              The Great Legacy of Uriah

         v.      17              The Death of Uriah the Hittite

         v.      17              Evaluating the Death of Uriah the Hittite

         v.      17              The Timing of Death of a Believer

         v.      17              A Brief Exegesis of Job 5:23–27

         v.      17              Links to the Doctrine of Dying Grace

         v.      21              What Conclusions Can We Draw from the Illustration about Abimelech?

         v.      21              Judges 9:50–55

         v.      21              Abimelech

         v.      21              Military Ethics, David and Joab

         v.      21              Tangent: Politicians Blaming Others for the 2007–2009 Financial Mess

         v.      22              The Greek and the Hebrew of 2Samuel 11:22–25

         v.      22              English Translations and 2Sam. 11:22

         v.      25              The Doctrine of Compartmentalization Arrogance

         v.      25              David’s Great Hypocrisy

         v.      25              The Order of Events in 2Samuel 11:16–25

         v.      27              The Verb to Send Figures Prominently in 2Samuel 11

         v.      27              Goofy Commentators

         v.      27              David and his Children

         v.      27              Which Verb is Found in 2Samuel 11:27f?

         v.      27              Scripture and David’s Sin

 

         Addendum          A Complete Translation of 2Samuel 11

         Addendum          The Sin of David Parallels the Cross

         Addendum          The Integrity of a Client Nation


Chapter Outline

 

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines

Forward

Doctrines Covered and Alluded to

Chapters of the Bible Alluded To

Psalms Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Other Chapters of the Bible Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Definition of Terms

Introduction

Text

Addendum

www.kukis.org

 

Exegetical Studies in Samuel


——————————


A Forward to 2Samuel 11


B ecause I felt ill-equipped to completely plumb the depths of this and subsequent chapters, this was the first time that I studied R. B. Thieme, Jr.’s teaching from the David series first, and then I began my examination of this chapter. Also, once my exegesis was complete (at around 225 pages), I went back and looked at my notes, so see if there was additional information which I had left out, which increased the size of this study to 271 pages. The happy result was, where there were several verses where I had a limited amount of exegesis, Bob filled them in with informative ideas and doctrines. Therefore, this is a long and in-depth study of 2Sam. 11, and it is important because of David’s horrendous sins and bad choices (something I am sure that all of us can relate to). I trust that this will be as much a blessing to you as it was to me in my study and preparation for this chapter.


Every day I thank God for the blessing of being able to spend time exegeting His Word in an attempt to wring from it every bit of meaning He allows me to find.


——————————


Doctrines Covered

Doctrines Alluded To

Sexual Arrogance

 

Adultery

The Ark of God

 

 

Dying Grace

Laws of Divine Establishment

 

 

Liberation Theology

Polygamy

 

 

 

The Will of God


Chapters of the Bible Alluded To

2Samuel 5

2Samuel 6

2Samuel 10

2Samuel 12

2Samuel 21

1Chronincles 13

1Chronincles 15

1Chronicles 20


Psalms Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Psalms 6

Psalms 32

Psalms 38

Psalms 51


Other Chapters of the Bible Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

 

 

 

 


This time, in beginning to put together the list of defined terms, it becomes even more apparent how important the ministry of R. B. Thieme, Jr. has been. All disciplines have a technical vocabulary and the same is true of Christianity. Apart from the reformation, the vocabulary and thinking of Christianity has languished to some extent over the past thousand or so years. Bob not only developed a more modern vocabulary to describe certain Christian principles, but built upon these principles as well, and developed doctrines which were previously undeveloped and, in some cases, not even thought of, until he began to put things together.

You may balk at this, and think, if the word is not found in the Bible, then we have no use for it. But bear in mind, the term Trinity is not found in the Bible, but it has tremendous meaning for us in the Church Age (also a term not found in the Bible). Developing some new concepts is extremely important in this and subsequent chapters of the Bible, because God the Holy Spirit will reveal that this sin of David’s and God’s dealing with his sin, is quite important and requires a great deal of study (which will involve doctrines and vocabulary).

Definition of Terms

The Arrogance Complex

See interlocking systems of arrogance below.

Client Nation

Client-Nation, is a national entity in which a certain number of spiritually mature Christians (the salt of the earth) have formed a pivot (see below) sufficient to sustain the nation and through which God specifically protects this nation so that believers can fulfill the divine mandates of evangelism, communication and custodianship of Bible doctrine, providing a haven for Jews, and sending missionaries abroad. The United States is a client-nation to God. A client nation must have freedom: Freedom to seek God, freedom to use one’s own volition and self-determination to succeed or fail, freedom from anarchy and tyranny, freedom for evangelism, freedom for believers to hear Bible teaching without government interference and, therefore, to grow spiritually, and freedom to send missionaries to other nations.

Compartmental-ization arrogance

To compartmentalize means to put or divide into (compartments, categories, etc.), especially to an excessive degree. Compartmentalization arrogance takes this concept to the nth degree.

Divine Good

That which the believer produces while filled with the Holy Spirit. A mature believer will produce more divine good and more efficiently than an immature believer.

Enforced and genuine humility

Enforced humility is when you are forced to obey the proper authorities. Whether it is a parent standing over you with a switch Footnote or the police car behind you, you bend your behavior to what is expected, even though your volition desires to do just the opposite. Genuine humility is, you choose to do those things required by authority.

Evil

Evil is the thinking, strategy and plan of Satan. Evil may include sin and human good.

Human good

That which is done when out of fellowship, but is not sin. These acts are often in accordance with Satan’s strategy and plan, thought by some to be good. Giving your time or money to a global warming organization would be an example of human good. All human good will be burned at the Judgment Seat of Christ (1Cor. 3:11–15).

Iconoclastic arrogance

This is also known as the feet of clay syndrome. One person builds up this great, unrealistic image of a second person, often out of arrogance. This often happens in love, where one person or the other is unable to really see or understand the sin nature of the one they love. Suddenly, the person who built up this image sees the feet of clay in the other person, and they are angry and they, in arrogance, smash this image.

Installment discipline

The sins committed require extensive discipline. Instead of delivering the discipline all at once, God delivers the discipline in several parts (installments).

Interlocking Systems of Arrogance

Also known as the arrogance complex. The interlocking systems of arrogance refers to many clusters of sins which have a tendency to interlock with one another. Entering into this complex is more than carnality and it is different from reversionism. The link will take you to a more complete explanation.

Judgment Seat of Christ

At the end of the Tribulation, believers will be gathered together and God will test their production with fire. Their human good and evil will be burned; the divine good which they create will remain.

Laws of Divine Establishment

The laws of divine establishment are a system of laws and principles which provide for the preservation as well as for the prosperity of the human race. These laws apply to both believer and unbeliever alike.

Pivot

In nearly any nation, there will be believers and there will be mature believers (which is called a pivot. If these groups are large enough, a nation will be preserved and, in most cases, greatly prospered. If the pivot is small, or if there are very few mature believers in this pivot, then that nation will go down. The concept of a pivot of believers preserving a nation is found in Gen. 18:22–33 Matt. 5:13.

Rebound

The act of naming one’s sins to God. You get out of fellowship by sinning; you get back into fellowship by naming those sins (privately) to God.

Reversionism

Spiritual decline brought about by rejection of Bible doctrine. This is a reverting to one’s sin pattern before salvation. Sometimes, one develops a sin pattern after being saved.

Sexual Arrogance

Sexual arrogance is preoccupation with sex and self-gratification. It is preoccupation with the body to the exclusion of the soul.

Sin Nature Weakness Arrogance

Every believer has a weakness (or, weaknesses) in his (or her) sin nature. When this is placed above Bible doctrine, that is arrogance.

Some of these definitions are taken from

http://www.bibledoctrinechurch.org/?subpages/GLOSSARY.shtml

http://rickhughesministries.org/content/Biblical-Terms.pdf

http://www.gbible.org/_files/pdf/Doctrine_of_The_Divine_Decree.pdf

http://www.gbible.org/index.php?proc=d4d&sf=rea&did=28

http://www.realtime.net/~wdoud/topics/chastisement.html


——————————


An Introduction to 2Samuel 11


I ntroduction: I am beginning the introduction to 2Sam. 11 long before I actually write this chapter. In fact, this chapter in 2Samuel represents much of a year’s work (I worked on other doctrines and other things simultaneously). What we have here is one of the most important passages of Scripture: David’s sin and its aftermath (the sin takes up a portion of a verse; the aftermath is covered in 2Sam. 12–19). God the Holy Spirit devotes at least 9 chapters in Samuel to this sin, along with several psalms. There is no other incident in an individual’s life which takes up this much space in the Bible. The Holy Spirit devotes fewer words to creation and to the flood than He does to David’s sin and its consequences. Therefore, we need to devote ourselves to the many lessons of 2Sam. 11–19.


On a personal note, it took me a very long time to get here, and I don’t know if I am quite up to the job. My apprehension with this chapter is not that David is a great spiritual and temporal leader, and then he sins. Nor am I shocked at some of the things which David does in the aftermath. My concern is, what is this exactly; what do we call it and how do we classify it. There seems to be much more going on here than simply getting out of fellowship. For this reason, this is one of the few times I have gone back to R. B. Thieme, Jr.’s teaching on this matter, and I have listened to several hundred hours of his teaching on this material in preparation, and, quite frankly, Even from the outset, I still don’t feel ready. Footnote


If you have listened to R. B. Thieme, Jr.’s exegesis of these chapters, he spends about 250 lessons on this and the next few chapters, which probably represents 2000+ hours of study for Bob delivered in about 300 hours. Footnote Given that much of this portion of David’s life is barely covered by most commentaries, Bob broke a lot of new ground here (topics which immediately come to mind are: the interlocking systems of arrogance, installment discipline and counterinsurgency warfare). If you are ignorant of these topics, then be prepared—this will be a wild ride for you.


It is most reasonable to suppose that this chapter takes place the year after 2Sam. 10 (specifically, in the spring). In 2Sam. 10, the King of Ammon dies, and David sends to his son, Hanun, a delegation of convey David’s sympathies. Encouraged by his staff, the deceased king’s son humiliates these messengers and sends them back to David. David has no choice but to declare war on Ammon, which previously was an ally or a protectorate. The new King Hanun recognizes that, what he has done will have consequences. Therefore, they take a huge sum of money and hire an Aramæan mercenary force to deal with David’s army when it comes. Joab leads an army into Ammon, and, as they face the Ammonites on the wall, they realize that behind them is the Aramæan mercenary force. Rather than dig in and hold their ground, Joab attacks the mercenary force and sends them running. After the Ammonites retreat behind the walls of the city, Joab contacts David, and they go to war against Aram and defeat them (which event was an historic game-changer). This was all covered in 2Sam. 10 (HTML) (PDF). So now, it is a year later (or more, depending upon the length of the war between Israel and Aram), and there is the unfinished business of Ammon. So, each spring, the army of Israel went out to war, which is how this chapter begins.


The NIV Study Bible suggests Footnote that this takes place 10 years after David is established in Jerusalem, which seems to be a reasonable estimate. God the Holy Spirit chose not to tell us, and this was the tenth year of David’s reign after he took Jerusalem. R. B. Thieme, Jr. suggests that David is about 50 years old. Footnote Because of the problem with preserving numbers, we are given a minimum set of numbers to get us from creation until today.


One of the great proofs of the accuracy of Scripture is, people are not idealized, but presented as real people. In the Old Testament, Abraham, Moses, David and Elijah are great and prominent men in the history of Israel. For that reason, as key figures in Israel’s history, it would be normal for Jewish historians to idolize these men and to present them more as gods than as men. The Bible does not do that. We see the weaknesses of these 4 men as well as their strengths. The Talmud, on the other hand, makes an attempt to gloss over this incident, saying that, when men went out to war, they divorced their wives, so that they are free to do whatever if their husbands die in battle (Shab. 55:6). I want you to ponder for just a moment as to how self-serving and preposterous this is. When a man dies in battle, his wife is free to marry another man. Bathsheba’s husband, Uriah, will die in battle, and she will marry David. Yet, some complete idiot decides to make up something about Israel’s army, so that he can then say, “David did not commit adultery.” That’s both goofy and preposterous! However, that illustrates what men do—David is a great and central figure in the history of Israel, a king by which all other kings will be measured. Therefore, historians who admire David will want to downplay 2Sam. 11–12; that is what people do. The Bible, on the other hand, records who David really is, his strengths and his weaknesses, and none of it is glossed over in order to make David look good. The Bible presents the strength and weaknesses of every significant man in the Bible, along with their failures, except for, of course, Jesus Christ, the God-man, Who did not sin (John 8:46 2Cor. 5:21 1Peter 2:22 Heb. 4:15). Footnote


Because I am going to begin with a lot of introductory material which almost presupposes a knowledge of David’s sin and its consequences, I had better give you a basic rundown of what we will study in this and subsequent chapters. David, a great king, called a man after God’s Own heart, has many wives and mistresses. Yet, on one spring day, he looks out over the land and spies a beautiful woman (Bathsheba) bathing. He sends for her and has sex with her—it is possible even that he raped her. It turns out that she is married to one of David’s greatest warriors—one of his mighty men—Uriah the Hittite. Consequently, she finds that she is pregnant with David’s child while her husband is off at war. So David brings her husband, Uriah, back home and tries to get him to go sleep with his wife. The idea is, she will have a child and he will think it is his. However, David is unable to get Uriah to do this because his fellow soldiers are out in the filed fighting; therefore, he cannot go home to his wife and enjoy pleasure with her under these circumstances. David, frustrated by this man’s character and personal sense of honor, simply has Uriah killed. David tells his nephew Joab to put Uriah near the front of the battle, and then to fall back and allow him to be killed. So David has now involved one of his greatest generals, his own nephew Joab, in a successful plot to kill Uriah the Hittite, husband of Bathsheba. The discipline that David deserves for this great sin (obviously, a series of sins) becomes the topic for the next 8 chapters of Samuel, as well as the content for several psalms.


The discipline that David requires is going to be so great that, God cannot just give it to him at one fell swoop, or it would destroy David. So God breaks his discipline down into installments.

Installment Discipline for David

Installment

How David Was Disciplined

#1

David loses the child of this adulterous union in the latter half of 2Sam. 12. (2) 

#2

One of David’s daughters is raped by one of David’s sons, Amnon (and David sets thing sup in order for this to happen—2Sam. 13:1–23).

#3

His son, Absalom, will kill Amnon (again, David is manipulated into setting up this murder—2Sam. 13:24–39).

#4

Absalom will lead a full-scale rebellion against his father, David (2Sam. 14–18). FInally, Joab has to straighten David out before he is restored as king, in 2Sam. 19.

There are 2 reasons why God applies installment discipline to David: (1) He cannot take all of the discipline at one time and (2) It takes this much discipline to turn David around and to turn him away from his arrogance and sin. David will still be involved in arrogance through to the final discipline installment. One concentrated lump of discipline would not be enough to turn David around. Even in the final phrase of his discipline, David is still making really bad decisions, from time to time, as king, based upon emotion and arrogance. God has to pour enough discipline upon David to get him going in the right direction again because the entire nation Israel is dependent upon him.

Part of what we will study is discipline and part of it is suffering for blessing. When it turns David around, and he rebounds, it goes from being suffering from discipline to suffering for blessing.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


What we will learn about revolution is nothing short of amazing (and this is a testament to R. B. Thieme, Jr.’s genius). Footnote This is my second time through this particular study of David (I heard it live when I moved to Houston and now I am re-listening to the MP3 files, and I am amazed by all that I missed the first time through.


Application: You may think that you want David’s money, his looks, his military genius, his power and authority, but there is a downside to having great authority, and that is great discipline from God. After this chapter, David is going to be disciplined for 10 years based upon about a month’s worth of bad decisions. With all of his money and power comes responsibility. We want to be able to make some bad choices, and look back and say, “That was a bad month; I’m ready to move on.” In order for God to turn David around, 10 years of 4 beatdowns were required for his bad month. “To whom much is given, much is required.” (Luke 12:48b).


First of all, let’s examine in more detail what is actually in this chapter. In the spring, it was customary for most kings to go to war, however, David will hang back in Jerusalem while he sends his #1 general, Joab, to complete the attack upon Ammon (v. 1). Originally, I blamed David for staying in Jerusalem instead of going to war, which many other exegetes did. However, David was becoming an older man at this time, and in one battle, it was clear that he did not have the endurance to see things through. After that battle, David’s top men made him stay in Jerusalem when they went to war (see 2Sam. 21:15–17, which is a part of the appendix to 2Samuel). David’s men see that he is not up to the battle; and they tell him, “Look, my lord, you can no longer go out to battle with us.”


Given David’s impotence in war—he had reached the end of his ability to go to war with the younger men—David has what we call today, a mid-life crisis. His life was defined by his work, which was being king of Israel and a tough warrior. All of us reach that point where our abilities begin to wain; and for some of us men, that concerns us. It is clear we are becoming middle age (no, I cannot bring myself to say old). When we come to that point (I write this as a man having passed that point), we sometimes either need to redefine ourselves apart from our work; or we do what we can to reclaim our youth. Don’t misunderstand me—I am not excusing what David does here—I am just trying to put it into perspective.


David seems to either sleep in late or take long, leisurely naps, and wakes up late in the day. After one of these siestas, David talks a walk on his roof and, from the top of his palace, he observes the very beautiful Bathsheba taking a bath or a shower (v. 2). Apparently, this is an open roofed room or area in the courtyard, where she enjoys privacy from the outside, but can be seen from above. David inquires as to who this woman is, and finds out that she is married to one of his greatest soldiers, Uriah the Hittite (v. 3). Although this ought to be the end of it, David has Bathsheba brought to his palace at which time he has sex with her (v. 4a). Bathsheba purifies herself and goes home. However, later Bathsheba discovers that she is pregnant with David’s child, and she informs David of this (vv. 4b–5).


So David formulates a plan. He will bring Uriah, her husband, back from the field, and David will then attempt to get Uriah to go back home for a night so that he can think that he has impregnated Bathsheba. However, this does not work. So, David tries to get Uriah drunk and send him back home, and that does not work (vv. 6–13). So David formulates another plan—to have his general, Joab, place Uriah in the midst of a battle where he is certain to be killed (vv. 14–15). Joab follows David’s orders and Uriah is killed in battle (vv. 16–17).


Joab sends a messenger to inform David of this, and actually knows what David will say. David will start talking about an incident from the book of Judges where a woman kills a judge by dropping part of a millstone on his head, and when David says this, the messenger is supposed to say, “And Uriah the Hittite is dead,” in order to shut David up (vv. 18–24). This works so well, that David suddenly stops berating the messenger for Joab’s mistake, and begins to responds philosophically with, “People die in war; that is a fact. We don’t know who will die or under what circumstances. It is just a fact of war.” And then David will dismiss the messenger (v. 25).


David then allows a respectable amount of time to pass, and he brings Bathsheba to his palace and marries her. She bears David a son (vv. 26–27a). However, what David did is evil in God’s eyes (v. 27b).

 

Matthew Henry: The scripture is faithful in relating the faults even of those whom it most applauds, which is an instance of the sincerity of the penmen, and an evidence that it was not written to serve any party: and even such stories as these “were written for our learning,” that “he that thinks he stands may take heed lest he fall,” and that others' harms may be our warnings. Footnote

 

J. Vernon McGee: The sin of David stands out like a tar-baby in a field of snow, like a blackberry in a bowl of cream. It may cause us to miss the greatness of the man. Remember that sin was the exception in David’s life—not the pattern of it. Footnote

 

McGee then adds: The Word of God does not play down the sin of David; it does not whitewash the man. God doesn’t say it is not sin. God is going to call it sin and David will be punished for it. Footnote


I enjoyed some of Henry’s language in the following:

Alternate Outline from Matthew Henry

I.       He committed adultery with Bath–sheba, the wife of Uriah (2Sam. 11:1–5).

II.      He endeavoured to father the spurious brood upon Uriah (2Sam. 11:6–13).

III.     When that project failed, he plotted the death of Uriah by the sword of the children of Ammon, and effected it (2Sam. 11:14–25).

IV.     He married Bath–sheba (2Sam. 11:26–27).

From: Matthew Henry, Commentary on the Whole Bible; from e-Sword, 2Sam. 11 introduction. .


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When David realizes what he has done and how far he has fallen, he rebounds (names his sin to God), which will occur in 2Sam. 12 and in some psalms which David wrote. David then faces several installments of discipline which are turned to installments of suffering for blessing, because this sin is so ingrained in David’s thinking. The aftershocks of this sin are so great, that God has to virtually beat this out of David.


David obviously likes women, and he collected a number of wives and mistresses (we do not know exactly how many, but probably, around 10 of each). David knows the Bible. He has read all about Adam and Eve. There was no Adam and Eve and Wanda and Mindy and Laura, et al. However, despite all of the doctrine that David knew, he essentially rejected the doctrine of right man/right woman. He knew it; he read about it; and he would not accept it.


There is one more thing which is quite significant with regards to David’s sin: this woman that he possibly rapes is his right woman; this woman Bathsheba is the gal that God had designed specifically for David. The children which she will bear for David will be in the line of Jesus Christ—both His legal line (through Joseph) and his genetic line (through Mary). And there’s more. At some point in time, David will stop having sex with his other wives and will devote himself to Bathsheba, the woman he raped (?) and the woman whose husband he murdered. This is remarkable. And this family, David’s second set of children, will be raised correctly. Before Bathsheba, David sired a whole bunch of kids—children whom he loved, to be sure—but children that he did not raise correctly; and so, these are children which had some serious character flaws. You cannot have a dozen children with several wives, and be able to keep up with them. David was unable to properly raise his children, who become a part of his discipline; but, his children by Bathsheba, he will raise up with great wisdom.


Let’s see if we can get some introductory points on David’s sin.

David’s Sin: What’s the Issue?

1.      Introductory point: this is not David’s first sin, nor is this the first recorded sin where David is out of fellowship for a lengthy period of time. You may recall David marching with Philistines with the intent of attacking Israel—that was the result of David’s protracted sin against God during that time period.

2.      Second introductory point: there is not just a single sin which David commits here; however, the discipline for this series of sins and the text on this series of sins often refer back to David’s sin. His getting out of fellowship and staying out of fellowship for a long period of time is treated with the singular word sin.

3.      David is clearly a mature believer. His actions and life from very early on indicate this.

4.      We know for a fact that David has carefully studied the Mosaic Law, because he figured out the proper way to move the Ark of God. This took some intense study and reading, since he may not have had anything which approximated a concordance back then (that is, he had no way of looking up moving the Ark, so that he could have looked up that particular passage). My guess is, David began to read the Law in order to find this passage, but, it grabbed him, and he began to read it carefully and to study the text as he went along.

5.      Given that David marries many wives and collects mistresses, it is obvious that he rejected the doctrine of right man/right woman; which would have been apparent from God’s model for a relationship between man and woman (one man, Adam; and one woman, Eve).

6.      David ignored the passage that a king ought not to add many wives to himself (Deut. 17:17).

7.      God the Holy Spirit spends a great deal of time on this sin, which indicates, it merits our careful study. Bear in mind, what we find in the Bible are not simply random lists and events, but exactly that which God the Holy Spirit wants us to know.

8.      At the beginning of this sin, David is king over all Israel and one of the wealthiest men in all Israel—a man greatly blessed by God. At the end of his discipline, David is king over Israel and one of the wealthiest men in Israel—a man greatly blessed by God.

9.      In fact, David, at the end of all this, will be blessed by now having his right woman and fathering children he actually spends time raising, and, obviously, enjoying.

10.    The discipline which David receives is administered in installments, something which R. B. Thieme, Jr. calls installment discipline. The idea is, David is back in fellowship and he has admitted what he has done wrong, but God chooses to continue with suffering in David’s life.

11.    When a believer is out of fellowship, God may pour on the discipline, and the idea is, to catch his attention and to cause him to rebound and get back into fellowship. The suffering is also punishment for the sin or sins committed.

12.    However, David is in fellowship for much of the suffering that he endures.

13.    All suffering for the believer in fellowship is designed for blessing.

14.    Suffering for the immature believer and the mature believer while in fellowship is often used to accelerate growth.

15.    Therefore, this intense suffering which David is under will result in blessing and accelerated growth for David. So, even though David is clearly a mature believer throughout the previous chapters, he will still experience spiritual growth.

16.    It is reasonable to suppose that this intense pressure which God puts on David also continues so that David remains in fellowship for the rest of his life (obviously, he will sin and get out of fellowship but he will be motivated to get right back into fellowship).

17.    It is reasonable to suppose that David’s intense suffering was made quite public by God because of David’s position and authority. Everyone knows who David is; after awhile, people will begin to find out just how David has sinned. Some believers who know their Scriptures know that there is at least one mandate from God which David has ignored: A king will not multiply wives to himself (Deut. 17:17a). This must have been a concern or a question for believers who recognized that David was a great believer and greatly blessed by God. Because of his leadership role, David had a very public life; and this affected the spiritual lives of others.

18.    Finally, there seems to be more going on here than David simply getting out of fellowship for a period of time and then being disciplined for it. It is that which I have been struggling with.

19.    Each installment of discipline is not simply to make David feel pain; but, David is to learn something from each installment of discipline.

20.    When all is said and done, David will not enter into sinless perfection. However, he will remain in fellowship for much longer periods of time and he will not get out of fellowship for days on end.

This is a lot to keep in mind as we begin studying this portion of David’s life, but these are all points of consideration as we evaluate what God the Holy Spirit wants us to understand.


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Prior to exegeting this chapter, I have spent a lot of time studying and re-studying Bob Thieme’s old tapes (actually MP3 files now) and thinking about alternative explanations. The theories which I offer up here may all be interrelated.

Theories on David’s Sin

Theory

Commentary

David was out of fellowship for awhile and God disciplined him for it. Being a public figure, he may have been given more discipline than the average person.

There seems to be more going on here than simply getting out of fellowship. One issue here, which is often ignored by commentators is, David had many wives and this violated the mandates of the Mosaic Law (Deut. 17:17). It is reasonable to suppose that this Bathsheba incident will be related to that.

David was simply in reversionism and God disciplined him appropriately.

Technically, reversionism indicates that a person, from whatever spiritual level he is on, falls back (reverts) to his previous life. Reversionism is characterized by a refusal to rebound (name one’s sins to God), which is certainly a characteristic of David’s sin. Reversionism is accompanied by negative volition towards doctrine.


However, the discipline for reversionism has a specific pattern of warning discipline followed by intensive discipline followed by the sin unto death. Instead, we find installment discipline (a misnomer). Therefore, there is a different approach taken by God with regards to discipline, indicating that the sin is a different quality of sin.

The key here is, David is a mature believer and yet allows himself to fall into protracted sin. That is, the key is both his maturity and the fact that he stays out of fellowship for a long time.

These observations about David are completely accurate—he is a mature believer and he stays out of fellowship for a protracted period of time. Furthermore, it is clear that he uses his God-given authority in order to commit these sins, and abuses this God-given authority on several occasions. So David has taken a great blessing and responsibility given to him by God, and has used it in order to satisfy his own personal lusts.

David is in interlocking systems of arrogance.

This is something brand new to theology, developed by R. B. Thieme, Jr. He did a fantastic job of developing this doctrine, but a less than stellar job of selling it. However, the idea is, a mature believer can step into interlocking systems of arrogance through one of its gates, and not only be trapped in there (until he rebounds), but be subject to the other gates as well (that is, David will enter into interlocking systems of arrogance through sexual arrogance but he will soon resort to conspiratorial, manipulative and criminal arrogance, something which he would not have considered doing before). Since I have introduced the subject, I will present the doctrine of interlocking systems of arrogance below.

Blind arrogance.

Perhaps David has committed a series of sins which he does not recognize as being sins, and they take him to this point to where he engages in adultery and then in murder.

Wilful and persistent disobedience.

David knew the Old Testament, as we have previously studied, and yet he multiplied wives to himself, in opposition to the Bible. This ate away at his soul and eventually manifested itself in the taking of Bathsheba and the murdering of her husband.

Degeneracy sins. Semi-permanent engraving of the brain (or, this may be thought of as, the addictive quality of a sin). Engaging in a particular sin becomes more important than one’s responsibilities in life.

There are sins which are related to our thinking (perhaps all of them); and some of them become so ingrained in our thinking that we are unable to view them objectively and they further blind us to divine truth. David, in one portion of his brain, begins to write on the neurons of his brain, and engraves thinking which is contrary to the thinking of God. Although we have the sloshing around in our brains of various chemicals and electronic signals and pulses going on, we can write semi-permanent information onto our brains which affects us quite significantly. Two very obvious examples are drug addiction and alcoholism. These two behaviors, separately or in tandem, can drag our entire lives down. They can destroy marriages, families, careers; and most certainly, the spiritual life of a believer. Repeating a particular sin seems to engrave such thinking into our brains; or engaging in a series of related sins seems to further engrave this into our brains. The end result is, this affects our entire thinking and almost every aspect of our lives. Another example of this is homosexual activity. We all have weaknesses; our sin natures have areas of sin which we lean toward. When we fall into these areas of sin, which then begin to engrave themselves in the brain, and become established functions in our lives, and then permeate the rest of our thinking; this quite negatively impacts our spiritual live. A person can be a believer in Jesus Christ and have homosexual tendencies, and be so tempted for most or all of his life. The more that he gives into this sin—to the point of accepting it and then to the point of making it an integral part of one’s life—the more that this affects the entire thought process of this believer. Giving in to any particular set of sins over and over again can apparently neutralize the life of a believer. So, for David, what began as collecting women then turned to dereliction of duty, which turned to adultery, which then turned to murder.

David has moved from perpetual or intermittent carnality to perpetual evil

Evil is the thinking and policy of Satan, which is in opposition to grace, which is the thinking and policy of God. David suffered intermittent carnality because of his many wives (specifically not covered in Scripture). This led to carnality in David’s life (his sin with Bathsheba). This sin turned into perpetual carnality which morphed into perpetual evil.

Some of these theories may end up being different approaches which describe the same thing, like 5 blind men describing the elephant.


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What appears to be the case is, R. B. Thieme, Jr. came upon this passage, which he was determined to teach, and did not have a viable doctrine to explain David’s behavior. Footnote Nor was there any developed doctrine in theology which explained David’s behavior and the results.

A Doctrine is Needed to Explain David

1.      The problem which seemed to bring out this doctrine was David’s sin with Bathsheba.

2.      David will first stay home when he ought to go out to war.

3.      Then he has sex with another man’s wife, and it is possible that this illicit sex involves rape.

4.      David attempts to manipulate the situation to get Bathsheba’s husband to come back from the war and sleep with his wife (to cover up the pregnancy).

5.      When this doesn’t work, David has her husband killed in battle giving a field order which requires Joab to carry it out.

6.      David will rebound and God will discipline him afterwards with installment discipline.

7.      Here is the problem: going into the sin, David is clearly a mature believer. Coming out of the sin, David is clearly a mature believer (he does a lot of writing of Scripture once he is restored to fellowship). David does not seem to lose spiritual ground in terms of maturity, although he certainly brought upon himself a heap of discipline.

8.      Although David gets out of fellowship for an extended period of time, this does not appear to be reversionism.

9.      Reversionism is where a believer gets out of fellowship, rejects Bible doctrine, intentionally not taking in doctrine (even though he might go to church) and consequently goes into a spiritual decline. Reversionism is a term which speaks of a person reverting to his behavior as an unbeliever during this period of spiritual retrogression. We find the Hebrews guilty of this in Heb. 6:1–6.

10.    In fact—and this is an important point—although David has been in and out of fellowship on several occasions, he never seems to go into reversionism. There never seems to be a point where he has to start over from scratch.

11.    David became a believer at a very early age and it appears as if he grew to spiritual maturity at a very young age as well.

12.    Therefore, there is no actual set of behaviors to which David can revert to when out of fellowship, because he was so young when he was saved and then when he matured.

13.    However, there is no way that we can overlook the gross sins which David immerses himself in. He will break several of the Ten Commandments here: he will covet another man’s wife; he will commit adultery with another man’s wife, and then he will have that man killed.

14.    In committing these sins, David is not reverting to his behavior as an unbeliever. He never committed such sins before.

15.    In reversionism, people tend to spiritual regress. That is, whatever level of spiritual maturity a person has reached, he begins to lose that state and to fall backwards.

16.    This does not appear to happen to David.

17.    He is spiritually mature at the beginning of these sins, and he will write a lot of Scripture immediately after committing these sins, suggesting that he is still in a state of spiritual maturity.

18.    That is, despite committing this set of horrendous sins, David does not appear to have lost spiritual ground. At no time, will David have to start over and grow.

19.    Therefore, we need more of an explanation of David’s sin here and the results which goes beyond David being out of fellowship for a protracted period of time and beyond the concept of reversionism, which does not appear to apply here.

These points ought to make it clear that, simply saying that David is out of fellowship for awhile or that he has gone into reversionism does not fully explain what he did and where he is spiritually, both before and after this sin.


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This particular doctrine was originally developed by R. B. Thieme, Jr. in the late 1970's and he had it crystalized into a complete doctrine by 1980 (when he taught it in conjunction with this particular passage). He later revised this to 2 sets of interlocking systems, which he called cosmic 1 and cosmic 2.

As just discussed, we need to explain David’s spiritual state in this chapter. We cannot fully explain his behavior by saying this is simply a protracted period of time that he is out of fellowship nor can we say that he entered into reversionism, because this is not reverting to any behavior which David exhibited as an unbeliever.

The Doctrine of Interlocking Systems of Arrogance

1.      The interlocking systems of arrogance refers to many clusters of sins which have a tendency to interlock with one another.

2.      That is, a believer who goes into interlocking systems of arrogance through one gate (or entrance), is likely to interlock with another cluster of sins if he remains out of fellowship.

3.      Using David as the example, he first is guilty of sexual arrogance, and has sex with a women who is the wife of one of his soldiers. Rather than get back into fellowship, David then tries to manipulate her husband, and, when that does not work, he becomes involves in criminal arrogance, and has Bathsheba’s husband killed.

4.      Believers and unbelievers can enter into interlocking systems of arrogance.

5.      Immature and mature believers can enter into interlocking systems of arrogance.

6.      The believer who enters into interlocking systems of arrogance may not lose much spiritual ground. They may not have to start over from step one in their spiritual lives (as we see in Heb. 6:1–3).

7.      Such a believer may not be entirely negative toward Bible doctrine. He may continue to attend Bible class and will have periods of time when he is both in fellowship and listening to the Word of God.

8.      Although they may not revert to behavior from their past unbelieving life, they may begin committing whole new varieties of sins never committed before.

9.      While in interlocking systems of arrogance, a person can become more easily tempted by a variety of lusts. In this chapter, David will be overtaken by sexual lust for Bathsheba.

10.    While in interlocking systems of arrogance, you may abandon many of your norms and standards. David will commit adultery and then murder in this chapter.

11.    One cluster of sins often interlocks with another cluster of sins, which can pull in a set of sins that this believer generally does not commit.

12.    When out of fellowship in inside the interlocking systems of arrogance, the believer—even the mature believer—is more vulnerable to these other clusters of sins (gates).

13.    Each gate represents a cluster of sins related to arrogance.

14.    These are called gates because they represent the way a person enters into interlocking systems of arrogance.

15.    However, when in interlocking systems of arrogance, the believer may interlock with another cluster of sins. He is not reentering into interlocking systems of arrogance because he is already there. He just begins to participate in a new cluster of sins as well.

16.    We might say, the believer goes further into the interlocking systems of arrogance with each new gate he enters.

17.    In David’s case, he is too entrenched in interlocking systems of arrogance to see just how far he has gone. He does not recognize just how evil he has been. It will take another believer, Nathan the prophet, to get to David, to get him to turn around and look at himself and what he has done (2Sam. 12:1–7).

18.    So there is no misunderstanding here, David is not some helpless soul trapped in a system from which he cannot escape. He is in a system of interlocking clusters of sins, and involvement with one cluster of sins often leads to involvement with another cluster of sins. However, David has human volition which he is exercising the entire time. By arrogantly remaining out of fellowship, and trying to deal with this situation on his own, David continues to limit his options.

19.    God does not look at David and say, “Look, this is too bad you are trapped here. Let’s get you out and everything is all better.” God will discipline David so much here that it must be parceled out in installments. If David got all that he deserved all at once, even David would be unable to endure it.

20.    In other words, the punishment for entering into interlocking systems of arrogance is quite severe.

21.    There seems to be very little spiritual ground lost as a result of being in interlocking systems of arrogance.

22.    We know this because David goes in as a mature believer and he exits as a mature believer. We know he comes out as a mature believer because he will write a number of psalms to describe this experience (which we will, of course, study after completing this chapter).

23.    Mature believers can fall prey to interlocking systems of arrogance. They can go into the interlocking systems of arrogance with doctrine in their soul, and come out the same way. In fact, it is often doctrine in their souls which they apply in order to get out of interlocking systems of arrogance.

24.    Because it is so easy for the believer to fall back into he interlocking systems of arrogance after escaping, God often applies tough discipline in order to get our attention and to focus us toward getting out of interlocking systems of arrogance. Sin nature weakness arrogance and sexual arrogance were so deep in David’s soul, that God gave him installment discipline, partially to discipline David, but partially to help him stay out of interlocking systems of arrogance at the end of his life. This does work, because David will be great in the final years of his life (we know this, because he will actually raise up Solomon as a father ought to raise up a son).

Keil and Delitzsch write: Although the primary occasion of the Psalm [51] is the sin of adultery, still David says peshaʿ (פֶּשַע) [pronounced PEH-shahģ] not merely because many other sins were developed out of it, as his guilt of blood in the case of Uriah, the scandal put into the mouths of the enemies of Jahve, and his self-delusion, which lasted almost a whole year; but also because each solitary sin, the more it is perceived in its fundamental character and, as it were, microscopically discerned, all the more does it appear as a manifold and entangled skein of sins, and stands forth in a still more intimate and terrible relation, as of cause and effect, to the whole corrupt and degenerated condition in which the sinner finds himself. This entangled skein of sins sounds a lot like the interlocking system of arrogance. Footnote


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There are 36 gates of arrogance (several of which I have add and I am sure more will be uncovered). Entering into the arrogance complex through any one of these gates can make you vulnerable to the other gates.


Surprisingly enough, I cannot find anywhere on the internet where this doctrine is laid out completely. I have it in my notes and it must be in one of Bob’s books, so I will reproduce it here for easy access. Each gate below is a separate doctrine in itself with examples from Scripture of believers who have exhibited these types of arrogance.

I have added 5 or more gates to this list.

The Gates (Entryways) into Interlocking System of Arrogance

Gate

Description of the Gate

1.      Mental Attitude Arrogance

Mental attitude arrogance is preoccupation with self leading to sin, human good and evil. It is satisfaction with self and dissatisfaction with others. Mental attitude arrogance results in preoccupation with self, which results in indifference to Bible doctrine, which results in accepting the cheap substitutes of emotional activity, legalism, human good, and becoming a loser in the Christian life.

2.      Negative Volition Arrogance

Negative volition is resistance to Bible doctrine on the one hand, or indifference to Bible doctrine on the other hand, based on arrogant preoccupation with self. Arrogance preoccupation with self has many aspects, such as a personality conflict with the teacher of doctrine, or self-pity in interaction with people in the congregation. In this state, you are not antagonistic to doctrine, but simply distracted from it by your own status quo of arrogance. For the believer, this is the most damaging arrogance of then all.

3.      Impulsive Arrogance

Impulsive arrogance applies to those who are in position of authority and they abuse the power of their authority. Their arrogance is manifested by their aggressive decisions.

4.      Institutional Arrogance

Institutional arrogance is the rejection of authority, policy, purpose and system of any legitimate institution.

5.      Blind Arrogance

Blind arrogance - arrogance of legalism. This is being partially divorced from reality (sociopathic rather than psychotic). This includes self-righteous arrogance, which is failure to see in yourself what you criticize in others.

6.      Conspiracy Arrogance

Conspiracy arrogance comes after institutional arrogance and results in a conspiracy to overthrow the purpose, policy, or authority of an organization.

7.      Criminal Arrogance

Criminal arrogance seeks to solve problems by violence and/or by criminal actions. The modus operandi of a person in criminal arrogance is criminal behavior. Believers are susceptible to this kind of arrogance just as unbelievers are.

8.      Crusader Arrogance

Crusader arrogance is the self-righteousness arrogance that tries to straighten the world from its error and mistakes. A person places his personal standards above the law or any form of establishment or authority. When criminal arrogance interlocks with crusader arrogance, there is terrorism or revolution.

9.      Psychopathic Arrogance

Psychopathic arrogance is total divorcement from all reality. It is a result of bad decisions, not genetics. It is intense concentration on self. Emotions take precedence over reason.

10.    Sexual Arrogance

Sexual arrogance is preoccupation with sex and self-gratification. It is preoccupation with the body to the exclusion of the soul.

11.    Genetic Arrogance

Genetic arrogance is assuming that greatness in life is inherited. Parents who seek recognition through the achievement of their children have this type of arrogance.

12.    Political Arrogance

Political arrogance is a result as well as an interlock with crusader arrogance. It is any human panacea which offers the solution to life's problems. Liberals and conservatives both suffer from political arrogance. It rejects the separation of church and state. Political arrogance is self righteousness searching for a solution to problems in politics.

13.    Client Nation Arrogance

Client nation arrogance is the arrogance related to divine laws and spiritual leadership. National arrogance emphasizes the laws of divine establishment (HTML) (PDF) and the function of government leadership in terms of arrogance versus humility. There are three basic forms of legitimate government.

(1)Monarchy is the rule of one man in the interest of the common good, which under arrogance becomes tyranny, i.e., the rule of one man for his own advantage.

(2)Aristocracy is the rule of a group in the interest of the common good. This degenerates to an oligarchy, which is the rule of a group for their own benefit, as the cosmic system influences the nation.

(3)A republic is the rule of the better part of the people in the interest of common good. But when arrogance comes, it degenerates into a democracy, which is the rule of the worst part of the people for their own benefit.

14.    Authority Arrogance

In authority arrogance, the individual fails to make the most difficult transition of temporal life, which is going from the authority in the home to freedom in life. The home is organized humility. The parents' authority is enforced humility, and the child's response to enforced humility produces genuine humility. Rejection of overt authority in life results in rejection of inward authority of the soul, and that destroys your own self-discipline.

15.    The Arrogance of Ignorance

Genuine humility is necessary for the transitions from authority in the home to freedom in life and from ignorance at salvation to cognizance at spiritual maturity. Genuine humility is the necessary teachability to make that transition. The arrogance of ignorance is the failure to make that transition from ignorance to cognizance in the Christian way of life. Simply put, the arrogance of Ignorance is the failure to make transition from ignorance to cognizance

16.    The Arrogance of Unhappiness

In the arrogance of unhappiness, self-centeredness eliminates any capacity or possibility for happiness. Involvement in cosmic one guarantees unhappiness and leads to erroneous ideas about what constitutes happiness. This means you expect others to make you happy. Entertainment and marriage is for people who are already happy. But with the arrogance of unhappiness, you have a martyr complex which results in trying to control people by giving them a guilt complex. This is how the weak control the strong. Unhappiness arrogance is the martyr complex trying to control people by guilt complex.

17.    Iconoclastic (or, Disillusionment) Arrogance

The arrogance of disillusion is called iconoclastic arrogance or the feet of clay syndrome.

(1)This begins when you put someone on a pedestal. Then when their feet of clay shows, you become disillusioned and react to whatever they represent.

(2)In other words, arrogance creates an idol of enchantment and illusion, but when the idol is shattered, arrogance is shocked and distracted and disoriented to life.

(3)As a result, the arrogant creator of the idol seeks to destroy the idol, a revenge in which the person can only gain his self-respect by destroying the thing which has allegedly destroyed his self-respect.

(4)Illusion created by arrogance is illusion destroyed by arrogance.

Iconoclastic arrogance is idolizing a person, which person is then mentally destroyed by the admirer’s own disillusionment.

18.    The Arrogance of Morality

The arrogance of morality is the self-righteous arrogance of superimposing false standards of morality on others. People major in one moral thing so they can rationalize and say they are better than everyone else in that area. This is superimposing a false standard of morality on others or taking a true standard out of its context, e.g., salvation. Morality is designed to protect human freedom. Morality arrogance is the imposition of self righteous arrogance of man-made legalistic norms and standards.

19.    Rational Arrogance

1.      Rational arrogance is the vanity of intellectual arrogance, or the elitism of the genius I.Q. Elitism might be defined for this study as that arrogant consciousness of pride in belonging to a select or favorite group of people. People with a high I.Q. have a tendency to look down their noses at those who are less fortunate.

2.      Rational arrogance is the vanity of giving precedence to human I.Q. and intellectual attainment over spiritual I.Q. and momentum from doctrine. The human viewpoint of life rejects or sets aside divine viewpoint.

3.      Rational arrogance generally afflicts those believers in Jesus Christ whose superior I.Q. or educational background gives them a false sense of elitism or

4.      All too often, intellectual arrogance compromises Bible doctrine by attempting to reconcile those things found in the Word of God with philosophical and scientific speculation.

5.      Because rational or intellectual arrogance is so anthropocentric, it has a tendency to accept as fact theories and philosophical speculations in the field of rationalism and empiricism, and make them a part of Christian doctrine.

6.      This doctrine is found at the Free Republic Website as gate #9 (points taken from there) and at Robert McLaughlin’s website.

20.    Emotional Arrogance

The arrogance of emotion is irrationality. Arrogant people stop thinking and so their emotion becomes their substitute for thought. This is total preoccupation with self related to emotion. Knowledge is the environment for thinking. Bible doctrine is the environment for decisions. Emotional arrogance fantasizes and therefore collapses under pressure. Emotional arrogance is when thought is replaced by substitute emotion.

21.    Pseudo-generosity Arrogance

In the arrogance of pseudo-generosity, a person gives because of a desire for attention, approbation, or to buy friendship or happiness. 2Cor. 9:7,11 teaches that the function of genuine generosity is found in the mind.

22.    The Arrogance of Christian Service

A loss of momentum comes from rejection of doctrine and substituting Christian service for spirituality. Christian service becomes a distraction to momentum. Production is a result of growth, never the means. Perpetuation of Christian service while in the cosmic system is the arrogance of Christian service. Arrogance mistakes Christian service for growth and momentum. Christian service arrogance is the self-righteous arrogance of making a show of out of his service and sacrifice for God, the motive of which is human recognition and approbation.

23.    Discouragement Arrogance

The arrogance of discouragement is preoccupation with self under pressure and testing. Unexplained disaster tempts the believer to feel sorry for himself. Being maligned, treated unfairly, or facing the death of loved ones are the kinds of disaster or pressure that bring this on. This was Peter and Elijah's problem (Matt. 26:58 1Kings 19:10). In discouragement arrogance, one enjoys the scenario of seeing himself in pain, sorrow and lost.

24.    The Arrogance of Lust

When legitimate desire is linked with arrogance, it becomes lust. Inordinate desire is lust. Desire is not wrong, but lust is. Lust is arrogant preoccupation with one's desires. A legitimate arrogance when combined with arrogance becomes lust of arrogance.

25.    Pseudo-Intellectual Arrogance

Pseudo-intellectual arrogance is the superimposition of human I.Q. over spiritual I.Q. Arrogance rejects divine viewpoint. It glorifies human speculation to the exclusion of Bible doctrine, or seeks to reconcile Bible doctrine with false philosophical, psychological, and scientific speculation; e.g., gnosticism. Spiritual IQ is the ability and capacity of the believer to perceive, receive, believe, retain and recall Bible doctrine for everyday living under the grace of God.

26.    Pseudo-Love Arrogance

Pseudo-love arrogance is the attempt of anyone to duplicate the principles or function of true love while residing in the cosmic system.

27.    Revenge Arrogance

Revenge arrogance - trying to re-gain self respect by destroying the destroyer of his false self-esteem.

28.    Suicidal Arrogance

Suicidal arrogance - is super-imposing his own will over God's sovereign will at the limelight. Arrogance of suicide is produced by arrogance which motivates the taking one's own life.

29.    Religious Arrogance

Religious arrogance exalts creatures or things over the Creator (we see this in hyper-environmentalists who are concerned with the preservation of mother earth more than with human life).

30.    Sin Nature Weakness Arrogance

Every believer has a weakness (or, weaknesses) in his (or her) sin nature. When this is placed above Bible doctrine, that is arrogance. For instance, homosexual believers who refuse to recognize that homosexual behavior is sin. It is certainly possible for any homosexual to believe in Jesus Christ and stand saved forever, no matter how often this person has homosexual relations. However, when their personal predilection for sin is given preeminence over Bible doctrine, that is the arrogance of sin nature weakness. In other words, they often try to portray their sin as good or as a condition given by God, which is far worse and more arrogant than committing this sin.

31.    The Arrogance of Addictive Behavior

Some sins are naturally addictive—alcohol and drug usage are examples of this. Quite obviously, a person drinks or takes a particular drug because they like the way it makes them feel. It titillates their emotions and causes their mind and/or body to feel good. Most often, it removes them from their circumstances, which they may find difficult.

32.    Manipulative Arrogance

Rather than to take responsibility for one’s actions and rather than to accept things as they are, a manipulator will attempt to manipulate people and circumstances in order to do his or her bidding.

33.    Compartmentalization Arrogance

Here, a person is able to set aside all of the pain and grief he causes, because these things are a means to a desired end. There are a huge number of people around the world who are willing to do very evil things, so that their ends might be gained. Islamic radicals, communists, socialists and anarchists all come quickly to mind. These people all have a radical vision of the future, and are unconcerned about the pain and suffering that they cause, which will take them to that goal. They are able to set aside, in their own minds, the pain, harm and evil which they cause, because these things result in what they see as a good result.

34.    Anti-societal arrogance

This is where a person rebels against societal norms and standards, to the point where, if society classifies some as right, he questions it; if society classifies something as wrong, he does it. He looks at other people who adhere to these rules with disdain and sees them as inferiors. A great many filmmakers suffer from this sort of arrogance. They attempt, in their films, to continually push the envelope when it comes to societal mores. Because they question society’s conventions, they see themselves as superior and insightful to those who abide by them. However, from time to time, they we latch on to an axiom of counter-culture morality and display it with great self-righteousness (such as, tolerance).

35.    Entitlement arrogance

The infusion into the soul that one is entitled to things which one has not earned.

36.    Abuse of Authority Arrogance

This is where a person in authority considers himself too smart and too good to consider the suggestions of his underlings. He automatically reacts negatively to the suggestions of certain people below him. Or he rejects philosophies and approaches which rejection has been ingrained in his soul from his early age.


Another form of this is where a person in authority abuses or takes advantage of those under his authority. You have entered into this gate when this is your modus operandi.

Many of these definitions from:

http://demonology.jrcbdm.com/gates_of_evil.htm Some of these definitions came from Rev. Dr. James A. Brettell from http://www.docstoc.com/docs/33520367/Texts and others came from Cvengr’s notes from Berachah Church circa 1989 http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-religion/2344068/posts The final 6 gates are my own.

There are more extensive notes on the interlocking systems of arrogance from Bob’s teaching of David (HTML) (PDF); lessons #631_0238–631_0239 (I apologize in advance for the many typos). My notes from those classes have since been removed, at the request of R. B. Thieme III.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Applying the interlocking systems of arrogance to David in particular,

David and the Interlocking Systems of Arrogance

1.      David likes women and he began to collect women very early on.

2.      As a great and charismatic leader, David could also apply this charm to women, and we have a list of David’s wives, mistresses and children begun in 2Sam. 5 (HTML) (PDF).

3.      However, during all of this time, before and after David began to collect wives, David continued to grow spiritually and he had many spiritual breakthroughs (e.g., the successful moving of the Ark in 2Sam. 6 (HTML) (PDF).

4.      However, all of this time, he continued to collect wives and mistresses. David collected so many that he did not even record all of their names in 2Sam. 5, nor did he keep track of which child belonged to which wife or mistress (which will be discussed in greater detail when we look at David’s Wives.

5.      This chapter marks a point at which David takes this too far.

         a.      He does not go out with his soldiers at war. This appears to be at the urging of his own soldiers (2Sam. 21:17).

         b.      He appears to take advantage of the fact that his soldiers are at war, as there are far fewer men inside of Jerusalem.

         c.      David finds himself attracted to a woman, and when he finds out that this woman is the wife of one of his soldiers—even now, on the field of battle—this does not dissuade David. He desires the wife of Uriah the Hittite, breaking commandment #10, and he commits adultery with her, breaking commandment #7, which violation makes David worthy of death.

         d.      When David takes Bathsheba, bear in mind, he had 10–20 other women that he could have had sex with legitimately.

         e.      However, even then, David continues on this arrogant pathway, and he has her husband killed, which is breaking another commandment, which is also a capital offense.

6.      David is both out of fellowship for an extended period of time, and he is committing acts which begin affecting dozens of people, completely ignoring his own personal responsibility toward these people.

7.      David will gives in to the lusts of his sin nature and he will abandon his many norms and standards.

8.      David’s old sin nature weakness is revealed in 2Sam. 5, and despite the clear spiritual growth that David enjoys in 2Sam. 6 (and elsewhere), David later finds himself giving in completely to his personal desires, which is what this chapter is all about.

9.      According to R. B. Thieme, Jr.1, David will go 18 months without rebounding (naming his sins to God and being restored to fellowship).

1 From my notes of R. B. Thieme, Jr.’s 1972 David series, lesson #631_0238.


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This portion of David’s life—his sin and punishment—take up a huge portion of the Word of God (2Sam. 11–20). Therefore, we need to recognize the importance of this study. This sin that David committed simply indicated how far he had fallen into degeneracy.

Degeneracy Sins (Addictive Behavior)

1.      Not all sins function the same way in our life. We may give in to this or that sin, now and again, but these sins do not dramatically impede our spiritual growth nor do they consume our lives.

2.      However, there are sins which potentially can stop us dead in our tracks, keeping us from spiritual growth, and sometimes transforming our lives, to where these sins become first and foremost in our lives.

3.      We will classify these types of sins as degeneracy sins. Committing such sins once or twice is not degeneracy; committing such sins with great regularity, where much of our life is spent preparing to commit such sins, is degeneracy.

4.      David has fallen into sexual degeneracy.

5.      Sins of degeneracy are sins where we continue to dig ourselves deeper and deeper into sin.

6.      Most often, these sins involve some kind of pleasure, often from sex, drinking, drugs or even over-eating.

7.      The commission of these sins goes beyond the weakness of the sin nature. These are not simply a person’s individual weakness; these are sins which that person continue to pursue with greater effort and greater frequency.

8.      There seems to be an effect of repetition and time when it comes to degeneracy sins. This repetition digs out a rut which often keeps us there. That is, the more we repeat the sin, the harder it is not to commit that sin.

9.      Degeneracy sins can begin small and develop to a point where they consume much of a person’s life.

10.    There seems to be a diminished capacity to resist such sins, as repetition of these sins continues. It is not necessarily that the person is completely unable to stop committing these sins; but that he chooses not to.

11.    There also appears to be an inability to objectively appreciate the effect of these sins on one’s own life.

12.    David was a skirt-chaser. He loved women. In his culture, David could get away with having many wives, and few people took a dim view of this.

13.    However, the ability to temporarily satisfy a sin of degeneracy does not minimize that sin in any way, nor does it keep that sin from taking up too much of your life.

14.    David had so many wives and mistresses that he stopped keeping track of all their names and stopped worrying about which child belonged to which wife (apart from his first few children). 2Sam. 5:13–16

15.    However, his sin with Bathsheba made it clear that David was in a hole and he continued to dig himself deeper into that hole. His sins of degeneracy had led him to a place where he committed sins against others that he would have never considered before.

16.    If you have ever driven a vehicle over open land and got stuck in the dirt, you will find that, when you rev up the engine, you will just dig yourself deeper at the point where you got stuck. This is how a sin of degeneracy affects us.

17.    The carry this analogy further, we find that we must either seek outside help to get the car out of the rut or try an outside approach (e.g., putting boards under the wheels of the vehicle in order to get traction).

18.    One of the common steps in addiction recovery is trusting in a higher power (God) to help you, guide you out, or to depend upon. Political correctness has kept many addiction organizations from specifically identifying God.

19.    By the time of 2Sam. 11, David discovered that, as king, he could send his troops off to war, and that took many of the men out of Jerusalem. That gave David a greater chance to chase women.

20.    David wakes up in the early evening, has a sexual urge, and yet does nothing to satisfy the urge with one of his (approximately) 20 wives and mistresses. Most of us males think, with 20 women, that is going to be quite enough variety. The fact that David did not turn to one of his wives or mistresses indicates that he was trapped in addictive behavior; he was digging himself further into a rut with degeneracy sins.

21.    David’s son, Solomon, had 1000 wives and mistresses, and that was not enough for him. The Song of Solomon is all about his pursuit of another women, even though he had 1000 women of all nationalities to choose from. That is clearly being trapped in addictive behavior.

22.    Degeneracy sins can include various sexual addictions, including homosexuality, a desire for sexual relations with children, and/or an addiction to pornography; as well as alcoholism, drug addiction and an addiction to gambling.

23.    There have been several studies which indicate that there is a genetic component to addictive behavior. One study, for instance, showed that, of identical twins, if one person was a homosexual, there was a 50% chance that his identical twin was homosexual. This indicates a clear genetic predisposition but one which is not determinative.

24.    Along the same lines, there seems to be genetic evidence for alcoholism. Charlie Brown may be predisposed genetically toward alcoholism, but that may or may not develop in his lifetime. The same thing is certainly true of drug addiction. Having this soul defect is not determinative; you can choose not to participate in the first place.

25.    I recall an article which was purposely a setup. It begins describing the effects of a particular sin, and the results of that sin. The way the article begins, one immediately thinks that it is homosexual behavior which is being discussed, but it turns out to be alcoholism. The twist of the article is, all the percentages of negative results which are true of the alcoholic are even more pronounced for the homosexual.

         a.      As I read somewhere on the internet, “This is how God made you (an alcoholic), enjoy it. Drink all you want.”

         b.      This is how the world wants us to view these weaknesses, in some instances. That is, if you have a desire to experiment with homosexual sex, then go ahead and try it out. Quite obviously, that is not the Biblical approach.

26.    There seems to be an addictive personality, that has one set of addictions, and, after overcoming that, falls prey to another set of addictions. This would probably indicate both a genetic and a volitional component.

27.    You cannot fall into addictive behaviors apart from your own free will. This is one of the attacks of the present-day, political homosexual movement—they claim that there is no choice involved, that being homosexual is ingrained from birth, and cannot be changed, and that even those who claim to be transformed, if they find themselves tempted, this is evidence that they have not been transformed. Some even bring God into this, along with love, and try to approximate homosexual relationships with heterosexual relationships. This is wrong on many counts.

         a.      A heterosexual relationship can result in a child, and marriage serves to protect both the mother and the child. You have no doubt heard of shotgun weddings; this was a somewhat warped version of understanding this principle. There is no such protection required in a homosexual union.

         b.      A heterosexual marriage combines two fundamentally different creatures: a man and a woman. These genders are different from birth. At one time, the women’s lib movement tried to convince us that gender differences were placed there by society, but that has since been shown to be false.

         c.      Homosexuality is not as widespread as it portends to be. The National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS), found that only 2.8 percent of the men and 1.4 percent of the women said they thought of themselves as homosexual or bisexual.1

         d.      Fidelity is a very important part of a heterosexual marriage. An act of infidelity can destroy a marriage. Few committed homosexuals depend upon sexual fidelity.

         e.      A lifelong commitment among heterosexual couples is much more likely than that between homosexual couples.

         f.       Marriage is an institution recognized by nearly all cultures over all recorded history. Homosexuality, bestiality, pedophilia and polygamy have all existed almost since the beginning of time, but always as a perversion and never as the norm of any society.

         g.      For a traditional marriage, it is not unusual for lifelong partners to enter into a lifelong commitment, without ever having sex with one another or with others. In fact, this was, at one time, the norm. Virgin marriages and making a lifetime commitment to one another as virgins simply does not occur in a homosexual relationship.

         h.      It is obvious that many of these differences are a matter of degree, but the difference in degree is generally quite dramatic.

28.    For many, committing these sins (sexual sins, drunkenness, the use of drugs) tends to dig oneself deeper into a degeneracy hole.

29.    Their lives become obsessed with committing these sins, to the exclusion of other legitimate activity.

30.    I’ve known alcoholics and have seen them drink themselves to the point where they lose their jobs, their families, their homes, and/or their cars.

31.    I have known drug addicts. Drug abusers can get to a point where the will rob their own family members in order to continue using drugs. I have known drug addicts whose physical changes and mental changes are so stark as to make them almost unrecognizable to friends and family.

32.    A 1978 study showed that 43% of male homosexuals have had 500 or more partners.2 That is obsessive behavior.

33.    A 1981 study showed that only 2% of male homosexuals could be classified as monogamous or semi-monogamous.2 Again, this is behavior far outside of the norm and indicates addictive behavior more than it does personal satisfaction.

34.    There are several passages in the Bible which allude to degeneracy sins:

         a.      2Sam. 11 is all about how overcome David is with lust that he would take a woman in adultery—possibly by rape—and then have her husband killed.

         b.      Song of Solomon is all about Solomon, the man who is chasing after the woman in this book, despite having 1000 wives and mistresses.

         c.      Rom. 1:21–27 Because knowing God, they did not glorify Him as God, nor were thankful. But they became vain in their reasonings, and their undiscerning heart was darkened. Professing to be wise, they became foolish and changed the glory of the incorruptible God into a likeness of an image of corruptible man, and of birds, and four-footed animals, and creeping things. Because of this, God gave them up to impurity in the lusts of their hearts, their bodies to be dishonored among themselves, who changed the truth of God into the lie, and worshiped and served the created thing more than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen. Because of this, God gave them up to dishonorable passions, for even their females changed the natural use to that contrary to nature. And likewise, the males also forsaking the natural use of the female burned in their lust toward one another, males with males working out shamefulness, and receiving back within themselves the reward which was fitting for their error. Here, God gives these up to their dishonorable lusts, allowing them to burn in lust toward those of the same gender. So the Bible clearly recognizes that, when it comes to this sort of behavior, the desire to commit these sins is very strong.

35.    The solution for sins of degeneracy does not appear to be any different from the solution to all forms of carnality (being out of fellowship). Rebound (naming one’s sins to God) and turning toward the truth of the Word of God (the inculcation of Bible doctrine into one’s soul; or, epistemological rehabilitation). This is not reading the Bible for yourself, but putting yourself under the authority of a knowledgeable pastor-teacher who consistently teaches the Word of God. Personally, I believe that there is no reason why a believer should be taking in doctrine less than a daily basis.

1 http://www.truenews.org/Homosexuality/homosexual_myths_and_facts.html accessed February 15, 2011.

2 http://gospelway.com/morality/homosexuality.php accessed February 15, 2011.

For additional research of homosexuality, let me suggest:

http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1751579/posts

http://www.conservapedia.com/Homosexuality


Chapter Outline

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It may seem early to be drawing some conclusions about David’s sin (since we have not exegeted the first word yet), but I think we can safely come to some conclusions.

Concluding Introductory Remarks about David’s Sin

1.      There is certainly more here than simple, perpetual carnality.

2.      David’s high profile position and clear relationship to God play an important part in this narrative. David’s position of authority allow him to commit these sins. It is a lot harder for me to spot a super-babe who is married, get her to come over to my house, have sex with her, and then murder her husband. These things are harder for me to do than for David.

3.      David was looked up to with regards to his relationship with God. It was clear, early on, in his kingship, that he was closely related to God in his thinking. He was absolutely persistent about bringing the Ark of God into Jerusalem.

4.      David was well-known and respected. You or I may commit a great sin or a series of sins, and 10 or 15 people might know (maybe less). David’s sins became known to perhaps tens of thousands of people and they affected hundreds, if not thousands of people.

5.      David, a man after God’s Own heart, has sex with one of his warrior’s wives and then has him killed is pretty extraordinary; as people found out about this, the more they are likely to use that as an excuse for their own bad behavior. “David, this great spiritual giant, did this; and all I want to do is that, which is much less important.” Sin has a way of taking hold and spreading throughout a population. The fact that David is seen as a spiritual giant allows people greater latitudes in their own rationalization.

         a.      I am a political junkie, and I have heard, hundreds of times, a charge laid against our current President Obama, where an apologist immediately cites something similar which former President George W. Bush had done.

6.      A number of us desire some modicum of fame. I recall being in Austin on Sixth Street with a friend of mine, and some drunken kids drive by and yell out my name. This was moderately impressive, as here we were, a couple hundred miles from where I live, and I am recognized. Some people have a great desire for this thing called fame; but with fame comes responsibility. The more closely you are identified with the plan of God, the tighter the reign which God might upon you.

         a.      This does not mean that what you want to shoot for is a mediocre spiritual life when you essentially fly beneath the radar.

         b.      People are confused by spiritual growth. They think that, they don’t want to grow too much, because this might obligate them to too much.

         c.      Remember what Jesus promised: “Come to Me, all those laboring and being burdened, and I will give you rest. Take My yoke upon you and learn from Me, because I am meek and lowly in heart, and you will find rest to your souls. For My yoke is easy, and My burden is light.” (Matt. 11:28–30; Jer. 6:16b).

         d.      In other words, spiritual growth makes your life better, not worse, despite the added responsibilities.

         e.      In the human realm, when you went from being a teenager to a full-fledged adult, you gained a huge amount of freedom; however, personal responsibility also increased.

         f.       In your job, you will often find that additional responsibilities is a promotion. Furthermore, often what is involved is greater creativity and greater authority. One of the things which I enjoyed about teaching was the great latitude, freedom and creativity which was afforded me in the classroom (something which was reduced over the years). It made the job much more enjoyable, despite the fact that more responsibility was much greater.

         g.      The more you grow spiritually, the better your life is, despite the increased responsibility. Just as no sensible adult wants to return to his parents’ home and put himself under their authority, no sensible growing believer wants to retrogress to a more mediocre level of spiritual growth.

7.      David’s fame as a man who was spiritually mature came into play here; his actions were deplorable and could have infected the entire nation. God’s discipline of David had to be just as public and just as harsh, so as to discourage others from falling into the Davidic rationalization process.

8.      One of the end results of David committing this sin is going to be a revolution against his government.

9.      Therefore, David’s sin is going to affect essentially everyone in Israel.

10.    This is part of the responsibility that the believer with some authority faces. A pastor who commits adultery or some sexual sin is likely to be run out of his church. The greater the spiritual responsibility, the greater the punishment.

 


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I should hope that it is clear, that, from this point forward, that this portion of David’s life is not designed to be fully understood by new believers. There are many twists and turns, a huge volume of doctrine, and much to be studied in order to have a full understanding of what will occur in this and the next half-dozen chapters of Samuel. If you are a new believer, you will get something out of this study. However, if you come back in 5 or 10 years, you will be surprised as to how intense this study is.


Let me add in a few principles taught by Bob in the David series:

Loyalty to the Truth Rather than Loyalty to People

1.      Human integrity is having loyalty to the 3 categories of truth.

         1)      To the laws of divine establishment (HTML) (PDF).

         2)      To the gospel (HTML) (PDF).

         3)      To Bible doctrine (HTML) (PDF) (Lake Erie Bible Church HTML PDF) (Verse by Verse HTML)

2.      True integrity is having loyalty to a principle as opposed to loyalty to a person. It is legitimate to exhibit loyalty to a person so long as integrity is directed toward the truth.

3.      Believers and unbelievers alike are to adhere to the laws of divine establishment.

4.      The gospel is truth for the unbeliever only, but designed to be understood as absolute truth by believers, with all of its ramifications.

5.      After believing in Jesus Christ, the believer then is to turn toward doctrine.

6.      Loyalty to the truth is adherence to the truth.

7.      When having to choose between loyalty to a friend and loyalty to the truth, the person with integrity must choose the truth.

8.      The following two illustrations are an application of this doctrine, and which help to explain it.

         1)      When your friends desire to break the law, you cannot be with them. It is not unreasonable to turn them in or warn them that you are going to turn them in.

         2)      When friends, family or other believers try to dissuade you from Bible class, you have to choose Bible class. God separated some believers from their family so that they can focus on the Word of God (however, this is not true for all believers in the Bible nor does the Bible suggest that you must isolate yourself from family and friends.

9.      Incorrect application:

         1)      You do not separate from family and friends because they are confused about the laws of divine establishment.

         2)      You do not necessarily separate from believers who lack doctrine and are therefore, not growing.

10.    A chief characteristic of integrity is having loyalty to truth. You will know the truth and the truth will make you free (John 8:32). Therefore, when you, as a believer, face a conflict between people and the Word of God, you choose the Word of God.

11.    You cannot be loyal to Bible doctrine without knowing Bible doctrine.

12.    A believers cannot have integrity unless he is loyal to the truth.

13.    The believer cannot be enmeshed in the interlocking systems of arrogance and have integrity. We are going to see David trapped by interlocking systems of arrogance in this chapter, and his personal integrity is completely lacking.

14.    Personal honor is the coalescence of integrity and loyalty.

15.    The believer who is ignorant of doctrine and the unbeliever who has no concept of divine establishment, cannot develop honor because they have on truth to be loyal to.

16.    Developing an appreciation for the truth begins with teachability, which is true humility. There is nothing more arrogant than a believer who, soon after believing in Jesus Christ, thinks that he knows it all.

17.    Learning Bible doctrine as a system will involve self-discipline and academic discipline. A natural outcome of spiritual growth is self-discipline and academic discipline.

18.    Many of the principles of doctrine (which include the laws of divine establishment) ought to be applied to business and professional life.

19.    Learning and believing in Bible doctrine develops integrity for the believer, which is loyalty to God.

20.    When you choose people over doctrine, that is not loyalty to people but disloyalty toward the truth.

21.    Believers who are not loyal to the truth are then given strong delusion, as Paul wrote in 2Thess. 2:11: Therefore, God will send them [those who reject Bible doctrine] strong delusion, so that they will believe a lie.

         1)      The lie can be almost anything, depending upon the category of truth you have rejected.

         2)      This is another way of viewing scar tissue of the soul. When you reject Bible doctrine, your soul develops a vacuum which sucks in false doctrine, which develops scar tissue of the soul. Eph. 4:17–19 Now this I say and testify in the Lord, that you must no longer walk as the Gentiles do, in the futility [emptiness, vacuum] of their minds [thinking]. They are darkened in their understanding, alienated from the life of God because of the ignorance that is in them, due to their hardness of heart [scar tissue of the soul]. They have become callous [in their thinking; they have become callous toward the truth] and have given themselves up to sensuality, greedy to practice every kind of impurity.

22.    There ought to be no conflict between truth and loyalty. When loyalty to a person leads to criminality, arrogance, and/or corruption, then one has become loyal to a person rather than loyal to the truth. Al believers, our loyalty is always toward God, which means our loyalty is toward divine truth.

23.    In a national entity, there must be adherence to the laws of divine establishment. We find this under communism; we find this in Arab nations; and this is beginning to develop throughout most of Europe.

24.    Quite obviously, a client nation to God must be loyal to the truth, which means, it must adhere, as much as possible, to the laws of divine establishment. The more that these laws are rejected, the more warning discipline that God administers to that nation.

25.    No nation can continue as a client nation without national integrity, which is loyalty to the truth. Therefore, as a collective body, the unbelievers in the nation should believe in the laws of divine establishment and the believers should believe in Bible doctrine. Evangelization and doctrinal teaching ought to continue unhindered.


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There are a couple of other points which need to be made. David is a great believer—greater than any of us will be—but God the Holy Spirit placed this information here so that we learn from it. We have to examine this part of David’s life critically, because that is why it is placed in the Bible. However, we are not to look at David’s failures and feel self righteous about how great we are in comparison to David. As a ruler, David is the gold standard of kings (1Kings 3:4 11:4, 38 15:5, 11 2Kings 18:3 22:2 2Chron. 17:3 29:2). Furthermore, we are not to emulate David in his mistakes nor are we to somehow see these actions as good or right or admirable.


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David's Army Goes to War


Slavishly literal:

 

Moderately literal:

And so he is to a return of the year to a time of the going out of the kings. And so sends David Joab and his servants with him and all Israel. And so they cause to go to ruin sons of Ammon. And so they besiege upon Rabbah. And David is staying in Jerusalem.

2Samuel

11:1

And so it is a return of the year to the time when kings go out. Therefore, David deploys Joab and his servants with him and all Israel. And so they destroyed the sons of Ammon and besieged Rabbah. But David remained in Jerusalem.

And so the spring time returns—the time of the year when kings go out to battle. Therefore, David deploys Joab and his servants with him and all Israel. And so they destroyed the sons of Ammon when they besieged their capital city Rabbah. But David remained back in Jerusalem.


Here is how others have translated this verse:

 

Ancient texts:                       Note: I compare the Hebrew text to English translations of the Latin, Syriac and Greek texts, using the Douay-Rheims translation Footnote ; George Lamsa’s translation, and Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton’s translation as revised and edited by Paul W. Esposito, respectively. I often update these texts with non-substantive changes (e.g., you for thou, etc.). I often use the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible instead of Brenton’s translation, because it updates the English text.

 

The Septuagint was the earliest known translation of a book (circa 200 b.c.). Since this translation was made before the textual criticism had been developed into a science and because different books appear to be translated by different men, the Greek translation can sometimes be very uneven.

 

When there are serious disparities between my translation and Brenton’s (or the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible), I look at the Greek text of the Septuagint (the LXX) to see if a substantive difference actually exists (and I reflect these changes in the English rendering of the Greek text). I use the Greek LXX with Strong’s numbers and morphology available for e-sword. The only problem with this resource (which is a problem for similar resources) is, there is no way to further explore Greek verbs which are not found in the New Testament.

 

The Masoretic text is the Hebrew text with all of the vowels (vowel points) inserted (the original Hebrew text lacked vowels). We take the Masoretic text to be the text closest to the original. However, differences between the Masoretic text and the Greek, Latin and Syriac are worth noting and, once in a great while, represent a more accurate text possessed by those other ancient translators.

 

In general, the Latin text is an outstanding translation from the Hebrew text into Latin and very trustworthy (I say this as a non-Catholic). Unfortunately, I do not read Latin—apart from some very obvious words—so I am dependent upon the English translation of the Latin (principally, the Douay-Rheims translation).

 

Underlined words indicate differences in the text.

 

Bracketed portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls are words, letters and phrases lost in the scroll due to various types of damage. Underlined words or phrases are those in the Dead Sea Scrolls but not in the Masoretic text.

 

Latin Vulgate                          And it came to pass at the return of the year, at the time when kings go forth to war, that David sent Joab and his servants with him, and all Israel, and they spoiled the children of Ammon, and besieged Rabba: but David remained in Jerusalem.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so he is to a return of the year to a time of the going out of the kings. And so sends David Joab and his servants with him and all Israel. And so they cause to go to ruin sons of Ammon. And so they besiege upon Rabbah. And David is staying in Jerusalem.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    AFTER the year expired, at the time when the king leaves the palace, David sent Joab and his servants with him and all Israel; and they besieged Rabbath. But David remained in Jerusalem.

Septuagint (Greek)                And it came to pass, when the time of year had come for kings to go out to battle, that David sent Joab, and his servants with him, and all Israel; and they destroyed the children of Ammon, and besieged Rabbath; but David remained at Jerusalem.

 

Significant differences:           The Syriac text has a different beginning to this text, although it seems to be quite similar to a return of the year, as is found in the Hebrew. And it came to pass is left out of the English translation of the Syriac. In the second phrase, the English translation of the Syriac has king in the singular and it is not clear where the king is going to. However, the Hebrew is also unclear as to where the kings go out to; but the Latin and Greek fill in the blanks, as do many English translations. It is possible that to battle was dropped out of the Hebrew text. The Syriac text leaves out that the Israelites are attacking the children of Ammon (which may have been missing in their Hebrew text). Although there are several differences, primarily with the Syriac text, none of these differences does serious damage to the Hebrew text.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       It was now spring, the time when kings go to war [Or "when the messengers had gone to Ammon" (see 2Sam. 10.2) or "the time when the kings had gone to war" (see 2Sam. 10.6–8)]. David sent out the whole Israelite army under the command of Joab and his officers. They destroyed the Ammonite army and surrounded the capital city of Rabbah, but David stayed in Jerusalem.

Easy English (Pocock)           David and Bathsheba

The next spring came. Kings usually went to fight wars during springtime. David sent Joab out with David's officers and the *Israelite army. They defeated the *Ammonites and surrounded the city called Rabbah. But David stayed in Jerusalem.

Easy-to-Read Version            In the spring, at the time when kings go out to war, David sent Joab, his officers, and all of the Israelites out to destroy the Ammonites. Joab’s army also attacked {their capital city} Rabbah.

Good News Bible (TEV)         The following spring, at the time of the year when kings usually go to war, David sent out Joab with his officers and the Israelite army; they defeated the Ammonites and besieged the city of Rabbah. But David himself stayed in Jerusalem.

New Life Bible                        David And Bathsheba

The spring of the year was the time when kings went out to battle. At that time David sent Joab and his servants and all Israel. They destroyed the sons of Ammon and gathered the army around Rabbah. But David stayed at Jerusalem.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      The period of the year returned for the messengers to proceed. David sent Joab and his servants with him, and all of Israel to destroy the sons of Amman, besieging toward Amman. But David dwelled in Jerusalem.

American English Bible          Now, when the time of year came around when the kings [traditionally] went out to battle, David sent JoAb, his servants, and the entire army of Israel, and they destroyed the sons of AmMon. Then they laid siege against RabBah, however David stayed home in Jerusalem.

God’s Word                         In the spring, the time when kings go out to battle, David sent Joab, his mercenaries, and Israel's army to war. They destroyed the Ammonites and attacked Rabbah, while David stayed in Jerusalem.

NIRV                                      It was spring. It was the time when kings go off to war. So David sent Joab out with the king's special troops and the whole army of Israel. They destroyed the Ammonites. They went to the city of Rabbah. They surrounded it and got ready to attack it. But David remained in Jerusalem.

New Jerusalem Bible             At the turn of the year, at the time when kings go campaigning, David sent Joab and with him his guards and all Israel. They massacred the Ammonites and laid siege to Rabbah-of-the-Ammonites. David, however, remained in Jerusalem.

Revised English Bible            At the turn of the yera, when kings go out to battle, David sent Joab out with his other officers and all the Israelite forces, and they ravaged Ammon and laid siege to Rabbah.

David remained in Jerusalem,...


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             Now in the spring, at the time when kings go out to war, David sent Joab and his servants and all Israel with him; and they made waste the land of the children of Ammon, and took up their position before Rabbah, shutting it in. But David was still at Jerusalem.

Context Group Version          At the return of the year, at the time when kings go out [ to battle ], David sent Joab, and his slaves with him, and all Israel; and they destroyed the sons of Ammon, and besieged Rabbah. But David remained at Jerusalem.

HCSB                                     In the spring when kings march out to war, David sent Joab with his officers and all Israel. They destroyed the Ammonites and besieged Rabbah, but David remained in Jerusalem.

JPS (Tanakh)                         At the turn of the yera, the season when kings go out [to battle], David sent Joab with his officers and all Israel with him, and they devastated Ammon and besieged Rabbah; David remained in Jerusalem.

NET Bible®                             David Commits Adultery with Bathsheba

In the spring of the year, at the time when kings [Codex Leningrad (B19A), on which BHS is based, has here "messengers" (which is, hammal'khim), probably as the result of contamination from the occurrence of that word in v. 4. The present translation follows most Hebrew manuscripts and the ancient versions, which read "kings" (hammela'kim).] normally conduct wars [Heb "go out."], David sent out Joab with his officers [Heb "and his servants with him."] and the entire Israelite army [Heb "all Israel."]. They defeated the Ammonites and besieged Rabbah. But David stayed behind in Jerusalem [The disjunctive clause contrasts David's inactivity with the army's activity.]. When it comes to making an actual material change to the text, the NET Bible® is pretty good about indicating this. Since most of these corrections will be clear in the more literal translations below and within the Hebrew exegesis itself, I will not continue to list every NET Bible® footnote.

The Scriptures 1998              And it came to be at the turn of the year, at the time sovereigns go out to battle, that Dawid sent Yo’ab and his servants with him, and all Yisra’ĕl, and they destroyed the children of Ammon and besieged Rabbah. But Dawid? remained at Yerushalayim.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And it comes to pass, at the revolution of the year--at the time of the going out of the messengers--that David sends Joab, and his servants with him, and all Israel, and they destroy the Bene-Ammon, and lay siege against Rabbah. And David is dwelling in Jerusalem,...

English Standard Version      In the spring of the year, the time when kings go out to battle, David sent Joab, and his servants with him, and all Israel. And they ravaged the Ammonites and besieged Rabbah. But David remained at Jerusalem.

Geneva Bible                         And it came to pass, after the year was [The year following about the spring time] expired, at the time when kings go forth [to battle], that David sent Joab, and his servants with him, and all Israel; and they destroyed the children of Ammon, and besieged Rabbah. But David tarried still at Jerusalem.

LTHB                                     And it happened at the turn of the year, at the time when kings go out, David sent Joab and his servants with him, and all Israel. And they destroyed the sons of Ammon, and lay siege to Rabbah. But David remained at Jerusalem.

New King James Version       David, Bathsheba, and Uriah

It happened in the spring of the year, at the time when kings go out to battle, that David sent Joab and his servants with him, and all Israel; and they destroyed the people of Ammon and besieged Rabbah. But David remained at Jerusalem.

NRSV                                     In the spring of the year, the time when kings go out to battle, David sent Joab with his officers and all Israel with him; they ravaged the Ammonites, and besieged Rabbah. But David remained at Jerusalem.

Syndein                                  And it came to pass,; the spring'/'after the year was expired'; spring is the time for new military campaigns}, at the time when kings go out to battle, {David was a 'King-soldier' and he should be going out to battle himself - instead he sends Joab} that David sent Joab {Chief of Staff - David's nephew and great military genius also}, and his 'general staff', and 'the Jewish Army'. {idiom: literally: 'all Israel' - but only the army goes out to fight} Now they 'annihilated {in battle}' the army of Ammon, and besieged Rabbah {their capital city}.

But David 'remained and intended to stay' {yashab - Qal participle} in Jerusalem {with no intention of going to war again}.

Third Millennial Bible              And it came to pass, after the year was expired, at the time when kings go forth to battle, that David sent Joab and his servants with him and all Israel; and they destroyed the children of Ammon and besieged Rabbah. But David tarried still at Jerusalem.

World English Bible                It happened, at the return of the year, at the time when kings go out to battle, that David sent Joab, and his servants with him, and all Israel; and they destroyed the children of Ammon, and besieged Rabbah. But David stayed at Jerusalem.

Young’s Updated LT             And it comes to pass, at the revolution of the year—at the time of the going out of the messengers—that David sends Joab, and his servants with him, and all Israel, and they destroy the Bene-Ammon, and lay siege against Rabbah. And David is dwelling in Jerusalem.

 

The gist of this verse:          Joab and the troops return to Ammon to besiege the city; David chooses to remain behind in the City of David.


2Samuel 11:1a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

teshûwbâh (תְּשוּבָה) [pronounced te-shoob-VAW]

a return; a replay, an answer

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #8666 BDB #1000

shânâh (שָנָה) [pronounced shaw-NAW]

year

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #8141 BDB #1040

We find this same or similar phrasing in 1Kings 20:22, 26 1Chron. 20:1 2Chron. 36:10.


Translation: And so it is a return of the year... The Jewish calendar runs from spring to winter. The beginning of spring marks the beginning of their calendar (the month of Nissan); and the end of their year is the end of Winter (which makes a great deal of sense to me). Rebirth (spring) follows death (winter). Adar is the final month of the Jews, which straddles our February and March; and Nissan begins the Jewish year. In the year 2011, the Jewish new year (1Nissan 5772) will be March 24, 2011 (here is a website which converts the dates, because this is not a simple 1–1 relationship). In short, the old year is passing and the new year is beginning (which is equivalent to our spring); and this also marks the time that kings go out to war.


The land of promise, during the beginning of David’s reign, was in a state of flux. At the beginning of each year—after the winter—when spring had come and there were butterflies moving from flower to flower and birds sweetly chirping, there was another activity which continued from year to year: war. There was a constant struggle between these various groups to put down their flag in this or that land, to claim it.

 

Gill: Jewish commentators observe, the rains were over, and there were grass in the fields, and fruit on the trees, and corn ripe, and so food for horse and men. Footnote


Part of the reason for this was, this is Israel, and throughout Israel and on every side, are those who are hostile to Israel. This is a part of the angelic conflict. Even today, there are huge factions in dozens of nations around Israel who are antagonistic toward Israel, and it will always be that way. During our time, there is Iran, hundreds of miles away, a country that is unaffected by the actions of the nation Israel, and yet, they even today are absolutely beside themselves that a half million Jews occupy a postage stamp of a country, comprising perhaps 0.2% (or less) of the Middle East, and Iran is furious at Israel. Iran, a country which could care less about the rights and interests of any other people, are all worked up over to the tiny country of Israel, and their present leader has spoke of destroying Israel completely on many occasions, claiming outrage over Israel’s treatment of the Palestinians. Of course, Iran would never give the Palestinians a plot of land in the country of Iran; Iran would never do anything to materially benefit the Palestinians, but they will send them weapons.


That irrational hatred and anger which exists today existed in the past. The Philistines had defeated Saul and his sons, and split Israel into two countries. The Ammonites and the Moabites had developed hostilities toward Israel, as did Aram and many other peoples.


Therefore, in the spring, there continued to be war between Israel and the nations all around, as well as with the people within the land.


2Samuel 11:1b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʿêth (עֵת) [pronounced ģayth]

time, the right time, the proper time; opportunity

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #6256 BDB #773

yâtsâʾ (יָצָא) [pronounced yaw-TZAWH]

to go out, to come out, to come forth; to rise; to flow, to gush up [out]

Qal infinitive construct

Strong's #3318 BDB #422

meleke (מֶלֶך׃) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572

According to Rotherham, this is written messengers but read kings.

Codex Leningrad (B19A), on which Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia is based, has here "messengers" (הַמַּלְאכִים, hammal'khim), probably as the result of contamination from the occurrence of that word in 2Sam. 11:4. The present translation follows most Hebrew MSS and the ancient versions, which read "kings" instead (הַמֶּלָאכִים, hammela'kim). Footnote


Translation: ...to the time when kings go out. This is interesting, as there is no mention of war, no mention of military men, no mention of generals. One might even think, it is spring, and these kings are going out to smell the new flowers and gather for a music fest somewhere. However, this is not why kings go out. They go out to war. Of course there are generals and there are armies, but here, this is set up to be in stark contrast with David.

 

J. Vernon McGee: It was the time of the year when kings went forth to war. In other words, in that day the nations had an “open season” on each other like we do today on birds and animals. At a certain season, you can shoot them; at other seasons, you cannot. But, after all, isn’t that true even in modern warfare today? During the monsoons in Vietnam, the war came to a standstill because they got bogged down in the swamps, and the rain kept the planes out of the air. After the monsoons let up, the war was on again. The approach to war in David’s day may have been a great deal more modern than we think. The unfortunate thing about the two world wars is that the greatest suffering was caused by the winter weather rather than by the enemy, but they attempted to carry on the fighting. At least in David’s day, there was a season for warfare. Maybe they were a little more civilized than we are. At least they recognized a time when they could enjoy comparative peace. Footnote


So far, our verse reads: And so the spring time returns—the time of the year when kings go out to battle. This seems to indicate that war was a regular thing during the time of David. This was not just something which David did, in order to conquer more land, but kings from all around that area went out with their soldiers to hold their land or to take more land. Just as plowing and planting crops were a natural part of the spring; so it was with war.


It is the time of the year when kings go out; but David will not. At first read, I believed that this specifically stated David’s responsibility and he is shirking his responsibility. However, in 2Sam. 21:15–17, it is clear that David had reached his expiration date as a soldier. His own men told him not to go off to war with them any more. For a man who had been a warrior for most of his life, this was tough for David to hear. However, he made choices after this which were, simply put, very bad choices.


God gives us a number of responsibilities throughout our lives. This may be authority in this or that position; we might even run a company, and have 10 or 20 or 1000 people work for us. Having this responsibility is to be taken seriously. Having a responsibility which God has given you has to be taken seriously, Can you imagine someone in charge of that company and then deciding, “I don’t feel like going to work” and then stay home for the next 6 months or more? However, this was not David. David’s own men had told him, “Do not come to battle with us any more.” The implication was, he, as king, had become more of a liability to them.


A pastor-teacher has a tremendous responsibility. He is responsible for the souls of dozens or hundreds of people, and he will be attacked continually by Satan’s demon army, if he does a halfway decent job. He may be plagued with a hundred different attacks, and yet, he has to be faithful in teaching the Word of God.


David has a tremendous responsibility here as king and as commander-in-chief; however, his authority was entering into a new phase; and David was having difficulty coming to grips with that.


Application: So, you are sitting there and you think that God ought to drop $10 million into your lap or that He ought to give you your right woman (or right man) or that He ought to give you a higher position, and you might even been a little upset with God, because He has not advanced you as far as you think He should have or He has not blessed you with as much as you think He should have. All of these things come with responsibility. God does not give you a million dollars and then look the other way when you decide to spend all of this money on wine, women and song. You belong to Him. You have been bought with a price. God doesn’t give you stuff to simply frivolously waste on your lusts.


Application: I recall one of my more industrious friends, always going to school and always working. Whenever she needed something difficult to attain or had a difficulty, she would ask me to pray for her. If she wanted X, then it was time to pray to God. I suspect that she mentioned this to believers and unbelievers of many faiths, just to keep her bases all covered. It never occurred to her that anything was reciprocal. It never occurred to her that she ought to think about her own relationship to God. God is someone out there, and if she got enough people praying to Him, he’s going to give in to her.


Application: You may love your son or daughter, but when you give them gifts, then these gifts ought to be appropriate to their age and character. You don’t buy your 16 year-old son a $50,000 sports car and say, “Enjoy.” He may think that you are the coolest dad ever and, within 1 month, wrap that sports car around a tree, because he is not ready to have that kind of responsibility.


David is, at this time, revealing a distinct lack of responsibility, and, therefore, a lack of capacity. I want you to recall a parable that Jesus spoke to His disciples: “For it [the 2nd advent of Jesus] will be like a man going on a journey, who called his servants and entrusted to them his property. To one he gave five talents, to another two, to another one, to each according to his ability. Then he went away. He who had received the five talents went at once and traded with them, and he made five talents more. So also he who had the two talents made two talents more. But he who had received the one talent went and dug in the ground and hid his master's money. Now after a long time the master of those servants came and settled accounts with them. And he who had received the five talents came forward, bringing five talents more, saying, 'Master, you delivered to me five talents; here I have made five talents more.' His master said to him, 'Well done, good and faithful servant. You have been faithful over a little; I will set you over much. Enter into the joy of your master.' And he also who had the two talents came forward, saying, 'Master, you delivered to me two talents; here I have made two talents more.' His master said to him, 'Well done, good and faithful servant. You have been faithful over a little; I will set you over much. Enter into the joy of your master.' He also who had received the one talent came forward, saying, 'Master, I knew you to be a hard man, reaping where you did not sow, and gathering where you scattered no seed, so I was afraid, and I went and hid your talent in the ground. Here you have what is yours.' But his master answered him, 'You wicked and slothful servant! You knew that I reap where I have not sown and gather where I scattered no seed? Then you ought to have invested my money with the bankers, and at my coming I should have received what was my own with interest. So take the talent from him and give it to him who has the ten talents. For to everyone who has will more be given, and he will have an abundance. But from the one who has not, even what he has will be taken away. And cast the worthless servant into the outer darkness. In that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.' When the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, then he will sit on his glorious throne.” (Matt. 25:14–31). Every man is given things for which he is responsible, here, spoken of in terms of talents (a talent of silver is 100 lbs. of silver and a talent of gold is 200 lbs. of gold Footnote ). We are responsible to God for what He has given us, for You have been bought with a price. Let me describe the person with one talent—Jesus Christ died for his sins, and paid for this man’s soul. When you face Jesus Christ, and He asks you what you have done with this soul He paid for, will you say, “Yep, I got it right here. I know that you are a hard man, so I kept my soul hidden and I produced nothing, so that I can deliver it up to You, and here I am.” With privileges and blessing comes responsibility.


2Samuel 11:1c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

shâlach (שָלַח) [pronounced shaw-LAKH]

to send, to send for [forth, away], to dismiss, to deploy, to put forth, to stretch out, to reach out

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #7971 BDB #1018

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Yôwʾâb (יוֹאָב) [pronounced YOH-awbv]

Yah is father and is transliterated Joab

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #3097 BDB #222

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʿebed (עֶבֶד) [pronounced ĢEB-ved]

slave, servant

masculine plural noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5650 BDB #713

ʿîm (עִם) [pronounced ģeem]

with, at, by, near

preposition of nearness and vicinity; with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5973 BDB #767


Translation: Therefore, David deploys Joab and his servants with him... David himself, the King of Israel, sends out Joab. As the commander-in-chief, David sends out Joab, his nephew and Israel’s greatest general.


Along with Joab are his servants. Now, this does not mean that Joab gathered up the servants of his household and took them as, as per David’s command; nor are these David’s household servants; these would be David’s elite army along with the regular army.


Again, the writer of Samuel continues to make this point. Joab’s servants went with him. His soldiers follow him into battle. The writer does not simply say that David’s sends out his servants but that they go with Joab. David’s soldiers don’t go out with David; they go out with Joab. This represents a change in David’s life, and, as we get older, we do go through changes. There is no denying this. Unfortunately, David will not properly deal with his time off the battlefield.


I want you to recall why Israel asked God for a king in the first place: they wanted a king who would have a standing army who would provide some measure of security for Israel. Therefore, they approved of Saul as their king, a brave and responsible military man (at first). So, now David is their king, and what is going on? David puts this responsibility in the hands of Joab and David’s subjects (servants). Given that David is in his mid-40's and had shown weakness on the battlefield (2Sam. 21:15), it is okay for him to delegate responsibility. However, he has to determine what he should do as king, after this big change in his life.


Bear in mind, David does not need time off right now. He has had most of the winter for time off already. He has enjoyed 3 or 4 months of doing almost anything that he wants to do. He has a dozen wives and a boatload of children, and David could have done most anything that he wanted to do. However, it is time to go back to work, and David chooses not to go.


Remember—David has great blessings: he has a great palace, he has fame, he has money, he has material things, and he has 20 or more different sex partners. There is one more thing which David has, and that is responsibility, and David is not seeing to his own responsibilities.


What should David be doing? David needed to take this time and to oversee the military and ROTC training of his own sons; and to see that their spiritual needs were being met. God gave David some time here, but David will not use his time wisely and because of that, David is going to lose about 10 years of his life.


2Samuel 11:1d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

Yiserâʾêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

God prevails; the prince that prevails with God; he will rule as God; transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 & #3479 BDB #975


Translation: ...and all Israel. Those who go out with them is all Israel. Quite obviously, this does not mean every man, woman and child went out to war. However, David did not send out just his elite troops; he sent out all of his reserves, here, called all Israel. Israel had universal military service and David took all of those who are the right age, according to the requirements of the Mosaic Law, and pressed them into service.


So, this is the exact opposite of what Israel expected. They called for Saul to be their king, and Saul would organize armies and go out and fight their enemies; however, here, David presses all the eligible military men into service, and they go out, but he does not. What David needed at this point was a plan—what should he be doing with this new time off. As king, David is not providing protection for his people; his people are going out there to provide protection for him. Given his age, this was legitimate. As we get older, our lives change and our responsibilities change.


Again, what should David be doing? He should have organized ROTC training for the young men of Jerusalem; and, specifically for his own sons. Part of that training would have included the teaching of the Word of God during this period of time. David needed it and his sons needed it. But that is not what David would do.


2Samuel 11:1e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

shâchath (שָחַת) [pronounced shaw-KHAHTH]

to cause one to go to ruin, to spoil, to ruin, to corrupt, to destroy

3rd person masculine plural, Hiphil imperfect

Strong's #7843 BDB #1007

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

bên (בֵּן) [pronounced bane]

son, descendant

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

ʿAmmôwn (עַמּוֹן) [pronounced ģahm-MOHN]

hidden; transliterated Ammon

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #5983 BDB #769


Translation: And so they destroyed the sons of Ammon... The verbiage here seems to indicate that Joab and his army picked up where they left off with Ammon.


Just in case you forgot the details of the conflict that Israel had with Ammon and Aram, let me fill you in:

A Recap of Israel’s War Against the Ammonites and the Aramæan Mercenaries

In the previous year, at the beginning of 2Sam. 10, the Ammonite king died, and he was a king with whom David had a good relationship. They were allies. David dispatched a emissary of men to convey his sympathy to Hanun, this man’s son (and new king). Hanun treated these sympathizers with contempt, leaving David no choice but to attack Ammon.

Ammon, therefore, went to Syria (Aram) for help and paid for their mercenary army. So they joined forces and developed a fool-proof plan in order to defeat Israel’s army. Now, this was not all the Syrian army, but a mercenary force. Here was the plan (and bear in mind, there are two independent armies): when Joab came through the valley to Rabbah, the capital city of Ammon, the Ammonite army would be poised right outside of the city wall, and they would put up a moderate fight, which would draw Joab’s troops in toward the wall of Rabbah. Meanwhile, off hidden in the trees and the bushes, was the mercenary force of Ammon, hidden there with their horses and their chariots. As soon as Israel was drawn into the wall, the very mobile army of Aram would close in behind them, as a trap.

This was an excellent plan except for Joab’s quick thinking. He did exactly what the Syrian forces did not expect or plan for: he attacked them! He turned his forces around, keeping a holding force on the Ammonites, and charged the Aramaic army. Now, they expect Joab’s army to dig in, and they would come at them from all directions in their chariots and on their horses, and they would easily kill most of Joab’s army. But, before they could get their army out from where they were hidden, Joab attacks. Now, in an open field, with an stationary opposing force, horses and chariots are marvelous. They have speed and great mobility, and can come at a stationary force in seemingly from all directions and easily overpower them. However, when caught up in the brush, and foliage and trees, which hid them, they could not maneuver. Joab struck them before they could get out into the open, and Joab soundly defeated the Aramæans, sending a few soldiers retreating, and killing most of them. Joab was brilliant and flexible. The Aramæan army was inflexible. They had a plan, that plan involved attacking Israel’s troops when out in an open field, and when Israel attacked them before they could mount up and move out, they were too inflexible and too surprised to response effectively. So Joab’s assaulting force destroyed the Aramæan mercenaries, eventually sending them running (they were able to use their horses and chariots to escape, and some, of course, just ran on foot). Meanwhile, the holding force under Abishai, just held the Ammonites at bay at the wall.

Now, there are Ammonites soldiers and Aramæan mercenaries. They had no close ties, apart from their mutual hatred for the Jews. So, when Ammon saw what was going on, they did not suddenly charge out from the wall, to save their comrades. They were somewhat frozen there, amazed the Joab turned the tables on Aram, and was beating them now. Had Ammon aggressively moved out from the city walls, they may have turned this war around, but they did not. Therefore, after Aram retreated, the men of Ammon did the same, going back behind the walls of their great city, expecting Israel to attack mercilessly. Except, Israel did not.

Joab was a brilliant soldier, and he understood what he had just done. He defeated an Aramæan mercenary force, and that was the bread and butter of the Aramæan empire. Their mercenary army was their great export to the world. This filled the nation’s coffers with gold and silver. Aram cannot let that stand. Who is going to hire them if this little upstart nation Israel defeated them and another army both? Aram is a great empire at this time; one of the greatest in ancient history. They cannot let this stand, and Joab knows that. He cannot spend the next few months besieging the city of Rabbah; he has to deal with Aram, and they have to go big. So David and Joab meet, they gather all of Israel, all of their reserve forces, and go out and defeat Aram, which is one of the greatest battles in ancient history, as well as one of the most important. We see a few verses describing this battle in 2Sam. 10, but this changed the course of history, and virtually stopped the advance of the great empire of Aram in its tracks.

That was then; that was last year. This is the new year and Ammon is still there—the people huddled behind the walls of Rabbah and dying a thousand deaths, expecting the siege by Israeli forces to begin at any time. So, now it is perhaps 6 or 8 months later, since the Ammonites retreated behind the walls of Rabbah, and Joab takes a fairly large force against them, to take them out, to destroy them.

This is a recap of the events of 2Sam. 10 (HTML) (PDF).


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Joab knows exactly what to expect. The Ammonites just spent all of their money hiring this Aramæan army, so now they had no allies, nothing to offer any other army, and they lay in wait in their city Rabbah, knowing that, at any moment, Joab would come and destroy them. All of this is based upon the arrogance of this newly crowned king. In fact, this king’s arrogance changed human history, inasmuch as, David would defeat the Aramæans, which would have become the greatest power at that time, if not for David.


2Samuel 11:1f

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

tsûwr (צוּר) [pronounced tsoor]

to bind, to besiege, to confine (shut up, cramp, enclose)

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #6696 BDB #837

Tsûwr has 2 other sets of meanings: to show hostility toward, to be an adversary to, to treat as a foe; and to form, to fashion, to delineate.

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

Rabbâh (רָבָּה) [pronounced rahb-BAW]

many, much, great (in the sense of large or significant, not acclaimed); transliterated Rabbah, Rabba

a proper, locative noun

Strong’s #7237 BDB #913


Translation: ...and besieged Rabbah. The capitol city of Ammon is Rabbah is called Rabathamana by Polybius. Footnote This city was later enlarged and embellished by [Egyptian king] Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285-246 b.c.) and named in honor of him. Amman, the capital of Jordan, is now on the site. Footnote

 

According to Jamieson, Fausset and Brown: Rabbah denotes a great city. This metropolis of the Ammonites was situated in the mountainous tract of Gilead, not far from the source of the Arnon. Extensive ruins are still found on its site. Footnote


The maps below will show where this city is in regards to the changing control of various nations.


Maps and Photos of Rabbah

2sam_11.gif
2sam_111.gif



jabbok_river_eastern_end,_tb060603216.jpg  

amman_theater_from_above,_tb060303014-711604.jpg

 

The first map is from the era of David and taken from:

http://www.bibles.com/content/images/The_Kingdoms_of_Israel_and_Judah__1_2_4152.jpg accessed November 8, 2010.

The second map is from the time of Jesus, 1000 years later, and taken from:

http://www.bible-history.com/geography/ancient-israel/nt_israel-flat.jpg accessed November 8, 2010.

Photo of Jabbok River from:

http://www.bibleplaces.com/images/Jabbok_River_eastern_end,_tb060603216.jpg accessed November 8, 2010.

Photo of Ammon theater is from:

 http://blog.bibleplaces.com/uploaded_images/Amman_theater_from_above,_tb060303014-711604.jpg accessed November 8, 2010.


Rabbah in Ammon is where the battle took place. The army of Ammon was hiding behind the walls of Rabbah. Israel has just defeated before their very eyes the greatest empire of their day—Aram. So, huddled behind their walls, they readied themselves for an assault by the greatest military force of their time, and, perhaps, of all time. Now it is 4 or 6 months later, Footnote and this new assault by Israel begins.


It is hard to describe just how senseless this all is. David is more than willing to get along with the Ammonites and the Moabites. He trusted the Moabites with his own parents. He sent ambassadors to convey his sympathy when the king of Ammon passed. And this arrogant upstart of a little man—King Hanun of Ammon—humiliates these emissaries, bringing not just war upon Ammon, but resultant poverty and then death upon most of his people. All it took was a little arrogance on the part of Hanun to bring down his great city.


Application: Hanun is an arrogant little man, trying to impress his cabinet with his anti-Semitism, and, rather than reestablishing bonds with Israel, an ally of his father, he rebuffs David’s grace. This is what happens when you have someone in a high position of authority who is out of his league. Hanun does not have the capacity to be ruler of Ammon. His complete lack of ability as a son of a great king will be the downfall of all his people. Now, do you want to be advanced at work? Are you at a low-level position and you think you need to be higher up? Do you think you need to be one of the vice presidents? This is what happens when a man is promoted above his capacity. Thousands of people will die simply because Hanun is a jerk. Now, if Hanun was some little nobody, this would not matter. If Hanun lacked this power, his arrogance would not have affected the rest of Ammon. This is why God has not promoted some of us—we are too arrogant to have authority. We would not know what to do with it. Our arrogance would bring everyone else down.


2Samuel 11:1g

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

The wâw conjunction is used as ➊ a simple copulative, used to connect words and sentences, in which case it is usually rendered and. ➋ It can be used to explain one noun or clarify one noun with another, in which case it is rendered even or yea (see Job 5:19 Dan. 4:10). ➌ The wâw conjunction can introduce two nouns, where the first is the genus and the second is the species; in which case, we would render it and particularly, and specially, and namely, and specifically (and it can be used the other way as well) (see 2Kings 23:2 Psalm 18:1 Isa. 1:1 2:1 Zech. 14:21). ➍ It can be prefixed to a verb also by way of explanation; it could be reasonably rendered as a relative pronoun (who, which) (see Gen. 49:25 Job 29:12 Isa. 13:14). ➎ It can be used to begin an apodosis (the then portion of an if...then... statement) (see Gen. 2:4, 5 40:9 48:7). ➏ It is used between words and sentences in order to compare them or to mark their resemblance (1Sam. 12:15 Job 5:7). ➐ When doubled, it can mean both...and... (Num. 9:14 Joshua 7:24 Psalm 76:7). ➑ It can be prefixed to adversative sentences or clauses and rendered but, and yet, although, otherwise (Gen. 2:17 15:2 17:20 Judges 16:15 Ruth 1:21 Job 15:5 6:14). ➒ And, what we were after, is the wâw conjunction can be used in disjunctive sentences; that is, it can be rendered or (which will help us to understand what Jephthah does) (Ex. 21:17 Lev. 5:3 Deut. 24:7). ➓ Finally, the wâw conjunction can be used before causal sentences and rendered because, for, that, in that (Gen. 18:32 30:27 Psalm 5:12 60:13); before conclusions or inferences, and therefore rendered so that, therefore, wherefore (2Kings 4:41 Isa. 3:14 Ezek. 18:32 Zech. 2:10); and before final and consecutive sentences, which mark an end or an object: in order that (Gen. 42:34 Job 20:10 Isa. 13:2). To paraphrase Gesenius, frequently, it is put after verbs and sentences standing absolutely, especially those which imply time or condition and is reasonably rendered then. Footnote

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

yâshab (יָשַב) [pronounced yaw-SHAHBV]

inhabiting, staying, remaining, dwelling, sitting

Qal active participle

Strong's #3427 BDB #442

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

Yerûwshâlayim (יְרוּשָלַיִם) [pronounced yʾroo-shaw-LAH-yim]

possibly means founded upon peace or city of the Jebusites (or both); it is transliterated Jerusalem

proper singular noun, location

Strong’s #3389 BDB #436


Translation: But David remained in Jerusalem. But, in contrast to all of this, David stays behind in Jerusalem. We do not find out why David stayed behind until 2Sam. 21. Quite obviously, Joab was more than capable of leading Israeli forces against any threat that Israel faced; he was an extraordinary and fearless tactician, and his defeat of the Aramæan mercenary force was nothing short of brilliant and daring. So now he is going back to face half the army that he faced before, and David reasonably decides, “Joab’s got this, I’ll stay home.” This was not necessarily a dereliction of duty. David’s own soldiers, when he fought against one of the Philistine giants and was almost killed, told David to remain at home (2Sam. 21:15–17). See the exegesis of 2Sam. 21 (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).


Let me point out that, this is not the first time that David has done this. In the previous year, David is at home, and Joab is out fighting both the Ammonites and the Aramæan mercenaries. Joab correctly evaluated the situation and knew that he needed to attack the Aramæans after he had defeated their mercenaries on the battlefield, so he then got David to join with him and to gather the people of Israel to defeat Aram (2Sam. 10:17–19). Footnote


When it comes to remaining behind, many have incorrectly diagnoses David’s motivation. Some have suggested that he was afraid. Suddenly, he was struck by his own mortality and he decided to stay behind. I reject this theory because David did this same thing in the previous year, and when it was apparent that he needed to step up and help fight the war against Aram, David did—this is all found in 2Sam. 10 (HTML) (PDF).


The Bible tells us what happened with David. 2Sam. 21:15–17 reads: The Philistines again waged war against Israel. David went down with his soldiers, and they fought the Philistines, but David became exhausted. Then Ishbi-benob, one of the descendants of the giant, whose bronze spear weighed about eight pounds and who wore new armor, intended to kill David. But Abishai son of Zeruiah came to his aid, struck the Philistine, and killed him. Then David's men swore to him: "You must never again go out with us to battle. You must not extinguish the lamp of Israel." (HCSB) This put David in a precarious situation. He suddenly had a great deal of time on his hands; and he probably, because his life was being redefined as becoming older, he probably suffered a mid-life crisis as well.


David spent the winter with his wives and mistresses, and just did not quite get enough. He did not reach a point of personal satisfaction that winter, because you cannot with a bevy of women. He had a lot of women; he had many sons and daughters; and David just had not really satiated his sexual lust. So he decided to pursue this interest more fully. After all, he was king and Joab had this handled. He may have rationalized this by saying to himself, “Joab has this handled; I would only get in the way. I’ll let him take the glory.” This is all, of course, speculation. However, what is not speculation is, David normally would have gone out with his troops and he did not, at their request. The writer of Samuel beats us over the head with this point. This was the time of year that kings went out, but David remained in Jerusalem. In 20 or 25 words, this writer here sets the table for us; we know where David would normally be, and we know where David is instead. He is not shirking his duty; he has simply grown older.


The problem is, David did not organize his time as commander-in-chief to do what needed to be done. David has several sons in their teens and a few younger than that. David has let these young men get raised by their mothers. David needs to get a hold of these boys and start their military training. He needs to get up at the crack of dawn with these boys and put them through their paces. This is not what David will do.


We know that Joab will be sleeping under the stars until he reaches Rabbah, and then he may spend a several months Footnote in a dramatic assault on the walls of Rabbah, where men will risk their lives and men will die, and David, on the other hand, is sleeping in.

 

J. Vernon McGee: Why did he stay? I have only a suggestion to make. After David built his palace he found it very comfortable. It was quite different from the cave of Adullam where he had spent his youth. His palace was a place of luxury and comfort. Also, David loved Mt. Zion and wanted to stay around that place. Prosperity is one of the things that has trapped so many men and women. Our great comfort has be trapped so many men and women. Our great comfort has become a curse in our nation. David tarried still in Jerusalem. That was his first mistake. He should have gone to war with his men. Footnote McGee is only right insofar as, God gave David some time; David should have used this time wisely, but he did not.


Application: God has a geographical will for each person. There is some place that we need to be. David has been in this situation before. You may recall near the end of 1Samuel, David found himself with Philistines marching toward Israel to go to war with his own people. At some point, David had to realize, there is something wrong here. He was about to attack his own people. David was clearly outside of the geographical will of God then and he is out of God’s geographical will here as well.


Unlike many have alleged, David is not outside of God’s geographical will for his life; but he is outside of God’s will for his life. Therefore, it would be worthwhile to examine the Doctrine of the Will of God.

Summary Points from the Doctrine of the Will of God

This is all about how to be in the will of God and how to remain in the will of God.

1.      You need to be in fellowship, which is achieved by 1John 1:9: If we name our sins, He [God] is faithful [i.e., He does it every time] and just [God operates within His Own essence] to forgive us our sins [these are the sins we name] and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness [these are sins which we do not name].

2.      You need to be growing spiritually. This does not mean that you reduce the number of overt sins in your life or that you speak a holy language now and again (Amen, God willing) or that you become more and more involved at your church (teaching Sunday school, acting as a deacon, etc.). Spiritual growth is achieved by the daily intake of the Word of God taught by a doctrinal pastor-teacher. Grow in grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ (2Peter 3:18a). Grace is the grace system which God has provided. All believers in Jesus Christ are given the means and the opportunity to grow spiritually, regardless of geographical location. 99% of the time, this will be learning under the ministry of a doctrinal pastor-teacher (I provide a list of them here: http://kukis.org/Links/thelist.htm). Many of these pastor-teachers, if they are outside of your geographical area, provide an online MP3 ministry, where you can download (or order) previous lessons and listen to the teaching of the Word of God without any financial obligation. Many of them will provide these lessons by sending them to your home by mail. If you are relatively near to any of these churches, then that is where you ought to go.

3.      If you are not in the geographical area of any of these churches, then you need to operate under normal academic discipline when listening to a lesson. You don’t surf the internet, you do not text, you do not do housework, nor do you do anything else which takes your concentration away from the message that you are listening to. Ideally speaking, if you live within driving distance of a doctrinal church, then that is where you need to be when the church doors are open.

4.      The short explanation is, as long as you are in fellowship and growing, then you will be in the will of God.

5.      Now, let’s say that you are a new believer or a believer who has decided to get with God’s program and to start growing, and you face a momentous decision (to get married, to change jobs, to move elsewhere). If you face this as a new believer or as a believer just about to get with doctrine, then you choose not to change your status until you know enough doctrine in order to make this decision. 1Cor. 7:18–24.

6.      If you are at city A and God wants you to be in city B, do not worry. God will make that happen. Where I was raised up, I had studied God’s Word for about 5 years, but I was spinning my wheels career-wise, and it did not seem as if that would change anytime in the near future. I began exploring my options in other cities. On my list of 3 cities to move to, #3 on the list (and, way, way down from #2) was Houston. I thought of moving to Houston because Bob Thieme was teaching Bible doctrine there. However, this was so far down the list from my 1st and 2nd choices. In any case, every door closed to me for my first two choices; and door after door after door opened for me for choice #3. God did almost everything necessary to move me in that direction.

7.      When it comes to your day-to-day life, God has things mapped out. You have a job or school that you go to, which takes up perhaps 9–10 hours of your day. You do this job (or attend this school) as unto the Lord. That is, you function as if you are working for God, and you remain faithful in all respects, whether anyone else can see what you are doing or not. You have a couple of hours that you spend eating, an hour for Bible teaching, and a few hours for relaxation. If you stay in fellowship all of this time, or get back into fellowship when you get out, then you are in the will of God.

8.      If you do not have a job or school, then (1) you spend 9 or 10 hours of every single day looking for a job or (2) you set your sights to moving to a different city or to a different state. If you have begun to listen to a particular pastor from the list I provided, then you seriously consider packing up all that you own and move to the city where he teaches (obviously, it is normal to seek out job opportunities in that city by phone and by the internet and then you go there for interviews). God uses your lack of opportunity in city A to get you to move to city B. God allows man to enact foolish political policies, which negatively impact a particular geographical area, to move some believers from point A to point B.

9.      Gathering together with other believers is extremely important. I have known a lot of believers over the years, many of them squared away on doctrine. However, when they go off on their own—they make no attempt to gather under the authority of a well-qualified pastor-teacher or as a group—they get goofy, and I can name a whole host of believers I have known in my life who stopped gathering under this sort of authority, and got goofy. Personally, I gather with believers under the ministry of R. B. Thieme III every time the church is in session, and, on off-nights, listen to his father’s teaching. Even though I clearly understand what God’s will is for my life, that does not mean I no longer need to study under my pastor’s authority.

This was taken from the Doctrine of the Will of God (HTML) (PDF), which is a 12 page doctrine.


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Our verse reads: And so it is a return of the year to the time when kings go out. Therefore, David deploys Joab and his servants with him and all Israel. And so they destroyed the sons of Ammon and besieged Rabbah. But David remained in Jerusalem. Note how this narrative tells us that David should have been at war with Joab. It is the time when kings go out; and yet, David is staying in. Since going out to war is no longer God’s will for David’s life; David needs to find something else to do with his time. Instead, David was taking life easy in Jerusalem, enjoying the springtime weather and allowing his passions to rise.


We know what is coming—that David will commit adultery with Bathsheba, and this marks the beginning of that great sin, but the seeds have been planted long ago. Let me suggest that David has suffered, off and on, from sin nature weakness arrogance; or, what we may dub blind spot arrogance. David has a number of wives and a number of mistresses. We have already confirmed that David knew that he was not supposed to multiply wives to himself as king. Insofar as society was concerned, this was okay—a king having many wives was acceptable and it was the norm. However, insofar as the Word of Truth is concerned, it is not. What we have here is a problem which has been festering for some time, and David’s strong spiritual life has apparently compensated for this.


Let me propose this—when David began to collect wives, he was not aware of this as a sin. Recall that he did not know how to handle the Ark of God (nor did anyone else). However, he read and studied the Word of God and he discovered how the Ark must be moved. I suspect that this is when David realized that God, in the Mosaic Law, had forbidden kings to take a plethora of wives. There was even an incident that drove this home to him—Michal, the daughter of Saul, David’s wife, thought that David behaved like an ass when he brought the Ark into Jerusalem. How much in common did he really have with this woman, who was his wife? And if she was his only wife, David may have taken time with her, to get her to respond to him; but he had a bunch of other wives, so, David and Michal simply stopped having sex (2Sam. 6:20–23). So David here is in an untenable place: he has a large number of wives and mistresses (common in the ancient world; particularly for kings and rich men) and he knows that God has said a king ought not to do this. Nevertheless, David is going to, in this chapter, give into his lust, and simply take a woman in adultery. So David is going to go from being trapped, so to speak, in a sinful state of affairs (having many wives and mistresses) to taking a woman in adultery. What I am saying is, the seeds for this sin were planted long ago, and we can even give David the benefit of the doubt that he did not realize that collecting many wives was a sin, but it is still a sin.


At no time, before Bathsheba, does David go to the prophet Nathan and say, “I have all of these wives and I recognize that I ought not to have all of these wives. What would God have me do?” David cannot just abandon these women; they are dependent upon him and many of them have children by him (several of whom will be a source of David’s discipline in the future).


We need to discuss David, his wives and the concept of polygamy as compared to monogamy.

Commentary on David and His Wives and His Children

1.      One woman is a handful.

2.      2 or more women under the same roof can increase the woman’s expression of her nature, so to speak, exponentially.

3.      It is difficult for a man to satisfy one woman (soulishly and sexually.

4.      It is impossible for a man to satisfy several women.

5.      A woman’s soul is designed to respond to one man. They do not want to share.

6.      When David goes home to one particular wife or mistress, then the other 19 (approximately) are going to be jealous, angry, put off, and, if you know women, they are going to save this anger and jealousy up to share with David the next time he comes home to them.

7.      When children are introduced into the mix, there is a balance between the approach to discipline of both parents which is not always easy to achieve. A mother and a father have to work together in order to achieve a good balance of love, training and discipline for their children.

8.      When there are several wives—many of whom the husband is physically attracted to, but does not really like as a person—there is no way to achieve this balance of discipline. How does a man reach any level of balance of discipline with a woman he really does not like? He can’t.

9.      With David, we have an added problem: which child will succeed him? These women’s feelings toward David will be just as cool as his feelings toward them (probably more so), but almost every single wife will want her son to be king in David’s stead. Many of these women will want to see their own sons behave in a strong, dominant way towards his half-brothers.

10.    So David has several dysfunctional families. His wives and mistresses are in charge of raising his children (who appear to receive almost no guidance or training from David).

11.    Because of the complex relationships which are a result of this, and despite of having the choice of as many as maybe 20 women to go home to at night (or that afternoon), David finds himself sleeping at the castle alone.

12.    David could have summoned any one of his wives at this point, and he does not. That tells us the relationship that David had with his many women. There is not one single woman in his harem that David wants to spend a romantic afternoon or evening with.

13.    What will appear to be the case (and we will study this later), is David will focus on one woman in the future and upon his children by that one woman. His other wives and mistresses are taken care of materially, but David behaves toward them more as a benefactor than as a husband.

14.    Bear in mind that, all the while that this is going on, with all of these problems, society views David as having several families as normal for a king. In other words, for his sin here, no one is ostracizing him for that sin. There is no social pressure on David to do anything any differently.

It is reasonable to ask, what should David have done? He has all of these wives and children, he now knows that this is a sin, so what should he do? It ought to be obvious that David cannot simply abandon his wives, mistresses and children. Therefore, he needs to continue to support them. However, beyond this, there is not a simple solution. I would submit to you that, David cannot continue treat these women as wives, and come home to whatever family suits his whims that evening.


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Again, our verse reads: And so it is a return of the year to the time when kings go out. Therefore, David deploys Joab and his servants with him and all Israel. And so they destroyed the sons of Ammon and besieged Rabbah. But David remained in Jerusalem. David has a responsibility here to do something productive, since he will not go out with his army. He needs to recognize his old age and to prepare his sons as military men and as leaders. However, he appears to have sloughed off this duty the year before as well. What has happened is, the addictive nature of the desires of his sin nature, having been satiated again and again, is taking over David’s life. He has duties and responsibilities, and he is either ignoring these responsibilities (e.g., raising his own children) or putting them off on others (Joab is given complete charge over the Israeli army).


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Chapter Outline

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David Takes Bathsheba


This marks the beginning of 2Sam. 11:2, but it will take a little introductory material before we actually get to that verse.


Most of what follows will be the very famous sin of David, which is actually a series of sins. David will become strongly attracted to a woman he sees and he will take her, ignoring her volition and the fact that she is married. When it turns out that she is pregnant, then he gets more people involved (including Joab and Bathsheba’s husband). There appears to be no off button for this series of sins that David commits. David does things which even shock him (this will become more apparently when he talks to Nathan in the next chapter).


Since David is about to commit adultery, we ought to look at who David is married to at this time and what we know about these women.

David’s Wives and Their Children

David’s Wives

Their Children

Although David was first promised another of Saul’s daughters (and Saul changed his mind), David was finally given Michal, Saul’s younger daughter. Michal loved David (1Sam. 18:20, 28) and even risked her life and separation from him to protect David (1Sam. 19:11–13, 17). While David was on the run, Saul gave her over to another man (1Sam. 25:44), and David later took her back (2Sam. 3:13–14).

They had no children who are listed in the Bible. After she is angered to see David dancing in the street half-naked before the Ark of God, she vents this anger against him, and the Bible then tells us that she has no children by him (2Sam. 6:16–23).

When on the run from Saul, David and his men were protecting Nabal and his flocks of sheep and goats. When David asked for payment, by means of a messenger, Nabal turned him down flat. Abigail, Nabal’s wife, an intelligent woman with a good figure (1Sam. 25:3), interceded, and saved her husband from David. When she told her husband about this, he apparently went into a coma, and died 10 days later. David was quite impressed with Abigail and married her. 1Sam. 25

She is the mother of Daniel, David’s second-born in Hebron (1Chron. 3:1). He is called Chileab in 2Sam. 3:3.

During this time on the run, David took Ahinoam of Jezreel as his wife as well (1Sam. 25:43). He lived with both Abigail and Ahinoam as a guest of Achish, king of Gath (1Sam. 27:3). Both Abigail and Ahinoam were taken as prisoners by the Amalekites and later rescued by David (1Sam. 30:5, 18).

She is the mother of Amnon, David’s firstborn in Hebron. He is the son who raped his half-sister Tamar. 2Sam. 3:2 1Chron. 3:1

Maachah (Maacah) the daughter of Talmai king of Geshur (2Sam. 3:3 1Chron. 3:2).

She was the mother of David’s 3rd born son, Absalom, who would kill Amnon for raping his sister; and then flee to the kingdom of his grandfather. Later, he would lead a revolt against David. 2Sam. 3:3 13 1Chron. 3:2

Haggith is named principally as the mother of Adonijah. 2Sam. 3:4 1Kings 1:5, 11 2:13 1Chron. 3:2

The mother of David’s 4th son, Adonijah. He will attempt to become king instead of Solomon, and he will make this attempt while David is still alive but very ill. 2Sam. 3:4 1Chron. 3:2 1Kings 1–2

Abital is named in 2Sam. 3:4.

The mother of Shephatiah, David’s 5th son. 1Chron. 3:3

Eglah is named in 2Sam. 3:5.

Mother of David’s 6th son, Ithream., born to David in Hebron 1Chron. 3:3

David is said to take more wives (and mistresses) in Jerusalem, which would bring the total number of wives at least up to 10. 2Sam. 5:13

David will have 9 more sons in Jerusalem, but it is unclear as to whom: Ibhar, Elishama, Eliphelet; Nogah, Nepheg, Japhia; Elishama, Eliada, and Eliphelet (2Sam. 5:14–16). Tamar is David’s daughter (1Chron. 3:9), possibly the daughter of Maacah.

Bathshua (Bathsheba) the daughter of Ammiel.

In this chapter, David will take Bathsheba, and possibly rape her, and then have her husband killed (2Sam. 11). David will take her as his wife and she will bear 4 sons to David: Shimea, and Shobab, and Nathan, and Solomon

David also had at least 10 mistresses. 2Sam. 15:16 20:3 1Chron. 3:9

These mistresses also had children. 1Chron. 3:9

There is a literary device used when naming David’s sons and wives. His first 2 wives are memorable and there are things which we know about them. We know a lot less about David’s next 3 wives, although we do have a lot of narrative about their sons. In fact, Haggith, David’s 5th wife, is known only through her son (and, because her son is called handsome, we may assume that she was gorgeous). When we get to wives 6 and 7, they are named, as are their sons. This indicates very little interest on David’s part. Obviously, we know a lot more about Bathsheba, and this suggests that she is David’s right woman. Finally, David has a lot more sons, who are not even connected to their mothers; and then David has mistresses and they have sons—and here, we do not even know their names. The idea is, as David collected more and more women, he became increasingly disinterested in the women that he collected (apart from Bathsheba).

One of the reasons for putting this list together, is to suggest that David had no fewer than 10 wives and 10 mistresses Footnote that he could go to on the afternoon of this narrative.

Now, just in case you think that polygamy is a good thing, let me remind you of the Doctrine of Polygamy (HTML) (PDF) (which was covered back in Deut. 21:15).

As an aside, a polygamist cannot be a good parent. Children require a full-time mother and a full-time father. A child being raised right under one parent is far less likely than a child raised right under 2 parents. David did not participate much at all in the rearing of his own children. He simply did not have the time or the interest (until he had children with Bathsheba).

David could have been a much better parent than he was.

If you want to know more about David’s wives, try: http://www.biblenews1.com/garden/David1.html (Some of this stuff is a little on the goofy side; some is insightful).


Chapter Outline

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As we begin this narrative, keep in mind that David probably had at least 20 women that he could have semi-legitimately gone to for sex (he was not to multiply wives to himself, but he did). We don’t know if David mentally ticked through the list of his wives and mistresses, and decided against them one at a time or whether David will simply see Bathsheba and decide, “I want to have that woman.” We have 2 kinds of arrogance interlocking at this time. David has, for a long time, ignored God’s law that a king ought not to multiply wives to himself. David may have had several wives and then discovered this verse, but that does not appear to have stopped him. That is sin nature weakness arrogance. You have a particular sin which you enjoy—in David’s case, it was having sex with a variety of women—and that takes precedence over the mandates of the Word of God. This gate will interlock with sexual arrogance, which is a preoccupation with sex and self-gratification. It is preoccupation with the body to the exclusion of the soul.


There are sins which we commit—particularly those which we repeat again and again—which appear to have an affect upon our soul. Our sin nature has an area of weakness, and we may choose to indulge that area of weakness. This area of weakness may even be genetic (there appears to be evidence of a genetic link to such things as alcoholism, homosexuality, and liberalism). Therefore, when we indulge this weakness again and again, it seems to dig deep into our souls. If you tend to drink too much too often or engage in your sexual whims (whether it is chasing skirt or engaging in homosexuality), this digs huge behavior ruts into your soul. That is, you give more and more time over to these weaknesses. Such a sin has a spiraling effect upon the believer, dragging him further down into this particular sin or group of sins. This does not have to be some horrendous sin; this can be anger or gossiping. I worked with 3 women, all of whom were probably believers in Jesus Christ, and yet, they spent every afternoon gossiping and running people down. It never occurred to them that this was sin. It was like breathing to them. And the more they did it, the worse it got and the more destructive it got. Even the administration of this very large campus had an idea as to what was going on (although, I doubt that they understood that all of this was rooted in evil gossiping).


I am able to exegete these chapters in the Bible because of the many Bible classes I attended under R. B. Thieme, Jr. (many times attendance was sitting around a tape recorder, back in the day). This particular time of David’s life has many different ramifications, which explains why God the Holy Spirit devoted so much of the book of Samuel to this sin.

David’s Sexual Arrogance and its Application

1.      Sexual arrogance is preoccupation with sex and self-gratification. Sexual arrogance is a preoccupation with the body to the exclusion of the soul.

2.      The latter explains why David did not wake up that afternoon and decide, “Which wife or mistress should I go see?” No doubt that there were hard feelings between David and some of his wives and mistresses. No doubt that, once David got to know some of his wives or mistresses, he really did not like them that much. “If I go over and see so-and-so, she is going to start nagging me about why I don’t come around and help out with our son.”

3.      Ultimately, all relationships involve the soul, and sexual arrogance wants to ignore the soul for sexual gratification. The fact that David did not go to any of his wives or mistresses is proof as his being in sexual arrogance.

4.      Sexual arrogance always leads to distortions of sexuality.

         1)      In this chapter, David’s taking of Bathsheba is a result of his sexual arrogance.

         2)      Because of the physical differences between men and women, a man is more likely to become involved in sexual arrogance.

         3)      This is one of the great problems with homosexuality, because this involves two male souls—two men who are involved in sexual arrogance.

         4)      This is taken to the extreme when homosexuals demand that they become a protected class of people and that their sexual predilections be seen as no different than those of heterosexuals.

5.      As one becomes more preoccupied with sex, their capacity for love is lessened. Skirt-chasing (multiple sexual partners), masturbation, polygamy, homosexuality etc. all begin as sexual arrogance or they lead to sexual arrogance. These behaviors, when continued, result in a person becoming trapped in interlocking systems of arrogance.

6.      Because David is preoccupied with sex, he is a lousy father and a lousy husband. This is why most of the children from his early liaisons never amounted to anything; they lacked sound training in character and in Bible doctrine.

7.      In this chapter, David will neglect his duties as king and military commander because he is in sexual arrogance. His army goes to war, with Joab leading them, and David remains in Jerusalem to chase women. So, while his army was besieging Rabbah, David continued to function in sexual arrogance.

8.      It is normal for a man to have a desire for sex; it is normal for a man to have a physiological drive. When that drive controls you, then you are in sexual arrogance or you are entering into sexual arrogance.

9.      Another way to see this is, such a person is becoming addicted to sex. This means, when it is over, you no longer have an interest in your partner; and when your sexual drive kicks in, then you want to either use your present sexual partner or seek out a new one.

10.    David was preoccupied with sex because he was in sexual arrogance. Sexual arrogance is abnormal; being controlled by your sexual drive is abnormal. Having a sexual drive is normal.

11.    No man has ever died from having unrequited sexual desire. If men died from that, all men would be dead by age 21.

12.    You may be hungry an hour prior to a meal, but you do not just indulge your hunger. On the battlefield, you may feel a surge of adrenalin which could morph into panic, but you depend upon your training to keep you steady and focused. An athlete trains his body to do whatever the sport requires, even though it may be difficult. All of these things involve personal control of the soul and of the body. In the same way, we are able to overcome strong sexual lust. Many men face sexual temptation after marriage; most men are able to walk away from such sexual temptation because of the destructive nature of adultery.

         1)      The Bible mandates: You will not commit adultery (Deut. 5:18). This mandate applies to believers and unbelievers alike. It is a part of the Laws of Divine Establishment (HTML) (PDF).

         2)      When faced with illicit sexual desire, the believer resists with the doctrine in his soul. Sometimes, rebound is necessary to utilize. If necessary, the believer redirects his thoughts, as we all can control what we choose to think about.

         3)      Although the unbeliever lacks doctrine, a reasonable understanding of the laws of divine establishment can dissuade them, along with a realistic appraisal of the situation. When it comes to a married unbeliever, they should be able to recognize that infidelity could not just result in the dissolution of his marriage, but do severe damage to the souls of his children.

         4)      Society and the nation in which we live is preserved, in part, by marriage and family.

         5)      Therefore, believers and unbelievers alike are able to go through life without committing adultery (there are many unbelievers who have remained faithful to their spouses throughout their entire lives).

13.    Polygamy for David (which would be multiple sexual partners today) distracts the soul from true love. David did not truly love any of his wives, because such a love would be soulish and physical. His lack of love is clear because he wakes up, he desires sex, and he does not go to any of his wives or mistresses. Now, David certainly liked Abigail, a woman with whom he had a lot in common. However, both he and Michal probably lacked the capacity for a mutual love; and David had so little interest in his mistresses, that he does not even note their names in Scripture.

14.    David simply used these women for personal self gratification. This reveals his sexual arrogance.

15.    Sexual arrogance often produces increased lust, which becomes an abnormal lust. Many homosexuals fall prey to this lust, so that having 100 or even 1000 sexual partners is not unusual. It is not unusual for the homosexual to have more sexual partners who names he does not know than those whose names he does know.

16.    David’s continual sexual lust caused him to be on the prowl as often as possible, to the detriment of his responsibilities. Any attractive woman could set him off. Bathsheba, the woman who catches David’s eye, is the granddaughter of David’s greatest counselor, Ahithophel. His advice was highly esteemed and will play a part in David’s punishment phrase. David, in losing this man as his counselor, will negatively impact the nation Israel.

         1)      We have a modern-day example of such sexual lust: several men in the SEC spent 8 and 10 hours a day viewing pornography on their computer rather than doing their job. This is sexual arrogance. Obviously, sexual arrogance does not require a partner.

         2)      If you have seen a gay pride parade, there are simulated acts performed throughout the parade, that most of the participants would be embarrassed about, if, say, their mother was watching the parade.

17.    The sex which David participated in only temporarily satisfied his sexual lusts. However, these lusts always returned, and David would be on the prowl once again. This kept David from performing his duties as king of Israel.

18.    David had no soul satisfaction with any of his wives. He could not go to them to enjoy sex and companionship. Much of the time, he rejected going to his wives to satiate his sexual desire (our chapter gives an example of this).

19.    Therefore, David lacked the capacity to love.

20.    As a consequence, David’s harem was a collection of frustrated wives and neglected mistresses, all of whom shared David’s body, for a time, but not his soul.

21.    Therefore, sex for David was only about the body. There was no soul love in his sexual aggression.

22.    Love is the reality which relates sex to the soul. This is how a man can be married to one woman and be sexually satisfied. This is why another man can be out there chasing women, and only be sexually satisfied for a short time.

23.    Many churches practice ritual without reality (that is, their parishioners have no idea why they are doing this or that ritual; they just do it). Sex without love is a ritual without the reality. It is only done to satiate physical desires, but it never satisfies the desire of the soul.

24.    Sex is designed to express true love from the soul. Right man and right woman within the confines of marriage express their love for one another in sex, and enjoy far more satisfaction than David did for the first 20 years of being king.

Several point are inspired by the 1972 David series (HTML) (PDF), lesson 631_0239.


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Now, this afternoon may not mark the actual interlocking of sin nature weakness arrogance with sexual arrogance for David. He may have gone into sexual arrogance months or years ago. This is why I gave you a list of his wives and mistresses. It got to a point that David simply collected women. We do not know any of the names of his mistresses or even how many mistresses he had. There came a point at which, he was having sex with so many different women that he did not even appear to keep track of which child belonged to which mother. This afternoon simply indicates that David has dug such a deep behavioral rut in his soul that, he no longer confines himself to wives and mistresses, but he is ready to have sex with any woman that he finds attractive, married or not. What has happened is, after committing a sin enough times, an the addictive quality of that sin has not just emerged, but it will begin to dominate David’s life and affect the quality of every decision which he will make. Any person who has had an addiction (be it drugs, alcohol, sex or even power), can attest to not just the addictive nature of their sin, but also to the dramatic way that this addiction permeated into the entirety of their lives. An addict who is to the point of admitting his addiction usually recognizes how his addiction colors nearly every thought, word and action. When under the control of the sin nature and the addictive nature of a sin which we have indulged in, almost all that we do moves us in the direction of committing that sin once again. Whether this is the politician who will do or say anything to get elected, the drug addict who will commit crimes in order to get high, the man who will say anything to a woman in order to have her—this is where David is at this time. God has given him great wealth and power, and, along with this wealth and power comes great responsibility; and yet, David puts all of that aside and uses his great wealth and power to chase skirts. Let me add one more thing which works to David’s advantage: many of the men of Jerusalem are off to war, so that leaves him in Jerusalem, which a lot of women and not so many men.


Application: You may think that God ought to allow you to win the lottery or drop several million dollars into your lap, but with that comes great responsibility. Maybe God knows that your spiritual life would be sucked dry once you have been given millions of dollars. Maybe God knows that you would do little else than indulge your own desires. David is our illustration; he is a great man, a man after God’s own heart, and yet, he is just a Lothario here, able to use his power and position to do whatever he wants with whomever he wants.


Application: God has a geographical will for our lives. Most of this the time, this is easy to ascertain—we spend most of our lives working, as has been God’s design for man from the beginning. As we acquire things in life, which these things comes responsibilities (these things can include a spouse, a home, family, money, etc.), and we have duties related to these acquisitions. And we need to grow spiritually, which requires the daily intake of doctrine. And we need sleep. For most people, where we ought to be at any given time is well-defined. Where should David be? With his troops, because it is the time of the year when kings go out [to battle]. If David is in God’s geographical will, then there is no adultery and no murder which take place.


And so he is to a time of the evening and so rises up David from upon his couch. And so he walks (about) upon a roof of a house of the king. And so he sees a woman washing from upon the roof and the woman pleasant of sight very.

2Samuel

11:2

And so it comes to pass toward the evening time that David rises up from his bed. Then he walks about the roof of the king’s palace [lit., house] and from the roof, he sees a woman bathing (herself); and the woman is very pleasing to see.

One late afternoon, David rises up from his bed when it is almost evening time, and he walks around the roof of his palace. From his roof, he sees a woman bathing herself, and this woman looks exceptionally beautiful to him.


Here is how others have translated this verse:

 

Ancient texts:  

 

Dead Sea Scrolls                   [Then in the evening, David got up from hi scorch and took a walk [on the roof of the palace. From the roof he saw a woman bathing.] and the woman [was very beautiful].

Latin Vulgate                          In the mean time it happened that David arose from his bed after noon, and walked upon the roof of the king's house: And he saw from the roof of his house a woman washing herself, over against him: and the woman was very beautiful.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so he is to a time of the evening and so rises up David from upon his couch. And so he walks (about) upon a roof of a house of the king. And so he sees a woman washing from upon the roof and the woman pleasant of sight very.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And it came to pass in the evening that David arose from his bed and walked upon the roof of the king's house; and he saw a woman bathing; and the woman was very beautiful to look upon.

Septuagint (Greek)                And it came to pass toward evening, that David arose off his couch, and walked on the roof of the king's house, and saw from the roof a woman bathing; and the woman was very beautiful to look upon.

 

Significant differences:           The Latin does not indicate that this is the evening time. .


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       Late one afternoon, David got up from a nap and was walking around on the flat roof of his palace. A beautiful young woman was down below in her courtyard, bathing as her religion required. David happened to see her,...

Easy English (Pocock)           One evening, David got up from his bed. He walked round on the roof of his palace. While he was on the roof, he saw a woman. This woman was having a bath. She was very beautiful.

The Message                         One late afternoon, David got up from taking his nap and was strolling on the roof of the palace. From his vantage point on the roof he saw a woman bathing. The woman was stunningly beautiful.

New Living Translation           Late one afternoon, after his midday rest, David got out of bed and was walking on the roof of the palace. As he looked out over the city, he noticed a woman of unusual beauty taking a bath.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      It was in the evening period. David rose from over his pallet and went over the roof of the king's house. From the roof he saw a woman washing, a woman of very good appearance.

God’s Word                         Now, when evening came, David got up from his bed and walked around on the roof of the royal palace. From the roof he saw a woman bathing, and she was very pretty.

New American Bible              One evening David rose from his siesta and strolled about on the roof of the palace. From the roof he saw a woman bathing, who was very beautiful.

Revised English Bible            David remained in Jerusalem, 2and one evening, as he got up from his couch and walked about on the roof of his palace, he saw from there a woman bathing, and she was very beautiful.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Context Group Version          At evening, David arose from off his bed, and walked on the roof of the king's house: and from the roof he saw a woman bathing; and the woman was very beautiful to look at.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               Late one afternoon, David rose from his couch and strolled on the roof of the royal palace; and from the roof he saw a woman bathing. The woman was very beautiful,...

NET Bible®                             One evening David got up from his bed and walked around on the roof of his palace [Heb "on the roof of the house of the king." So also in vv. 8, 9.]. From the roof he saw a woman bathing. Now this woman was very attractive [The disjunctive clause highlights this observation and builds the tension of the story.].

The Scriptures 1998              And it came to be, at evening time, that Dawid? rose up from his bed and walked about on the roof of the sovereign’s house. And from the roof he saw a woman bathing, and the woman was very good to look at.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                One evening David arose from his couch and was walking on the roof of the king's house, when from there he saw a woman bathing; and she was very lovely to behold.

English Standard Version      It happened, late one afternoon, when David arose from his couch and was walking on the roof of the king's house, that he saw from the roof a woman bathing; and the woman was very beautiful.

Geneva Bible                         And it came to pass in an eveningtide, that David arose from off his bed [Upon which he used to rest in the afternoon, as was read of Ishbosheth in (2Sam. 4:7)], and walked upon the roof of the king's house: and from the roof he saw a woman washing herself; and the woman [was] very beautiful to look upon.

Heritage Bible                        And it was in the time of dusk, and David rose from his bed, and walked upon the roof of the house of the king; and from the roof he saw a woman bathing herself; and the woman was very good in appearance..

LTHB                                     And it happened at evening time, David rose up from his bed and walked up and down on the roof of the king's house. And he saw from the roof a woman bathing. And the woman was very good of form.

Syndein                                  Now/'And it came to pass' when evening came, that David got up from off his bed, {David was lying around sleeping all day - a defense mechanism for people who are on party binges} and he walked around on the roof of the king's castle. And from the 'roof battlements', he saw a woman in the middle of bathing herself . . . and the woman was extremely 'beautiful of appearance'. {m@`od towb - fantastic face and body - top of the feminine form}.

Third Millennium Bible            And it came to pass in an eveningtide that David arose from his bed and walked upon the roof of the king's house. And from the roof he saw a woman washing herself, and the woman was very beautiful to look upon.

A Voice in the Wilderness      And it happened at night time, that David arose from his bed and walked around on the roof of the king's house. And from the roof he saw a woman bathing, and the woman was very pleasant in appearance.

World English Bible                It happened at evening, that David arose from off his bed, and walked on the roof of the king's house: and from the roof he saw a woman bathing; and the woman was very beautiful to look on.

Young’s Updated LT             And it comes to pass, at evening-time, that David rises from off his couch, and walks up and down on the roof of the king”s house, and sees from the roof a woman bathing, and the woman is of very good appearance.

 

The gist of this verse:          In the early evening, while it is still light, David gets up and he walks around his roof and sees a very attractive woman bathing down below.


2Samuel 11:2a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʿêth (עֵת) [pronounced ģayth]

time, the right time, the proper time; opportunity

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #6256 BDB #773

ʿereb (עֶרֶב) [pronounced ĢEH-rebv]

evening, sunset

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #6153 BDB #787


Translation: And so it comes to pass toward the evening time... God the Holy Spirit sets the scene for us. It is the early evening. The sun is going down. Farmers throughout the land are planning how to best end their day. They have only an hour or so of sunlight remaining, and they need to wind things down. Workers need to be paid, equipment need to be put up, and animals need to be fed and watered and possibly moved to shelter.


According to Barnes, Footnote this is about 3 in the afternoon, so there are about 3 hours left in the workday.


In the second part of this verse, we find out what David is doing.


2Samuel 11:2b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

qûwm (קוּם) [pronounced koom]

to stand, to rise up, to get up; to establish, to establish a vow, to cause a vow to stand, to confirm or to fulfill a vow

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #6965 BDB #877

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

 min (מִן) [pronounced mihn]

from, away from, out from, out of from, off, on account of, since, above, than, so that not, above, beyond, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl ]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5920, #5921 BDB #752

Together, they mean from upon, from over, from by, from beside, from attachment to, from companionship with, from accompanying [in a protective manner], from adhesion to, from. Some translators rendered this away from.

mishkâb (מִשכָב) [pronounced mish-AWBV]

bed, couch; bier; laying down, the act of lying down

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #4904 (from #7901) BDB #1012


Translation: ...that David rises up from his bed. David is in bed; it is early evening; and now he is just getting up. David’s warriors are just about to complete a day at war. David is getting up in the evening. We may reasonably assume that David either slept all day or this was nap time, and he was just pulling himself out of bed. David either has been out partying the night before and he is getting up quite later. Or, David has taken a leisurely nap, and now it is time for him to get up again.


Why are we told this? David did not stay behind in the palace because there was urgent business for him to attend to. He was not hosting some kind of a summit. He did not have a long trial docket of cases to decide. There was not unrest throughout the country that he needed to see to. He is simply sleeping all day or taking a leisurely nap. If David has any responsibilities, we are certainly not told of them here.


I want you to notice something—where is David sleeping? He appears to be sleeping at the palace and he appears to be sleeping alone. We just saw how David had at least 10 wives and probably as many mistresses, and yet, he is sleeping alone. Most men give the idea of polygamy a thought once or twice in their lives, and one of the benefits they see is, unlimited sex. However, David is here this afternoon alone, although he has 20 women he could have napped with.


2Samuel 11:2c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâlake (הָלַךְ) [pronounced haw-LAHKe]

to go, to come, to depart, to walk [up and down, about]; to wander, to prowl; to go for oneself, to go about, to live [walk] [in truth]; to flow

3rd person masculine singular, Hithpael imperfect

Strong’s #1980 (and #3212) BDB #229

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl ]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5920, #5921 BDB #752

gâg (גָג) [pronounced gawg]

roof, top, housetop; top or surface [of the altar of incense]

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #1406 BDB #150

bayith (בַּיִת) [pronounced BAH-yith]

house, residence; household, habitation as well as inward

masculine singular construct

Strong's #1004 BDB #108

meleke (מֶלֶך׃) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572


Translation: Then he walks about the roof of the king’s residence... Note that this is not called David’s home (residence or palace); this is called the king’s residence. This is the official palace of the king, and God installed David as king over all of Israel, but David was not acting like a monarch here, but more like a leech. David is enjoying the prosperity of being a king, but without attending to his duties (which would be going to war).


In the ancient world, the roof of a house acted as another room; it was a place a person could go—particularly if it was a lavish home, and get a whole new perspective on life (compare 1Sam. 9:25). At various times of the year, the weather would be quite pleasant up there in the open air. I am making the assumption that it is still light enough for David to see out from his roof. There is the possibility that it is night, and he is able to see either by moonlight or by whatever lighting system that the woman could be seen by David.


Now, he is on this roof walking about—apparently, David has noticed that he has a nice vantage point here. He can walk about and see things that most people cannot.


There is a whole host of problems when building a roof. However, that host of problems is increased tenfold when the roof is also designed to be walked upon. So, not everyone had a roof like this. It would have been quite expensive to build. You may recall that Hiram King of Tyre built David’s palace for him, and he would have installed all of the latest features, which would have included this open-air space on the roof on a roof designed to be walked upon.


2Samuel 11:2d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

râʾâh (רָאָה) [pronounced raw-AWH]

to see, to look, to look at, to view, to behold; to perceive, to understand, to learn, to know

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #7200 BDB #906

ʾîshshâh (אִשָּה) [pronounced eesh-SHAW]

woman, wife

feminine singular noun

Strong's #802 BDB #61

râchats (רָחַץ) [pronounced raw-KAHTS]

washing, bathing (oneself), washing off (away); a female bather (bathing)

feminine singular, Qal active participle

Strong’s #7364 BDB #934

 min (מִן) [pronounced mihn]

from, away from, out from, out of from, off, on account of, since, above, than, so that not, above, beyond, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl ]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5920, #5921 BDB #752

Together, they mean from upon, from over, from by, from beside, from attachment to, from companionship with, from accompanying [in a protective manner], from adhesion to, from. Some translators rendered this away from.

gâg (גָג) [pronounced gawg]

roof, top, housetop; top or surface [of the altar of incense]

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #1406 BDB #150


Translation: ...and, from the roof, he sees a woman bathing (herself);... Whether this bathing was ceremonial (as we see in 2Sam. 11:4) or simply a matter of cleanliness or refreshment, we do not know (although most assume that this is a cleansing ritual based upon the end of her menstruation period (v. 4). However, given the time of the year (the day warming up somewhat, and many of the males being gone), what Bathsheba is doing here is perfectly normal.


Near as I can figure out, based upon the sources that I have read, Bathsheba was bathing in a courtyard type set up, probably with a bowl of water. This afforded her privacy, for the most part; but not from David’s roof. Ideally, as the man in charge with protecting the freedom and privacy of his citizens, David should have turned away, realizing that he was invading her privacy. He chose not to.


There have been several instances in the Bible where a person looks at something, desires it, and falls into sin.

The Lust of the Eyes Leading to Sin

Scripture

Commentary

So when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desired to make one wise, she took of its fruit and ate, and she also gave some to her husband who was with her, and he ate (Gen. 3:6).

This marked the first sin of the woman, and then of Adam.

The sons of God saw that the daughters of man were attractive. And they took as their wives any they chose (Gen. 6:2).

This goes back to angels lusting after the women and being able to cohabit with them.

And when Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, the prince of the land, saw her, he seized her and lay with her and humiliated her (Gen. 34:2).

A daughter of Jacob here is seen and then raped by a heathen. Jacob’s sons end up killing all the males of the people of Shechem.

"Never desire to take your neighbor's household away from him. Never desire to take your neighbor's wife, his male or female slave, his ox, his donkey, or anything else that belongs to him." (Ex. 20:17).

We are not to be desirous of those things which we see that our neighbor has. This is the entire basis for political movements which bash the rich and suggest that we ought to have what they have; or that, what they have is too much and ought to be taken away from them..

"I have made a covenant with my eyes; how then could I concentrate upon a virgin?” (Job 31:1).

There are times you will see women and they are attractive. The word here is not the word to see, but it means to be attentive to; to concentrate upon something, to think about something. The idea is, Job knows better than to look upon a woman and to think lustful thoughts about her.

Turn my eyes away from looking at worthless things. Revive me in your ways (Psalm 119:37).

Our concentration is not to be upon worthless things.

“But I say to you that everyone who looks at a woman with lustful intent has already committed adultery with her in his heart. If your right eye causes you to sin, tear it out and throw it away. For it is better that you lose one of your members than that your whole body be thrown into hell.” (Matt. 5:28–29).

So there is no confusion, Jesus Christ is not telling every person to pluck out your eyes if you lust with them. The idea is, it would be better to do that, than to go to hell because of your lusts. As drastic as plucking out one’s own eyes is, spending eternity in hell is far more drastic.

For all that is in the world--the desires of the flesh and the desires of the eyes and pride in possessions--is not from the Father but is from the world (1John 2:16).

This is simply an update on then tenth commandment, you will not covet. You have two sets of people here; those who see things which others have, and desire them greatly; and those who have all of these other things which they enjoy showing off.

Most of these verses came from Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge; by Canne, Browne, Blayney, Scott, and others about 1880, with introduction by R. A. Torrey; courtesy of E-sword, 2Sam. 11:2.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


It is possible that David has seen this before. All of his soldiers have been around for several months of the winter. However, now all of his army, except for a few personal bodyguards, are off at war. David is able to see a woman bathing from this perch.


With most of the men of Jerusalem gone, this woman probably believes herself to have some privacy. Whereas, David has a roof that he can walk upon, this woman has a room or a courtyard, surrounded by walls, but open to the heavens above. We do not know if she brought the water in herself, but it was probably learned that, water, in a confined space, was problematic; and water in an open-air space was the way to go (in a confined area, moisture causes various molds to grow more readily than in the open-air). So, was this woman not aware that David could walk out on his roof and see her? I don’t think that occurred to her, because this was the spring, the time that kings go out to war. Her husband is a warrior. He is off at war and she probably assumes that the same is true of King David.


Now, whether this is the first time David has observed this or whether he has seen this before, we don’t know. It is possible that she has a schedule and David gets up to observe her. Or this could have been random observation on David’s part. Whether or not she is a new thing to him, he is seeing this woman now. This captures David’s interest. We know that David’s weakness is women and sexual lust, and seeing this woman kicks his sexual lust into high gear.


We may reasonably say that David’s palace was the largest within the walls of Jerusalem, and the tallest, and that he is able to look down upon much of the city from this roof. Although McGee suggests that the woman is bathing upon her roof, I picture this more of a courtyard shower of sorts, something that can be looked down upon, but not seen from street level, and possibly from no other roof.


Although David had excellent vision, my guess is, this woman has to be maybe 100–500 ft. away, and possibly farther. The woman is far enough away so that David does not know who she is or who she is the wife of. As a matter of security, I would assume that David’s immediate neighbors were known, and many of them were probably palace staff and bodyguards. From a distance, the face of Bathsheba would likely be difficult to discern, but David could get a reasonable, but blurred view of her figure.


Built into the psyche of man is an appreciation for the female form. We do not know why this is, apart from, this is how God made us, designing us in such a way that this peaks in our late teens, but does not wain for a long time. Man’s appreciation for the female form and the female face seems to continue for a long time in life without waning.


There are a lot of things we do not know. Has David done this before? We do know that, in the previous year, David remained in Jerusalem while his soldiers went out to war. My guess is, previously, this was a brand new world for David, being at home in Jerusalem during the spring. For a decade or more, he has gone out with his men at the beginning of the season. Last year, David stayed home for part of the spring (until Joab realized that the Aramæans had to be dealt with). This year, David has decided to remain in Jerusalem and enjoy the springtime there.


Because his army kept the city safe, the city became quite relaxed even with most of the male soldiers gone. My guess is, that even if this woman knows she can be seen from the palace roof, she probably assumes that the king has gone off to war. It is a beautiful spring day, and what could be more relaxing than a bath before the sun sets?


And so it comes to pass toward the evening time that David rises up from his bed. Then he walks about the roof of the king’s palace [lit., house] and from the roof, he sees a woman bathing (herself);... Clarke Footnote suggests that, with the spring rains, there are pools of water, and that women bathed themselves in the morning or in the late afternoon—something which would have been common with the change of season and the reduced number of men in the city. The NIV Study Bible suggests Footnote that she is purifying herself from menstruation, as is called for in the Law (Lev. 15:19–30), so that it is clear that she is not pregnant at this time from Uriah.


2Samuel 11:2e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾîshshâh (אִשָּה) [pronounced eesh-SHAW]

woman, wife

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #802 BDB #61

ţôwb (טוֹב) [pronounced tohbv]

pleasant, pleasing, agreeable, good, better; approved

masculine feminine singular adjective which can act like a substantive; construct form

Strong’s #2896 BDB #373

mareʾeh (מַרְאֶה) [pronounced mahr-EH]

the act of seeing, sight, vision; appearance, that which is seen

masculine singular noun

Strong's #4758 BDB #909

meʾôd (מְאֹד) [pronounced me-ODE]

exceedingly, extremely, greatly, very

adverb

Strong’s #3966 BDB #547


Translation: ...and the woman is very pleasing to see. The Hebrew is a fascinating. All of the phrases up until this point in time have been wâw consecutive followed by imperfect verbs—4 times, this is repeated. Suddenly, in this verse, we have a wâw conjunction and no verb. It grabs your attention. This is what seeing the woman did to David—it grabbed his attention. This is a literary device, and there are several literary devices used in this chapter. This particular literary device is designed to grab a person’s attention, just as seeing Bathsheba did to David.


The woman that David sees is exceptionally attractive. There are several reasons why we know this. Syntactically, this is set apart from the rest of the text, so this jumps out at you—it grabs your attention. Secondly, there is the adverb very, which indicates that this woman is more than just being pleasant to look at or moderately attractive. She is a woman of exceptional beauty.


Lust is not the act of seeing a beautiful woman; it is the act of seeing this woman and staring and thinking about her. In God’s plan, this is to be confined to marriage. That is, we are able to look upon our own spouse longingly, but our concentration is not to be upon another woman, and certainly not someone else’s wife (You will not covet your neighbor’s wife). As pointed out earlier, David had maybe 20 or more women he could have gone to legitimately. Before he laid down for his nap, he could have commanded that his messenger bring in one of his wives or mistresses at such and such a time to wake him up. David has so many legitimate options (seeing that he was married to so many women and had others as mistresses), but the number of women was not enough to satiate his lusts. We will find this out with Solomon years later, who will have 700 wives and 300 mistresses to choose from (yet, he will still lust after the Shulamite woman in Song of Solomon).


Application: You cannot satiate your lusts by indulging your lusts. The key is an adjustment of your soul; not an adjustment of your circumstances. To put it more bluntly, 1000 women was not enough to satiate Solomon’s sexual lust. No matter what your addiction, you cannot satiate it by feeding that addiction. Most alcoholics and substance abusers, in a moment of honesty, can testify to this. Give an alcoholic and unlimited supply of alcohol and, he may drink himself to death, but he won’t come to a point where he has truly satiated his addiction.


Application: Guzik Footnote suggests that men, when seeing an alluring image, direct their eyes (and thoughts) to “bounce off” this image.

 

Guzik writes: The real strength of temptation often does not lie in the quality of the tempting object, but in the state of heart and mind of the one being tempted. David had long been "prepared" to stumble at this very point. Even so, this temptation was not too strong for David, no matter how beautiful Bathsheba was. Footnote


Here, David will give in to his temptation. Men are not helpless in this situation. We have volition. No matter how great the temptation, we have the ability to say no, avert our attention, or whatever. Joseph, in Gen. 39, fled a similar temptation. He knew that giving in to the pharaoh’s wife would have been a serious mistake and a breech of trust.


Beauty is, of course, in the eye of the beholder. However, David has a good eye for women, and he has been married many times; so my guess is, this woman is spectacular, from the standpoint of most men. She also has good taste in men, as we will find out. It will turn out that her husband is a very honorable man.


David, as we have already discussed, is out of God’s geographical will. He should be at work (i.e., at war), but he is not. David is enjoying far too much idle-time. God designed man to work, which design is a powerful factor in determining God’s geographical will for our lives. There is someplace that we ought to be, 8 or 10 or 12 hours a day. There, we ought to perform our duties as unto the Lord. No matter what the circumstance, man is designed to work (and, by man, I mean men and women).


Application: Without this work ethic, people go astray. I had 2 women, a mother and a daughter, who were tenants of mine, and they received their rent from housing and I assume they received food stamps and other means of assistance as well. So, their job was, to get up every morning, light up a cigarette, and sit down in front of their big screen tv. You would think that, with all of this time, these woman would have perfect children and the neatest cleanest house you have ever seen. Not so. I have been there doing repairs, and the children run about unsupervised, and, after they moved out, the level of filth was beyond one’s imagination. Leaving aside that there were enough beer cans in their back yard to build an aluminum car with (I exaggerate here), the roach feces and bodies were inches thick on top of their kitchen cabinets (I am not exaggerating here). God’s design for these women was work, and since they chose not to work, but live off of government handouts, their lives were disorganized, unseemly, and they lacked drive and energy. No matter who you are, no matter what kind of physical disabilities you suffer from, God has designed you to work. If your life is filled with idle time, you will be tempted and you will fall prey to your temptations.


David has been king over Israel for 20–30 years at this time, and he has been an excellent king. However, this afternoon of excess is going to change the entire tenor of his reign. Falling prey to this temptation will lead to an unstable government which will almost fall to revolution and civil war. This could have all been avoided, had David simply been in the geographical will of God.


David was astonished by the beauty of the woman and he desired her. A man in love may see a beautiful woman and he will think, “Hmm, a beautiful woman.” and he can leave it at that.

David’s Lust for Beautiful Women

1.      Even though David was married to many beautiful women, when he saw another beautiful woman, his sexual lust took over.

2.      No matter who the woman was, David would find himself greatly desiring her, even if she were marred.

3.      Men who are not trapped in interlocking systems of arrogance can see a beautiful woman without sexually desiring her.

4.      A man who is in love and not in sexual arrogance can also look on another beautiful woman without being irresistibly drawn to her.

5.      In a nation where many men find themselves trapped within interlocking systems of arrogance, there are very few men that you could trust in a compromising situation.

6.      On the flip side, there are women who think every man lusts after her and there are women who dress and act in such a way to attempt to engender lust for them in men.

7.      When a man and a woman get married, they enter into a system of authority. The woman submits herself to the man and the man takes responsibility for the woman, just as a commanding officer assumes the responsibility for his troops.

8.      When a person is arrogant, there is nothing to him that is sacred. He does not recognize private property, he does not recognize marriage, he does not recognize the free exercise of another person’s volition.

         1)      The topic here is David and his beautiful women, so the arrogance we are focused on is someone who has no qualms about committing adultery. In their arrogance, they want what they want and when they want it.

         2)      However, this same kind of arrogance is found in completely different realms, like in political movements. There are political movements who do not recognize private property, who believe that they or the government should be free to seize the property of others.

9.      David, despite being married and despite the fact that Bathsheba was married, desired her, and he used his great authority in order to take her. It is very possible that he had this sort of thing in mind when he stayed home from the war.

10.    No man has the right to use his authority in order to seduce some woman.

11.    David’s sexual arrogance began some time ago, as early as 2Sam. 5:13, when he began to practice polygamy.

12.    As we have studied, prior to moving the Ark of God, David had a lot of holes in his understanding of theology. When he learned how to move the Ark, he likely found out a lot more as well. At some point, David had to recognize that collecting wives was wrong for a king to do. However, being enmeshed in interlocking systems of arrogance caused him to go after Bathsheba anyway.

13.    One theologian suggested that maybe David married all of these woman so that he would not have to confess to fornicating with them all.

14.    Promiscuity destroys one’s capacity for love, which includes the capacity for friendship between a married couple.

15.    Similarly, capacity for category #3 love can be destroyed by promiscuity. This is why some people change friends so often—they do not have a capacity for friendship.

16.    If lust controls the soul, then lust controls the soul. Lust is the arrogance of believing that what you want is more important than honor, integrity and God’s plan. This lust does not have to be sexual; an overpowering lust can be for money, power, or approbation.

17.    David has a complete breakdown of his personal integrity. He has the responsibility for those under him, and, therefore, ought to respect the privacy and possessions of his subjects.

18.    The greater a man’s authority, the greater is his responsibility and the greater his respect ought to be for those under his authority. Because David had such great authority, he needed to respect the rights and privacy of those under his authority.

19.    David abused his own authority here, taking this woman that he should have protected, and alienating her grandfather, who was one of David’s greatest advisors.

20.    As has been discussed, what is difficult for many to understand is, David had advanced spiritually in many areas, but he allowed his foray into sexual lust to control him. This is what has baffled theologians for centuries. How do you show great wisdom and spiritual maturity on the one hand, and yet, fall so far in such a short time, on the other. R. B. Thieme, Jr. explains this with the interlocking systems of arrogance and I have added the concept of addictive arrogance,

21.    David was addicted to sex, and this took his entire spiritual life off the rails. The key to one’s spiritual life is in the soul; the key to love is in the soul, and the key to giving in to sexual lust in in the soul.

22.    Furthermore, even unbelievers who understand the laws of divine establishment can better deal with lust than David can. So two men can see the same woman, and one is filled with almost overpowering lust and the other one thinks, “Hmm, now there is a beautiful woman” and then moves on. The key is their souls, and David had entered into addictive behavior.


Return to Chapter Outline

Return to Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


——————————


And so sends David and so he asks to the woman and so he says, “Is [this] not Bathsheba daughter of Eliam, woman of Uriah the Hittite?”

2Samuel

11:3

So David sent [for a messenger] and he asks, about [this] woman, and the messenger [lit., he] replies [lit., says], “Is [this] not Bathsheba, the daughter of Eliam and the wife of Uriah the Hittite?”

So David sent a messenger to inquire about this woman, and the messenger later reported, “She is Bathsheba, the daughter of Eliam, and the wife of Uriah the Hittite.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:

 

Ancient texts:  

 

Dead Sea Scrolls                   [So David sent messengers and inquired about the woman. One said, “Isn’t sh]e Bathsheba [daughter of] Eliam, the wife of Uriah the Hittie,] the armor-[bearer of Joab?”

Latin Vulgate                          And the king sent, and inquired who the woman was. And it was told him, that she was Bethsabee the daughter of Eliam, the wife of Urias the Hethite.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so sends David and so he asks to the woman and so he says, “Is [this] not Bathsheba daughter of Eliam, woman of Uriah the Hittite?”

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And David sent and inquired about the woman. And one said, She is Bathsheba, the daughter of Ahinam, the wife of Uriah the Hittite.

Septuagint (Greek)                And David sent and inquired about the woman: and one said, Is not this Bersabee the daughter of Eliab, the wife of Urias the Chettite?.

 

Significant differences:           The Latin takes some liberties at the beginning of the 2nd sentence. This may have simply been a smoothing out of the Hebrew (and, bear in mind, I am looking at the translation of a translation). The final line in the Dead Sea Scrolls is not found in the other ancient texts.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Easy English (Pocock)           David sent a servant to find out who she was. The servant said, `The woman is called Bathsheba. She is the daughter of Eliam, and the wife of Uriah (who belongs to the people called Hittites).'.

Easy-to-Read Version            So David sent for his officers and asked them who the woman was. An officer answered, “That woman is Bathsheba daughter of Eliam. She is the wife of Uriah the Hittite.”.

Good News Bible (TEV)         So he sent a messenger to find out who she was, and learned that she was Bathsheba, the daughter of Eliam and the wife of Uriah the Hittite.

New Century Version             So David sent his servants to find out who she was. A servant answered, "That woman is Bathsheba daughter of Eliam. She is the wife of Uriah the Hittite.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Then David asked about the woman, saying, `Isn't this BathSheba, the daughter of EliAb and the wife of UriJah the Hittite?'.

Ancient Roots Translinear      David sent and requested of the woman, saying, "Is this not Bathsheba, the daughter of Eliam, the woman of Uriah the Central-Syrian?".

NIRV                                      David sent a messenger to find out who she was. The messenger returned and said, "She is Bathsheba. She's the daughter of Eliam. She's the wife of Uriah. He's a Hittite.".

New Jerusalem Bible             David made enquiries about this woman and was told, 'Why, that is Bathsheba daughter of Eliam and wife of Uriah the Hittite.

Revised English Bible            He made inquiries about the woman and was told, ‘It must be Bathsheba daughter of Eliam and wife of Uriah the Hittite.’

Today’s NIV                          ...and David sent someone to find out about her. The man said, "She is Bathsheba, the daughter of Eliam and the wife of Uriah the Hittite.".


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And David sent to get knowledge who the woman was. And one said, Is this not Bath-sheba, the daughter of Eliam and wife of Uriah the Hittite?.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               The woman was very beautiful, 3and the king sent someone to make inquiries about the woman. He reported, “She is Bathsheba daughter of Eliam [and] wife of Uriah the Hittite.”

NET Bible®                             So David sent someone to inquire about the woman. The messenger [Heb "he"; the referent (the messenger) has been specified in the translation for clarity.] said, "Isn't this Bathsheba, the daughter of Eliam, the wife of Uriah the Hittite?".

New International Version      ...and David sent someone to find out about her. The man said, "Isn't this Bathsheba, the daughter of Eliam and the wife of Uriah the Hittite?".


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Geneva Bible                         And David sent and enquired after the woman. And [one] said, [Is] not this Bathsheba, the daughter of Eliam, the wife of Uriah the Hittite [Uriah was not an born an Israelite, but converted to the true religion]?

Hebrew Names Version         David send and inquired after the woman. One said, Is not this Bat-Sheva, the daughter of Eli`am, the wife of Uriyah the Chittite?.

LTHB                                     And David sent and asked about the woman. And one said, Is this not Bathsheba, the daughter of Eliam, the wife of Uriah the Hittite?.

NRSV                                     David sent someone to inquire about the woman. It was reported, `This is Bathsheba daughter of Eliam, the wife of Uriah the Hittite.'.

Syndein                                  And David sent and inquired after the woman. {David sent out his G2 investigator to report back}. And one {the G2 investigator} said, "Is not this Bathsheba . . . the daughter of Eliam . . . {in 2Samuel 23:34 we see that Eliam is the son of Ahithophel - Ahithophel's viewpoint is said to be 'as of God' - he becomes a great advisor to David but leads Absalom in his revolt against David - probably because of David's murder of Uriah to cover this crime coming up} the wife of Uriah the Hittite?".

Young’s Updated LT             And David sends and inquires about the woman, and says, “Is not this Bath-Sheba, daughter of Eliam, wife of Uriah the Hittite?”

 

The gist of this verse:          David finds one of his staff who is dependable and discrete, and sends them out to find information about this woman. He comes back with her name and background.


2Samuel 11:3a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

shâlach (שָלַח) [pronounced shaw-LAKH]

to send, to send for [forth, away], to dismiss, to deploy, to put forth, to stretch out, to reach out

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #7971 BDB #1018

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187


Translation: So David sent [for a messenger]... We find this verb to send associated a great deal with men in authority. Most of the time, that they are sending a messenger is understood and not stated. Such men of authority do not do their own work, but they send messengers instead. Here, David sends out one or more messengers to find out what they need to know.


This word, to send, is key to this chapter, and we will find it again and again.


2Samuel 11:3b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

dârash (דָּרַש) [pronounced daw-RASH]

to seek, to make inquiries concerning, to consult, to investigate, to study, to follow, to inquire

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #1875 BDB #205

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾîshshâh (אִשָּה) [pronounced eesh-SHAW]

woman, wife

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #802 BDB #61


Translation: ...and he asks about [this] woman,... David is the one making inquiry here, and the lâmed preposition is used to mean concerning, about, with regards to. David wants to know some background information on this woman.


Earlier, I suggested that maybe David has seen Bathsheba bathing before. This could still be true; however, the likely scenario is, David has only seen her once or twice before at most, and his interest is thoroughly piqued.


As we studied earlier in this chapter, David had at least 10 wives (probably more) and likely, about as many mistresses. He had so many that he did not even name them in the Bible; and he had so many children, that he did not name or identify all of them either. Now, here is what I think was going on (and this is pure conjecture); in the spring, with most of the men of the town gone, David would look out over the city, find women who appealed to him, and brought them into his home as wives or as mistresses. We know that David stayed at home the previous year (Joab had to get him in order to advance against Aram) and, quite obviously, he is at home right now, rather than being with Joab at war. We have also seen how David collected a number of wives and mistresses (and children) in Jerusalem. What happens in this chapter suggests that this is not David’s first time at the rodeo. Footnote What David is doing is violating God’s mandate that kings not multiply wives to themselves (which mandate David knew, because he studied the Law of Moses). So God essentially was giving David enough rope here to hang himself. David may have thought, “You know what; this is socially acceptable for me to have several wives; this is the way of many kings; and if they are willing, what of it?” Again, this is conjecture that David said this in his heart, but I do not doubt that this was his rationalization. God will let David take his lusts as far as he can take them. God is going to allow David’s volition to play out to the point where, he will rape Bathsheba, a married woman; and then have her husband killed. David is going to do things here that he may not have realized he was capable of doing. These things are going to affect his kingship for about the next 10 years.


Application: The more that I study this passage and the surrounding chapters, the more valid R. B. Thieme, Jr.’s interlocking systems of arrogance approach appears. David has one serious area of weakness (sexual lust), and he allows himself to indulge in this one weakness in a socially legitimate way—as king, he can have many wives and many mistresses. However, God is showing that, indulging the lusts of the flesh in one area can lead to other serious sins (in other words, sexual arrogance can interlock with criminal arrogance; or sin nature weakness arrogance can interlock with some other form of arrogance, resulting in a plethora of sinful behavior as well as a spiraling life for the believer).


Application: We all have weaknesses, and we may even be willing to continually indulge these weaknesses, thinking, “I won’t take it any further than this.” There are those who smoke a little dope, and justify this in their own minds as being acceptable. “It’s just marijuana; it’s a natural substance; it grows in he ground; it ought to be legal.” Yet, after a few years, you might become involved in criminal arrogance (you might start selling it) or you may try out some harder drugs (which you may sell). You may go so far as to commit criminal acts in order to procure your drugs. Now, I realize that, if you are reading this, your problem is probably not drugs. I use this example simply because, when I was younger, I knew a lot of people who used a variety of drugs (some for decades). You could observe a change in a person’s personality, values, and, after a long period of time, would be doing things that, a decade earlier, they could not even see themselves capable of doing. However, sex and drugs are only 2 examples. You sin nature weakness might be gossiping or judging; and, if left unchecked, it can lead you into just as great a personal disaster.


Application: It ought to be clear that not every person in interlocking systems of arrogance will interlock with every single gate. I personally have weaknesses which I am well aware of; abuse of alcohol, however, is not one of them. I enjoy a beer after mowing my lawn or doing some yardwork; and I love a beer or margarita with Mexican food. However, at this point in my life, I have little interest in drinking 3 or more beers; or 3 or more margaritas (even though I love the taste of a margarita with Mexican food). So, I have various gates of arrogance that I am more likely to interlock with, simply because of the bend of my own sin nature.


Application: Sin is sin. Just because you commit sins which you see as more refined and not as socially problematic, they are still sins. I’ve used the example of 3 women that I used to work with who sat around and gossiped whenever they had a chance. It is likely that all of them were believers in Jesus Christ. That they gossiped about other people was not so nutty, that everyone else avoided them. In fact, since 2 of them represented the power in my department, some even gravitated toward them (but did not participate, for the most part, in their gossip). However, this tendency to gossip caused a great divide to occur in our department. My point is, what they did was socially acceptable. Even as Christians (assuming that they are), this did not strike them as being a problem; and yet, what they did had a great negative impact against the rest of the department, for which 2 of them were responsible.


Application: In other words, you do not get to look down your nose at someone else, because you commit sins which are more accepted in society. It does not matter. Sin is sin. One of the great examples of this is homosexual behavior. Actions which take place in a gay pride parade, in the 1950's and 1960's would have gotten most of the participants arrested, thrown in jail, and eventually convicted. Now, even groups of straight people will come out for these parades, and accept the behavior on the floats as okay. Furthermore, their agendas find their way surreptitiously into schools where the concept of homosexuality is introduced to grammar school and middle school children, in most cases, years before such thoughts would even enter into their heads of our young people; and under the guise of sex education or as an anti-bullying campaign. The idea of telling a child at any age that there are 3 kinds of sexual intercourse, and presenting this as just a matter of fact still amazes me that our public schools have gotten away with teaching this (but, that is because many parents have abdicated their responsibilities as parents—they thought, “Oh, the schools will teach sex education? Excellent; I was dreading having to do that.”).


Obviously, I have digressed here, but the topic was, sin nature weakness arrogance, which leads to all kinds of negative results—results which weaken or destroy a society. David has indulged his sin nature weakness, arrogantly thinking that he was staying within societal norms and standards, and the end result is going to be a revolution, which literally affects every person in Israel.


It is acceptable in David’s world for a king to have a number of wives. David, as far as the rest of the world goes, is not thought ill of because he has about 20 wives and mistresses. This is routine 6 (compare President Bill Clinton and his dalliances; millions of people were willing to overlook what he did). But sin is still sin, no matter how the public views it. So David was led astray by his sexual lust probably long before he ever saw Bathsheba. It is Bathsheba who will make him realize just how far he has fallen.


Application: It does not matter what society accepts (plural marriages, homosexuality, pornography); the Bible is our standard for behavior. The example in this context is David having many wives. No one blinked an eye over this.


Application: You may think that you want authority in this or that realm; but along with David’s authority comes great responsibility; along with this responsibility comes great discipline, which we will examine thoroughly.


2Samuel 11:3c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

hă (הֲ) [pronounced heh]

interrogative particle which acts almost like a piece of punctuation, like the upside-down question mark which begins a Spanish sentence. The verb to be may be implied.

Strong’s #none BDB #209

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

Hă lôʾ together expect an affirmative answer. In fact, these two words together present a question with an obvious, self-evident answer.

Bathshebaʿ (בַּת־שֶבַע) [pronounced bahth-SHEH-bahģ]

daughter of an oath; transliterated Bathsheba

feminine singular proper noun

Strong’s #1339 BDB #124

bath (בַּת) [pronounced bahth]

daughter; village

feminine singular construct

Strong's #1323 BDB #123

ʾĔlîyʿâm (אֱלִיעָם) [pronounced ehl-ee-ĢAWM]

God is [my] kinsman; God of the people; transliterated Eliam

masculine singular proper singular noun

Strong’s #463 BDB #45

ʾîshshâh (אִשָּה) [pronounced eesh-SHAW]

woman, wife

feminine singular construct

Strong's #802 BDB #61

ʾÛwrîyyâh (אוּרִיָּה) [pronounced oo-ree-YAW]

flame of Yah; my light is Yah and is transliterated Uriah

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #223 BDB #22

Also spelled ʾÛwrîyyâhûw (אוּרִיָּהוּ) [pronounced oo-ree-YAW-hoo].

Chittîy (חִתִּי) [pronounced khiht-TEE]

a descendant of Heth; transliterated Hittite

gentilic adjective; with the definite article

Strong’s #2850 BDB #366

The Dead Sea Scrolls add that he is the armor-bearer of Joab. This is very rare for the Dead Sea Scrolls to include an additional phrase not found in the Masoretic text.


Translation: ...and the messenger [lit., he] replies [lit., says], “Is [this] not Bathsheba, the daughter of Eliam and the wife of Uriah the Hittite?” Bear in mind, who is remaining in Jerusalem: there is David, plus he is going to have a small staff of men—men who ought to be at war like David, but since David is the king, he needs to have a coterie of bodyguards and a small staff of soldiers, who protect Jerusalem, the palace and himself. And, in defense of these men, they might have to remain to guard the palace and David’s wives (as well as the city of Jerusalem).


At this point in time, David is a little bored, somewhat aroused, and he might as well make use of this staff, so he sends a man out to find out about the woman. He describes where she lives.


Now, the man who is sent out does not necessarily go to Bathsheba’s house nor does he knock on the door next door to her, and ask about her. He probably asks a few people who might know. Bear in mind, David is going to expect this man to be discreet, but there is going to be others who find out. So now, 2 or 3 men, at least, know of David’s interest in this woman.


There are two people of note, which help to define who this woman is. She is first the daughter of Eliam. Although the name Eliam is found only twice in association with Bathsheba, there is another Eliam who is one of David’s 30 warriors (2Sam. 23:34). Now, if he is the same man—which I believe is the case—then this makes for a very interesting set of circumstances. His father is Ahithophel and Ahithophel will be one of the revolutionaries against David as a part of David’s discipline (2Sam. 15:31). As we will find out, in future chapters, Absalom, David’s son who will actually lead a civil war against David, would be nothing apart from Ahithophel, and what happens in this chapter will explain why Ahithophel is so willing to rebel against David.


Secondly, Bathsheba is the wife of Uriah the Hittite, one of David’s greatest soldiers (he is immortalized in 2Sam. 23). In fact, her husband is at war right now, representing David and Israel at war with the Ammonites, risking his life to besiege the well-fortified wall of Rabbah (which fact will also play a part in this little drama which will suddenly burst into a full-fledged civil war).


According to R. B. Thieme, Jr. Footnote , the Hittites had come into Palestine and settled around Jerusalem. It was good terrain for fortification. While in Jerusalem, they decided to make a fort there. Then they decided to perpetuate themselves and to marry the Canaanitish women; so they called themselves Jebusites and they stayed on that hill unconquered and free for about 500 years. David finally conquered them. Many of them were still called Hittites. Uriah was a man who was taken prisoner and he was given a battlefield commission in his own army. Many of these men became greater warriors in Israel’s army. Uriah is on the decoration list for knight of the 3rd class. He is a very successful battalion commander.


So, what we have is a woman to whom David is attracted; she is married to one of his soldiers and it is likely that her father is one of David’s soldiers as well, and that his father is one of David’s military advisors.


In the Bible, there are 4 men closely related to this woman Bathsheba.

The Men in Bathsheba’s Life

The Man

His Story

Uriah

Uriah is both Bathsheba’s husband (2Sam. 11:3) and one of David’s great warriors (2Sam. 23:34). In 2Sam. 11:8–13, we are going to find out that Uriah was a man of great personal character, in contrast to David and what David will do in this chapter.

David

David is actually Bathsheba’s right man, which is based upon the fact that he marries her, after all is said and done (2Sam. 11:27); he mourns greatly over the loss of their son (2Sam. 12:15–23); and both lines of Jesus will come through Bathsheba (1Chron. 3:5; the legal line is through Solomon in Matt. 1:6; and the blood line is through Nathan in Luke 3:31).

Eliam

Eliam is both Bathsheba’s father (2Sam. 11:3) and, as far as we can tell, also one of David’s great soldiers (2Sam. 23:34). Furthermore, it appears that Eliam remains loyal to David in the revolution which is to come. So, despite David’s despicable actions, Eliam is able to see beyond this and recognize both David’s authority (which is God-given) and he recognizes hat God will discipline David. It is not his business to take out some kind of revenge against David, even though Bathsheba is his daughter and Uriah is his son-in-law. This takes enormous personal integrity and a great understanding of the plan of God.

Ahithophel

Ahithophel is Bathsheba’s grandfather (2Sam. 11:3 23:24), and, probably because of what will take place in this chapter, will turn against David during the revolution (2Sam. 16–17). Ahithophel is a brilliant man, and, if Absalom listened to him, Absalom would have defeated David. The national intrigue in this realm will be fascinating, and it one of the great narratives of Scripture, a narrative not fully unearthed and explained until R. B. Thieme, Jr. in the 20th century. Footnote

The interrelationships here and the intrigue which will result is quite amazing in the narrative which will unfold over the next several chapters. Right now, if you have these men’s names straight, you already know more about the next few chapters than most commentators.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


At this point, David has several options. He has found out who Bathsheba is, and she is married. David could let this go, and go and visit one of his wives or mistresses. Or, he could all his sexual lust to dominate. Gate 29 (sin nature weakness arrogance) has interlocked with sexual arrogance (gate 10). When you allow your sin nature full reign over your life in your area of weakness, it is only a matter of time before this gate will interlock with another gate. Originally, David was not in sexual arrogance. He developed a relationship with his wives (at least the first ones) and saw things in their soul which he appreciated. However, as he collected wives, their souls became less and less important to him (some of his wives and all of his mistresses are not even named).


It is possible that David was able to rationalize his behavior up until this point in time. Socially, what David did was acceptable. He knew it was against Scripture, but it was acceptable. However, David is going to intentionally commit a sin, an act which he cannot, in any way, rationalize away. Bathsheba is a married woman, and her man—her hero—is out fighting for Israel’s freedom and security, under David’s orders. David knows this sin he is about to commit is incredibly wrong, and that it impacts that lives of several people, at the very least (this sin will eventually impact the lives of all Israel). Having sex with new desirable young women has become an addictive behavior, and so David interlocks with addictive behavior arrogance as well.


What has happened is, David associates enjoyment, fun and gratification with sex (just as some do with drugs and alcohol). As he pursues this more and more, he becomes more and more addicted to the behavior. Unfortunately, Bathsheba just happens to be the woman in his cross hairs.


Application: In addictive behavior, man digs a rut into his soul, and returns to the rut over and over again. If you have ever driven on a dirt driveway, after a rain, you dig some ruts into that drive way, and, as you park there, you dig these ruts deeper and deeper until they appear to have control over your car. Similarly, these soul ruts develop control over your entire life. Drug addicts, alcoholics gambling addicts and sex addicts know exactly what I am talking about. There seems to be a point at which, your volition is less and less an issue as you dig that rut deeper and deeper. The one thing every addict needs to realize is, giving into the lust will not satisfy the lust. Every time you give into it, you dig yourself in deeper; but the level of satisfaction tends to become more temporary and less pronounced. We were simply not designed to satisfy every lust that we have.


Application: Breaking out of an addiction might involve a number of things: divine discipline provides the enforced humility (although it helps for you to know enough doctrine to recognize that you are being disciplined). Furthermore, you have self-inflicted pain—some alcoholics which I have known personally have lost their wives, their children, their homes and their cars, and, at that point, they seem to realize that breaking out of this might be the best way to go. Bible doctrine in the soul along with doctrine being currently learned and metabolized Footnote is necessary for the believer. Quite obviously, you need to be in fellowship on a consistent basis in order to get out of this rut.


Application: On the level of the unbeliever, groups like alcoholics anonymous are touted, but there are several things involved here: (1) first and foremost, the addicts volition; addicts who do not want to shed their addiction are not going to shed their addiction, no matter what program they enroll in. (2) They have faith in a higher power, which is often positive volition toward God. Although I have not done a study of this, I would guess that many addicts who take this step might be open to the gospel. (3) Enforced and genuine humility—being with a group, having a sponsor, having those that you can call when tempted—this is a combination of your volition and enforced humility. When a person makes restitution, that is often genuine humility. (4) Also, there is the concept of peer pressure, and some people allow themselves to begin a life of addiction through peer pressure. Being in a group where such behavior is discouraged is using peer pressure to turn your behavior around.


Believers and unbelievers alike suffer from addictive behavior; so there is going to be some overlap in the curbing of that behavior.

The steps given in order to overcome an addiction are as follows: Footnote

●admitting that one cannot control one's addiction or compulsion;

●recognizing a greater power that can give strength;

●examining past errors with the help of a sponsor (experienced member);

●making amends for these errors;

●learning to live a new life with a new code of behavior;

●helping others that suffer from the same addictions or compulsions.

Escaping Addictive Behavior

Commonality

The Believer

The Unbeliever

Volition

The believer must choose to break out of his addiction. This may be a result of God’s discipline.

The unbeliever must choose to break out of his addiction. This may be a result of making a mess out of one’s life. Some unbelievers make this choice partway through a program designed to curb addictive behavior. .

Confession of sin

The believer must be in fellowship, so they name their sins to God.

The unbeliever, in the fellowship of fellow addicts, confesses his sins. The unbeliever also makes amends to those he harmed because of his addiction.

Knowledge

Doctrine in the soul; learning doctrine as one moves away from his addiction. The believer understands that this addiction will not satiated by giving into his lust. One may draw upon some of this knowledge before rebounding (naming one’s sins to God).

Simply recognizing what a mess you have made of your life. Allowing a sponsor to help you examine your past errors; trust in a higher power; help via the testimonies of other addicts.

Yieldedness

Self-control as a result of the filling of the Holy Spirit and application of doctrine. In many cases, there will be a desire to get back out of fellowship, and commit that sin of addiction again.

Dogged self-determination and/or yielding to a higher power. When this is positive volition at God-consciousness, it is not out of the question for God to step in to help the addict.

Separation

The addict believer sometimes must separate himself from things which are related to his addictive behavior. This could involve removing alcohol from your house, avoiding your druggie friends, destroying your pornography collection, or not going out on miscellaneous dates.

The addictive personality learns what he can be around and what he cannot be around. The drug addict will avoid his druggie friends, and the alcoholic will avoid his drinking buddies; however, the alcoholic can often be around alcohol or people drinking, under certain circumstances (friends drinking wine with dinner). If the person suffers from some sexual addiction, there would be a separation from the things or people which would perpetuate that behavior.

When it comes to separation, there is not a lot of difference between the actions of believers and unbelievers, except for the thinking and motivation of the soul. Some believers (and far fewer unbelievers) are able to return to the environment and people which helped to facilitate their addiction.

Enforced humility

Learning doctrine in a church setting.

One’s peers and one’s mentor, all applying pressure, albeit subtle pressure. Completing whatever steps have been laid out for you to complete.

For believers and unbelievers alike, enforced humility can involve time in jail, in which environment it may be impossible for you to feed your addiction.

Genuine humility

Obeying the Word of God or principles of doctrine.

Making restitution for the evil one has done. Choosing to do some of the above completely from your own volition.

In genuine humility, the believer and unbeliever alike choose from their own volition not to engage in whatever addictive behavior had control of their lives.

Substitution

One develops a fuller, more well-rounded life, by means of the application of doctrine. When you are not the center of your world, then you do not look to satisfy your every craving.

One substitutes a set of good behaviors in order to substitute for one’s addictive behavior. This can be as simple as going to work 10 hours a day, instead of searching out drugs all day long.

Maturity

One grows to a point where there is the ability to provide some spiritual mentoring (but this is to be done sparingly; you are not every young believer’s boss now). Or, in many cases, this is the operation of one’s spiritual gift, which may take you in a number of different directions.

One steps up to a mentoring role as a sponsor. It is much easier to look at someone else, who has made a total mess of their lives, and understand the destructiveness of addictive behavior. So, when you deal with those just coming out of addiction, you are more able to objectively recognize the damage that addiction does.

Backsliding

Falling back is obviously committing the sin again; but also, it can be self-righteousness and pride. You may become a busy-body or become involved in more-refined sins.

This can be self-righteousness; arrogance; and replacing one addiction with another.

What is also true of the believer and unbeliever reaching a maturation level is, other people are dependent upon you. If you are a former addict, possibly 5 or 10 years out, and you help James the younger addict, you recognize that there are a whole host of people—James’ friends and relatives—who are dependent upon you as well. For the believer, one is exercising his or her spiritual gift, which involves being in fellowship, knowing doctrine, and being in the geographical will of God. This leaves less time for addictive behavior and allows one to have a greater range of satisfying and enjoyable experiences in a variety of realms.

Believers will often follow the track of the unbeliever when it comes to dealing with an addiction. Most often, this is because, the steps outlined for the unbeliever are society-approved norms and they allow themselves to be influenced or guided by cosmic system thinking; and, secondly, because most believers do not have the spiritual knowledge to deal with addition (or a whole host of other problems). Most believers do not even know how to get back into fellowship (and when they do, it is quite by accident).

Quite obviously, one can always fall back into addictive behavior—particularly if it is your area of weakness. Furthermore, often a person who is vulnerable to one type of addictive behavior can fall prey to another type of addictive behavior (somewhat like interlocking gates of arrogance).

This is a new doctrine and probably could stand some careful scrutiny and revision where necessary.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Personal reformation often confuses a lot of people. An unbeliever can reform their own behavior, often following some or all of the steps above, and the end result can be quite striking—they might turn into a decent human being once again. However, at the same time, they remain unsaved. I have seen a number of people go through some form of reformation via scientology or adherence to some religion, like Islam. If these were addicts before, and joining these religions is instrumental is causing them to get away form their addiction, then people are going to think that organization is a great thing. All that happened was, a person went from being an addict to leaving that reality, which is going to improve anyone’s life.


Application: I know one person who was a criminal and a druggie throughout most of his life, and then he got married, had children, and appeared to lay off the drugs. Obviously, this made him into a better person overall, and he enjoyed life more and his sons. This is because he was adhering to the laws of divine establishment. When we adhere to these laws, our life becomes better and more balanced. It does not mean that person is a believer nor is he any closer to heaven because his behavior has changed.


One of the points that ought to be noted about being in interlocking systems of arrogance and getting out of it, is, this can occur to mature believers, and part of what gets them out of interlocking systems is the application of doctrine which is already in their soul.


——————————


And so sends David messengers and so he takes her and so she comes in unto him and so he lies down with her. And she is cleansing herself from her uncleanness and so she returns unto her house.

2Samuel

11:4

So, David sent messengers and seized her, so she came in to him and he had sexual relations with her. When she had cleansed herself from her uncleanness, she then returned to her house.

Consequently, David sent messengers to her and they seized her. When she came in to him, he had sexual relations with her. After she had cleansed herself from her uncleanness, she then returned to her own home.


Here is how others have translated this verse:

 

Ancient texts:  

 

Latin Vulgate                          And David sent messengers, and took her, and she came in to him, and he slept with her: and presently she was purified from her uncleanness.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so sends David messengers and so he takes her and so she comes in unto him and so he lies down with her (and she is cleansing herself from her uncleanness). And so she returns unto her house.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    So David sent a messenger and took her; and she came in to him and he lay with her; and that very day she had cleansed herself after her menstruation; and she returned and went to her house.

Septuagint (Greek)                And David sent messengers, and took her, and went in to her, and he lay with her: and she was purified from her uncleanness, and returned to her house.

 

Significant differences:           The English of the Latin has slept instead of laid. In the Latin, returning to her house is in the following verse.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       David sent some messengers to bring her to his palace. She came to him, and he slept with her. Then she returned home.

Easy English (Pocock)           David sent his servants to get Bathsheba. She went to David. David had sex with her. (She had finished bleeding that month. She had just made herself *pure again.) Then she returned to her home.

Easy-to-Read Version            David sent messengers to go and bring Bathsheba to him. When she came to David, he had sexual relations with her. She washed herself, and then went back to her house.

Good News Bible (TEV)         David sent messengers to get her; they brought her to him and he made love to her. (She had just finished her monthly ritual of purification.) Then she went back home.

The Message                         David sent his agents to get her. After she arrived, he went to bed with her. (This occurred during the time of "purification" following her period.) Then she returned home.

New Century Version             So David sent messengers to bring Bathsheba to him. When she came to him, he had sexual relations with her. (Now Bathsheba had purified herself from her monthly period.) Then she went back to her house.

New Living Translation           Then David sent messengers to get her; and when she came to the palace, he slept with her. She had just completed the purification rites after having her menstrual period. Then she returned home.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          So, David sent messengers who brought her to him. Then he went in to her and went to bed with her, and thereafter she went back home. However, she had just been cleansed from her monthly period,...

Ancient Roots Translinear      David sent messengers and took her. She came into him, and he lay with her. She sanctified from her uncleanness and returned into her house.

New American Bible              Then David sent messengers and took her. When she came to him, he had relations with her, at a time when she was just purified after her monthly period. She then returned to her house.

NIRV                                      Then David sent messengers to get her. She came to him. And he had sex with her. Then she went back home. All of that took place after she had already made herself "clean" from her monthly period.

New Jerusalem Bible             David then sent messengers to fetch her. She came to him, and he lay with her, just after she had purified herself from her period. She then went home again.

Revised English Bible            He sent messengers to fetch her, and when she came to him, he had intercourse with her, though she was still purifying herself after her period, and then she went home.

Today’s NIV                          Then David sent messengers to get her. She came to him, and he slept with her. (Now she was purifying herself from her monthly uncleanness.) Then she went back home.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And David sent and took her; and she came to him, and he took her to his bed: for she had been made clean; then she went back to her house.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               David sent messengers to fetch her; she came to him and he lay with her—she had just purified herself after her period—and she went back home.

NET Bible®                             David sent some messengers to get her [Heb "and David sent messengers and he took her."]. She came to him and he had sexual relations with her [Heb "he lay with her" (so NASB, NRSV); TEV "he made love to her"; NIV, CEV, NLT "he slept with her."]. (Now at that time she was in the process of purifying herself from her menstrual uncleanness.) [The parenthetical disjunctive clause further heightens the tension by letting the reader know that Bathsheba, having just completed her menstrual cycle, is ripe for conception. See P. K. McCarter, II Samuel (AB), 286. Since she just had her period, it will also be obvious to those close to the scene that Uriah, who has been away fighting, cannot be the father of the child.] Then she returned to her home.

New International Version      Then David sent messengers to get her. She came to him, and he slept with her. (She had purified herself from her uncleanness.) Then [Or with her. When she purified herself from her uncleanness,...] she went back home.

NIV–UK                                  Then David sent messengers to get her. She came to him, and he slept with her. (She had purified herself from her uncleanness.) Then she went back home.

The Scriptures 1998              And Dawid sent messengers, to fetch her. And she came to him, and he lay with her – for she was cleansing herself from her uncleanness – and she returned to her house.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                And David sent messengers and took her. And she came in to him, and he lay with her--for she was purified from her uncleanness. Then she returned to her house.

English Revised Version        And David sent messengers, and took her; and she came in unto him, and he lay with her; (for she was purified from her uncleanness;) and she returned unto her house.

Heritage Bible                        And David sent messengers, and took her; and she came in to him, and he lay down with her; and she was purified from her uncleanness, and she returned to her house..

LTHB                                     And David sent messengers and took her. And she came to him, and he lay with her. And she purified herself from uncleanness, and she returned to her house.

NASB                                     David sent messengers and took her, and when she came to him, he lay with her [Ps 51; James 1:14-15]; and when she had purified herself from her uncleanness [Lev 12:2-5; 15:18-28; 18:19], she returned to her house.

New King James Version       Then David sent messengers, and took her; and she came to him, and he lay with her, for she was cleansed from her impurity; and she returned to her house.

NRSV                                     So David sent messengers to fetch her, and she came to him, and he lay with her. (Now she was purifying herself after her period.) Then she returned to her house.

Syndein                                  And David sent messengers/'the court pimps', and {they} 'seized her violently' {laqach - Qal imperfect} {Bathsheba did NOT come of her own free will - she loved her husband Uriah and was not 'honored' by this request of the king}; and when she was brought to him {David}, and he copulated/'had intercourse' with her continuously. {shakab im - Qal imperfect means the act occurred more than once without her free will involved, this implies seduction and part of David's divine punishment involved rape of his harem - so this was most likely an act of rape - though she probably submitted sometime along the way} And, when she had purified from her uncleanness {indicates she was at least initially forced so she applies Leviticus 15:18 she would not enter her own home with Uriah in a state of impurity} then she returned to her house/"officer's quarters".

Third Millennium Bible            And David sent messengers, and took her; and she came in unto him, and he lay with her, for she was purified from her uncleanness; and she returned unto her house.

A Voice in the Wilderness      And David sent messengers, and took her; and she came to him, and he lay with her. And when she was sanctified from her uncleanness, she returned to her house.

World English Bible                David sent messengers, and took her; and she came in to him, and he lay with her (for she was purified from her uncleanness); and she returned to her house.

Young’s Updated LT             And David sends messengers, and takes her, and she comes unto him, and he lies with her—and she is purifying herself from her uncleanness—and she turnes back unto her house.

 

The gist of this verse:          David has Bathsheba brought to his palace and he has sex with her. She purifies herself from her uncleanness, and then she returns to her house.


2Samuel 11:4a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

shâlach (שָלַח) [pronounced shaw-LAKH]

to send, to send for [forth, away], to dismiss, to deploy, to put forth, to stretch out, to reach out

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #7971 BDB #1018

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

maleʾâke (מַלְאָך׃) [pronounced mahle-AWKe]

messenger or angel; this word has been used for a prophet (Isa. 42:19) and priest (Mal. 2:7)

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #4397 BDB #521


Translation: So, David sent messengers... At first, David sent out a discrete person to determine who Bathsheba was, and, upon finding out, he sends messengers (plural) to seize her. Because of the plural, we have more than one man who is sent to her. These would be some of David’s bodyguards—they would be big, strong, hulking men, and they go to Bathsheba’s home.


At this point, at least a dozen people in or around the palace have an idea what David, a man after God’s Own heart, is doing. He may quietly gather these 2 or 3 or 4 messengers together, but sending them out is going to cause some kind of stir, both within and without the palace.


The free will of Bathsheba is not considered. David does not send one messenger with a note asking her to join him for dinner. Her coming to the palace has been predetermined by David. He sends several men to fetch this 5'2", 110 lb. gal (or, whatever). This does not mean they have to force her, but it ought to be apparent that Bathsheba has very little choice in the matter.


2Samuel 11:4b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

lâqach (לָקַח) [pronounced law-KAHKH]

to take, to take away, to take in marriage; to seize

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect; with the 3rd person feminine singular suffix

Strong’s #3947 BDB #542


Translation: ...and seized her,... Here, we have the 3rd person masculine singular, so it says that he seizes her; and the nearest masculine singular noun is David. However, David is not among these men who come to her, but these are his soldiers following his orders, so David is the one who is said to seize her, as they are acting on his behalf. Now, this does not mean that they necessarily grab her and physically haul her there (although, that is what this word usually means). When Bathsheba, who might be 110 lbs. soaking wet, comes to answer the door, there are 3 or 4 soldiers there who say, “The king requires an audience with you;” and they weigh between 200 and 300 lbs. each, and they are rugged muscular men. So, she does not have a choice here. Furthermore, her husband is a soldier, so she may even trust these men to some degree, as she would trust David, as he has a good reputation among the people. Since her husband is at war right now, she is probably thinking about him and what may have happened to him. So she probably goes with these men willingly. However, the implication of this verb is, no matter what her opinion is on this matter, she is going to come to the king. So, even though these men do not necessarily grab her or manhandle her in any way, she is going to see the king; there is no confusion about that point. Her free will is not of any concern to David, and that is the sense of this verb.


Now, isn’t this a sight? There are 2 or more hulking men escorting Bathsheba, a married woman, back to the palace of David. Now, do you suppose that anyone noticed this? Of course they did. Several soldiers walking through the streets is going to catch the attention of anyone on the street or looking out their window; and then seeing these big buys escort Bathsheba back to the palace, is also going to be something to note.


Already, we have noted that David stayed home the previous spring as well. We do not know how long that has been going on, but, I suspect that the people of Jerusalem knew that David was collecting wives and mistresses, and this may be an opportunity that he has chosen to seize—the spring, when most of the menfolk are out of town, going to war at his bidding. Could this be a pattern that David established already? This seems likely. So when 2 or more hulking castle guards (or, bodyguards) escort a married woman from her home to the palace, it is reasonable to suppose that people noticed and that they talked about this.


2Samuel 11:4c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

bôwʾ (בּוֹא) [pronounced boh]

to come in, to come, to go in, to go, to enter

3rd person feminine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #935 BDB #97

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied); with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #413 BDB #39


Translation: ...so she came in to him... The king is waiting for her, and she comes in unto him, as the text says. He is probably in his throne room, looking very kingly and regal. Although it does not tell us, almost immediately David would have asked for his soldiers and bodyguards to leave. On her mind is the well-being of her husband; on his mind is something else entirely. For all she knows, her husband has been killed in battle, and David is bringing her to the palace to give her this information along with the details thereof.


Now, does Bathsheba know what is going on? Does she understand that David has brought her to the palace to have sex with her, or is her mind upon her husband and what may have happened to him? David, no doubt, has a reputation, but having many wives as a king is not necessarily a reputation where people think poorly of him. In that era, having several wives was not unusual for a king, even though the Bible warns against that. On the other hand, David does not have a reputation for taking the wives of his soldiers and having sex with them. Therefore, although Bathsheba might be nervous, taken aback and quite concerned for the welfare of her husband, she probably does not realize what David has in mind.


Sometimes, you are put into a new situation and, your mind simply does not catch up to the situation until later. I had been suddenly caught in the middle of a con by two men, and part of the con required that I be greedy for the money that one of them showed me. I wasn’t, and their con fell apart, and these men scattered when I stopped at my bank (yes, it got that far). Sometime later, I saw on the news about what this con was, and, at that point, I understood what I had been in the middle of and their sudden decision to suddenly scatter made sense, in retrospect.


2Samuel 11:4d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

shâkab (שָכַב) [pronounced shaw-KAHBV]

to lie down, to lie down [to sleep, to have sexual relations, to die; because of sickness or humiliation]; to relax

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #7901 BDB #1011

This verb can have several different connotations. It can mean to lie down with the intention of lodging for the night (Joshua 2:1 2Kings 4:11); to have sexual relations (Gen. 30:11, 14 Ex. 22:15); to lie down in death (Deut. 31:16 Isa. 14:8 Ezek. 31:18); lying down due to being diseased (1Kings 41:9); to lying down due to humiliation (Jer. 3:25); for a nap (2Sam. 4:7); lying down for sexual relations (Gen. 19:33 30:15–16); and there is the figurative use to relax (Job 30:17 Eccles. 2:23).

ʿîm (עִם) [pronounced ģeem]

with, at, by, near; like; from

preposition of nearness and vicinity; with the 3rd person feminine singular suffix

Strong’s #5973 BDB #767


Translation: ...and he had sexual relations with her. We are not given any details here. We are simply told that David lies down with her, which is a Hebrew euphemism for having sex with her. How much force was involved, what he said, how he got to that point is not told to us here. However, David will be disciplined for this, and part of that discipline will be one of his sons—Amnon—getting David to get his half-sister into his bedroom under false pretenses, and then he will rape her. This suggests, because God’s punishment fits the crime, that David, for all intents and purposes, raped Bathsheba.


When Bathsheba showed up, she was worried about her husband, and perhaps David says, “Uriah, your husband is fine;” and she is relieved, and perhaps she collapses into his arms at this news. And then David explains to her the acoustics of his room, how no one outside of the palace can hear anything which takes place in this room; and that there are guards at the door, and there is no place for her to go to. She may run for the door, and find out that she cannot open it, and she might even band on the door and call out, and no one responds. Then David advances toward her.


Bear in mind, David is powerful—the most powerful man in Israel—and one of the richest, and this is an aphrodisiac to a woman. Furthermore, he is strong and handsome and in his prime. So, Bathsheba is going to be attracted to David, just as many women are attracted to Brad Pitt or to George Clooney. Therefore, we do not know how much force was involved, we do not know if she simply resigned herself to this fate, we do not know what exactly transpired, except that, since part of David’s punishment involved rape under false pretenses and entrapment; that is likely what is happening here.


It is because David’s daughter will be raped as a part of his punishment, that we believe that this sex was not consensual.


There is a suggestion in this verse that this sexual tryst went on for some time. The imperfect tense is used here, which indicates either continuous action or future action (which is usually made clear by the context). We ought to draw a distinction at this point—David’s sexual sin of adultery lasted, at most, 3–4 hours. However, his sexual arrogance was ongoing—it preceded this act of adultery and it will continue after this act of adultery, until Nathan straightens David out (2Sam. 12). This adultery (and possible rape) is a manifestation of David’s sexual arrogance, which describes the state of David’s soul.


Before we move on, we ought to take a look at the Doctrine of Sexual Arrogance (HTML) (PDF) (WordDOC). This doctrine was taken from http://www.olispm.com/requireddoctrines.htm which, I assume, appropriated the lion’s share of the doctrine from notes originally from R. B. Thieme, Jr. What David has done is more than commit adultery and murder; all of this has put him into the interlocking systems of arrogance, which is even a greater sin and far more grievous. Furthermore, we can get into the arrogance complex through what we think (mental attitude arrogance).


David has an addiction to sex, so let’s take this in points:

David and his Sexual Addiction

1.      When a believer is caught up in degeneracy arrogance, there comes a point at which they rebound less often and they begin to neglect the study of the Word of God.

2.      Degeneracy arrogance can refer to a set of sins which brings some measure of pleasure to the person trapped in this addictive behavior, whether it is sexual lust for the opposite sex, for the same sex, for drugs or for drinking.

3.      Not only had David stopped growing spiritually, but his addiction to sexual lust had taken over his life.

4.      Addiction can destroy a person’s spiritual life.

5.      The study of Bible doctrine can help the believer avoid the arrogance complex and addictive behavior in two ways.

         1)      The believer can recognize that certain sins can lead to many repetitions of that sin, and avoid them altogether.

         2)      Or, the believer trapped in addictive behavior can be led out of it by the power of God and knowledge of Bible doctrine.

6.      David enjoyed spiritual growth, but he was also caught up in sexual addiction. Because of spiritual growth, he was developing into one of the greatest kings in history, and, he enjoyed his work.

7.      However, his sexual addiction took over his life and he has become totally self-centered, giving in to his every sexual whim. He thought about no one other than himself and gratifying his sexual desires, which is no different than a drug addict looking to satisfy his desire for drugs.

8.      Because David had great authority, that he could indulge himself more than others.

9.      Although David was able to indulge himself sexually, he was not happy with it, nor did this satiate him. The fact that his mistresses are not even named indicates that there was little about these woman that he actually liked.

10.    When involved in addictive behavior, one loses his capacity for love, friendship, and life. David is on a constant hunt for sexual gratification.

11.    David lost the capacity in his soul for love and for friendship. He did not enjoy having 20 wives and mistresses.

12.    Sexual addiction is all about what is in the soul; not what the body desires. Men are sexually peaking in their late teens and early 20's, and David is 40 or 50 at this time. So his problem is not physical. He had greater control and great honor at age 18 than he does now.

13.    The greater authority a person has, the more decisions that person must make and greater is the effect upon others. Therefore, a person with great authority has to be cognizant of his great responsibilities. David has lost all sense of honor in this regard. What he does here is going to result in a revolution against him, because his behavior upsets so many people (when it gets out).

14.    We know that David has abrogated his responsibilities by the first line of the chapter: In the spring of the year, the time when kings go out to battle, David sent Joab, and his servants with him, and all Israel. Kings are going out to battle, but do you know who is not going out to battle? David. He has abdicated his responsibilities as king. He should be out with Joab killing Ammonites, but he is much more interested in satisfying his sexual lusts, which are much easier to satisfy in Jerusalem, with most of his soldiers being gone.

15.    David has given into his sexual desires so many times that now, his sexual desires control him. He is now in immoral degeneracy; he is trapped in addictive behavior.

16.    As king, David has many responsibilities; however, he is only interested in sex with whomever he sees on the streets. He is only interested in those under his authority insofar as they are able to procure women for him (we do not know how often this has occurred in the past; this could have been how David acquired many of his mistresses).

17.    David’s sexual arrogance will interlock with criminal arrogance further down in this chapter.


Return to Chapter Outline

Return to Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


There is also this subtle literary thing in this verse. Although seeing this woman really caught David’s attention, there are only 2 verses devoted to David finding out who she is and then having sex with her. In fact, what we read right here is the sum total words given over to describe the sexual relations which David and Bathsheba had. However, several chapters will be devoted to the punishment for this sin. The whole idea—and many adulterers can attest to this—the actual sex is very short in duration compared to the tsunami which is set off as a result. David’s sins—his sex with Bathsheba and then the plotting of the death of her husband—take up all of 2 verses, but the resulting discipline from what David does will continue for many chapters.


Committing adultery is clearly outside of the laws of divine establishment (the laws designed by God for believer and unbeliever both, which perpetuate a nation in freedom). This woman belongs to Uriah the Hittite, as David has already ascertained. For him, this is an unimportant detail, because he desires her right now (actually, awhile ago; at this point, David is finished). That is sexual arrogance. His desires and lusts are more important to him than his responsibilities as the leader of his country. David, as King of Israel, is responsible for the freedom and security of both Uriah the Hittite and his wife Bathsheba. Responsibility is the reason God gives a person authority. David is not functioning as a king responsible for the freedom and security of his people; he has used his authority to get over on Bathsheba and to cuckold Uriah.


Now let’s take a look at this from the perspective of David’s sexual arrogance:

David’s Sexual Arrogance

1.      Sexual arrogance is being focused on sex with emphasis being on oneself.

2.      Polygamy is male arrogance. Promiscuity is female sexual arrogance.

3.      David is completely preoccupied with himself. His responsibility to his subjects is not in his thinking. Bathsheba’s volition does not enter into his thinking. How this will affect her relationship with her husband and her grandfather does not enter into his thinking.

4.      David has no love for the woman he has sex; he is only interested in his own sexual gratification.

5.      The flip side of this is a woman who uses sex to manipulate men. David abuses his authority to take Bathsheba and to have sex with her. A woman might use sex in order to take authority from the man.

6.      To continually focus upon one’s own sexual gratification is arrogant.

7.      David’s sexual arrogance is abnormal. Sexual arrogance produces an increased lust which becomes an abnormal lust. A physiological sex drive is normal.

8.      Because David was in sexual arrogance, he did not love any of his wives.

9.      At best, David used these women for personal self gratification. At worst, he had sex with them once or twice and then ignored them.

10.    David’s submission to lust made him alert and vulnerable to any form of feminine attractiveness. It did not matter to David that Bathsheba was the granddaughter of his greatest counselor, Ahithophel. Because of men like Ahithophel, David’s kingdom will be ripped apart by revolution.

11.    Whereas, sex ought to reflect love between one man and one woman, sex for David reflected his sexual desires and lack of capacity for love.

12.    Being in sexual arrogance leads to distortions of sexuality. David distorted sex by desiring it with many women and then acting upon it. Homosexuality is also a distortion of sexuality as is pedophilia. Distortions of sexuality is degeneration.

13.    All distortions of sexuality lead one into sexual arrogance. This includes promiscuity, homosexuality, masturbation, pornography, polygamy and pedophilia.

14.    Because David is preoccupied with sex, he lacks capacity for love.

15.    Masturbation, polygamy, homosexuality etc. all lead to sexual arrogance. They result in becoming enmeshed in interlocking systems of arrogance.

16.    True love means that you focus on the soul of the person that you love.

17.    Because sex is so powerful and pleasurable, God has designed boundaries for it, so that it is controlled.

18.    Sexual arrogance can interfere with every aspect of life including one’s spiritual life.

19.    Therefore, the Word of God forbids adultery, homosexuality, fornication, incest, bestiality, etc. God is not depriving us of fun, but He is providing for our happiness. Let me give you a lousy analogy: “no rules” football makes little sense. There is no way that we can enjoy a game where we have no idea what is right and wrong in the game. Such a game would degenerate into chaos on the first place. So there are boundaries for sex. Note that David is not happy in his life; furthermore, his life is becoming a mess.

20.    Therefore, sex can be great when it is the expression of a lifelong commitment of love; and it can be devastating when it is simply self-gratification.

21.    David began his foray into sexual arrogance with polygamy. He had 10 wives and at least 10 mistresses. It is possible that David was unaware that this was sin; or, it is just as possible that, had David thought about it, he would know it was sin (God did not create Adam + a harem).

22.    Because David is preoccupied with sex, he is a poor father. He had neglected his children for decades, and, apparently, his wives as well, making him a lousy father and a lousy husband.

23.    Now, David was coming to a point where he was neglecting his duties as a king and military commander. David was so eaten up with sexual desire that he was unable to make a good decision as a king.

24.    While his army was attacking Rabbah in Ammon, David remained in Jerusalem, under the control of sexual arrogance.

25.    Interestingly enough, Bathsheba is David’s right woman. She will bear him 5 children; one of which will die at a very young age, and two of which will be in the line of the Lord Jesus Christ.

26.    Finally, it does not matter what society tolerates or accepts. David having many wives was not necessarily judged by others as immoral or wrong. However, having many wives was David’s entry into interlocking systems of arrogance. The same thing is true of all addictive behavior, including homosexuality and the taking of drugs. These things may be accepted by a society, but that does not make them right nor does societal acceptance make these behaviors any less addictive.

27.    Obviously, there was something to David and Bathsheba’s relationship. However, David should have done nothing at all. He should not have even given Bathsheba a second thought. “Attractive woman; hmm, that’s nice.” And then gone about his business. If God had a plan which put David and Bathsheba together, than David needed to just let that plan happen. However, because Bathsheba was married, David should have taken no steps to take her and he should have given no thought to her whatsoever.


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Application: When it comes to marriage, there are two things at play: the man is taking responsibility for the security and freedom of his woman; and the woman is placing herself under his authority. Footnote This is why so many arranged marriages have worked throughout the centuries—when a man and woman understand their responsibilities in marriage, they can form a powerful, enduring and loving union. On the other hand, if you take 2 kids who cannot keep their hands off one another, and they are in a constant state of lust for one another, and then they get married, this marriage is not going to last, unless one or both of them moves into their proper role in the marriage.


David has done just the opposite of that which God employed him to do. God gave David authority over the people of Israel so that he could protect their freedom, property, and privacy; and David violated his authority by observing Bathsheba while she is bathing (violating her privacy); then he took her to bed (violating the principle of Uriah’s property—Bathsheba belongs to Uriah); and later in this chapter, David have Uriah killed, thus removing his freedom from him. God gives David great authority and wealth, and with that authority comes responsibility. And David does exactly the opposite of what God would have him do.


So that you understand what is in play here, Lev. 20:10 prescribes: If a man commits adultery with the wife of his neighbor, both the adulterer and the adulteress shall surely be put to death. What David has done is deserving of death. Also bear in mind that David represents that highest authority in the land of Israel (below God’s, of course), so he is not going to order his own execution. For more information on adultery, see the Doctrine of Adultery (HTML) (PDF).


Related to David’s adultery is the Prov. 5, where we see the part that some women play in adultery.

A Brief Exegesis of Proverbs 5

Proverbs 5 is all about avoiding false love with many lovers.

Prov. 5:1 My son [David is teaching his son Solomon], be attentive to my wisdom [listen to the Bible doctrine which I am teaching you]; incline your ear to my understanding, [this second phrase refers to listening and then believing that which is being taught]


David, as we have studied, was an expert in seducing women, and he had at least 20 wives and mistresses. David writes this from the perspective of his life with Bathsheba, whom he truly loves. He is going to warn Solomon about women. However, even though Solomon listened and wrote this down, he disobeyed this teaching of David’s (1Kings 11:1–9).


Prov. 5:2 that you may guard from feminine whiles and that your lips may guard knowledge.


Men are easily manipulated by women, either by their flattery, a show of interest, or by behavior which may been seen as sexual (for that time and culture). Men fall for flattery because they generally agree and glad to find a woman with such great insight. The most brilliant man can be turned to putty by a smart woman who uses these feminine wiles.


Prov. 5:3 For [distilled] honey drips from the lips of a forbidden woman [the woman who is either an unbeliever or a believer who has rejected doctrine], and her speech is smoother than oil [this is both the content of her flattery and the femininity of her voice],


Tasting the lips of such a woman is like drinking wormwood; it may have seemed good at first, but it had a bad lasting effect.


Prov. 5:4 but in the end [the end of the affair or relationship] she is bitter [when a woman manipulates the man, the end of the relationship is often bitter or heartbreaking. A woman has little respect for the man that she can manipulate and will soon grow tired of him. However, a bitter end to an affair does not necessarily mean that you and the woman are bitter enemies when it is all over (although that is certainly possible), but that this affair embitters your soul. The affair corrupts your soul and makes it more difficult for you to love in the future. You never get from such an affair the soul satisfaction that you had hoped for. You are left empty and still wanting, with a soul that has been corrupted.] as wormwood [Any of several aromatic plants of the genus Artemisia, especially A. absinthium, native to Europe, yielding a bitter extract used in making absinthe and in flavoring certain wines.1 In the Bible, this can refer to the drink made from this plant, which has a distinctive sharp, spicy odor; a drink which is potentially fatal], sharp as a two-edged sword.


A 2-edged sword is one of the great inventions in ancient warfare. It cuts in both directions. The idea is, you may think that you have avoided this sword, and then, it comes at your from another direction. You may feel as though you have walked away from an affair relatively unscathed, for instance; but this sword has cut into your soul and has affected your capacity for love.


Prov. 5:5 Her [seductive] feet go down to death [the idea here is, you are following the woman, and being mesmerized by her, as she leads you to spiritual death]; her steps [sexy, mincing feet] follow the path to Sheol [this can includes, in the ancient world, dying from sexual diseases which you get from such a woman];


In the ancient world, at that time, women showed very little more flesh other than their feet. Therefore, a woman, trying to catch the attention of a man, would dress up her feet and use them in a seductive fashion in order to get the attention of a man.


In that day, walking was the primary mode of transportation, so we are supposed to picture in our minds, this seductive woman walking out ahead, with a man following her from behind, concentrating on her sexy feet, and not seeing where this leads to. This man does not realize that he is one of many men who have been led to the grave (actual or metaphorical) by this woman.


There are 2 categories of Satanic attacks upon man: (1) he attempts to keep us from the gospel in any way possible. This may include exposing us to propaganda which is anti-Christian or to simply keep us from hearing the gospel. (2) Satan also attempts to keep believers in Jesus Christ from growing spiritually. A sexy woman can do both. The woman who flatters you and leads you around by the nose with her sensuality can alo keep you from the gospel of Jesus Christ. She may get you interested in Buddhism or some other religion as she seduces you. Or she professes a belief in liberal thinking. Therefore, men who are manipulated and led by such a woman, follow her to the grave, if, as a result, they never believe in Jesus Christ. Similarly, the believer in Jesus Christ may be so taken by this woman that, he abandons learning Bible doctrine or is sucked into a cult, because that is where she is walking to (remember, the picture is of a man walking after a woman who has mesmerized him with her sexy steps). Such a believer will spend eternity in heaven, but it will be after he has completely wasted his time here on earth.


Another thing women have learned is, when she is careful about what she says—she does not say too much—then a man who is physically attracted to her will read into her ideas and values which she does not possess. She appears to be all things to all men; whereas, if you really knew what she was thinking, you would be shocked.


Prov. 5:6 she does not ponder the path of life [this woman does not consider her manner of life and what she is doing to her own soul; her actions destroy her own soul as well and her own capacity for love]; her ways wander, and she does not know it. This woman is unstable or she becomes unstable from affairs with so many men. She comes to a point where she is unable to devote herself to just one man. She may be flattering and seducing one man, but she is actually thinking about someone else.


This woman does not appreciate what she is doing to her own soul. She does not think about the direction of her life or about the choices that she is making.


David had 5 sons by Bathsheba, and, unlike his previous sons, he makes an attempt to teach them doctrine. This is what much of Proverbs is all about; these are principles which he taught to his own sons.


Prov. 5:7 And now, O sons, listen to me, and do not depart from the words of my mouth. David knows, like father, like son. He knows that his son Solomon is handsome and intelligent, with a normal desire for women. David knows that Solomon will suffer from the same weaknesses which he succumbed to. Therefore, David uses repetition in his teaching, hoping that Solomon will hear and obey.


When it came to being faithful to your woman, an ex-roommate of mine gave me the best advice—simply do not allow yourself to get into a situation which might tempt you at your weak points. Your wife has a cousin who is a little wild, who flirts with you a little. Don’t flirt back and do not allow yourself to be alone with her (if your weakness is woman).


In Prov. 5, David warns his sons to stay away from this sort of woman—a woman who uses her feminine wiles to catch your attention and then uses this to manipulate you. She is obviously not your right woman, so you know that, when you chase her, you are being led away from God’s plan. This is exactly what happened to David in this chapter, and this is what will plague Solomon for much of his life.


Prov. 5:8 Keep your way far from her [do not have an affair with this woman], and do not go near the door of her house, The idea is, you keep your distance from those things which tempt you. Other portions of the Bible suggest that you do not run with the degenerate crowd—this is particularly true when you are weak in these areas. In Prov. 5, the example is this sexy, manipulating woman who will lead you away from Bible doctrine.


God, in His plan, has designed a satisfying and healthy sex life for you and your right woman. This sex life is not going to pull you away from doctrine. Therefore, you are depriving both you and your right woman when you waste your time and effort on other women. Obviously, determining when you are wasting such time and effort is a matter of knowledge of Bible doctrine, which is what this passage is all about.


Prov. 5:9 so that you do not give your honor [and integrity] to others [those who lack the capacity for love or have no interesting in love] and your years [of sexual vigor] to the merciless [this woman who tempts you and leads you astray can also be very vindictive; you may find this out at the end of your affair when she is breaking it off with you, and she tells you what she has really been thinking],


Prov. 5:10 so that strangers [promiscuous women] do not take their fill of your strength [these are women who feed upon your sexual vigor in a relationship which is destined to die out], and your labors go to the house of a foreigner [when you are young, and a woman has led you astray, this may take your time and money, which ends up being transferred to people who are in opposition to Jesus Christ],


A woman who willingly has an affair with you has often had affairs with other men. Therefore, she can be carrying in her body diseases which you might catch; which venereal diseases could be deadly in the ancient world. Furthermore, disease is metaphorical for what is occurring within the soul. So, the venereal disease is real; the physical death is real; however, they are also representative of the spiritual death which is occurring within your own soul.


Prov. 5:11 and at the end of your life you groan [in distress] [this is a man dying painfully of a venereal disease], when your flesh and body are consumed [your body and sexual organ has been destroy by sexual disease and impotence],


This is a very real danger to Solomon. He will love foreign women and will have many wives and mistresses. There is no telling what the background is for many of these women. There is no telling where they have been or what they have done. Therefore, Solomon could have caught a debilitating disease from any one of these women that he brought into his grand harem.


Solomon, as a believer in Jehovah Elohim, does not have to worry only about the natural consequences of promiscuity. He is also a child of God, and, therefore, subject to God’s discipline. David warns Solomon that, when he goes chasing after these women, God will bring him back into line with discipline, and Solomon will hate the discipline that God uses on him.


Prov. 5:12 and you say, "How I hated discipline [disciplinary warning; this could include natural causes, such as venereal diseases or impotence], and my heart despised reproof [Solomon despised corrective discipline]!


Such it is with the old sin nature. We are led astray and we reject good and accurate teaching. Solomon knew what was right—this passage tells us that—and yet, Solomon rejected what David taught him. David taught Solomon not to chase after women (particularly foreign women who rejected Bible doctrine) and not to collect wives, and yet Solomon did these things, which caused him to miss out on his right woman (which is what the Song of Solomon is all about). The woman in Song of Solomon is not necessarily Solomon’s right woman; however, she represents Solomon’s lack of a true-love soul relationship with any woman, despite having 1000 wives and lovers.


Prov. 5:13 I did not listen to [or obey] the voice of my teachers or incline my ear [again, this is not just concentration but positive volition, Solomon did not believe what David taught him] to my instructors.


When a king does not listen to sound doctrinal teaching, he abuses his power. He makes wrong decisions. Let me give you a wonderful contemporary example. George Bush, no doubt, studies what the United States did in South Korea and in Japan, where the end result was two great alliances which have held up for over half a century. So, he decides to try this same approach in Iraq and Afghanistan, but without the most important ingredient—evangelism. In fact, the armed forces were actually antagonistic to soldiers who evangelized interested people, and they even burned Bibles to keep them from falling into the hands of interested Muslims. As a result, we will clean up much of the terrorism in those two nations, and develop a good alliance which may last for 10 or 20 years, but the evil of Islam permeates their thinking, and we have offered them nothing by which to combat that evil. As Glenn Beck once pointed out, if our answer to Islam is conspicuous materialism, we are not going to win their hearts and minds. So, President Bush, had he, as a believer in Jesus Christ, recognize the importance of the gospel, and had he required a bill of rights in both nations (when we had more power there)—a bill of rights which included freedom f religion—our efforts in these countries would be more long lasting.


In our context, Solomon will fall into all kinds of evil. He will make all kinds of bad decisions. His nation of Israel will suffer as a result. So, despite being in God’s geographical will, Solomon will be outside of God’s operational will, as he will reject this teaching of David’s.


Now this teaching comes down to us, and we are, as men, left with a simple decision: do we spend our lives chasing skirt or do we put our sexual desires on hold while we examine the souls of the women that we meet. Do we try to have a plethora of unsatisfactory relationships, or do we learn Bible doctrine and look for the woman God has designed for us?


Prov. 5:14 I was almost in all evil [David entered into interlocking systems of arrogance, which made him vulnerable to all systems of arrogance; or, his sins of degeneracy had come to control all of his life] in the midst of the assembly and congregation [this affected David’s spiritual life, which was his public worship; and it affected his corporate witness with the nation Israel]."


Prov. 5:15 Drink water [waters of pleasure] from your own cistern, flowing water [This is legitimate sexual pleasure with your married partner] from your own well [from your own right woman].


David is telling Solomon, in a roundabout way, that his mother, Bathsheba, was David’s right woman, with whom he enjoyed wonderful and legitimate sexual pleasure. This was far greater in all respects than David had enjoyed with his many wives and mistresses.


Prov. 5:16 Should your springs be scattered abroad [the fountains here are sexual acts, as we saw in the previous verse, with illegitimate partners], streams of water in the streets?


Sex with illegitimate partners is like a stream of water running through the streets. A stream of water is a good and clean and wonderful thing; however, flooding in the streets is a mess. This is not where water is supposed to flow.


David is asking Solomon here, do you simply have sex with tons of different women? Isn’t that like water running down the streets?


Prov. 5:17 Let them [your sex acts] be for yourself alone [God designed sex for right man/right woman; for you and your one and only right person], and not for strangers [strangers refers usually to women outside of Israel; here, it refers to people who are clearly not Solomon’s right women; these are promiscuous women or women who use sex to get what they want. With Solomon, this would be a lifetime meal ticket] with you.


Solomon’s sexual life was to be enjoyed with his right woman alone. God has designed our souls and bodies to be with one person, and that this person is worth waiting for. David is saying this with the perspective of his sexual life prior to Bathsheba, and now with Bathsheba.


Prov. 5:18 Let your fountain [your sex life] be [permanently] blessed, and rejoice in the wife of your youth [this is a man’s right woman, the woman he committed to from youth],


David is telling Solomon, commit to one woman for life, and he will become intoxicated by her love. Again, David is describing to Solomon the relationship he has with Solomon’s mother. David, as a family man and as a marriage partner has enjoyed much great soul-fulfillment with Bathsheba than with all of his previous women combined.


Prov. 5:19 [she is] a lovely deer, a graceful doe [David describes Solomon’s mother artfully here as an amorous doe, and as a wild, sexy female goat]. Let her breasts fill you at all times with delight; be intoxicated always in her love. This describes a complete response of both soul and body. Sex was designed to be an experience which included the soul.


Prov. 5:20 Why should you be misled, my son, with a forbidden woman and embrace the body of a promiscuous woman?


Again, David warns Solomon about purposeless and wanton sex with women who are not his. God has designed a union between man and wife, which is the meaningful reality; God did not design sex to be for two ships that pass in the night.


Prov. 5:21 For a man's ways are before the eyes of the LORD, and He prepares all of his paths.


God is intimately involved in all of our lives. God is watching over us and evaluating our lives and God is guiding our footsteps as well.


Prov. 5:22 The iniquities [specifically, these iniquities are sexual acts with those who are not your right person—and even gay men have a right person, who is of the opposite gender] ensnare him [both David and Solomon, by their own acts, are entrapped; again, forays into degeneracy sins leads to hese sins taking over one’s life; involvement in one gate of arrogance exposes you to the other gates of arrogance], and he will be seized and bound by the chains of his own promiscuous idol


David did this to himself. He is warning Solomon, do not do this to yourself. Here, the degeneracy sin is sex with as many women as you can get away with; however, all of the degeneracy sins (homosexual acts, masturbation, pornography, pedophilia, excessive drinking, drug use) are freewill choices which bind you. You choose to be bound by these chains. You develop such a lust for whatever it is in your life, that becomes your promiscuous idol, which idol ensnares you.


Prov. 5:23 He will die without doctrine, and in the magnitude of his folly he is led astray.


Dying without Bible doctrine means that he goes into the next world with no coin of the realm. The only thing that we take with us, in terms of riches, from this life, is the Bible doctrine which permeates our soul and spirit. Let’s say, you got dropped off in the middle of a new country, what would you want? Money or a credit card, among other things. This is what doctrine is to you in the next life. It is the one thing that you take with you. Being led astray means that, your lusts consume so much of your life that you do not take that into the next life because you do not have it. Your lusts consumed your life, and that is all your life was about.

1 From http://www.answers.com/topic/wormwood accessed May 19, 2011.


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We will cover all of the results and God’s discipline of David as we continue to exegete this and the following chapters; however,

Guzik’s List of the Results of David’s Sin

       An unwanted pregnancy

       The murder of a trusted friend

       A dead baby

       His daughter raped by his son

       One son murdered by another son

       A civil war led by one of his sons

       A son who imitates David's lack of self-control and it leads him and much of Israel away from God

From David Guzik’s Commentary on the Old Testament; courtesy of e-sword; ©2006;  2Sam. 11:1–27. .


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Application: If you are married with children, the effects of having an affair can last several lifetimes. A divorce, which may be inevitable, can literally destroy the lives of your children, and it can alter their future forever. It can affect their future goals and aspirations; it can destroy the marriages they will have. Footnote Furthermore, the pain your spouse will feel may last for months or years.


David’s sin is going to affect the entire nation of Israel. Because of what David does here in this chapter, there will be a revolution in Israel. People will be forced to choose between David and Absalom; and, given what David is doing in this chapter, Absalom probably looked pretty good to most people.


Application: As was suggested to me by a roommate many years ago, the best approach is not to put yourself in a situation where your weakness is tested (in context, the weakness would be the desire to have sex with those other than your spouse). This principle has a much wider application—a drug addict ought to avoid being around drugs and those who take drugs; those who have a tendency to commit criminal acts need to avoid being around criminals, those with drinking problems should avoid being around alcohol; etc. Whatever the weakness of your old sin nature, you can avoid many sins simply by not placing yourself in close proximity to temptation. This is one of the reasons a believer separates himself from certain other believers and unbelievers. If being with certain other individuals compromises your spiritual life or your testimony, then you avoid them (separation is not rocket science).


Because of this one act, to which the author devotes a quarter of a verse, and a few verses in the middle of this chapter, the next 10 years of David’s life will be affected. Furthermore, God the Holy Spirit will devote the next 8 chapters to the aftermath of these few verses.


Application: David has great authority, prosperity, blessing and influence; God has promoted him to the top. Therefore, God is going to treat his sins with great severity. You or I—we might see something that we lust over (someone of the opposite sex, a nice car, a grand house, a wonderful piece of land)—but we do not have the power to simply take it. King David has this power. If he sees something that he wants, he has the power and the authority to take it. God does not appreciate this. God does not give a man power and authority in order to let him take whatever he desires. With David’s authority and blessing, God will deal with a sin like this with great severity. God is going to come down on David like a ton of bricks. Therefore, the next time that you pray to God for money or for a promotion or for greater authority or for whatever; remember that there is a great deal of responsibility that goes with this. The sins that you commit may involve much harsher discipline than you are used to having.


For those of you who know the end of this, and recognize that Bathsheba is probably David’s right woman, God can deal with these things apart from our meddling. Give this whole situation another year or two, and Uriah might die in battle, without there being some plot to make it happen. God will bring about 2 sons from Bathsheba, both of whom will be in the line of Jesus Christ (one in the legal line, the other in the blood line). Therefore, we may rest assured that God had future plans for David and Bathsheba, plans which could have come to pass without this great sin.


Application: Do not get weird at this point and start praying for the death of your spouse, so that you might meet someone more suitable. Many relationships where there is initial love and desire can be worked out after marriage, if both members of that organization are willing to be guided by God. So, if you are married, and even if you have determined that some blonde down the street or at work is your right opposite mate, put those notions aside and concentrate on your own marriage. If you are a male, there are ample verses describing what your role is in the Bible, and if you are a female, there are ample verses describing your role in marriage. R. B. Thieme, Jr. has some excellent series on marriage and right man/right woman (an editable list of the subjects he covered). Given that most doctrinal churches are only meeting 3 or 4 times weekly, that may be an outstanding way to fill in those vacant nights.


2Samuel 11:4e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

hîyʾ (הִיא) [pronounced hee]

she, it; also used as a demonstrative pronoun: that, this

3rd person feminine singular, personal pronoun

Strong’s #1931 BDB #214

qâdash (קָדַש) [pronounced kaw-DAHSH]

to cleanse [purify, consecrate, sanctify] onself; to cause onself to be [become] cleansed [purified, consecrated, sanctified]

feminine singular, Hithpael participle

Strong's #6942 BDB #872

 min (מִן) [pronounced mihn]

from, away from, out from, out of from, off, on account of, since, above, than, so that not, above, beyond, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ţumeʾâh (טֻמְאָה) [pronounced toom-AW]

uncleanness (sexual; ethical and religious; ritual; local [of nations]); [sexually] polluted; an unclean thing

feminine singular noun with the 3rd person feminine singular suffix

Strong’s #2932 BDB #380


Translation: When she had cleansed herself from her uncleanness,... In the Hebrew, we have had a series of wâw consecutives followed by imperfect verbs, which, in a narrative, carry along the action of coterminous or successive events. However, suddenly, we have a wâw conjunction with a participle, and this jumps out at us. Gill Footnote suggests that this would not be a part of the successive action in this verse. What this likely means, in his view, is, her bathing earlier was a part of ceremonially cleansing herself at the culmination of her period.


David observed this cleansing from the roof of his palace; and that she is now cleansed, in his mind, it is okay for David to have sex with her. This also puts her 6 or 7 days before the peak of her ability to conceive as well, which also plays a part in this narrative (the male sperm can remain alive and viable for 4 or 5 days inside of the female). My point is, even though she is not at the peak of her fertility, she is not far from it.


The other interpretation is, after having sex with David, she had to purify herself. Lev. 15:18 reads: If a man lies with a woman and has an emission of semen, both of them shall bathe themselves in water and be unclean until the evening. Could this be a ritual because she has sinned? That is possible. In any case, it seems odd to tell the reader, at this point, why she was bathing herself earlier when David first saw her.


My translation is based upon the second interpretation. However, we more literally would translate this phrase: And she is cleansing herself from her impurity [or, uncleanness]... So, even if I would like to interpret this as a past event, the Hebrew makes it sound more like an ongoing action. Even if Bathsheba has been raped, she is going to feel unclean and she is going to be in a confused state of mind. Therefore, cleansing herself then and there before returning to her home seems like a reasonable thing that she might do.


It is reasonable to suppose that this is God the Holy Spirit telling us that Bathsheba has some responsibility in this sin. God the Holy Spirit records that ...she is cleansing herself from her impurity [or, uncleanness]... Therefore, this language suggests some complicity on her part. I write this with all due respect to Bathsheba and the position which David has put her in, and certainly do not mean to suggest that a raped woman always bears some measure of responsibility in her rape. However, in this instance, God the Holy Spirit is placing some responsibility upon Bathsheba’s shoulders. Does she know that she can be seen from the palace? Certainly. Has she seen David waling his roof before? More than likely. Does she know that David is in Jerusalem? Here, I am uncertain; but, recall, he did stay behind in the previous year, so that would suggest that David remaining in Jerusalem was a distinct possibility (and most people know what the king is doing, as they view his life much more interesting than their own—not unlike people a celebrities today). I have read several commentaries, and right up front, they began to blame Bathsheba in part, and that rubbed me the wrong way. However, given this portion of v. 4, I must say that they probably have a valid point.


Narrative in the Bible is often very nuanced and subtle, and we often have to take our cues from God the Holy Spirit as to what He places into Scripture and what He leaves out. No matter what Bathsheba’s state of mind is (and I suppose that she is quite rattled at this point), here, the Holy Spirit speaks of her uncleanness; and that indicates at least partial responsibility to me.


Application: This passage also indicates that Bathsheba had named her sin to God. That is the whole purpose of cleansing oneself of impurity—you’ve sinned and you name that sin to God. Recall what I said about authority and responsibility. Bathsheba will confess her sin right here and we may reasonably suppose that her suffering for blessing will be when the son, herein conceived, dies (I say suffering for blessing because she appears to be rebounding in this passage). David will suffer this and far more, because he has the power and authority here, and he abuses it.


2Samuel 11:4f

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

shûwb (שוּב) [pronounced shoobv]

to return, to turn, to turn back, to reminisce, to restore something, to bring back something, to revive, to recover something, to make restitution

3rd person feminine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #7725 BDB #996

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

bayith (בַּיִת) [pronounced BAH-yith]

house, residence; household, habitation as well as inward

masculine singular noun with the feminine singular suffix

Strong's #1004 BDB #108


Translation: ...she then returned to her house. Now we return to the wâw consecutives following by imperfect verbs. When it is all over, she unceremoniously returns to her home.


Interestingly enough, there are no messengers mentioned here. No one is helping Bathsheba to return to her home. Also, recall the time—David began getting interested in her in the early evening/late afternoon. So now, it is dark; it is an hour or so after she has come to the palace, and there is no indication that David thought anything about her. That is, there is no indication that he got 2 or 3 of his messengers together to walk her back home. She is embarrassed; he may or may not be embarrassed or having feelings of guilt, so he unceremoniously sends her back to her home, without any protection.


The verb to return is in the imperfect tense, indicating a process. For most people, being at home is restful and soothing and there is generally a feeling of safety and security. It is dark, she is alone, and even though her walk home is a very short distance, Bathsheba’s mind is flooded with apprehension, sadness, fear and a dozen other emotions, as she leaves the palace.


Her husband and her father are on the front lines fighting for David and for Israel. Who might be waiting at home for her? Possibly her grandfather, Ahithophel, who knows she has been called to the palace, who knows she has been gone for several hours, and now, upon her return, it is clear there is something wrong. He asks her about the welfare of Uriah and Eliam, and what can she say? “They are fine.” And he asks, “Why were you called to the palace? What happened?” And she won’t answer that question. Obviously, this is all conjecture, but it explains a lot. She will eventually marry David; but her grandfather is apparently the first man to see her and talk with her after being with David. Ahithophel is likely furious with David and this abuse of power. However, David is the king, so what can Ahithophel do? So Ahithophel buries this moment deep within his soul to be brought out at a time when he is able to do something about it. Fast forward a few years into the future—a revolution against David will break out, David and his army will quickly leave Jerusalem, and Ahithophel will walk into revolutionary Absalom’s office and say, “Where do I sign up?”


Application: Most countries have a system of law and a system of justice. As believers, we need to depend upon this system and allow it to work (or not to work; on earth, nothing is perfect). Let’s say that Kalid Sheik Mohammed, the supposed mastermind of 9/11, is hauled into a civilian court, charged, and then he gets off. The judge throws all of his charges out of court because he was waterboarded (I write this in the year 2010, where such a thing is a possibility). Now, do you have the right as a private citizen, to follow him around and shoot him? No! Absolutely not! This is outside of our responsibility. Would we have the right to threaten the lives of the judge or the Attorney General? No, absolutely not! We are subject to the laws of divine establishment, which includes obeying the rule of law. However, our government can recognize the potential that this man would have, with his great notoriety and freedom, and our government might kill him or keep him imprisoned indefinitely without charges. That may seem to be contradictory, but the government has the authority to keep its citizens safe. At the same time, we do not have the authority to murder people, even if we are 100% certain they are guilty of some heinous crime. Our government can do a lot, when it comes to dealing with our national enemies—much more than you realize (and I am talking, according to the laws of divine establishment as set forth in the Bible—HTML PDF). We all have different roles to play, and we, as private citizens, have no role to play in the punishment of criminals, no matter how just punishment may be.


Our passage reads: Consequently, David sent messengers to her and they seized her. When she came in to him, he had sexual relations with her. After she had cleansed herself from her uncleanness, she then returned to her own home. Ahithophel here, probably at this point in time, turns against David, and waits for the time where he can express his anger and indignity. He probably lived with Bathsheba, and when she came home, Ahithophel soon put together most of what happened. One theory at this point is, Ahithophel (and, again, this is all conjecture, but reasonable conjecture) probably is entering into interlocking systems of arrogance via iconoclastic (or, disillusionment) arrogance (also known as the feet of clay syndrom). Most people admire David; even idolize him, and Ahithophel is probably one of those people. However, at this point, he sees David’s feet of clay, and David’s failure here is quite dramatic, to say the least. David has taken Ahithophel’s married granddaughter and has raped her and sent her home. Objectivity—and I know it would be hard to be objective when such a thing has happened to your granddaughter—would step back and say, “There is nothing I can do, except pray to God to make David’s punishment dramatic public and painful.” And then you leave it in God’s hands. David is not going to be prosecuted by the law for this. He’s the king. So there is no criminal recourse. Therefore, Ahithophel, although disillusioned over what David has done, has to let it go, and allow God to deal with David directly. However, Ahithophel is unable to do this. He has built David up to this great, almost sinless figure; he has now seen David’s feet of clay, and he arrogantly tears David down. His arrogance placed David on a pedestal; and his arrogance destroys David (in Ahithophel’s own mind). One thing which is clear—Ahithophel knows that he can do nothing now, but he will not forget this.


What is less conjecture is, this will eat away at Ahithophel’s soul. He will wake up every day with great anger against David, and a desire to do whatever is possible to hurt David; and he will be frustrated by this. This will eat away at his soul, and when he finds out, that he cannot inflict pain and injury upon David, through his excellent advice, Ahithophel will kill himself (2Sam. 17:23).


Application: People are going to do you wrong throughout your life. You can put it in the Lord’s hands or you can be incensed about it day after day after day. Ahithophel chose the latter, and it ate into his soul so much that, he finally killed himself. There is no winning when it comes to get your personal revenge. What David did here is despicable, but Ahithophel has no real alternative. David is the supreme court judge of the land, so it is unlikely that, even if Ahithophel makes a compelling case to the court that David is going to sentence himself to be executed. So Ahithophel can seethe or he can put it into the Lord’s hands.


Application: Now you may think, Ahithophel has a good right to be angry. David has grabbed up his granddaughter, violated her, and sent her back on her way. So, yes, he does have a legitimate beef. Who should he take it up with? God. Ahithophel needs to go to God and pray for God to strike David. Imprecatory prayer is legitimate. I have a situation in my life right now where I have a legitimate beef with two people who have intentionally caused damage to things which I own. I will file a police report, but I may or may not get any results from that. I have two choices: I can let this eat at me and eat at me or I can place it in the Lord’s very capable hands. Now, going to the police is a legitimate function because what they did is a criminal offense. That is one of the reasons they are available to us. However, I may not get satisfactory results from this. At that point, once I have done what is reasonable in an orderly and lawful society, I can step back and allow God to deal with these people.


Bathsheba has a father and a grandfather. Her grandfather, Ahithophel, will get so upset because of David that he will kill himself. Her father, Eliam, is an officer in David’s army, who remained faithful to David, despite what David did to his daughter. He had no legitimate options, so Eliam put this in the Lord’s hands. Therefore, Eliam will go down in history as one of the great soldiers of his day, his name immortalized in the Word of God (2Sam. 23:39).


Application: You have been wronged. You have been the innocent victim of someone else. Your spiritual life depends upon, can you get up, dust yourself off, put it in the Lord’s hands, and walk away from it? You cannot spend you life thinking various mental attitude sins against the person who wronged you. God knows what happened. God knows they were wrong. God is able to take all things and work them together for good for those who love God (the mature believer). So, you have been screwed over; so what! Everyone has. If you are in maturity, God will work that for your good, and God will take care of your enemy. Rom. 12:17–21 Repay no one evil for evil, but give thought to do what is honorable in the sight of all. If possible, so far as it depends on you, live peaceably with all. Beloved, never avenge yourselves, but leave it to the wrath of God, for it is written, "Vengeance is mine, I will repay, says the Lord." To the contrary, "if your enemy is hungry, feed him; if he is thirsty, give him something to drink; for by so doing you will heap burning coals on his head." Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good.


——————————


And so conceives the woman and so she sends (forth) and she makes known to David and so she says, “With child I [am].”

2Samuel

11:5

When [lit., and so] the woman conceived, she sent [a message] and she informs David, and she said, “I [am] with child.”

When the woman conceived, she sent a message to David and informed him, “I am with child.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:

 

Ancient texts:  

 

Dead Sea Scrolls                   [Then David sent] messengers [to bring her], and she came to [him]—just purified—[and he lay with her]. Ten she [returned to] her house.

Latin Vulgate                          And she returned to her house having conceived. And she sent and told David, and said: I have conceived.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so conceives the woman and so she sends (forth) and she makes known to David and so she says, “With child I [am].”

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And the woman conceived, and sent and told David and said to him, I am with child.

Septuagint (Greek)                And the woman conceived; and she sent and told David, and said, I am with child.

 

Significant differences:           The Latin places the final phrase of v. 4 at the beginning of v. 5.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       But later, when she found out that she was going to have a baby, she sent someone to David with this message: "I'm pregnant!

Easy English (Pocock)           Later, the woman discovered that she was expecting a baby. She sent a message to David and said, `I am expecting a baby.'

The Message                         Before long she realized she was pregnant. Later she sent word to David: "I'm pregnant."

New Life Bible                        She was going to have a baby, so she sent someone to tell David, "I am going to have a baby."

New Living Translation           Later, when Bathsheba discovered that she was pregnant, she sent David a message, saying, "I'm pregnant."


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          ...so when she sent a message to David telling him that she was pregnant, David said, `It's my baby.'.

God’s Word                         The woman had become pregnant. So she sent someone to tell David that she was pregnant.

NIRV                                      Later, Bathsheba found out she was pregnant. She sent a message to David. It said, "I'm pregnant."


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And the woman became with child; and she sent word to David that she was with child.

NIV–UK                                  The woman conceived and sent word to David, saying, I am pregnant.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                And the woman became pregnant and sent and told David, I am with child.

Concordant Literal Version    ...and the woman conceives, and sends, and declares to David, and said, `I [am] conceiving.

English Standard Version      And the woman conceived, and she sent and told David, "I am pregnant."

Heritage Bible                        And the woman conceived, and sent, and caused it to stand out boldly to David, and said, I am with child..

LTHB                                     And the woman conceived, and sent, and told David. And she said, I am with child.

NASB                                     The woman conceived; and she sent and told David, and said, "I am pregnant [Lev 20:10; Deut 22:22].".

Syndein                                  Consequently, the woman became pregnant, and she sent {a messenger} and advised David, and said, "I have become pregnant." {idiom: literally "I am with child."}.

A Voice in the Wilderness      And the woman conceived; and sent and reported to David, and said, I am with child.

World English Bible                The woman conceived; and she sent and told David, and said, I am with child.

Young’s Updated LT             And the woman conceives, and sends, and declares to David, and says, “I am conceiving.”

 

The gist of this verse:          Bathsheba determines that she is pregnant and she informs David of this.


2Samuel 11:5a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hârâh (הָרָה) [pronounced haw-RAW]

to conceive, to become pregnant, to be with child

3rd person feminine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #2029 BDB #247

ʾîshshâh (אִשָּה) [pronounced eesh-SHAW]

woman, wife

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #802 BDB #61


Translation: When [lit., and so] the woman conceived,... Obviously, when Bathsheba conceived, she and David were both unaware of that. However, within a month, there can be signs of pregnancy. 6–12 days after conception, the embryo implants itself into the uterine wall. Some women will experience spottin