1Chronicles 17

 

1Chronicles 17:1–17

The Davidic Covenant


Outline of Chapter 17:

 

Introduction

 

         vv.     1–2           David Wants to Build a Permanent Structure for the Ark of the Covenant

         vv.     3–15         The Davidic Covenant

         vv.    16–27         David’s Prayer of Response to God

 

Addendum


Charts, Short Doctrines and Maps:

 

Introduction

 

         v.       1              Our Takeaway from 1Chronicles 17:1

         v.       1              Why Doesn’t God Require David to Bring the Ark and the Tabernacle Together?

         v.       4              Why Doesn’t God Allow David to Build a Temple for Him?

         v.       5              What Does it Mean for an Omnipresent God to Concentrate His Presence?

         v.       5              Domiciles Occupied by the Lord

         v.       6              God Walks with His People

         v.       8              God is with David (and He is with Us)

         v.      10              God Subdues Our Enemies

         v.      11              The Near and Far Fulfillment of the Davidic Covenant

         v.      11              The Davidic Covenant is Applied only to Jesus

         v.      14              Interpretations of "I will establish him [Him] in My House."

         v.      14              Progressive Revelation and the Messiah to Come

         v.      14              Order of Events

         v.      17              Commentators Interpret 1Chronicles 17:17

         v.      19              According to God's Thinking

         v.      21              Assaults on the Four Divine Institutions in the United States

         v.      21              The Uniqueness of Israel

         v.      21              A Quick View of Redemption

         v.      21              Links to the Doctrine of Redemption

         v.      23              The Word House in 1Chronicles 17

         v.      23              Covenant Theology

         v.      24              Scofield on the Title the Lord of Hosts (Jehovah Sabaoth)

         v.      24              Titles: the God of Israel and the God to Israel

         v.      26              Lists of the Promises of God

         v.      27              The Sufferings of Christ and the Sufferings of Man

         v.      27              David Never Forgets this Promise of God

 

         Addendum          The Inconsistencies of the Samuel Text and the Chronicles Text

         Addendum          What About the Accuracy of the Bible?

         Addendum          Textual Criticism

         Addendum          Why Does God Preserve 2Samuel 7 and 1Chronicles 17?

         Addendum          A Complete Translation of 1Chronicles 1

         Addendum          A Complete Translation of 1Chronicles 17 and 2Samuel 7

         Addendum          Additional Resources on the Davidic Covenant


Doctrines Covered

Doctrines Alluded To

 

 

 

 


Psalms Alluded To

 

 

 

 

Chapters of the Bible Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

2Sam. 7

Psalm 89

 

 


Definition of Terms

Autograph

An autograph is an exact copy of the original text of any book of the Bible.

Client Nation

Client-Nation, is a national entity in which a certain number of spiritually mature Christians (the salt of the earth) have formed a pivot sufficient to sustain the nation and through which God specifically protects this nation so that believers can fulfill the divine mandates of evangelism, communication and custodianship of Bible doctrine, providing a haven for Jews, and sending missionaries abroad. The United States is a client-nation to God. A client nation must have freedom: Freedom to seek God, freedom to use one’s own volition and self-determination to succeed or fail, freedom from anarchy and tyranny, freedom for evangelism, freedom for believers to hear Bible teaching without government interference and, therefore, to grow spiritually, and freedom to send missionaries to other nations.

Cycles of Discipline

A national entity which is a client nation to God is under both God’s protection and His discipline (much like the individual believer). As a nation moves further and further from God, God may impose disciplinary measures on that nation, which include economic disaster, illness, civil unrest, military defeat, and even invasion which may include a slavery or dispersion of the people. These cycles are found in Lev. 26. Although these warnings are designed for Israel, all client nations to God may face similar downward historical trends.

Divine Dynasphere

The palace or the sphere in where lies divine assets and privileges that God has given to each Church age believer. Hence divine dynasphere can be equated to the PPOG, or predestination noted in the Bible.

Edification Complex Structure

We build within our own souls a structure based upon doctrine from the Word of God. This structure gives us the very framework from which our lives are defined, guided and made content. More info is found here (there is a second part to this lesson as well):

http://www.gracedoctrine.org/word/Doctrines/Edification%20Complex%20of%20the%20Soul,%20Part%201.htm

Fifth Cycle of Discipline

The fifth cycle of discipline involves complete loss of personal and national sovereignty, the destruction of the family and the nation. Offerings to God are unacceptable. Nations which have undergone this destruction have experienced slavery, cannibalism, and the assimilation of its surviving citizens into other cultures.

Hypostatic Union

In the person of Jesus Christ since His physical birth [incarnation], there are two natures, undiminished deity and true humanity in one person forever. These two natures—human and divine—remain distinct and are inseparably united without mixture or loss of identity, without loss or transfer of attributes. This means that the Lord Jesus Christ is just as much God as God the Father and God the Holy Spirit and at the same time He is also just as much human as you and I. He is undiminished deity and true humanity in one person forever. This union is known as the hypostatic union.


The two natures of Christ maintain their complete identity while being joined in personal union forever. The characteristics of His human nature belong to the human part of Him; the characteristics of His divine nature belong to the God part of Him. Each nature has its own attributes that adhere to that nature. In other words, there is no mixture of the two natures. He is never half-God and half-man or half-man and half-God..

Progressive Revelation

God reveals bits and pieces of eternal truth to man throughout time. We may be made aware of the Trinity in the first chapter of Genesis; however, we do not know all there is to know about the Trinity in that first chapter.

Textual Criticism

Textual criticism is the science of determining which text in the Bible is most accurate, if there are 2 or more different readings for the same passage.

Variant Reading

When two ancient texts have slightly different text, the differences are called variant readings.

Some of these terms were coined by R. B. Thieme Jr. during his 50+ year ministry at Berachah Church.

Some of these definitions may have been taken from

http://www.bibledoctrinechurch.org/?subpages/GLOSSARY.shtml

http://www.bigrick.org/pubs/terms.pdf

http://www.gbible.org/_files/pdf/Doctrine_of_The_Divine_Decree.pdf

http://www.gbible.org/index.php?proc=d4d&sf=rea&did=28

http://www.realtime.net/~wdoud/topics/chastisement.html


An Introduction to 1Chronicles


I ntroduction: 1Chron. 17 is our third foray into the Davidic Covenant. We were first introduced to it in 2Sam. 7. Then we went to Psalm 89, which is far more than a repetition of the Davidic Covenant. Portions of the Abrahamic and Palestinian Covenants came into play. Furthermore, Psalm 89 was designed, in part, to be read by Jews in all periods of time, and then to believe in Jesus Christ as a result.


When something is important, God repeats it. When I was first saved, I knew next to nothing about the Bible (even though I had attended many churches of many persuasions over the years prior to my salvation). I remember that one of the things that struck me weird was that there were 4 gospels. Why are there 4 historic accounts of the life of Jesus Christ? Once I began to learn some doctrine, it became very clear that God make certain that the life and crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus Christ are the most certain historical events in all human history. If one puts all religious and anti-religious bias aside, and just examines Jesus Christ from an historical approach, there is no person in history, say prior to thr 1600's, who is so well documented. When we examine an historical event or set of events, it is important for us to have an eyewitness source. If not an eyewitness (called a primary source), then a secondary source, someone who has spoken to an eyewitness. Two of the gospels (Matthew and John) are eyewitness reports. Matthew and John were both there for most of the events which they recorded, and their gospels are so different, that this emphasizes just how differently eyewitnesses can observe the same event (they are not contradictory; but they are different). Luke and Mark are secondary sources; they both talked to people who were observers of the events of their gospels. Luke used other documents and personal interviews and Mark got his information from Peter.


The second important thing when it comes to an historical event (or series of events) is, how far removed in time are copies of the recording of the events from the events themselves? Most of the gospels appear to have been written decades later, which is, admittedly, sometime later than we would like them to have been written, but, the writers of the gospels were not principally writers. Matthew was a tax collector, Peter and John were fishermen, and Luke was a physician who later became an historian. So none of these men were the kind of men who would generally write down anything, except for Luke.


The third consideration is how far removed in time are our copies of the recording of an event or events from the original manuscripts? Here, the Bible is head and shoulders above all other historical documents. Josh McDowell showed in his excellent book Evidence that Demands a Verdict (and its many incarnations since then) that we have manuscripts closer in time to when they were written than any other set of ancient historical documents and that we have more manuscripts than can be found for any other historical or literary document. The research which McDowell did is found on many internet sites (including my own), and one good example is: a paper which compares the Bible and the Quran: (http://www.debate.org.uk/topics/history/bib-qur/bibmanu.htm), by Jay Smith. The second link lists the many ancient manuscripts from that general era, how many we have and how close they are to the original manuscripts written by Matthew, Mark, Luke and John.


The 4th reason for the importance of the gospels is, the number of witnesses and their agreement concerning the events themselves. What we have are 4 men who agree in all of the essentials about the Person of Jesus Christ.


This brings us to the Davidic Covenant, found 3 times in the Bible, and referenced many times besides that (2Sam. 23:5 1Chron. 22:6–13 28:2–10 2Chron. 6:4–11, 14–17 7:17–18 13:5, 8 21:7 23:3 Isa. 9:6 Jer. 33:19–22 Luke 1:32–33 Acts 2:29–36). God is making certain that all Jews (and some of us Gentiles) know and understand His promises to David and that these promises are going to stand till the end of time. This is also to stir up Jews. A Jew read the Davidic Covenant (particularly in Psalm 89) and it should give him or her pause. He (or she) reads these promises, and they are quite clear; and any normal person ought to ask, “Where are you, God? When will you fulfill these promises?”


Now, from the outset, I must admit, I do not see another reason for this additional quoting of the Davidic Covenant, apart from it emphasizing just how important this covenant is. Insofar as I can determine, there is not a dime’s worth of difference between 1Chron. 17 and 2Sam. 7. A handful of phrases will be left out, and a word here or there, in almost every verse, is different. I will note all of the differences in the Hebrew exegesis. Footnote


What is interesting is, when David received this promise from God, there was a great deal of possibility before him. Although no dynasty of any sort had been established at this point in time, the Davidic Covenant promised David an eternal dynasty. So, this was first written down as David looked off into the future. The writer of Chronicles is recording this information somewhere between 500–400 b.c. At this point in time, there is no Davidic dynasty (although his line is being watched). The Jews have just returned from being in exile (516 b.c.) and there is no indication that any sort of a kingship was every established after this time. Although the history of Israel during the intertestamental times is limited (perhaps the best history we have is Josephus’ rather than the Apocrypha), none of it includes the reestablishment of the Davidic dynasty. However, the writer of Chronicles (properly, he is an editor) spends more time dealing with this promise made to David even during a time period where no such dynasty even existed (even more so than did the writers of Samuel or Kings). The editor of Chronicles, therefore, was looking forward to the Messiah, the eternal King of Israel.


In a previous chapter of Chronicles, I transferred many of the notes from its corresponding Samuel chapter. However, I have not done that here. So, although there will be certainly some overlap, almost none of the notes from 2Sam. 7 will be reproduced here (nor will any of the text of this exegetical study be reproduced in 2Sam. 7). I think I did bring 3 charts from 2Sam. 7 into this study.


Because 2Sam. 7 = 1Chron. 17 (something which occurs in several chapters of Chronicles), I will provide a word-by-word comparison between the two chapters within the Hebrew exegesis. I will also lay out the nearly literal translations of both chapters side-by-side at the end and discuss the inconsistencies of the two texts, the accuracy of the Bible and a little about Old Testament textual criticism at the end of this study.


Return to Chapter Outline

Return to the Chart Index


David Wants to Build a Permanent Structure for the Ark of the Covenant

2Samuel 7:1–3


Slavishly literal:

 

Moderately literal:

And so he is in which remained David in his house; and so says David unto Nathan the prophet, “Behold, I am remaining in a house of cedar and an Ark of a Covenant of Yehowah underneath curtains.”

1Chronicles

17:1

And it was in the place where David stayed, in his house, when [lit., and] David said to Nathan the prophet, “Listen, I stay in [this] house of cedar but the Ark of the Covenant of Yehowah [stays] underneath curtains.”

David, while staying in his home, said to Nathan the prophet, “Look, I am living in the house of cedar while the Ark of the Covenant of Jehovah remains underneath curtains.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:

 

Ancient texts:                       Note: I compare the Hebrew text to English translations of the Latin, Syriac and Greek texts (using the Douay-Rheims translation; George Lamsa’s translation, and Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton’s translation, respectively). When there are serious disparities between my translation and Brenton’s, I look at the Greek text of the Septuagint (the LXX) to see if a substantive difference actually exists (and I reflect these changes in the English rendering of the Greek text). I often update these texts with non-substantive changes (e.g., you for thou, etc.).

 

The Masoretic text is the Hebrew text with all of the vowels (vowel points) inserted (the original Hebrew text lacked vowels). We take the Masoretic text to be the text closest to the original. However, differences between the Masoretic text and the Greek, Latin and Syriac are worth noting and, once in a great while, represent a more accurate text possessed by those ancient translators.

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so he is in which remained David in his house; and so says David unto Nathan the prophet, “Behold, I am remaining in a house of cedar and an Ark of a Covenant of Yehowah underneath curtains.”

Peshitta (Syriac)                    Now it came to pass when David dwelt in his house, David said to Nathan the prophet, Behold, I dwell in a house which is covered with the beams of cedars, but the ark of the covenant of the LORD is resting in the midst of the tent of hair of goats.

Septuagint (Greek)                And it came to pass as David dwelt in his house, that David said to Nathan the prophet, Behold, I dwell in a house of cedar, but the ark of the covenant of the Lord is under curtains of skins.

 

Significant differences:           And now it came to pass is a reasonable translation of the Hebrew and so he is. Both when and as are reasonable translations of in which. When comparing these texts, I look for anything which would suggest that the Greek translators had a different text to work from than what we have today.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       Soon after David moved into his new palace, he said to Nathan the prophet, "Look around! I live in a palace made of cedar, but the sacred chest is kept in a tent."

Easy-to-Read Version            After David had moved into his house, he said to Nathan the prophet, “Look, I am living in a house made of cedar wood, but the Box of the Agreement sits under a tent. {I want to build a temple for God.}”

Good News Bible (TEV)         King David was now living in his palace. One day he sent for the prophet Nathan and said to him, "Here I am living in a house built of cedar, but the LORD's Covenant Box is kept in a tent!"

The Message                         After the king had made himself at home, he said to Nathan the prophet, "Look at this: Here I am comfortable in a luxurious palace of cedar and the Chest of the Covenant of GOD sits under a tent."

New American Bible              After David had taken up residence in his house, he said to Nathan the prophet, "See, I am living in a house of cedar, but the ark of the covenant of the LORD dwells under tentcloth."

New International Readers V David settled down in his palace. Then he spoke to the prophet Nathan. He said, "Here I am, living in a palace that has beautiful cedar walls. But the ark of the covenant of the Lord is under a tent.".

New Jerusalem Bible             It happened, once David had settled into his palace, that David said to the prophet Nathan, 'Here am I living in a cedar-wood palace, while the ark of the covenant of Yahweh is under awnings.'

New Life Bible                        Now when David lived in his house, he said to Nathan the special preacher, "See, I am living in a house of cedar wood. But the special box with the Law of the Lord is under a tent."

New Living Translation           When David was settled in his palace, he summoned Nathan the prophet. "Look," David said, "I am living in a beautiful cedar palace,[a] but the Ark of the Lord's Covenant is out there under a tent!"

Revised English Bible            Once David was established in his palace, he said to Nathan the prophet, ‘Here am living in a home of cedar, while the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord is housed in a tent.’


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             Now when David was living in his house, he said to Nathan the prophet, See, I am living in a house of cedar-wood, but the ark of the Lord's agreement is under the curtains of a tent.

Complete Apostles’ Bible      And it came to pass as David dwelt in his house, that David said to Nathan the prophet, Behold, I dwell in a house of cedar, but the ark of the covenant of the Lord is under curtains of skins.

God’s Word                         When David was living in his house, he said to the prophet Nathan, "I'm living in a house made of cedar, while the ark of the LORD'S promise is inside a tent."

HCSB                                     When David had settled into his palace, he said to Nathan the prophet, "Look! I am living in a cedar house while the ark of the LORD's covenant is under tent curtains."

JPS (Tanakh)                         When David settled in his palace, David said to the prophet Nathan, “Here I am dwelling in a house of cedar, while the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord is under tent-clothes”

NET Bible®                             God Makes a Promise to David

When David had settled into his palace [Hebrew, house], he [Hebrew, David; The pronoun "he" has been used in the translation here to avoid redundancy in keeping with contemporary English] said to Nathan the prophet, "Look, I am living in a palace [Hebrew, house] made from cedar, while the ark of the LORD's covenant is under a tent [Hebrew, tent curtains]." When it comes to making an actual material change to the text, the NET Bible® is pretty good about indicating this. Since most of these corrections will be clear in the more literal translations below and within the Hebrew exegesis itself, I will not continue to list every NET Bible® footnote.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

A Conservative Version         And it came to pass, when David dwelt in his house, that David said to Nathan the prophet, Lo, I dwell in a house of cedar, but the ark of the covenant of LORD [dwells] under curtains.

Updated Emphasized Bible    And it came to pass, when David had taken up his abode in his house, that David said unto Nathan the prophet, Look, I am dwelling in a house of cedars, but, the ark of the covenant of Yahweh, is under curtains.

English Standard Version      Now when David lived in his house, David said to Nathan the prophet, "Behold, I dwell in a house of cedar, but the ark of the covenant of the LORD is under a tent."

LTHB                                     And it happened, as David sat in his house, that David said to Nathan the prophet, Behold, I am living in a house of cedars, and the ark of the covenant of Jehovah is under curtains.

New King James Version       Now it came to pass, when David was dwelling in his house, that David said to Nathan the prophet, "See now, I dwell in a house of cedar, but the ark of the covenant of the LORD is under tent curtains."

A Voice in the Wilderness      Now it came to pass, when David had been dwelling in his house, that David said to Nathan the prophet, Behold now, I am dwelling in a house of cedar, but the ark of the covenant of Jehovah is under curtains..

Young’s Updated LT             And it comes to pass as David sat in his house, that David says unto Nathan the prophet, “Look, I am dwelling in a house of cedars, and the ark of the covenant of Jehovah is under curtains


What is the gist of this verse? David recognizes all that God has done for him, and says to Nathan, “I live in a house of cedar, but the Ark of God is inside a tent.”


1Chronicles 17:1a = 2Samuel 7:1a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

Strong’s# none BDB #88

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

The bêyth preposition and ʾăsher together mean where, wherever, wheresoever; in the place where.

2Sam. 7:1 has, instead of be ʾăsher, the following:

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, because; that; when

explanatory conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

The darkened portions of the Hebrew exegesis is text from the Samuel manuscripts which is not found in the Chronicles manuscripts.

yâshab (יָשַב) [pronounced yaw-SHAHBV]

to remain, to stay; to dwell, to live, to inhabit; to sit

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #3427 BDB #442

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

2Sam. 7:1 has the following instead:

meleke (מֶלֶך׃) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

bayith (בַּיִת) [pronounced BAH-yith]

house, residence; household, habitation as well as inward

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #1004 BDB #108


Translation: And it was in the place where David stayed, in his house,... During David’s time as king, he had period of time when there was not much going on. David was sitting in his house, and he began to look around and think things over. This could have occurred very soon after Hiram, the king of Tyre, built David a palace (which appears to have occurred first in time). In fact, this is by far the most reasonable approach to take. We are told in 1Chron. 14:1 that Hiram built a palace of cedar for David and David will say that he is living in a house (palace) of cedar. Therefore, that is no reason to assume a different historical order.


2Samuel 7:1b is not in 1Chronicles

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

The following is found in 2Samuel but not in 1Chronicles

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

nûwach (נוּחַ) [pronounced NOO-ahkh]

to deposit, to set down; to cause to rest [to set down]; to let remain, to leave; to depart from; to abandon; to permit

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect

Strong’s #5117 (and #3240) BDB #628

The LXX has a legitimate verb here, but one which has a slightly different English translation: to give an inheritance is the meaning of the LXX verb.

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, away from, out from, out of from, off, on account of

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

çâbîyb (סָבִיב) [pronounced sawb-VEEBV]

around, surrounding, circuit, round about, encircle

adverb

Strong’s #5439 BDB #686

The min preposition and çâbîyb mean from round about, from every side.

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, away from, out from, out of from, off, on account of

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

with a plural noun, it is rendered all of, all; any of

masculine singular construct with a masculine plural noun

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

ʾâyab (אָיַב) [pronounced aw-YABV]

enemy, the one being at enmity with you; enmity, hostility

masculine plural, Qal active participle; with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #340 BDB #33


Translation: None. We are told in 2Sam. 7:1 that God had given David rest on every side from his enemies. During our lives here on earth, there are going to be periods of time when life is easy and non-eventful.


Application: When you have some downtime, some time to relax, then it is important to make use of it. The most important thing for the individual believer to do is to take in doctrine when his life is running smoothly. This gets you prepared for the difficulties which will inevitably come upon you.


You may wonder why the writer of Chronicles leaves this out—the NIV Study Bible suggests Footnote that David’s wars would be covered in 1Chron. 18–20, so that it would seem odd to speak of a cessation of hostilities and then follow this with a chapter all about hostilities. The NIV Study Bible suggests that (1) the chronicler left this out because there would be chapters to follow which deal with war and (2) David did not have any peace and rest until near the end of his life (suggesting that this chapter occurs after all of David's wars). Although I will grant that, possibly, the editor of Chronicles did not want to include this statement about David having rest from his enemies because wars will be covered in the chapters to come, this does not mean that 1Chron. 17 (or, 2Sam. 7, for that matter) are chronologically out of order. David did not fight nonstop wars for the first few decades and then it all stopped. Like the nation Israel today, there is a war every now and again. David may have faced more wars than most, but that does not mean that he never enjoyed a moment's peace. Very likely, there were months and sometimes even years here and there when David was not engaged in a campaign somewhere. However, what this does suggest is, the records for Samuel were written down very near the time that these incidents occurred. There is a great deal of detail in 2Sam. 7, which suggests that this history was recorded soon after it occurred. That David, a few months later, went to war against the Philistines, does not negate this period of peace which he enjoys. It only suggests that the history of Samuel was written down as it occurred as opposed to being recorded at the end of David's life.


1Chronicles 17:1b = 2Samuel 7:2a1a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

2Sam. 7:1 has the following instead:

meleke (מֶלֶך׃) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced el]

unto, in, into, toward, to, regarding, against

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

Nâthân (נָתָן) [pronounced naw-THAWN]

given; one who is given; transliterated Nathan

masculine singular, proper noun

Strong’s #5416 BDB #681

nâbîyʾ (נָבִיא) [pronounced nawb-VEE]

spokesman, speaker, prophet

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong's #5030 BDB #611


Translation: ...when [lit., and] David said to Nathan the prophet,... There are some unusual particles here. It is possible that ...in which...and... means ...during which...when... In any case, David has some downtime and notice how he is spending this downtime—he is chatting with Nathan the prophet. We do not know all that is going on here, whether David had called for Nathan to come into the palace or whether this was a Bible class of sorts. There is nothing here or in 2Sam. 7 where David seems to specifically call for Nathan, suggesting that Nathan may have been there for awhile.


This is Nathan’s first appearance in Scripture (also, of course, in 2Sam. 7:2). Very little is said about him, where he came from, how David knew he was a prophet, where he was living, how often he went and talked to David. His position relative to David is assumed, not stated. We will see that David, the most powerful man in Israel, will recognize the authority of Nathan. At some future time, we will examine Nathan in more detail.


1Chronicles 17:1c = 2Samuel 7:2b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

hinnêh (הִנֵּה) [pronounced hin-NAY]

lo, behold, or more freely, observe, look here, look, listen, note, take note; pay attention, get this, check this out

interjection, demonstrative particle

Strong’s #2009 (and #518, 2006) BDB #243

2Samuel has the following instead:

râʾâh (רָאָה) [pronounced raw-AWH]

look, see, behold, view, see here, listen up

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperative

Strong's #7200 BDB #906

nâʾ (נָא) [pronounced naw]

now; please, I pray you, I respectfully implore (ask, or request of) you, I urge you

a primitive particle of incitement and entreaty

Strong's #4994 BDB #609

ʾânôkîy (אָנֹכִי) [pronounced awn-oh-KEE]

I, me; (sometimes a verb is implied)

1st person singular personal pronoun

Strong’s #595 BDB #59

yâshab (יָשַב) [pronounced yaw-SHAHBV]

inhabiting, staying, remaining, dwelling, sitting

Qal active participle

Strong's #3427 BDB #442

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

bayith (בַּיִת) [pronounced BAH-yith]

house, residence; household, habitation as well as inward

masculine singular construct

Strong's #1004 BDB #108

ʾerez (אֶרֶז) [pronounced EH-rez]

cedar

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #730 BDB #72

2Sam. 7 lacks the definite article, which is one letter which would precede cedar.


Translation:...“Listen, I stay in [this] house of cedar... David is taking stock of his life and his situation. He is greatly blessed. He had admired Jerusalem and Mount Zion since he was a young man. To him, it is one of the most beautiful places that He has ever seen. Now, as King of Israel, one of the most powerful men of his world, David looks around and is appreciative of where he is in life. He lives in a wonderful palace of cedar.


Hiram, the King of Tyre, built this great palace for David (1Chron. 14:1).


Application: Our wealth and possessions are relative. Many of us live in houses superior to those lived in by kings of ancient days. I have a wonderful system of indoor plumbing, refrigerated food, and air conditioning. Although ancient man had a lot more technology than we realize, if David saw your house and all that was in it, he would probably prefer it to his kingly palace (as would be true of almost any ancient king). Although the size of a king’s palace may have been great (I am unlearned in this area, being only familiar with the residences of rulers over the past few hundred years), the great conveniences which we enjoy would have made David jealous. So, when evaluating your place in this world, bear in mind, you can always find someone who lives in a bigger and nicer home and you can always finds someone who lives in a lesser home. What God does is provide us the inner ability to be content with what He has given us. I know people who have houses which are larger and more exquisite than my own; however, I am very happy with what God has given me. I do not feel pressure or anxiety or any necessity to find a nicer home than the one in which I live. The next time you become so concerned about your possessions, realize that, if you are an American, then you live better than 90–95% of the rest of the world. If you are unhappy with where you live, then your problem is a spiritual one rather than an environmental one.


Application: Have you ever wondered about these hyper-environmentalists? That we live in a country with clean water and clean air is a great blessing. In the past half-century, the United States has come a long ways when it comes to balancing normal growth with our environment. However, there are some environmentalists out there who are extremely concerned about their environment and they think that America is sliding into some great environmental mess. Most of their problem is, they are not content with what God has given them. This is why people can live in the greatest environment in the world in the greatest economy in the world, and yet, be dissatisfied and thinking that our country is on the wrong track (whatever that means).


Application: This does not mean that all environmental concerns are wrong, nor does it mean that the believer ought not to be concerned with his environment. Many believers love to hunt and fish or sail or garden or hike; and the great creation which God has made is a wonder to behold and enjoy. Therefore, preserving aspects of what God has given us is a wonderful thing, and provides great enjoyment for many of us. God told Adam to subdue the earth. God has given us a great many resources, like oil, and there is not reason why we ought not use what God has given us. As we build and expand, we ought to take thought to preservation of certain areas as well. It is all a balance. Even when someone wants to get away from it all and build a house way out in the country; they soon find out that there are a great many things in nature which they do not like—swarms of insects, poison oak and snakes. So the person who puts up a house out in the wild also will tame much of the wild in his immediate vicinity. He may not desire a lawn, but most people will clear away the brush from around the house and cut down the high grasses and even remove a tree or two. It is all a balance. The problem is, when you become obsessed with your environment, with the actions of others, and when you believe that your happiness is directly impacted by your environment. When you somehow believe that your happiness is related to drilling for oil in ANWR (Alaskan National Wildlife Reserve) or not drilling for oil in ANWR, then you have a spiritual problem. We live in the devil’s world and we will never be able to fix the devil’s world. This does not mean that we completely ignore the environment nor does it mean that we devote most of our lives to saving the environment. Usually, there is a reasonable balance which needs to be established. I believe that we ought to use our own resources or be ready to use them (shale oil in Colorado or oil and natural gas from ANWR and offshore drilling), but if this does not occur during my lifetime, I am not going to stress over it.


1Chronicles 17:1d = 2Samuel 7:2c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾărôwn (אֲרוֹן) [pronounced uh-ROHN]

ark, chest; Ark

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #727 BDB #75

berîyth (בְּרִית) [pronounced bereeth]

covenant, pact, alliance, treaty, alliance; contract

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #1285 BDB #136

2Sam. 7 lacks the word covenant.

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

2Sam. 7:2 has instead:

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

gods, foreign gods, god; God; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong's #430 BDB #43

tachath (תַּחַת) [pronounced TAH-khahth]

underneath, below, under, beneath; instead of, in lieu of; in the place [in which one stands]; in exchange for; on the basis of

preposition of location or foundation

Strong’s #8478 BDB #1065

tachath is not found in 2Sam. 7:2. They have, instead:

yâshab (יָשַב) [pronounced yaw-SHAHBV]

inhabiting, staying, remaining, dwelling, sitting

Qal active participle

Strong's #3427 BDB #442

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

tâveke (תָוֶך׃) [pronounced taw-VEKE]

midst, among, middle

masculine singular construct

Strong's #8432 BDB #1063

With the bêyth preposition, tâveke can mean in the middle of, in the midst of; into, among. With the 2nd person masculine plural suffix, it can mean in your midst, among you. with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix, it can mean in their midst, among them.

yerîy‛âh (יְרִיעָה) [pronounced yeree-ĢAWH

the curtain of a tent, most often found as the curtains of the tabernacle; a veil, tarp, drapery; a metonym for tent

feminine plural noun

Strong’s #3407 BDB #438

There is a definite article in 2Sam. 7:2.


Translation: ...but the Ark of the Covenant of Yehowah [stays] underneath curtains.” What appears to be the order of things is, (1) David attacks and takes control of Jerusalem; (2) Hiram builds a palace of cedar for David; (3) David brings the Ark of God into Jerusalem, into the city walls, and deposits it in a tent (but not the Tent of God); and now (4) David is considering this situation. He is in a palace of cedar and God’s Ark is essentially outdoors in a tent. To David, this just does not make sense. The Ark of God is far more important to Israel than David is.


That the Ark has been kept in a tent is found in Ex. 40:19–21 2Sam. 6:17 1Chron. 15:1 16:1 17:5 2Chron. 1:4.


If David lives in a house of cedar and the Ark of the Covenant is underneath tent curtains, that seems like quite an inequity. The implication is, Israel is now in a permanent place, David is in a permanent palace, so it seems logical that the Ark is placed into a permanent structure rather than a tent. It did not seem right to David for him to live in this grand palace—probably the nicest home in all of Israel—and the Ark of God was in this tent.


We do not know whether this is all that David says or if Nathan understands the gist of what is being said without David going any further. This sort of thing is quite common in the Bible—to understate rather than to overstate a thing. Not a word is said about David’s exact plans. All that is presented here and in Samuel is just a short interchange between these two men. I am sure that David had more to say than, “Here I am in a house made of cedar, and the Ark of God is sitting within a tent.” I am sure that he had a vision of what he wanted to be done, which he probably explained to Nathan. However, God the Holy Spirit did not believe that to be very important, and so we do not know exactly what David’s plans were (although we can reasonably conclude that they involved building a more permanent structure for the Ark of God).


There are several things to take notice of here:

Our Takeaway from 1Chronicles 17:1

1.      David does not say, “But God is underneath curtains.” Despite all of the heathen influences around Israel, the Bible never speaks of the Ark of God as being God. Men are never urged to worship the Ark of God.

2.      Secondly, what David wants to do, or plans to do, is a lot less important than what God plans to do. Therefore, we spend a total of one verse on David’s ideas, and vv. 4–14 on what God is going to do.

3.      Thirdly, this helps us to understand why David does not reunite the Tent of Meeting with the Ark.

         a.      This would be exactly what we would expect David, a man of God to do—to fetch the Tabernacle of God and bring it to Jerusalem, and then to put the Ark inside of it (in the Holy of Holies).

         b.      However, David’s plans here are to, instead, build a permanent structure for the Ark.

         c.      God, when speaking to David through Nathan, will indicate that David’s son, Solomon (unnamed here) will build a permanent dwelling for the Ark of God.

         d.      God does not require David to, in the meantime, bring the Tent of Meeting to Jerusalem.

Most kings in David’s position would be looking to increase the size of their kingdom or to bring more wealth into the treasury. David is given some time off and he determines that the place where the Ark is kept is important to him. This is on his mind. Keeping the Ark of God in a tent when David himself lives in a great palace made of cedar just seems wrong to him.


Although some exegetes Footnote place these events near the end of Davids life, I don’t think that David lived all of this time and suddenly he realizes that he is living in a house of cedar, but the Ark of God is in a tent. As a young boy, David had been enthralled with the city of Jerusalem and its great beauty; and now David, one a boy who followed after his family’s sheep, was ruling Israel from the city of Jerusalem, living in a palace built for him by the King of Tyre. I doubt that it took David 30 or 40 years to recognize what would seem like an obvious inequity. I think that David recognized this early on in his life in Jerusalem. David was grace orientated all of his life. He did not finally become spiritually mature at the end of his life. David was a principled man who knew the Bible early on. Therefore, one of the first things to occur to him as he first sits upon his new throne in his new cedar palace is, Jehovah Elohim, the God of Israel.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


This leads us to the question:

Why Doesn’t God Require David to Bring the Ark and the Tabernacle Together?

1.      You will notice that God will not say to David, “Since Solomon will be building a permanent dwelling for My Ark, in the meantime, you need to go fetch the Tabernacle and bring it to Jerusalem [or take the Ark to where the Tabernacle is].”

2.      David, as a type of Christ, will be emphasized, over the next 40 years.

3.      The Ark is never spoken of as being God, even though this is how heathen saw their own religious artifacts. But the Ark was a type of Christ.

4.      Although God will not say this specifically, David will be seen as a type of Christ, as will his son Solomon.

5.      David represents Christ in His 1st and 2nd Advents. He is a type of Christ. Jesus will return and slaughter the unbelieving heathen who have descended upon Jerusalem to war.

6.      Solomon will represent Jesus in His Millennial reign.

7.      For most of the history of Israel, the Ark, which is a type of Christ, will be hidden. It is kept within the Holy of Holies inside of the Tabernacle. However, for one generation, the children of Israel will behold our Lord.

8.      Therefore, the emphasis during the time of David is David himself, right in front of his people, just as Jesus will be right in front of His people.

9.      Therefore, Israel is to focus upon their king, the king whom they see, rather than upon the Ark of God.

When David goes awry in his actions, this is why God dealt with him so harshly. When you are out in front of people and you represent Jesus Christ, you can also reflect poorly upon Him. How many times have you heard people decrying Christians as hypocrites? I have a cousin who, every time some man of God would fall, he would immediately email the web article about it. It was important to him to let me know what a bunch of hypocrites Christians were. This, quite obviously, gave me the opportunity to make the gospel clear, and to explain why the behavior of this or that believer was not my concern; however, this guy has always been quite hard-hearted.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Finally, even though David has this in mind and God will say no, David found grace in God’s sight for thinking of this without God having to prompt him. So it was until the days of David, who found favor in the sight of God and asked to find a dwelling place for the God of Jacob. But it was Solomon who built a house for him (Acts 7:45b–47).


Application: It would be fantastic for me to be able to put on the internet a complete doctrinally correct, exegetical study of the Old Testament, and even better if I could do so with the New as well. However, I realize that, because of my sin nature and the amount of time which I have remaining in my own human life, that is unlikely. Every day which God gives me to study His Word and to explain it as best that I can, is a blessing. However, this project will continue after I have passed away—not because I have someone lined up to take my place, but God does. Just as David began to restore Israel’s spiritual life by bringing the Ark into Jerusalem, Solomon will complete this project by building a Temple in Jerusalem. Many of us have the opportunity to understand what our spiritual gift is and what we are able to do with it, and many of us will begin a project which we know we will not finish. A missionary may speak to a few hundred people; a pastor might have a congregation which is limited in size—he may be accurately teaching 20 or 30 believers, while hearing about mega-churches which add that many believers each Sunday. Life is simple. You keep growing in grace and in the knowledge of God’s Word; you stay in fellowship is often as possible, and you do what God puts before you. This may include a grand project which you know that you will not complete in your lifetime. This is nothing to despair about.


Application: This ought ot be applied to your own temporal life as well. You may have a dream house or this dream existence or this ideal salary or retirement or position which you believe in your next step (or your eventual step). You may or may not reach whatever goals you have set. As long as it does not interfere with your spiritual life, it is good to have goals and it is good to look ahead in life. However, bear in mind, God is going to throw you a curve ball now and again. A lot of things have happened to me over the past 50+ years. The city that I live in, the house that I live in, my present-day vocation, the amount of time that God has given me to write—these are things which I would have never foreseen or predicted. A year before each of these things occurred, I had not the slightest clue that they would. What God has placed before me, from time to time, was difficult and disconcerting; and, at other times, unbelievably wonderful. All of it, as He promises, has worked together for good.


And so says Nathan unto David, “All which [is] in your heart, do, for Elohim [is] with you.”

1Chronicles

7:2

Then Nathan said to David, “Do all that [is] in your heart, for Elohim [is] with you.”

Then Nathan said to David, “Do all that is in your heart, for God is with you.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so says Nathan unto David, “All which [is] in your heart, do, for Elohim [is] with you.”

Septuagint (Greek)                And Nathan said to David, “Do all that is in your heart; for God is with you.”

 

Significant differences:           None.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       Nathan replied, "The LORD is with you--do what you want."

Easy-to-Read Version            Nathan answered David, “You may do what you want to do. God is with you.”

The Message                         Nathan told David, "Whatever is on your heart, go and do it; God is with you."

New Century Version             Nathan said to David, "Do what you want to do, because God is with you."

Revised English Bible            Nathan answered, ‘Do whatever you have in mind, for God is with you.’

Today’s NIV                          Nathan replied to David, "Whatever you have in mind, do it, for God is with you."


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And Nathan said to David, Do whatever is in your heart, for God is with you.

God’s Word                         Nathan told David, "Do everything you have in mind, because God is with you."

NET Bible®                             Nathan said to David, "You should do whatever you have in mind,5 for God is with you."


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    ...and Nathan said unto David, `All that [is] in your heart do, for Elohim [is] with you....

WEB                                      Nathan said to David, Do all that is in your heart; for God is with you.

Young’s Updated LT             And Nathan says unto David, “All that is in your heart, do, for God is with you.”


What is the gist of this verse? Nathan sees no problem with David’s idea (which is apparently to build a permanent place of worship which would contain the Ark); and he tells David to go ahead with it.


1Chronicles 17:2a = 2Samuel 7:3a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

Nâthân (נָתָן) [pronounced naw-THAWN]

given; one who is given; transliterated Nathan

masculine singular, proper noun

Strong’s #5416 BDB #681

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced el]

unto, in, into, toward, to, regarding, against

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

Again, we have David’s name here in Chronicles and the king in 2Samuel.

meleke (מֶלֶך׃) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

the whole, all, the entirety, every

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

Together, kôl ʾăsher mean all whom, all that [which]; whomever, all whose, all where, wherever.

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

lêbab (לֵבַב) [pronounced lay-BAHBV]

mind, inner man, inner being, heart

masculine singular noun with a 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #3824 BDB #523

There are two imperatives found in 2Sam. 7; one found here in 1Chron. 17.

hâlake (הָלַךְ) [pronounced haw-LAHKe]

go, come, depart, walk; advance

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperative

Strong’s #1980 (and #3212) BDB #229

ʿâsâh (עָשָֹה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWH]

to do, to make, to construct, to fashion, to form, to prepare, to manufacture

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperative

Strong's #6213 BDB #793


Translation: Then Nathan said to David, “Do all that [is] in your heart,... Nathan listened to what David was saying, and considered it, and it made sense to him. So he gives David the go-ahead.


1Chronicles 17:2b = 2Samuel 7:3b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, because; that; when

explanatory conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

gods, foreign gods, god; God; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong's #430 BDB #43

Interestingly enough, 2Sam. 7 has Yehowah here, and 1Chron. 17 has Elohim; but this is the exact opposite from 1Chron. 17:1d.

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

ʿîm (עִם) [pronounced ģeem]

with, at, by, near; like; from

preposition of nearness and vicinity with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5973 BDB #767


Translation: ...for Elohim [is] with you.” I suspect that the difference in the quotation, is, one of those who copied these words, either in Samuel or Chronicles, switched Yehowah and Elohim, and the slight difference between these two passages is the result.


Nathan certainly considered what David had to say, and, since there was no evidence ot the contrary, decided that what David was suggesting made perfect sense to him. Nathan must have simply assumed that God would go along with this idea of David’s.


Application: Just because someone uses holy language; and just because they are spiritually mature and use holy language, does not mean that they are always right. On a whole other topic, when I was new to buying houses, I sometimes listened to my tenants when they gave me their expert opinion about this or that. After a few years, I realized that they often did not have a clue, but what they said simply sounded very convincing.


This is certainly what Nathan had to say. However, he was wrong. Believers are fallible; believers can be wrong, even great ones. When it comes to prophetic utterances, Nathan was 100% right. However, sometimes, when it comes to what David ought to do, Nathan here is wrong. He is giving it his best shot, and he cannot think why God would oppose such an idea, so he not only gives David the go-ahead, but assures him that God is with him on this project.


Application: You are uniquely designed to run your own life. People who go in for counseling and guidance are often trying to shortcut spiritual growth. They are in a jam or they have painted themselves into a corner, and they want to know how to get out of it. With doctrine, you are going to have an idea as to what you ought to do. In my own life, I have had surprisingly little trouble when it came to figuring out what I ought to do. This does not mean that I have always done the right thing—far from it—but rarely have I, in real life, been stumped with a decision.


Application: I am not faulting David here for seeking guidance. He is going to do something which is not found in the Law. He has carefully read through the Scriptures (in order to figure out how to properly move the Ark), and building a permanent structure for the Ark of God is not found among God’s directives. So David does the most sensible thing that he can—he calls upon Nathan the prophet for his input. We may pray before a difficult decision; we may consult with family members; we may consult with people who seem spiritually mature; however, we will need to make this decision ourselves. David here has what seems to be an advantage—Nathan the prophet can actually communicate with God, so he can determine without a doubt what is the right thing to do. However, God has given us the complete Word of God, something which David and Nathan did not have. God gave us God the Holy Spirit, which David and Nathan could lose. God gave us all of the spiritual assets which Jesus Christ Himself possessed in His humanity. It was His humanity which was tested and it was His humanity which endured the cross. What I am saying is, do not be jealous of David because he could go to Nathan the prophet in order to figure out what to do. God has given every believer in the Church Age all of the spiritual assets necessary to make every decision in life and to face very difficulty in life. And He has promised us that He will not test us beyond what we are able to bear.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


The Davidic Covenant

2Samuel 7:4–17


And so he is in the night the that and so is a Word of Elohim unto Nathan, to say,...

1Chronicles

17:3

And it is in that night that the Word of Elohim comes [lit., is] to Nathan, saying,...

But the Word of God came to Nathan that night, saying,...


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so he is in the night the that and so is a Word of Elohim unto Nathan, to say,...

Septuagint (Greek)                And it came to pass in that night, that a Word of the Lord came to Nathan, [saying],...

 

Significant differences:           None.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       That night, the LORD told Nathan...

Good News Bible (TEV)         But that night God said to Nathan,...

New American Bible              But that same night the word of God came to Nathan:...


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             But that same night, the word of God came to Nathan, saying,...

HCSB                                     But that night the word of God came to Nathan:...

NET Bible®                             That night God told Nathan the prophet,...


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And it comes to pass on that night that a word of Elohim is unto Nathan, saying,...

A Conservative Version         And it came to pass the same night, that the word of God came to Nathan, saying,...

MKJV                                     And it happened the same night the Word of God came to Nathan, saying,...

Young’s Updated LT             And it comes to pass on that night that a Word of God is unto Nathan, saying,...


What is the gist of this verse? Nathan goes home, and God speaks to him that night.


1Chronicles 17:3 = 2Samuel 7:4

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

layelâh (לַיְלָה) [pronounced LAY-law]

night; that night, this night, the night

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3915 BDB #538

hûwʾ (הוּא) [pronounced hoo]

that, this

masculine singular, demonstrative pronoun; with the definite article

Strong’s #1931 BDB #214

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

dâbâr (דָּבָר) [pronounced dawb-VAWR]

word, saying, doctrine, thing, matter, command

masculine singular construct

Strong's #1697 BDB #182

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

gods, foreign gods, god; God; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun

Strong's #430 BDB #43

Again, Yehowah and Elohim are switched in the Samuel and Chronicles texts.

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced el]

unto, in, into, toward, to, regarding, against

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

Nâthân (נָתָן) [pronounced naw-THAWN]

given; one who is given; transliterated Nathan

masculine singular, proper noun

Strong’s #5416 BDB #681

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #559 BDB #55


Translation: And it is in that night that the Word of Elohim comes [lit., is] to Nathan, saying,... Although Nathan figured that he had given David good advice, God did not see things that way. So, God contacts Nathan.


As in the Samuel text, we do not know whether God came to Nathan in a dream or in that state of mind that we are in right before waking up or before going to sleep. We know that we are not asleep yet, but our conscious mind seems not to be fully conscious.


In fact, given this particular unknown, it is important to note that God the Holy Spirit is particularly vague when it comes to God’s exact methods of contact with men in the Old Testament. There are times when these are clear (when God appears as the Angel of the Lord to this or that believer); but most of the time, exactly what Nathan experiences and how this all transpires, is not told to us. One of the most explicit descriptions is Num. 12:6: And He said, “Hear now My words. If there is a prophet among you, I Jehovah will make Myself known to him in a vision, and will speak to him in a dream.” Even this is quite vague in terms of mechanics. Similarly, when it comes to determining God’s will with His ephod or through casting lots, this information is also not revealed directly to us. Why is this? Do you see how goofy people have gotten with the gift of tongues (no longer extant)? God does not want us to get more weird with more details like direct contact with Him. Our contact with God is through His Word made real to us by God the Holy Spirit.


“Go and say unto David My servant, ‘Thus said Yehowah, Not you [even] you build for Me the house to dwell;...

1Chronicles

17:4

“Go and say to David, My servant, ‘Thus says Yehowah, You [even] you will not build a house for Me to dwell [in];...

“Go and say to David, My servant, ‘Thus says the Lord, You, even you, will not build the temple for Me to dwell in;...


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        “Go and say unto David My servant, ‘Thus said Yehowah, Not you [even] you build for Me the house to dwell;...

Septuagint (Greek)                “Go and say to David My servant, Thus said the Lord, You will not build Me a house for Me to dwell in it.

 

Significant differences:           There is an additional reference for Me in the Greek text.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       ...to go to David and tell him: David, you are my servant, so listen carefully: You are not the one to build a temple for me.

Easy-to-Read Version            God said, “Go and tell these things to my servant David: The Lord says, ‘David, you are not the person to build a house for me to live in.

Good News Bible (TEV)         “Go and tell my servant David that I say to him, 'You are not the one to build a temple for me to live in.

The Message                         “Go and tell my servant David, This is GOD's word on the matter: You will not build me a 'house' to live in.

New Jerusalem Bible             ‘Go and tell my servant David, "Yahweh says this: You must not build a temple for me to live in.

New Life Bible                        "Go and tell My servant David, 'This is what the Lord says. "You will not build a house for Me to live in.

New Living Translation           "Go and tell my servant David, `This is what the Lord has declared: You are not the one to build a house for me to live in.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             Go and say to David my servant, The Lord says, You are not to make me a house for my living-place:...

Complete Apostles’ Bible      Go and say to David My servant, Thus says the Lord: You shall not build Me a house to dwell in..

God’s Word                         “Say to David, my servant, 'This is what the LORD says: You must not build this house for me to live in.

HCSB                                     “Go to David My servant and say, 'This is what the LORD says: You are not the one to build Me a house to dwell in..

NET Bible®                             “Go, tell my servant David: 'This is what the LORD says: "You must not build me a house in which to live..


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

English Standard Version      “Go and tell my servant David, 'Thus says the LORD: It is not you who will build me a house to dwell in.

Young’s Updated LT             “Go, and You have said unto David My servant, Thus said Jehovah, You will not build for Me the house to dwell in;...


What is the gist of this verse? God tells Nathan, “Go back and tell David, you are not going to build a house for Me to dwell in.” .


1Chronicles 17:4a = 2Samuel 7:5a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

hâlake (הָלַךְ) [pronounced haw-LAHKe]

go, come, depart, walk; advance

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperative

Strong’s #1980 (and #3212) BDB #229

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

2nd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced el]

unto, in, into, toward, to, regarding, against

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

ʿebed (עֶבֶד) [pronounced ĢEB-ved]

slave, servant

masculine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #5650 BDB #713

The Samuel text has unto My servant, unto David instead.

In the Samuel text, 4 early printed Hebrew editions, the Latin, Greek and Syriac all leave out the extra unto (which is probably the better reading). Footnote I am assuming that my servant and David are still transposed.


Translation: “Go and say to David, My servant,... One of the fascinating things here is, God does not go to David and tell him, “You’ve got it all wrong, David; you are not going to build this house for Me.” God goes to Nathan instead. God has set up a hierarchy of authority, and we are expected to adhere to that chain of command.


Let me give you a modern-day example: if the President of the United States, arguably the most powerful person on this planet, places himself into a church or under a particular pastor, then the president is submitting himself to the authority of that pastor. This is perhaps why even our good presidents have had difficulties in enacting consistently divine establishment laws and policies—because they are unaware of the proper line of authority. Or, they are arrogant, and refuse to acknowledge that authority. Or, more obviously (but off topic), they are listening to a pastor who knows little or nothing.


Application: There are men in various doctrinal congregations who make a great deal of money; some might be able to buy and sell every other person in the congregation. However, they are to be under the authority of the authority of the pastor of that church.


Application: There are men of great wealth who attempt to buy the pastor or expect to have a greater say in the way things are run because they give the church considerably more money than anyone else. When a pastor realizes this is what is being done, the pastor needs to give back the money and tell the individual to get the hell out of his office. A pastor ought not to compromise his principles here in any way.


Application: I hope that it is obvious that the pastor of a church does not lay down the law to specific individuals, either by calling on them personally or by the way they teach a passage (“And if God has blessed you with great material blessings, more than anyone else, then you need to give to the church”). The pastor, mindful of his authority, should still teach the Word of God, as if there is no particular distinction between his congregants. A pastor may have the ear of the president, but the pastor does not make public policy. The pastor teaches the Word of God and the imprinted Word of God of the soul of the leader makes national (or local) decisions.


Application: God has given everyone a soul and He has implanted a set of thinking and reasoning processes in that soul as well as volition. There is little good accomplished if a pastor or if a congregation manages to bully anyone (a leader or just any congregant) into this or that direction. It is not up to the pastor to hook up some electrodes to you and to fire them off when he knows you are sinning. Undue coercion is not a part of the Christian life. There are the normal social and legal pressures; and there is the teaching of the Word of God. However, given that, the believer is on his own to make his own decisions.


In other words, God has a specific chain of command, but in that chain of command is our own volition. It is the choices which we make from our own free will which impacts the Angelic Conflict. God lays it on the line to Nathan and Nathan lays it on the line to David. However, David will do what he chooses to do. From his own volition, David will decide whether to obey God’s Word or not (in this case, of course, he will obey God’s Word).


1Chronicles 17:4b = 2Samuel 7:5b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kôh (כֹּה) [pronounced koh]

so, thus, here, hence

adverb

Strong’s #3541 BDB #462

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217


Translation: ...‘Thus says Yehowah,... God makes it clear to Nathan, who will then make it clear to David, that this Word comes from God. God is making this specific pronouncement. It will also be clear in this chapter that David accepts what Nathan says as coming from God.


1Chronicles 17:4c = 2Samuel 7:5c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

The Samuel text has, instead:

hă (הֲ) [pronounced heh]

interrogative particle which acts almost like a piece of punctuation, like the upside-down question mark which begins a Spanish sentence. The verb to be may be implied.

Strong’s #none BDB #209

Before an imperative or before a mandate, hă acts as a negative.

ʾattâh (אַתָּה) [pronounced aht-TAW]

you (often, the verb to be is implied)

2nd person masculine singular, personal pronoun

Strong’s #859 BDB #61

bânâh (בָּנָה) [pronounced baw-NAWH]

to build, to rebuild, to restore

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #1129 BDB #124

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 1st person singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

bayith (בַּיִת) [pronounced BAH-yith]

house, residence; household, habitation as well as inward

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #1004 BDB #108

House lacks the definite article in Samuel.

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

yâshab (יָשַב) [pronounced yaw-SHAHBV]

to remain, to stay; to dwell, to live, to inhabit; to sit

Qal infinitive construct, pausal form

Strong's #3427 BDB #442

The Samuel text affixes a 1st person singular suffix to the construct.


Translation: ...You [even] you will not build a house for Me to dwell [in];... God uses the 2nd person masculine singular pronoun here to emphatically tell David that he would not build a house for God. God is not saying, “No house for Me will ever be built.” This emphatic use of the pronoun means the negation is being specifically applied to David.


There is an interesting limitation which David seems to place himself under—David never conflates the Ark of God with God; he never deifies the Ark in any way. However, God speaks of Himself as dwelling within a tent. God is not the Ark nor is God in the Ark; but God chooses to, in some way, confine Himself to being within the Tent where the Ark is. The 2nd member of the Godhead, Jehovah Elohim, appears to be able to limit Himself to be manifest in one place at a time. In our context, this is in the Tent of God, although we have many specific manifestations throughout the Old Testament (the burning bush, the cloud over Israel, etc.). In the Dispensation of the Hypostatic Union, Jesus Christ is God, manifested in one place at one time.


As we go through these words of God, it will be plain that God is not simply dismissing out of hand David’s idea of a permanent dwelling place for the Ark. However, God has a time and place for everything. This must conform to God’s plan. Solomon building a Temple will conform to His plan; David building a Temple does not. As God has said, “For My thoughts are not your thoughts, nor your ways My ways, says Jehovah. For as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are My ways higher than your ways, and My thoughts than your thoughts.” (Isa. 55:8–9).


For the most part, I have not taken any of the text of 2Sam. 7 and placed it into my commentary of 1Chron. 17. However, just in case you have not gone through the study of 2Sam. 7, this following set of points is very important and is taken directly from my exegetical study of 2Sam. 7.

Why Doesn’t God Allow David to Build a Temple for Him?

1.      The overarching principle is this: David foreshadows Jesus in His 1st and 2nd Advents (never clearly separated in the Old Testament) and his son Solomon will foreshadow our Lord’s Millennial reign.

2.      David was a man of bloodshed and war (1Kings 5:3 1Chron. 22:7–8 28:3) whereas his son, Solomon, was a man of peace. In this way, David more aptly represented our Lord in His 2nd Advent, when He will return and wipe out hundreds of thousands of warriors who are converging upon Israel (Rev. 14:20 describes the blood as being as high as the horse’s bridle).

         a.      Now, one might object at this point and say, this means that David is a man of war, so he is not worthy of building a Temple for God; Solomon was a man of peace, so he will build God’s Temple. That idea is completely and totally wrong.

         b.      First of all, the wars which David fought were battles of the Lord (1Sam. 25:28). David did not have the option of making nice with Israel’s enemies in order to keep from going to war. In most cases, foreign countries were the aggressors (2Sam. 5:17–25). In other words, David going to war is within God’s plan. It is what he was required to do. David, had he attempted to make peace at any price, would have put his people into slavery. Solomon was a man of peace because David was a man of war. Solomon and Israel lived in great peace and prosperity because David killed their enemies on the battlefield. Again and again, the Bible looks back on David with greater affection and admiration than upon Solomon. So, Solomon is not somehow superior to David and therefore, the better man to build the Temple.

         c.      Solomon will enjoy peace for two reasons: (1) David soundly defeated the enemies of Israel and (2) God wanted Solomon to foreshadow our Lord’s Millennial reign. There is nothing to suggest that Solomon was able to negociate peace where David could not.

         d.      David was clearly closer to God than was Solomon, although both men contributed a great deal of Scripture (David wrote many of the psalms; Solomon wrote Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and the Song of Solomon). David suffered some significant personal failings in his life; Solomon spent much of his time pursuing human viewpoint, unhindered by financial constraints (the book of Ecclesiastes).

         e.      Keil and Delitzsch write: But inasmuch as these wars were necessary and inevitable, they were practical proofs that David's kingdom and government were not yet established, and therefore that the time for the building of the temple had not yet come, and the rest of peace was not yet secured. The temple, as the symbolical representation of the kingdom of God, as also to correspond to the nature of that kingdom, and shadow forth the peace of the kingdom of God. For this reason, David, the man of war, was not to build the temple; but that was to be reserved for Solomon, the man of peace, the type of the Prince of Peace (Isa. 9:5). Again, the primary point is, Solomon was a picture of Jesus Christ ruling over the earth in the Millennium.

3.      David needed to focus on national security (1Kings 5:3–4).

4.      Although, from a human standpoint, Solomon was probably better suited to oversee the building of the Temple more than David, David certainly had access to men who were able to build great structures (Hiram, King of Tyre, for instance, who built David’s palace).

5.      David was allowed to begin stockpiling materials that Solomon would use to build the Temple (1Chron. 22:2–19). Just as God sets the foundation for all the would occur in Christ, so David lays a foundation for Solomon.

One of these passages really requires us to take a second look at it: 1Kings 5:2–3: Solomon sent this message to Hiram: "You know my father David was not able to build a temple for the name of the LORD his God. This was because of the warfare all around him until the LORD put his enemies under his feet.” Where have you heard this line before? Psalm 110:1: The LORD declared to my Lord: "Sit at My right hand until I make Your enemies Your footstool." God the Father said to God the Son, “Sit at My right hand while I make Your enemies Your footstool.” I told you how David represents our Lord in His 1st and 2nd Advents, and it is over this period of time when God the Father makes the enemies of God the Son His footstool. These are angelic enemies and human enemies. David’s destruction of Israel’s enemies parallels and foreshadows this, just as David is a shadow–figure (a type) of Jesus Christ. The writer of Hebrews will quote this passage twice (Heb. 1:10 10:13), clearly referring to God the Son. But this Man [Christ Jesus], after offering one sacrifice for sins forever, sat down at the right hand of God. He is now waiting until His enemies are made His footstool (Heb. 10:12–13). Peter also quotes this in Acts 2:34–35 in his first evangelistic sermon on the Day of Pentecost. In fact, we find this in 3 of the gospels and quoted twice by Paul (Matt. 22:42–45 Mark 12:36 Luke 20:42–43 1Cor. 15:25 Eph. 1:22).

God will place all of His enemies under the feet of Jesus (under His control) at the end of the 2nd Advent. Jesus will kill millions of people who have not believed in Him and who have attacked Israel. Similarly, God will put all of Israel’s enemies under David’s feet—he will be a man of war and he will wipe out Israel’s enemies.

After David, Solomon will rule over Israel, a peaceful kingdom. After the 2nd Advent, our Lord will rule over Israel, a peaceful kingdom, for His Millennial reign. Because of this parallel, God applies these words both to David in 1Kings 5:2–3 and also applies these same words to Jesus Christ at the end of he 2nd Advent.

Some of these reasons came from The Complete Word Study Old Testament; Dr. S. Zodhiates; ©1994 AMG Publishers; p. 824 (footnote). The Keil and Delitzsch quote is from Keil and Delitzsch, Commentary on the Old Testament; from e-Sword; 2Sam. 7:8–11.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


...for not I have lived in a house from the day which I brought up Israel as far as the day the this. And so, I am from tent unto tent and from a dwelling place.

1Chronicles

17:5

...for I have not lived in a house from the day that I brought Israel up to this day. I am from tent to tent and from a dwelling place [to another dwelling place].

.for I have not lived in a house from the day that I brought Israel up out of Egypt even to this day. I have moved from tent to tent, and from one dwelling place to another.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          For I have not remained in a house from the time that I brought up Israel, to this day: but I have been always changing places in a tabernacle, and in a tent,

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        ...for not I have lived in a house from the day which I brought up Israel as far as the day the this. And so, I am from tent unto tent and from a dwelling place.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    For I have not dwelt in a house since the day that I brought up Israel out of Egypt to this day; but I moved from tent to tent.

Septuagint (Greek)                For I have not dwelt in a house from the day that I brought up Israel until this day, but I have been in a tabernacle and a tent,...

 

Significant differences:           At the end of this verse, the Greek text is closer to the Hebrew text of 2Samuel than it is to the Hebrew text of 1Chronicles. The Syriac text matches the Hebrew almost exactly, with the exception of the final few words, which are not found in the Peshitta (at least, not in my English translation of the Peshitta); nor are they found in the Latin. Like most differences, even though these are pronounced, they do not change the meaning of the verse itself.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       I didn't live in a temple when I brought my people out of Egypt, and I don't live in one now. A tent has always been my home wherever I have gone with them.

The Message                         Why, I haven't lived in a 'house' from the time I brought up the children of Israel from Egypt till now; I've gone from one tent and makeshift shelter to another.

New American Bible              For I have never dwelt in a house, from the time when I led Israel onward, even to this day, but I have been lodging in tent or pavilion...

New Century Version             From the time I brought Israel out of Egypt until now I have not lived in a house. I have moved from one tent site to another and from one place to another.

NIRV                                      I have not lived in a house from the day I brought Israel up out of Egypt until now. I have moved my tent from one place to another. I have moved my home from one place to another.

New Jerusalem Bible             I have never lived in a house from the day when I brought Israel out until today, but have kept travelling from tent to tent and from shelter to shelter.

New Living Translation           I have never lived in a house, from the day I brought the Israelites out of Egypt until this very day. My home has always been a tent, moving from one place to another in a Tabernacle..

Revised English Bible            Down to this day I have never dwelt in a house since I brought Israel up from Egypt, I lived in a tent and a tabernacle.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             For from the day when I took Israel up, till this day, I have had no house, but have gone from tent to tent, and from living-place to living-place.

Complete Apostles’ Bible      For I have not dwelt in a house from the day that I brought up Israel until this day, but I have been in a tabernacle and a tent,...

God’s Word                         I haven't lived in a house from the day I brought Israel out of Egypt to this day, but I've gone from tent site to tent site, moving the tent of meeting from one location to another.

HCSB                                     From the time I brought Israel out of Egypt until today I have not lived in a house; instead, I have moved from tent to tent and from tabernacle to tabernacle.

JPS (Tanakh)                         From the day that I brought out Israel to this day, I have not dwelt in a house, but have [gone] from tent to ten and from one Tabernacle [to another].

NET Bible®                             For I have not lived in a house from the time I brought Israel up from Egypt to the present day. I have lived in a tent that has been in various places.

NIV – UK                                I have not dwelt in a house from the day I brought Israel up out of Egypt to this day. I have moved from one tent site to another, from one dwelling-place to another.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

English Standard Version      For I have not lived in a house since the day I brought up Israel to this day, but I have gone from tent to tent and from dwelling to dwelling.

LTHB                                     ‘’‘for I have not dwelt in a house from the day that I brought Israel up until this day, but I have gone from tent to tent, and from one tabernacle to another.

Young’s Updated LT             ...for I have not dwelt in a house from the day that I brought up Israel till this day, and I am from tent unto tent: and from the tabernacle.


What is the gist of this verse? God has not lived in any sort of a house from the day that He brought Israel up out the Egypt until the day that this is said.


1Chronicles 17:5a = 2Samuel 7:6a–b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, because; that; when

explanatory conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

yâshab (יָשַב) [pronounced yaw-SHAHBV]

to remain, to stay; to dwell, to live, to inhabit; to sit

1st person singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #3427 BDB #442

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

bayith (בַּיִת) [pronounced BAH-yith]

house, residence; household, habitation as well as inward

masculine singular noun

Strong's #1004 BDB #108

Samuel has the additional lâmed preposition inserted here.

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

The lâmed prefixed preposition and min together almost always form what BDB calls a terminus a quo, which means a starting point, the earliest possible date, or end from which. Footnote We can render the two together as for from, even from, from.

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article)

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

There is no definite article in the Samuel text.

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

The relative pronoun is not found in the Samuel text.

ʿâlâh (עָלָה) [pronounced ģaw-LAWH]

to cause to go up, to lead up, to take up, to bring up

1st person singular, Hiphil perfect

Strong's #5927 BDB #748

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

The Samuel text includes ...the sons of...

bên (בֵּן) [pronounced bane]

son, descendant

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

Yiserâʾêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 BDB #975

The Samuel text includes the phrase ...from Egypt...

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

Mitserayim (מִצְרַיִם) [pronounced mits-RAH-yim]

Egypt, Egyptians

proper noun

Strong’s #4714 BDB #595

The Samuel text includes the wâw conjunction below:

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʿad (עַד) [pronounced ģahd]

as far as, even to, up to, until

preposition

Strong’s #5704 BDB #723

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article)

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

zeh (זֶה) [pronounced zeh]

here, this, thus

demonstrative adjective with the definite article

Strong’s #2063, 2088, 2090 BDB #260


Translation: ...for I have not lived in a house from the day that I brought Israel up to this day. There are some textual differences from the book of Samuel, which are noted in the Hebrew exegesis. God is omnipresent, meaning that He is everywhere. However, He has chosen to concentrate His presence as the Ark of God.


This brings up the very reasonable question,...

What Does it Mean for an Omnipresent God to Concentrate His Presence?

1.      God is omnipresent, so that He is everywhere; He observes everything.

2.      God is not omnipresent in the sense of being all things; that is, God is not the ocean, the ground, the birds, etc. This is a distortion of omnipresence.

3.      Therefore, for God to be everywhere does not contradict the idea that He has concentrated His presence into one place at one time.

4.      The Ark represents Jesus Christ, Who is One Person, Who could only be in one place at one time. The Messiah was fully God and fully man. Jesus Christ did not use the attributes of His divine nature to benefit Himself, to provide for Himself, to glorify Himself, or to act independently of the plan of God for the Church-age by any compromise of the spiritual life.

5.      The Ark symbolized Jesus Christ.

         a.      It was made out of acacia wood, which represents humanity; and over lain with gold, which represents deity.

         b.      On top of the Ark was a mercy seat, where the priest, once a year, would place blood, to indicate the crucifixion of Jesus.

         c.      On both sides of the mercy seat, as a part of the Ark, were two winged cherubs, who represent the angels and the Angelic Conflict. One represents the elect angels and the other the fallen angels.

         d.      Inside of the Ark was Aaron’s rod which budded (representing resurrection); the pot of manna (representing logistical grace); and a copy of the book of the Law, which is God’s Word and a standard which we cannot meet.

6.      The Ark was to be treated as holy; set-apart from all else. God is holy and perfect; and we are in a fallen world where everything goes to dust eventually (another word occurred to me, which might be more descriptive). So the Ark was placed inside a compartment which was inside the Tabernacle of God (this place was called the Holy of Holies). Many generations of Israel never even saw the Ark. Only the High Priest went into the Holy of Holies of sprinkle blood on the mercy seat, and he only did this once a year.

7.      So, like God, the Ark was essentially unseen. People who knew the Mosaic Law knew that the Ark existed and where it was, but they had never seen it before.

8.      People who went up to the Ark and treated it as common often died as a result. 1Sam. 4–7

9.      Even men of God, who simply touched the Ark, died. 1Chron. 13

10.    This indicates that God is perfect and holy and man is not; therefore, man can have no direct contact with God.

11.    God may allow His power to be seen by His localized Presence. When God went with Israel in the desert, He was a cloud by day and a pillar of fire by night. On several occasions, God showed His great power, e.g., when He caused a river of water to burst from a rock.

12.    In these various instances, the idea is, God was presenting a type of Christ, Who would come to us in time. Jesus is fully God and fully man. Men worshiped Him, but men did not worship any of these previous manifestations which represented Him. Those things merely represented Jesus Christ, and we were never told to worship that which represented Him.

13.    All localized manifestations of God represented the Messiah to come.

The 2nd Person of the Trinity, Jehovah Elohim, appears to be the Member of the Godhead Who willingly chooses to confine Himself to one place at a time.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


The end of v. 4 and the beginning of v. 5 synch up to read: “You [even] you will not build a house for Me to dwell [in]; for I have not lived in a house from the day that I brought Israel up to this day.” Gill suggests Footnote that, prior to this, God did dwell, in some form, in some structure in Egypt. We have no record any such house of worship; however, Joseph—the son of Jacob who was prime minister of Egypt—was a devout believer in Jesus Christ. From the earliest times to the time of the Patriarchs, animal sacrifices were offered to God to represent Jesus Christ dying for our sins on the cross. There is no reason to think that this was not somehow codified during the time Israel lived within Egypt. We have many times when Abraham, Isaac and Jacob built altars to Jehovah Elohim and sacrificed various animals to Him. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume such worship occurred in Egypt. Furthermore, as prime minister of Egypt, Joseph had a great deal of authority as well as money. It is reasonable to suppose that, early on, there was an altar and a formal place in Egypt where the Jews (and other believers) went to worship God. As Gill points out, Israel...enjoyed for many years great plenty, prosperity, and liberty, before their servitude, the vast numbers they increased to and the long continuance of them in Egypt, for more than two hundred years. Would it not seem strange that they should build houses for religious worship, and even one grand and splendid for public service?  Footnote


1Chronicles 17:5b = 2Samuel 7:6c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

1st person singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

The following participle is in the Samuel text but not the Chronicles text:

hâlake (הָלַךְ) [pronounced haw-LAHKe]

properly: to go, to come, to depart, to walk; to go for oneself, to walk up and down, to go about, to walk about; to live [walk] [in truth]; to flow

Hithpael participle

Strong’s #1980 (and #3212) BDB #229

The Hithpael conveys the idea that one puts himself into the state or the action of the verb, which is an achieved state. Seow gives several uses: (1) Its primary use is reflexive—the verb describes action on or for oneself. That is, the subject of the verb is also the object of the verb. However, this does not completely convey the reflexive use, as there are examples where the verb takes on another object. These verbs are known as tolerative—the subject allows an action to affect himself or herself. (2) Reciprocal use: Occasionally, the Hithpael denotes reciprocity; that is, they worked with one another, they looked at one another. (3) The third use is known as iterative, which means that the Hithpael suggests repeated activity (he walked about, he walked to and fro, and turned back and forth). (4) The fourth use is known as estimative: the verb indicates how one shows himself or regards himself, whether in truth or by pretense (he pretended to be sick, they professed to be Jews). Footnote (5) The Hithpael can also be used in a passive rather than in a reflexive sense (see Gen. 22:18). Footnote The Hithpael is intensive (and sometimes seen as an accomplished state) and it is something that one does to oneself.

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʾohel (אֹהֶל) [pronounced OH-hel]

tent, tabernacle, house, temporary dwelling

masculine singular noun

Strong's #168 BDB #13

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced el]

unto, in, into, toward, to, regarding, against

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

ʾohel (אֹהֶל) [pronounced OH-hel]

tent, tabernacle, house, temporary dwelling

masculine singular noun

Strong's #168 BDB #13

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

The Samuel text has the bêyth preposition instead, as it is more in line with the verb found in Samuel but not in Chronicles.

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

mîshekân (מִשְכָן) [pronounced mishe-KAWN]

residence, dwelling place, tabernacle, portable sanctuary, tent, abode; semi-permanent structure, semi-permanent tent, temporary dwelling place

masculine singular noun, pausal form

Strong's #4908 BDB #1015

This is the word translated tabernacle throughout the end of Exodus. This is the word used more often for the tabernacle of God, as well as for temporary dwelling place (2Chron. 29:6 Job 18:21 Jer. 9:19), as found in Ex. 26, 36, 40 Num. 1, 3, 9 (yet, interestingly enough, rarely in Leviticus). the two words occur together in Ex. 40:2 Num. 3:25. The latter word seems to be more of a permanent structure, yet still based on the concept of a tent. It is less than a house, but more than a tent. Semi-permanent structure, semi-permanent tent, temporary dwelling place all give a sense as to the meaning of mîshekân. It is a tent, nonetheless and can be taken up and pitched again (Num. 1:51). This appears to be a semi-permanent structure, like our modern day trailer home in function. You will note that Keil and Delitzsch render this pavilion. This threw me for a bit, so I looked it up. The first definition, a light, usually open building used for shelter, concerts, exhibits, etc. is what I thought of. However, one of the secondary meanings of this word is a large and elaborate tent. This is how we should understand this word. Keil and Delitzsch add: Even in the present day, a Beduin, as he approaches an encampment, knows the tent of the sheikh immediately; it is denoted by its size, often also by the lances planted at the door, and also, as is easily imagined, by the rich arrangement of cushions and carpets. Footnote

The NET Bible gives this translation and comment: For I have not lived in a house from the time I brought Israel up from Egypt [The words "from Egypt" are supplied in the translation for clarification] to the present day. I have lived in a tent that has been in various places [Hebrew "and I was from tent to tent and from tabernacle." The words "to tabernacle" should probably be added at the end of the sentence to complete this prepositional phrase and produce symmetry with the preceding prepositional phrase. The words probably fell from the text by homoioteleuton.].


Translation: I am from tent to tent and from a dwelling place [to another dwelling place]. Here we have an example of ellipsis, where the additional text seems to make perfect sense, and the verse appears to be lacking without it. However, we do not find these final few words in the Masoretic text. The Greek, Latin and Syriac texts all appear to be even more abbreviated. However, the general understanding that God went from tent to tent is maintained in all of the ancients texts.


I will make the assumption that God the Son moved with the Ark rather than with the Tabernacle.

Domiciles Occupied by the Lord

Tent

Commentary

The Tabernacle

Apparently, right next to Mount Sinai or not far from Mount Sinai, the people of Israel constructed the Tabernacle and the Ark of God. Ex. 25–31 give the detailed instructions from God to Moses to construct these things. The actual construction takes place in Ex. 35–38. The Tabernacle is erected for the first time in Ex. 40 and the Glory of the Lord fills the Tabernacle (Ex. 40:34–35). The Tabernacle appears to be where the Ark was kept, even though the Tabernacle was moved about to various cities (Gilgal, Nob, Shiloh). Footnote

No longer in the Tabernacle?

When Eli was a judge over Israel and Samuel was a young man, the Ark was taken from the Tabernacle and into battle against the Philistines. The Philistines captured the Ark. My educated guess would be that, during this time, God no longer was a presence in the Tabernacle. The wife of Phinehas the priest named her son, born at this time, Ichabod, which means the glory has departed from Israel. 1Sam. 4:19–22

The Heathen Temple of Dagon

When the Philistines captured the Ark of Israel, they brought it into their various cites and into the temple of Dagon. The figure of Dagon is first knocked over and later, after Dagon is righted, it is next found laying in front of the Ark with its head and hands cut off. For this to take place, this suggests to me that the Lord was here in this heathen temple, as opposed to being in the Tabernacle. That these things take place suggests that is where Jehovah Elohim is; and the words of the wife of Phinehas confirm this. 1Sam. 4:18–5:12

The House of Abinadab

The Ark caused the Philistines no end trouble, and they finally returned it to Israel. The Israelites, at first, treated the Ark as common, and many of them died because of it. Men of Kiriath-jearim came and got the Ark, taking it to Kiriath-jearim and the house of Abinadab. We do not know any of the details here, whether this was an actual house or whether this designation simply referred to Abinadab’s property on which the Ark was kept. However, a superficial reading of the text seems to indicate that this was actually Abinadab’s house where the Ark was kept. 1Sam. 5–7

The House of Obed-edom

David made an attempt to move the Ark, but he essentially followed the methods of the Philistines rather than the Bible, so this resulted in the death of Uzzah. David stopped the proceedings and the Ark was kept for a few weeks in the house of Obed-edom. 2Sam. 6:1–12

David’s Tent

When David brought the Ark of God into Jerusalem, he had prepared a tent in which to place the Ark. In the latter half of this chapter, David will be said to go in and sit before the Lord, which suggests that he went into this tent which he had constructed and sat before the Ark of God. 1Chron. 16:1 17:16

The Temple of Solomon

God commissions David’s son, Solomon, to build the Temple, and the Ark will be placed in the Temple, and God’s presence will be in this Temple. 1Kings 8:27

I make the obvious assumption that God was with the Ark and that the Glory of God is confined to one place at one time. This is more than an assumption, as we have the words of the wife of Phinehas and the things which occur within the heathen temple of Dagon to support this position. Furthermore, the humanity of Jesus Christ is in one place at one time—right now, He is at the right hand of God.

God is also omnipresent, and, although I have no little difficulty squaring that with the specific presence of the Revealed Member of the Trinity in one place at one time, the Bible does emphasize God’s omnipresence. The tabernacle of witness was among our fathers in the wilderness, as commanded by God, speaking to Moses to make it according to the pattern that he had seen. Which also having received it by inheritance with Joshua, our fathers, with Joshua, in taking possession of the nations whom God drove out before the face of our fathers until the days of David, who found favor with God and desired to find a tabernacle for the God of Jacob; but Solomon built Him a house. But, the Most High does not dwell in temples made with hands, as the prophet says, "Heaven is My throne and earth is My footstool. What house will you build Me, says the Lord, or what is the place of My rest? Has not My hand made all these things?" (Acts 7:44–50; Isa. 66:1–2a).

So, there is a specific presence of God, much like the humanity of Jesus Christ; and the omnipresence of God. God was never confined to the Tabernacle or to the Temple or somehow tied to the Ark. He chose to make His presence in these places, but He was never confined to them.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


It is possible that the idea is, God the Son has been within the Holy of Holies is several places throughout the Middle East (from when the Tabernacle was constructed and when it was moved from city to city; e.g., Shiloh or Gilgal or Nob). However, the Bible seems to be much more concerned with the location of the Ark, whereas, during the same time period, the Tabernacle is mentioned only incidentally. This suggests to me that God’s Presence was more consistently with the Ark rather than with the Tabernacle.


The main verb, which occurs at the beginning of this verse, means to remain, to dwell, to live. God is referring to the Ark, and the Ark has been in various places, but never in a permanent building before. God has also apparently chosen to confine Himself, as the 2nd Person of the Trinity, to this place as well.


In all where I have walked in all Israel, what word did I speak with one of [the] judges of Israel, who I commanded to shepherd My people, to say, “To why have you not built to Me a house of cedar?”?

1Chronicles

17:6

Wherever I have walked throughout all Israel, have I spoken a word with any of the governors of Israel—[those] whom I have commanded to shepherd My people—saying, “Why have you not built a house of cedar for Me?”?

At any time when I have traveled throughout all Israel, have I ever said, even one time, to any leader of Israel—to any man I have commanded to shepherd My people— “What did you not build a house of cedar for Me?”?


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        In all where I have walked in all Israel, what word did I speak with one judges of Israel, who I commanded to shepherd My people, to say, “To why have you not built to Me a house of cedar?”?

Peshitta (Syriac)                    Behold, wherever I have walked with all Israel, did I speak a word to any of the judges of Israel whom I commanded to judge my people Israel, saying, Why have you not built me a house which is covered with cedars?

Septuagint (Greek)                In all places through which I have walked with all Israel: did I ever speak to any one tribe of Israel whom I commanded to shepherd my people, saying, Why is it that you have not built me a house of cedar?

 

Significant differences:           The Greek text has singular noun tribe where the Hebrew text has judges and the Hebrew text of Samuel has the plural noun tribes. There are two possibilities: the Greek translators either had the word tribes in front of them in the Chronicles text, and they went with that or, they did some very early textual criticism, recognized how close the words tribes and judges were and opted for the Samuel text. The latter seems to be the most likely to me, as the Syriac (and the Latin) went with judges. In any case, these two words are almost identical in the Hebrew, and either word can mean leaders.

 

Interestingly enough, we find the verb to shepherd, to feed in the Hebrew text of Chronicles and Samuel, but the Syriac rendered this to judge. My guess is this was their stab at textual criticism; however, the verbs are quite different in the Hebrew (unlike the words for tribes and judges). I do not know if the final few words of the Syriac are a loose English rendering or found in the Syriac text. There is no affect upon the overall meaning.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       I chose special leaders and told them to be like shepherds for my people Israel. But did I ever say anything to even one of them about building a cedar temple for me?

Good News Bible (TEV)         In all my traveling with the people of Israel I never asked any of the leaders that I appointed why they had not built me a temple made of cedar.’

New American Bible              ...as long as I have wandered about with all of Israel. Did I ever say a word to any of the judges of Israel whom I commanded to guide my people, such as, 'Why have you not built me a house of cedar?'.

New Century Version             As I have moved with the Israelites to different places, I have never said to the leaders, whom I commanded to take care of my people, "Why haven't you built me a house of cedar?" '

NIRV                                      I have moved from place to place with all of the people of Israel. I commanded their leaders to be shepherds over them. I never asked any of those leaders, 'Why haven't you built me a house that has beautiful cedar walls?' " '

New Jerusalem Bible             In all my travels with all Israel, did I say to any of the judges of Israel, whom I had commanded to shepherd my people: Why do you not build me a cedar-wood temple?

New Living Translation           Yet no matter where I have gone with the Israelites, I have never once complained to Israel's leaders, the shepherds of my people. I have never asked them, "Why haven't you built me a beautiful cedar house?"'

Revised English Bible            Whenever I journeyed with Israel, did I ever ask any of the judges whom I appointed shepherds of my people why they had not built me a cedar house?


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             In all the places where I have gone with all Israel, did I ever say to any of the judges of Israel, whom I made the keepers of my people, Why have you not made for me a house of cedar?

JPS (Tanakh)                         As I moved about wherever Israel went, did I ever reproach any of the judges of Israel whom I appointed to care for My people Israel: Why have you not built Me a house of cedar?

NET Bible®                             Wherever I moved throughout Israel, I did not say [In the Hebrew text the statement is phrased as a rhetorical question ("Did I say?") meaning "I did not say."] to any of the leaders whom I appointed to care for my people Israel, 'Why have you not built me a house made from cedar?' " '


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Updated Emphasized Bible    Wherever I have wandered with all Israel, did I ever speak a word, with one of the judges of Israel—whom I charged to shepherd my people—saying, Why haven’t you built Me a house of cedars?

English Standard Version      In all places where I have moved with all Israel, did I speak a word with any of the judges of Israel, whom I commanded to shepherd my people, saying, "Why have you not built me a house of cedar?”

LTHB                                     Wherever I have walked up and down among all Israel, have I spoken a word with any of the judges of Israel, whom I commanded to feed My people, saying, Why have you not built a house of cedars for Me?

Young’s Updated LT             Wherever I have walked up and down among all Israel, did I speak a word with one of the judges of Israel—whom I commanded to feed My people—saying, Why have You not built for Me a house of cedars?


What is the gist of this verse? God asks David, who knows the history of Israel, if he knows of any time that God asked any national or tribal leader to build a house of cedars for the Ark of God.


1Chronicles 17:6a = 2Samuel 7:7a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

Strong’s# none BDB #88

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

all, all things, the whole, totality, the entirety, everything

masculine singular noun without the definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

In Joshua 1:7, Owen and the NASB translates these three words wherever; Young: in every [place] whither; Rotherham and the KJV: whithersoever. In 2Sam. 7:7, the NASB renders this wherever, but Owen translates it in all places. Young, in an unusual move, renders this during all [the time] that in 2Sam. 7:7. Literally, this is in all which; and wherever is a good modern rendering.

hâlake (הָלַךְ) [pronounced haw-LAHKe]

properly: to go, to come, to depart, to walk; to go for oneself, to walk up and down, to go about, to walk about; to live [walk] [in truth]; to flow

1st person singular, Hithpael perfect

Strong’s #1980 (and #3212) BDB #229

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

Strong’s# none BDB #88

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

Literally, in all. Although I don’t have this in the lexicons, it is rendered by the most literal translations as among all, through all, throughout all, with all.

The word son of is not found in the Chronicles text, but it is in the Samuel text.

bên (בֵּן) [pronounced bane]

son, descendant

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

Yiserâʾêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 BDB #975


Translation: Wherever I have walked throughout all Israel,... God has been a part of Israel throughout its history, having been formed by Him. In the Samuel text, this refers to God walking among the men of Israel; in the Chronicles text, it sounds more as if God is walking throughout the land of Israel. In any case, the emphasis is upon God’s relationship to Israel.


This verb conveys a very personal relationship with God, which, quite obviously, continues into the New Testament when our Lord walked on this earth. The Bible never portrays God as some sort of ethereal, impersonal force, but always as a personal God, who walks beside His people and throughout their land with them.


Bear in mind, in these verses below, in order for a man to walk with God, God must be also walking with that man.

God Walks with His People

Scripture

Commentary

Gen. 3:8

God walks in the garden to talk to Adam and Eve after they sinned: And they heard the voice of Jehovah God walking in the garden in the cool of the day. And Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of Jehovah God in the middle of the trees of the garden.

Gen. 5:22–24

Enoch walks with God: And Enoch walked with God three hundred years after he fathered Methuselah. And he fathered sons and daughters. And all the days of Enoch were three hundred and sixty-five years. And Enoch walked with God, and then he was not, for God took him.

Gen. 6:9b

Noah walks with God: Noah was a just man and perfect in his generations. Noah walked with God.

Gen. 17:1–3

God tells Abram to walk before Him: When Abram was ninety-nine years old, Yahweh appeared to Abram, and said to him, "I am God Almighty. Walk before me, and be blameless. I will make my covenant between me and you, and will multiply you exceedingly."

Gen. 48:15–16

Jacob blesses Joseph and his sons, and speaks of his fathers walking before God: Jacob blessed Joseph, and said, "The God before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac walked, the God who has fed me all my life long to this day, the angel who has redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads, and let my name be named on them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac. Let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth."

Lev. 26:11–12

God promises His people that He would walk among them: And I will set My tabernacle among you. And My soul shall not abhor you. And I will walk among you and will be your God, and you shall be My people. This will be the 1st Advent and the Millennium.

Deut. 2:7

Moses tells the people of Israel that God has walked with them through the desert and up to the place right outside of Israel: For Jehovah your God has blessed you in all the works of your hand. He knows your walking through this great wilderness. Jehovah your God has been with you these forty years. You have lacked nothing. Because God was there, the Jews lacked nothing. I should add that, the Jews living in the desert wilderness for 40 years, and retaining their population, is a great testimony to logistical grace.

Deut. 23:14

God continually walked with Israel, providing them great blessing: For Jehovah your God walks in the middle of your camp, to deliver you and to give up your enemies before you. Therefore your camp will be holy, so that He may see no unclean thing in you and turn away from you. Since God is among them, God expect Israel to obey His laws and statutes.

2Cor. 6:16–18

Because God walks with us, we are enjoined to be set apart to Him: And what agreement does a temple of God have with idols? For you are the temple of the living God, as God has said, "I will dwell in them and walk among them; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people." Therefore come out from among them and be separated, says the Lord, and do not touch the unclean thing. And I will receive you and I will be a Father to you, and you shall be My sons and daughters, says the Lord Almighty.

It should be pointed out that, at the very beginning, God walked with Israel. However, what was emphasized afterward was for Israel to walk in God’s laws. Deut. 9:19 26:17 28:9 30:16 Joshua 22:5 1Kings 2:3


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


1Chronicles 17:6b = 2Samuel 7:7b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

hă (הֲ) [pronounced heh]

interrogative particle which acts almost like a piece of punctuation, like the upside-down question mark which begins a Spanish sentence. The verb to be may be implied.

Strong’s #none BDB #209

dâbâr (דָּבָר) [pronounced dawb-VAWR]

word, saying, doctrine, thing, matter, command

masculine singular noun

Strong's #1697 BDB #182

dâbar (דָּבַר) [pronounced dawb-VAHR]

to speak, to talk [and back with action], to give an opinion, to expound, to make a formal speech, to speak out, to promise, to propose, to speak kindly of, to declare, to proclaim, to announce

1st person singular, Piel perfect

Strong’s #1696 BDB #180

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

with, at, near, by, among, directly from

preposition (which is identical to the sign of the direct object)

Strong's #854 BDB #85

ʾechâd (אֶחָד) [pronounced eh-KHAWD]

one, first, certain, only; but it can also mean a composite unity; possibly particular; anyone

numeral adjective construct

Strong's #259 BDB #25

shâphaţ (שָפַט) [pronounced shaw-FAHT]

those judging, the ones judging [governing]; judges, governors

masculine plural construct, Qal active participle

Strong’s #8199 BDB #1047

2Sam. 7:7 has the following word instead:

shêbeţ (שֵבֶט) [pronounced SHAYB-vet]

rod, staff, club, scepter and figuratively for a tribe, subdivision of a tribe or family and for a ruler (scepter-bearer), governor

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #7626 BDB #986

This is rod, staff, tribes, rulers in 2Sam. 7:7, and judges in 1Chron. 17:6. In the Hebrew, tribes is שבטי and judges is שפטי; the letters ב and פ are actually identical in the Hebrew, with the exception of a the apex under the upper stroke in the פ. This particular font makes these letters look much more different than they really are. Therefore, we probably have an error in the text here in Samuel. In 2Sam. 7:11, the writer will speak of the judges again, which suggests that the mistake is in the present-day Samuel text.

Keil and Delitzsch make the argument that this should be rod, staff, club; tribe. They write: if שפטי had been the original expression used in the text, it would be impossible to explain the origin and general acceptance of the word שבטי. For this very reason, therefore, we must regard שבטי as the original word, and understand it as referring to the tribes, which had supplied the nation with judges and leaders before the tie of David, since the feeding, i.e., the government of Israel, which was in the hands of the judges, was transferred to the tribes to which the judges belonged. This view is confirmed by Psalm 78:67–68, where the election of David as prince, and of Zion as the site of the sanctuary, is described as the election of the tribe of Judah and the rejection of the tribe of Ephraim. Footnote I do not follow their argument, because we find tribes used at least 100 times prior to this use, so its meaning is already well-established.

Yiserâʾêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 BDB #975


Translation: ...have I spoken a word with any of the governors of Israel—... God knows that David knows his own history. David, in order to move the Ark of God, studied the Scriptures, and learned the Law and learned about what place Israel played in the plan of God. Therefore, David knew this history, and he knew that God never spoke to any leader in Israel.


A minor point: we have a question stated inside of a question. This is the overall question or the beginning of the overall question. The overall question is rhetorical: “Have I, at any time, spoken a single word to any leader of Israel, saying...” God, obviously, had never had such a conversation before. Not one time did He say to any leader of Israel, what I need you to do is build a permanent home for My Ark.


1Chronicles 17:6c = 2Samuel 7:7c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

tsâvâh (צָוָה) [pronounced tsaw-VAW]

to commission, to mandate, to lay charge upon, to give charge to, charge, command, order

1st person singular, Piel perfect

Strong's #6680 BDB #845

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

râʿâh (רָעָה) [pronounced raw-ĢAWH]

to shepherd, to pasture, to tend to graze, to feed; to rule?

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #7462 BDB #944

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʿam (עַם) [pronounced ģahm]

people; race, tribe; family, relatives; citizens, common people; companions, servants; entire human race; herd [of animals]

masculine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #5971 BDB #766

The next two words are found in the Samuel text but not in the Chronicles text.

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Yiserâʾêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 BDB #975


Translation:...[those] whom I have commanded to shepherd My people—... In Samuel, God the Holy Spirit used a word which could have referred to a tribe or to a family or to a leader of Israel in the previous portion of this verse; here, we have the very similar word generally translated judges. These words are almost identical in the Hebrew. However, in this portion of v. 6, He makes it clear that this word, whether it ought to be tribes, leaders, judges or governors, must refer to a leader of some sort over Israel, as God commands such a one to shepherd His people.


God always had a system of authority in place, and God tells us that this system of authority in any nation is appropriate (Rom. 13). At the time that I write this, Israel is in a ground offensive against Hamas. In this war, as in any war, innocent people are being killed. Hamas will often set up in or near specifically civilian buildings or in or near religious buildings, and then cry foul when innocents are killed. Hamas was not just tolerated by the Palestinians, but elected to power. They could not be more appropriate leaders to the Palestinian people. Therefore, when innocents are killed, it is appropriate. Israel has taken every precaution not to kill civilians and Hamas has done everything possible in order to make civilian deaths a part of this war. The root for all of this is, an intense hatred of the Jews, which many parents pass along to their children.


To continue in this aside, I have watched portions of several Muslim demonstrations, including some here in the United States, where the children are made a part of this demonstration (which suggests that they are begin filled with the same hatred as is found in the Gaza strip). I heard one woman cry out, “Return to the ovens” or words to that effect. These are words of hatred, and this is hatred for God’s people, Israel. We do not get to have hatred in our hearts for God’s people. This hatred and anger has destroyed much of the Middle East. The U.A.E. and Dubai are places which exemplify what can be done when a people put their hatred on the back burner and move forward with free enterprise. The filth and poverty found throughout most of the Middle East is a direct result of their hatred for the Jew.


One of the greatest blessings which I have observed in my lifetime is to see the anti-Semitism of some in the Republican party move clearly and firmly into the Democratic party. This anti-Semitism gave us a political party where one branch of this party was absolutely wrong. One of the results of this shift was Jimmy Carter (who ought to be an embarrassment for Democrats) and Ronald Reagan, one of the greatest presidents of my lifetime.


Now, I am going in a round about fashion to get to this point, but, for an Arab nation to receive great blessing, all they need to do is, not hate the Jews. Any Arab nation that will tolerate Christians and Jews as a part of their nation will become the greatest, most blessed nation of all the Arab nations. One example of this is Dubai and the U.A.E. These are Arab entities which have turned away from being concerned with the Jews, and, instead of pumping money into anti-Semitic causes, they are pumping money into their own economies and building some of the greatest structures in the world. Quite obviously, there will be some anti-Semitism in Dubai and in the U.A.E. However, I can guarantee you that it is nothing like the hatred found in Palestine or in Iran. Which places are greatly blessed and which places are not?


One of the reasons that the United States is so greatly blessed is, we have taken a strong, almost unequivocal, pro-Israel stance. I also write this while we are in a recession. What is clear in our present-day politics is, there is a lost of anti-Semitism bursting out in our Muslim population as there is in the Democratic party. Therefore, we find ourselves as a country in one of the early cycles of discipline. Similarly, there is a lot of anti-Semitism seen world-wide; and, hand-in-hand with this is, a world-wide recession.


1Chronicles 17:6d = 2Samuel 7:7d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

lâmed (ל) (pronounced le)

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

mâh (מָה) [pronounced maw]

what, how, why

interrogative; exclamatory particle

Strong’s #4100 BDB #552

Lâmed + mâh can be rendered why, for what reason, to what purpose, for what purpose, indicating an interrogatory sentence.

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

bânâh (בָּנָה) [pronounced baw-NAWH]

to build, to rebuild, to restore

2nd person masculine plural, Qal perfect

Strong’s #1129 BDB #124

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 1st person singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

bayith (בַּיִת) [pronounced BAH-yith]

house, residence; household, habitation as well as inward

masculine singular construct

Strong's #1004 BDB #108

ʾerez (אֶרֶז) [pronounced EH-rez]

cedar

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #730 BDB #72


Translation: ...saying, “Why have you not built a house of cedar for Me?”? This completes the question within a question. The overall question is, have I ever said the following to any leader of Israel? What God has never said to any leader of Israel is, “Why have you not built a house of cedar for Me?”


God is not telling David that this is completely out of line or that a permanent structure is completely out of the question. God is simply pointing out that, He has never made such a demand of any Israeli leader before. God did tell His leaders to shepherd Israel (to guide and take care of Israel); but God never told an Israeli leader, “Now that you are in the land, I want you to build a grand structure for Me.”


There is a great reason for this, and it has been lost over these centuries. In fact, the absolute humbleness of the Tabernacle as opposed to the grandeur of the Temple has great meaning for us. When the Messiah was to come, the Jews were not to look for some grand leader to lead their armies against their oppressors. In His 1st Advent, our Lord came as a man, almost indistinguishable from any other man (remember that Judas had to actually point Jesus out); and there was nothing about Him which, from His outward appearance, which would cause us to recognize that this is the Lord of Glory (Isa. 53:2). Therefore, God wanted the humble Tabernacle to be a firm part of Israel’s early history (for the first 500 years or so). When Solomon builds the grand Temple, this speaks of Jesus Christ in the Millennium, ruling from Jerusalem (as does Solomon’s reign). However, the cross must come before the crown, just as the Tabernacle had to come before the Temple, just as David had to come before Solomon. And, so that you are completely clear on this, David represents our Lord in His 1st and 2nd Advents (when He will slaughter millions of people—anti-Semites, by the way—at the end of the Great Tribulation). David as the humble shepherd boy and then David as the great leader of Israel who defeated all of his enemies, is a type of Christ, both in His 1st Advent and when He comes again. Solomon represents our Lord in the Millennium. The Tabernacle represents our Lord’s 1st Advent whereas the Temple represents His 2nd Advent and the Millennium.


I have mentioned progressive revelation in the past, and this is a perfect example of progressive revelation. Although the Messiah has been telegraphed since Gen. 3:15 as well as His suffering on the cross for our sins as our substitute (Gen. 22), little has been said about the Millennium. When we get to Solomon’s reign and his building of the Temple of God, then we will have a parallel that we can draw between Solomon and the Millennial reign of Jesus Christ. From that point on, there will be more revealed about the Millennium.


God is not dismissing David’s intentions out of hand saying, “Hell no, no one is going to build a house of cedar for Me because this is not in the plan.” God is simply making certain that we recognize that He has not made such a thing a requirement. God is making sure that we recognize, this is 100% David’s idea, but that it is a part of His plan as well.


Another example of this is the city Jerusalem. God the Son, in the Millennium, will rule from Jerusalem. This is not because God looked around the world and decided, “Jerusalem seems like the best place for Me.” David chose Jerusalem. Because David chose Jerusalem, Jesus Christ will rule from Jerusalem. This should drive home to you just how important your free will is to God. You should be amazed that the free will choices which you make are actually important to God and are a part of His plan.


And now so you will say to My servant, to David, now speaks Yehowah of armies, ‘I took you from the pasture from following the flock to be a prince over My people, Israel.

1Chronicles

17:7

“Now, therefore, you will say to My servant David: ‘Thus speaks Yehowah of the armies: I took you from the pasture, from following the sheep, to be a prince over My people, Israel.

“This you will say to My servant David: ‘Thus speaks Jehovah of the Armies: I took you from out of the pasture, away from following after sheep, to be a prince over My people, Israel.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And now so you will say to My servant, to David, now speaks Yehowah of armies, ‘I took you from the pasture from following the flock to be a prince over My people over Israel.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    Now therefore thus shall you say to my servant David, Thus says the LORD of hosts: I took you from the sheepfold, even from following the sheep, that you should be king over my people Israel;.

Septuagint (Greek)                And now thus will you say to My servant David, Thus says the Lord Almighty, I took you from the sheepfold, from following the flocks, to be a ruler over My people Israel.

 

Significant differences:           The Greek has Lord Almighty; the Latin, Syriac and Hebrew all have Lord of [the] Armies. The Hebrew word I translated pasture is also translated sheepfold, so there is no discrepancy there. The word I translated prince can also be translated ruler, which agrees with the other ancient texts. So there is only one disputed word here.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       David, this is what I, the LORD All-Powerful, say to you. I brought you in from the fields where you took care of sheep, and I made you the leader of my people.

Easy-to-Read Version            “Now, tell these things to my servant David: The Lord All-Powerful says, ‘I took you from the fields and from taking care of the sheep. I made you king of my people Israel.

Good News Bible (TEV)         "So tell my servant David that I, the LORD Almighty, say to him, 'I took you from looking after sheep in the fields and made you the ruler of my people Israel.

The Message                         "So here is what you are to tell my servant David: The GOD-of-the-Angel-Armies has this word for you: I took you from the pasture, tagging after sheep, and made you prince over my people Israel.

New Century Version             "Now, tell my servant David: 'This is what the Lord All-Powerful says: I took you from the pasture and from tending the sheep and made you king of my people Israel.

NIRV                                      "So tell my servant David, 'The Lord who rules over all says, "I took you away from the grasslands. That is where you were taking care of your father's sheep and goats. I made you ruler over my people Israel.

New Living Translation           "Now go and say to my servant David, `This is what the Lord of Heaven's Armies has declared: I took you from tending sheep in the pasture and selected you to be the leader of my people Israel.

Revised English Bible            ‘Then say this to my servant David: This is the word of he Lord of Hosts: I took you from the pastures and from following the sheep to be prince over my people Israel.

Today’s NIV                          "Now then, tell my servant David, 'This is what the LORD Almighty says: I took you from the pasture, from tending the flock, and appointed you ruler over my people Israel.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             So now, say to my servant David, The Lord of armies says, I took you from the fields, from keeping sheep, so that you might be a ruler over my people Israel;...

God’s Word                         "Now this is what you will say to my servant David: 'This is what the LORD of Armies says: I took you from the pasture where you followed sheep so that you could be the leader of my people Israel.

NET Bible®                             "So now, say this to my servant David: 'This is what the LORD who commands armies says: "I took you from the pasture and from your work as a shepherd to make you a leader of my people Israel.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Updated Bible Version 2.11   Now therefore thus you will say to my slave David, Thus says Yahweh of hosts, I took you from the sheepcote, from following the sheep, that you should be leader over my people Israel:...

WEB                                      Now therefore thus shall you tell my servant David, Thus says Yahweh of Hosts, I took you from the sheep pen, from following the sheep, that you should be prince over my people Israel...

Young’s Updated LT             And now, thus You will say to My servant, to David, ‘Thus says Jehovah of Hosts, I have taken you from the habitation, from [following] after the sheep, to be leader over My people Israel,...


What is the gist of this verse? God reminds David that He, God, took David out from obscurity to rule over Israel.


1Chronicles 17:7a = 2Samuel 7:8a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʿattâh (עַתָּה) [pronounced ģaht-TAWH]

now, at this time, already

adverb of time

Strong’s #6258 BDB #773

When followed by an imperative or an interrogative, we + the adverb ʿattâh mean and so, thus, things being so, therefore, now therefore. Sometimes, the concept of time is lost when this combination is used to incite another.

kôh (כֹּה) [pronounced koh]

so, thus, here, hence

adverb

Strong’s #3541 BDB #462

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

lâmed (ל) (pronounced le)

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʿebed (עֶבֶד) [pronounced ĢEB-ved]

slave, servant

masculine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #5650 BDB #713

lâmed (ל) (pronounced le)

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187


Translation: “Now, therefore, you will say to My servant David:... As pointed out before, there is a hierarchy here, an order of authority. Even though David was the sovereign in his land, God made certain that David knew that there was authority over him, and this authority was in the person of Nathan. David understood this because, when thinking about building a permanent home for the Ark of God, he first bounced the idea off of Nathan.


1Chronicles 17:7b = 2Samuel 7:8b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʿattâh (עַתָּה) [pronounced ģaht-TAWH]

now, at this time, already

adverb of time

Strong’s #6258 BDB #773

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

Owen lists this as recurring in this verse from before, making it a 2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect; however, this is more likely a 3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect.

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

tsebâʾôwth (צְבָאוֹת) [pronounced tzeb-vaw-OHTH]

armies, hosts; wars

masculine plural noun, simply the plural of Strong’s #6635, but often used in titles

Strong’s #6635 BDB #838

The Greek has Almighty here, but the Hebrew, Latin and Syriac all have Armies.


Translation: ...‘Thus speaks Yehowah of the armies:... Jehovah of the armies is one of the most common titles for God found in the Old Testament. This refers to God and the millions of elect angels who are with Him. This will be quite apparent when God returns and destroys all those who oppose Him at the 2nd Advent.


1Chronicles 17:7c = 2Samuel 7:8c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾânîy (אָנִי) [pronounced aw-NEE]

I, me; in answer to a question, it means I am, it is I

1st person singular, personal pronoun

Strong’s #589 BDB #58

lâqach (לָקַח) [pronounced law-KAHKH]

to take, to take from, to take away, to take in marriage; to seize, to take possession of; to send after, to fetch, to bring; to receive

1st person singular, Qal perfect; with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #3947 BDB #542

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

nâveh (נָוֶה) [pronounced naw-VEH]

inhabiting, dwelling, abiding; as a substantive: a seat; a habitation or an area [or region] of habitation [for man, God, shepherds, shepherd’s flocks]; meadow, pasture

masculine singular adjective; masculine singular noun

Strong’s #5116 BDB #627

mêʾachar (מֵאַחַר) [pronounced may-ah-KHAHR]

from, from after, from (being) after, from behind, from following after

compounded prepositions

Strong’s #4480 BDB #577 and Strong’s #310 BDB #29

tsôʾn (צֹאן) [pronounced tzohn]

small cattle, sheep and goats, flock, flocks

feminine singular collective noun with the definite article

Strong’s #6629 BDB #838


Translation: ...I took you from the pasture, from following the sheep,... God has, in many societies and many nations, taken leaders from the most humble of circumstances and has put them in charge. We have seen this over and over even in our own presidency. The first president to be born in a hospital was Jimmy Carter. Many of our presidents have come from very humble means and origins.


David not only came from humble means, but, in his family, he was seen as the least in his family. When the prophet Samuel went to Jesse to anoint one of his sons as king, it never occurred to Jesse that this son would be David.


The way that God states this is somewhat tongue in cheek. David is leading the people of Israel, and God reminds him that, at one time, the sheep used to lead him around.


Asaph, in a broad sweeping historical psalm, also refers to David being taken from the pasture or sheepfold (Psalm 78:70).


1Chronicles 17:7d = 2Samuel 7:8d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lâmed (ל) (pronounced le)

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

Qal infinitive construct

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

nâgîyd (נָגִיד)   [pronounced naw-GEED]

prince, crown-prince, leader, ruler, noble

masculine singular noun

Strong's #5057 BDB #617

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

ʿam (עַם) [pronounced ģahm]

people; race, tribe; family, relatives; citizens, common people; companions, servants; entire human race; herd [of animals]

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #5971 BDB #766

This additional preposition is in the Samuel text but not in the Chronicles text.

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

Yiserâʾêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 BDB #975


Translation: ...to be a prince over My people, Israel. Again, we have one small preposition left out (as compared to the Samuel text) which changes the meaning of the text, but not of the overall verse. In Samuel, God chose David to be a prince [leader] over My people, over Israel. Here, David is seen as exercising his authority over God’s people, the Jews; and as exercising his authority of the nation Israel. In Chronicles, David is seen as being the prince-leader of God’s people, who are Israel. So, when dealing with specifics, there is a difference between the Samuel and Chronicles text. However, both sets of text are true statements.


And so I am with you in all which you have gone and so I cut off your enemies from your faces and I have made for you a name as a name of the great ones who [are] in the earth.

1Chronicles

17:8

I have been with you wherever you have gone and I have cut off your enemies from before you. I have made your name like the names of the great ones on the earth.

I have been with you no matter where you went. When you faced enemies, I cut them off right in front of you. I have made your name great on this earth, as notable as any famous or powerful person.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so I am with you in all which you have gone and so I cut off your enemies from your faces and I have made for you a name as a name of the great ones who [are] in the earth.

Septuagint (Greek)                And I was with you in all places where you went, and I destroyed all your enemies from before you, and I made for you a name according to the name of the great ones that are upon the earth.

 

Significant differences:           The Greek in all places appears to be a legitimate translation of the Hebrew. The Greek destroyed is a legitimate translation for the Hebrew verb I rendered cut off. So, essentially, there are no differences between the Hebrew and Greek texts here.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       Wherever you went, I helped you and destroyed your enemies right in front of your eyes. I have made you one of the most famous people in the world.

Easy-to-Read Version            I have been with you everywhere you went. I went ahead of you and I killed your enemies. Now I will make you one of the most famous men on earth.

Good News Bible (TEV)         I have been with you wherever you have gone, and I have defeated all your enemies as you advanced. I will make you as famous as the greatest leaders in the world.

The Message                         I was with you everywhere you went and mowed your enemies down before you; and now I'm about to make you famous, ranked with the great names on earth.

New Century Version             I have been with you everywhere you have gone. I have defeated your enemies for you. I will make you as famous as any of the great people on the earth.

New Jerusalem Bible             I have been with you wherever you went; I have got rid of all your enemies for you. I am going to make your fame like that of the greatest men on earth.

Revised English Bible            I have been with you wherever oyu have gone, and have destroyed all the enemies in your path. I shall bring you fame like the fame of the great ones of the earth.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And I have been with you wherever you went, cutting off before you all those who were against you; and I will make your name like the name of the greatest ones of the earth.

Complete Apostles’ Bible      ...and I was with you in all places that you went, and I destroyed all your enemies from before you, and I made for you a name according to the name of the great ones that are upon the earth.

God’s Word                         I was with you wherever you went, and I destroyed all your enemies in front of you. I will make your name like the names of the greatest people on earth.

HCSB                                     I have been with you wherever you have gone, and I have destroyed all your enemies before you. I will make a name for you like that of the greatest in the land.

NET Bible®                             I was with you wherever you went and I defeated all your enemies before you. Now I will make you as famous as the great men of the earth.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    ... and I am with you whithersoever you have walked, and I cut off all your enemies from your presence, and have made for you a name like the name of the great ones who [are] in the earth.

MKJV                                     And I have been with you wherever you have walked, and have cut off all your enemies from before you, and have made you a name like the name of the great men in the earth.

Young's Updated LT              And I have been with you wherever you have walked; and I have cut off all your enemies from before you; and have made for you a name like the name of the great ones in the earth.


What is the gist of this verse? Wherever David has gone, God has been with him, cutting off his enemies before him and making his name great on this earth.


1Chronicles 17:8a = 2Samuel 7:9a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

1st person singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

ʿîm (עִם) [pronounced ģeem]

with, at, by, near; like; from

preposition of nearness and vicinity with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5973 BDB #767

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

Strong’s# none BDB #88

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

all, all things, the whole, totality, the entirety, everything

masculine singular noun without the definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

In Joshua 1:7, Owen and the NASB translates these three words wherever; Young: in every [place] whither; Rotherham and the KJV: whithersoever. In 2Sam. 7:7, the NASB renders this wherever, but Owen translates it in all places. Young, in an unusual move, renders this during all [the time] that in 2Sam. 7:7. Literally, this is in all which; and wherever is a good modern rendering.

hâlake (הָלַךְ) [pronounced haw-LAHKe]

to go, to come, to depart, to walk; to advance

2nd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #1980 (and #3212) BDB #229


Translation: I have been with you wherever you have gone... Wherever David has been, whether in Israel or outside of Israel, whether in fellowship or out, God has always been there.


Application: God has made perfect provision for us no matter where we are, and God is always there with us. There is no difficulty in life where God is not right there with us. Along the same lines, there is no difficulty in life which we have faced which caught God off-guard.


Many times, we are told that God is with David.

God is with David (and He is with Us)

Scripture

Text

1Sam. 18:14

And David behaved himself wisely in all his ways. And Jehovah was with him.

1Sam. 18:28–29

And Saul saw and knew that Jehovah was with David, and that Michal, Saul's daughter, loved him. And Saul was still more afraid of David. And Saul became David's enemy continually.

2Sam. 7:9

And I was with you wherever you went, and have cut off all your enemies out of your sight, and have made you a great name like the name of the great ones in the earth.

1Chron. 17:2

And Nathan said to David, Do all that is in your heart, for God is with you.

2Sam. 8:6

And David put garrisons in Syria of Damascus. And the Syrians became servants to David, bringing gifts. And Jehovah preserved David wherever he went.

2Sam. 8:14

And he put garrisons in Edom. He put garrisons throughout all Edom, and all the men of Edom became David's servants. And Jehovah preserved David wherever he went.

God is with us as well:

Num. 14:9

Only do not rebel against Jehovah, neither fear the people of the land. For they are bread for us. Their protection has moved from them, and Jehovah is with us. Do not fear them.

2Chron. 13:12

And behold, God Himself is with us as Commander, and His priests with sounding trumpets to cry alarm against you. O sons of Israel, do not fight against Jehovah, the God of your fathers, for you shall not prosper!

Psalm 9:9

Jehovah also will be a refuge for the oppressed, a refuge in times of trouble.

Psalm 46:7

Jehovah of Hosts is with us; the God of Jacob is our refuge.

Matt. 28:19–20

Therefore go and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all things, whatever I commanded you. And, behold, I am with you all the days until the end of the world.

Isa. 41:10

Do not fear; for I am with you; be not dismayed; for I am your God. I will make you strong; yes, I will help you; yes, I will uphold you with the right hand of My righteousness.

It should be reassuring that God is with us, just as He is with David. As Rom. 8:31b tells us: If God is for us, who can be against us? As and Paul prayed concerning Timothy: May the Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit. Grace be with you. Amen (2TIm. 4:22).


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


1Chronicles 17:8b = 2Samuel 7:9b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

kârath (כָּרַת) [pronounced kaw-RAHTH]

to kill, to destroy [men]; to separate, to remove, to withdraw; to cut off, to cut down; to allow to perish

1st person singular, Hiphil imperfect

Strong's #3772 BDB #503

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

with a plural noun, it is rendered all of, all; any of

masculine singular construct with a masculine plural noun

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

ʾâyab (אָיַב) [pronounced aw-YABV]

enemy, the one being at enmity with you; enmity, hostility

masculine plural, Qal active participle; with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #340 BDB #33

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, away from, out from, out of from, off, on account of, since, above, than, so that not, above, beyond, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

pânîym (פָּנִים) [pronounced paw-NEEM]

face, faces, countenance; presence

masculine plural noun (plural acts like English singular); with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #6440 BDB #815

Together, mipânîym mean from before your face, out from before your face, from one’s presence. However, together, they can also be a reference to the cause, whether near or remote, and can therefore be rendered because of, because that.


Translation: ...and I have cut off your enemies from before you. David, since he is a believer in Jesus Christ, has faced a lot of enemies, and God continually cut off his enemies from before him. Even though I believe that David is a young king at this point, this statement covers him going all the way back to when he began to serve under Saul. He not only faced the enemies of Israel but he faced Saul himself as an enemy.


Application: Although I certainly have my own personal defects, I do not go out looking to make enemies. However, I have ended up with enemies at many places where I have worked, and with people with whom there should have been no animosity. However, I have had people develop a quick animosity for me without knowing much about me. However, like David, I have also seen these enemies cut down by God. Let me make this absolutely clear: this is not something which you need to initiate; this is not a place where you need to help God. God has His perfect timing as well as His perfect reasons, and He will deal with your enemies as per His plan. Now, admittedly, there were a number of occasions when I wish that God would have acted a day or a month or a year sooner; however, God has perfect timing, and when He chooses to do something is up to Him. We need not get involved.


Application: I hope that this is obvious, but let me say it just in case—we do not look to make enemies. We do not go out in this world with the intention of pissing people off. As Jesus told His disciples: “Remember, I am sending you out as my Messengers like sheep among wolves. So be as wise as serpents, and as blameless as doves.” (Matt. 10:16).


1Chronicles 17:8c = 2Samuel 7:9c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʿâsâh (עָשָֹה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWH]

to do, to make, to construct, to fashion, to form, to prepare, to manufacture

1st person singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #6213 BDB #793

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition; with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

shêm (שֵם) [pronounced shame]

name, reputation, character

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #8034 BDB #1027

The following word is found in the Samuel text but not the Chronicles text.

gâdôwl (גָּדוֹל) [pronounced gaw-DOHL]

large, great or mighty [in power, nobility, wealth; in number, or magnitude and extent], loud, older, important, distinguished; vast, unyielding, immutable, significant, astonishing

masculine singular adjective

Strong’s #1419 BDB #152

kaph or ke (כְּ) [pronounced ke]

as, like, according to; about, approximately

preposition of comparison or approximation

No Strong’s # BDB #453

shêm (שֵם) [pronounced shame]

name, reputation, character

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #8034 BDB #1027

gâdôwl (גָּדוֹל) [pronounced gaw-DOHL]

large, great or mighty [in power, nobility, wealth; in number, or magnitude and extent], loud, older, important, distinguished; vast, unyielding, immutable, significant, astonishing

masculine plural adjective with a definite article

Strong’s #1419 BDB #152

When used as a substantive, as here, gâdôwl means a great [mighty, noble] man.

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

Strong’s# none BDB #88

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, ground, soil

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: I have made your name like the names of the great ones on the earth. David was moved up in society much in the way that God had dealt with Moses and with Joseph. God took David from a humble beginning and made him one of the great kings on earth. We may want to argue this point, but if you were to ask random people what king they remember prior to the birth of Christ, David’s name would come up as often as any other.


And I appointed a place for My people Israel and I planted him [Israel] and he tabernacled below him and he is not agitated again and they have not added sons of unrighteousness to wear him out as that in the first.

1Chronicles

17:9

I have appointed a place for My people Israel. I planted them and they dwelt [there] instead of them [the indigenous heathen]. Furthermore, Israel [lit., he] will no longer be agitated nor will they worn out [by] men of unjust violence [or, unrighteousness] as in the past,...

I have determined in eternity past a particular place for My people Israel. I will plant them there and they will live in that area instead of the indigenous heathen. Furthermore, Israel will no longer be worn down [by continued military attacks] afflicted by men of unjust violence as in the past;...


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          And I have given a place my people Israel: they will be planted, and will dwell therein, and will be moved no more, neither will the children of iniquity waste them, as at the beginning,

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And I appointed a place for My people Israel and I planted him [Israel] and he tabernacled below him and he is not agitated again and they have not added sons of unrighteousness to wear him out as that in the first.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    I will also appoint a place for my people Israel and I will cause them to settle, and they shall dwell in their place and shall be moved no more; neither shall the wicked men carry them captive any more, as formerly.

Septuagint (Greek)                And I will appoint a place for my people Israel, and I will plant him, and he will dwell by himself, and will no longer be anxious; and the son of iniquity will no longer afflict [or, humiliate] him, as at the beginning,...

 

Significant differences:           Will cause them to settle (from the Peshitta) is a reasonable translation for the Hebrew verb. The Hebrew text he tabernacled below him, and I believe the correct understanding is, the Israelites will occupy the land instead of the indigenous heathen, which they conquered. The Hebrew text can be reasonably understood to mean that; however, it is easy to see how another translator could come upon this text, and see it differently, as the text is not easy to work with. My point is, there may not be any discrepancy between the texts at this point. The verbs which follow that phrase appear to be different in the English renderings, but these are all reasonable renditions of the same Hebrew verb.

 

The final verb could be the result of dealing with a difficult Hebrew text or it is possible that there may have been a different Hebrew verb here in the text employed by the ancient translators into Greek or Syriac.

 

The over-arching principle, which remains unchanged in all of these ancient versions is, God placed Israel in the land, and He assures them He will be with them. The specifics might be slightly different in the ancient texts. However, as is most often the case, there are no primary or secondary or ever tertiary doctrines which are affected by the different texts.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       I have given my people Israel a land of their own where they can live in peace. They will no longer have to tremble with fear--evil nations won't bother them, as they did...

Easy-to-Read Version            I am giving this place to my people Israel. They will plant their trees, and they will sit in peace under those trees. They won’t be bothered anymore. Evil people won’t hurt them like they did at first.

Good News Bible (TEV)         I have chosen a place for my people Israel and have settled them there, where they will live without being oppressed any more. Ever since they entered this land they have been attacked by violent people, but this will not happen again. I promise to defeat all your enemies and to give you descendants.

The Message                         I'm going to set aside a place for my people Israel and plant them there so they'll have their own home and not be knocked around anymore; nor will evil nations afflict them as they always have,...

New American Bible              I will assign a place for my people Israel and I will plant them in it to dwell there henceforth undisturbed; nor shall wicked men ever again oppress them, as they did at first,...

New Century Version             I will choose a place for my people Israel, and I will plant them so they can live in their own homes. They will not be bothered anymore. Wicked people will no longer hurt them as they have in the past...

NIRV                                      " ' "I will provide a place where my people Israel can live. I will plant them in the land. Then they will have a home of their own. They will not be bothered anymore. Sinful people will no longer crush them, as they did at first.

New Life Bible                        I will choose a place for My people Israel, and will plant them. So they will live in their own place and not be moved again. Never again will they be under the power of sinful men, as they were before,...

New Living Translation           And I will provide a homeland for my people Israel, planting them in a secure place where they will never be disturbed. Evil nations won't oppress them as they've done in the past,...

Revised English Bible            I shall assign a place for my people Israel; there I shall plant them to dwell in their own land. they will be disturbed no more, never again will the wicked wear them down as they did....


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And I will make a resting-place for my people Israel, planting them there, so that they may be in the place which is theirs and never again be moved; and never again will they be made waste by evil men, as they were at first,...

Complete Apostles’ Bible      And I will appoint a place for My people Israel, and I will plant him, and he shall dwell by himself, and shall no longer be anxious; and the son of iniquity shall no longer afflict him, as at the beginning,...

God’s Word                         I will make a place for my people Israel and plant them there. They will live in their own place and not be troubled anymore. The wicked will no longer frighten them as they used to do...

HCSB                                     I will establish a place for My people Israel and plant them, so that they may live there and not be disturbed again. Evildoers will not continue to oppress them as they formerly have...

NET Bible®                             I will establish a place for my people Israel and settle them there; they will live there and not be disturbed anymore. Violent men will not oppress them again, as they did in the beginning...


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

English Standard Version      And I will appoint a place for my people Israel and will plant them, that they may dwell in their own place and be disturbed no more. And violent men shall waste them no more, as formerly,...

Green’s Literal Translation    And I will prepare a place for My people Israel, and he will plant, and he will dwell in his place, and shall not be made to tremble any more; nor shall the sons of wickedness waste him any more, as at the first;...

NRSV                                     I will appoint a place for my people Israel, and will plant them, so that they may live in their own place, and be disturbed no more; and evildoers shall wear them down no more, as they did formerly,...

Young’s Updated LT             And I have prepared a place for My people Israel, and planted it, and it has dwelt in its place, and is not troubled any more, and the sons of perverseness add not to wear it out as at first.


What is the gist of this verse? God prepared the Land of Promise for His people and He placed them there. The intention was for them to dwell in peace and prosperity. It was Israel, as we find out in the first chapter of Judges, who caused her own problems by straying from God. However, there will come a time, in the Millennium, where God will completely protect Israel from all harm.


1Chronicles 17:9a = 2Samuel 7:10a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

It is typical in the Hebrew for each sentence—in fact, each thought—to begin with a wâw consecutive (or a wâw conjunction) in the Hebrew. However, it is not necessary in an English translation to include a connective at every such juncture, as our language does not necessarily require that for successive thoughts or actions.

sîym (שִׂים) [pronounced seem]; also spelled sûwm (שׂוּם) [pronounced soom]

to put, to place, to set; to make; to appoint

1st person singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #7760 BDB #962

mâqôwm (מָקוֹם) [pronounced maw-KOHM]

place, situated; for a soldier, it may mean where he is stationed; for people in general, it would be their place of abode (which could be their house or their town)

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #4725 BDB #879

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʿam (עַם) [pronounced ģahm]

people; race, tribe; family, relatives; citizens, common people; companions, servants; entire human race; herd [of animals]

masculine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #5971 BDB #766

This additional lâmed preposition is found in Samuel (in most manuscripts), but not in Chronicles. There is some dispute over this additional preposition even in the book of Samuel.

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

The additional lâmed preposition is not found in the Latin, Syriac, Aramaic or in 3 early printed editions of the Hebrew. Footnote

Yiserâʾêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 BDB #975


Translation: I have appointed a place for My people Israel. Just as we found in a previous verse, the preposition is not found here, but in the Samuel text, which does change the specific meaning, but does not do any sort of damage to divine truth. God has picked a place on this earth for His people, and that is a much larger area than they occupy at this moment in time.


I should point out that the nation Israel may be wiped out or it may disappear, but God will regather the Jews and He will put them right there next to the Mediterranean Sea.


1Chronicles 17:9b = 2Samuel 7:10b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

It is typical in the Hebrew for each sentence—in fact, each thought—to begin with a wâw consecutive (or a wâw conjunction) in the Hebrew. However, it is not necessary in an English translation to include a connective at every such juncture, as our language does not necessarily require that for successive thoughts or actions.

nâţaʿ (נָטַע) [pronounced naw-TAHĢ]

to set upright; to plant; to place; to fix, to fasten [with a nail]; to pitch [a tent], to set up; figuratively to establish

1st person singular, Qal perfect; with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5193 BDB #642


Translation: I planted them... The idea that God will plant the Jews in the Land of Promise indicates permanence. God’s planting of the Jews, including the initial planting and that which will take place at the beginning of the Millennium is found in several passages: Psalm 44:2 92:13 Isa. 61:3 Jer. 24:6 32:41.


1Chronicles 17:9c = 2Samuel 7:10c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

shâkan (שָכַן) [pronounced shaw-KAHN]

to tabernacle, to pitch a tent; to dwell, to reside, to live in, to domicile at, to settle, to settle down, to encamp

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #7931 BDB #1014

tachath (תַּחַת) [pronounced TAH-khahth]

underneath, below, under, beneath; instead of, in lieu of; in the place [in which one stands]; in exchange for; on the basis of

preposition of location or foundation; with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #8478 BDB #1065


Translation: ...and they dwelt [there] instead of them [the indigenous heathen].... This is a rather difficult phrase, as it reads and he has tabernacled instead of him. However, this is reasonably understood to mean that Israel(which is who this verse is all about) will live in the Land of Promise instead of their enemies.


1Chronicles 17:9d = 2Samuel 7:10d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

râgaz (רָגַז) [pronounced rawg-GAHZ]

to be agitated, to quiver, to quake, to become excited, perturbed, disquieted

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #7264 BDB #919

ʿôwd (עוֹד) [pronounced ģohd]

still, yet, again, again and again, repeatedly, in addition to; more, farther, besides; as yet, yet, still, even yet

adverb

Strong’s #5750 BDB #728

With the negative, this means never again, no more, not...anymore, not again.


Translation: ...Furthermore, Israel [lit., he] will no longer be agitated... Quite obviously, from the time of David forward, Israel was agitated and perturbed. The exception is, during the time of Solomon; and he represents the Millennium, another long period of time, when Israel would remain in the land undisturbed.


These two verses give us a great arc of Israel’s history: the original planting of Israel into the land God gave her (v. 9a) to the Millennium (v. 9b), picking up along the way, David being taken from the sheepfold and being made king over Israel (vv. 7–8).


There will be a time when God will regather all of the Jews to Israel (Ezek. 34:13) and they will be agitated no more (Isa. 60:18 Ezek. 37:25 Amos 9:15).


1Chronicles 17:9e = 2Samuel 7:10e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

It is typical in the Hebrew for each sentence—in fact, each thought—to begin with a wâw consecutive (or a wâw conjunction) in the Hebrew. However, it is not necessary in an English translation to include a connective at every such juncture, as our language does not necessarily require that for successive thoughts or actions.

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

yâçaph (יָסַף) [pronounced yaw-SAHPH]

to add, to augment, to increase, to multiply; to add to do = to do again

3rd person masculine plural, Hiphil imperfect

Strong's #3254 BDB #414

bên (בֵּן) [pronounced bane]

son, descendant

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

ʿavelâh (עַוְלָה) [pronounced ģahve-LAW]

unrighteousness; injustice; iniquity, unjust violence

feminine singular substantive

Strong’s #5766 BDB #732

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

bâlâh (בָּלָה) [pronounced baw-LAW

to consume, to wear out [by use], to fall apart completely; to enjoy, to use to the full; to afflict, to trouble

Piel infinitive construct, with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #1086 BDB #115

Samuel has this verb instead:

ʿânâh (עָנָה) [pronounced ģaw-NAWH]

to oppress, to depress, to afflict

Piel infinitive construct with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #6031 BDB #776

It would be difficult to mistake one verb for the other.

kaph or ke (כְּ) [pronounced ke]

like, as, according to; about, approximately

preposition of comparison or approximation

No Strong’s # BDB #453

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

Together, kaʾăsher (כַּאֲשֶר) [pronounced kah-uh-SHER] means as which, as one who, as, like as, just as; because; according to what manner. Back in 1Sam. 12:8, I rendered this for example.

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

rîshôwnâh (רִשוֹנָה) [pronounced ree-show-NAW]

first [in time, in degree, chief, former [in time], ancestors, former things; foremost; beginning

feminine singular adjective with the definite article

Strong’s #7223 BDB #911

With the bêyth preposition, rîshôwnâh means first, in front, in the first rank; before, formerly, previously, aforetime.

These four words together are rendered as before, as formerly, as at the first, as in the beginning; as in the past; and more informally as they have done, as they used to do.


Translation: ...nor will they worn out [by] men of unjust violence [or, unrighteousness] as in the past,... The difference in verbs here is somewhat confusing. The verb in the Samuel text seems the most reasonable (to oppress, to depress, to afflict); similar meanings for the verb in Chronicles seem to be added as an afterthought (to afflict, to trouble), for this passage in particular. However, the primary Piel meanings for this verb (to consume, to wear out [by use]) might be reasonable, as this implies, in this context, constant wearing down of the Jews. For a modern-day example of this, simply go to Israel today and observe the daily bombings by the Palestinians, designed to wear the Jews out.


To properly understand this verse, recall that Israel was first enslaved by the Egyptians (Ex. 1:13–14 2:23) and, after conquering the land, Israel continually faced outside attacks from other nations during the time of the Judges. They were being oppressed by men of unrighteousness; they were being worn down by men of unrighteousness. Much of this continued in Israel’s history, up to and including the reign of David. However, during the reign of Solomon, there was very little of this. After Solomon, Israel went astray again, and the unrighteous heathen from all around them began to attack again.


Application: One of the keys in this sweeping history is, Israel decayed on the inside first. Israel succumbed to idolatry first. Then, heathen nations began to make trouble for Israel. One of the reasons why we are given the Old Testament is so that we can recognize historical trends, which the Old Testament establishes. Most of us live in the United States, the greatest nation on earth. We have been blessed as has no other country before us. At one time, 90% or more of Americans believed in God, and many of them believed in Jesus Christ. Black churches were emotional and loud, but they taught the crucifixion of Jesus. Many denominations in he US differed on this or that point, but they almost all solidly placed their faith in Jesus Christ. Various doctrines separated us because we, as people, cared about these things. They were important to us. That has changed. Even though we are still a nation of believers, the number of believers has decreased. We elected a president who attending a church which taught Black Liberation Theology, which is a far cry from the gospel-based churches from the past. We have a significant minority in this country who side with Palestine in the most recent Israeli-Palestinian conflict (January 2009). Obviously, we have moral issues where 1 out of 4 babies are aborted, often for convenience sake or as retro-active birth control. We have moved away from the essential divine institutions of volition, right man/right woman, family and nation. These are all bad signs. And now we are in the second cycle of discipline, which is economic disaster (at this point, the disaster is quite mild). God does this to get our attention. God does this to nudge us toward Him. We have a country full of people who believe that government can solve these problems (I write this in January 2009). Placing your faith in government (or in a president) is no different than placing your faith in an idol. If you think that government can solve this problem and that depending upon government to solve this problem is the best approach, then you are worshiping an idol. The more we turn toward idols and away from God, the worse things will get.


...and for from days I commissioned judges over My people Israel. And I have subdued all your enemies. And I declare to you that a house will do for you Yehowah.

1Chronicles

17:10

...[as] from the days that I commissioned judges over My people Israel. And I subdued all your enemies. Furthermore, I declare to you that Yehowah will construct a dynasty [lit., house] for you.

...and from the days that I commissioned judges over My people Israel. Also, I subdued all of your enemies. Further, I declare to you that I will build a dynasty for you.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        ...and for from days I commissioned judges over My people Israel. And I have subdued all your enemies. And I declare to you that a house will do for you Yehowah.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And since the day that I made you a judge over my people Israel, I have given you rest from all your enemies. Moreover the LORD has declared to you that the kingdom is established forever.

Septuagint (Greek)                And from the days when I appointed judges over my people Israel. Also I have humbled all your enemies, and I will increase you, and the Lord will build you a house.

 

Significant differences:           The Greek is quite different from the Hebrew, Latin and Syriac—God promises to increase Israel in the Greek, but He declares certain things to Israel in the other 3 languages. As usual, even though this is a fundamental difference, there are no doctrines which are affected by this difference.

 

The Syriac text has God establishing a kingdom for David forever. The Hebrew text may be so interpreted.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       ...when I let judges rule my people, and I will keep your enemies from attacking you. Now I promise that like you, your descendants will be kings.

Easy-to-Read Version            Those bad things happened, but I chose leaders to care for my people Israel. And I will also defeat all your enemies.

New Century Version             ...when I chose judges for my people Israel. I will defeat all your enemies.

NIRV                                      That is what your enemies have done ever since I appointed leaders over my people Israel. But I will bring all of them under your control.

New Jerusalem Bible             ...ever since I instituted judges to govern my people Israel; I shall subdue all your enemies. Yahweh moreover tells you that he will build you a dynasty.

New Life Bible                        ...from the time that I told judges to rule My people Israel. I will put under your power all those who hate you. And I say to you that the Lord will build a house for you.

New Living Translation           ...starting from the time I appointed judges to rule my people Israel. And I will defeat all your enemies.

Revised English Bible            ...in the past from the day when I appointed judges over my people Israel; and I shall subdue all your enemies.

‘But I shall make you great and the Lord will build up your royal house

Today’s NIV                          ...and have done ever since the time I appointed leaders over my people Israel. I will also subdue all your enemies.

" 'I declare to you that the LORD will build a house for you:...


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             From the time when I put judges over my people Israel; and I will overcome all those who are against you; and I will make you great and the head of a line of kings..

God’s Word                         ...ever since I appointed judges to rule my people Israel. I will crush all your enemies. I even tell you that I, the LORD, will build a house for you.

NET Bible®                             ...and during the time when I appointed judges to lead my people Israel. I will subdue all your enemies.

" ' "I declare to you that the LORD will build a dynastic house [Here the word "house" is used in a metaphorical sense, referring to a royal dynasty. The Lord's use of the word here plays off the literal sense that David had in mind as he contemplated building a temple ("house") for the Lord. In the translation the adjective "dynastic" is supplied to indicate that the term is used metaphorically.] for you!


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                Since the time that I commanded judges to be over My people Israel. Moreover, I will subdue all your enemies. Furthermore, I foretell to you that the Lord will build you a house (a blessed posterity).

Updated Emphasized Bible    ...even from the days when I put judges in charge over my people Israel, and have subdued all your enemies,—that I might make you great, yea, a house, will Yahweh build for you.

WEB                                      ...and as from the day that I commanded judges to be over my people Israel; and I will subdue all your enemies. Moreover I tell you that Yahweh will build you a house.

Young’s Updated LT             Yea, even from the days that I appointed judges over My people Israel. “And I have humbled all your enemies, and I declare to you that a house does Jehovah build for you.


What is the gist of this verse? Israel suffered under the Egyptians (v. 9) and during the time of the Judges (v. 10a). God would humble Israel’s enemies in the future, and establish David’s dynasty as well.


1Chronicles 17:10a = 2Samuel 7:11a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

The lâmed prefixed preposition and min together almost always form what BDB calls a terminus a quo, which means a starting point, the earliest possible date, or end from which. Footnote We can render the two together as for from, even from, from.

yâmîym (יָמִים) [pronounced yaw-MEEM]

days, a set of days; time of life, lifetime; a specific time period, a year

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

The word day in the Samuel text is singular and with a definite article.

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article)

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

tsâvâh (צָוָה) [pronounced tsaw-VAW]

to commission, to mandate, to lay charge upon, to give charge to, charge, command, order

1st person singular, Piel perfect

Strong's #6680 BDB #845

shâphaţ (שָפַט) [pronounced shaw-FAHT]

those judging, the ones judging [governing]; judges, governors

masculine plural, Qal active participle

Strong’s #8199 BDB #1047

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl ]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

ʿam (עַם) [pronounced ģahm]

people; race, tribe; family, relatives; citizens, common people; companions, servants; entire human race; herd [of animals]

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #5971 BDB #766

Yiserâʾêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 BDB #975


Translation: ...[as] from the days that I commissioned judges over My people Israel. The verse and chapter divisions are not inspired. Vv. 9b and 10a belong together: I have appointed a place for My people Israel. I planted them and they dwelt [there] instead of them [the indigenous heathen]. Furthermore, Israel [lit., he] will no longer be agitated nor will they worn out [by] men of unjust violence [or, unrighteousness] as in the past, [as] from the days that I commissioned judges over My people Israel. (vv. 9–10a). During the time of the judges, Israel faced some very difficult times. Every few decades, another country would invade them and demand tribute. Judges 2:14-18 3:8 4:3 6:3-6. God is promising that, at some point in time, that this will no longer be the case.


1Chronicles 17:10b = 2Samuel 7:11b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

kânaʿ (כָּנַע) [pronounced kaw-NAHĢ]

to bow down, to bring anyone low, to humble, to subdue

1st person singular, Hiphil perfect

Strong’s #3665 BDB #488

The Samuel text has, instead:

nûwach (נוּחַ) [pronounced NOO-ahkh]

to deposit, to set down; to cause to rest [to set down]; to let remain, to leave; to depart from; to abandon; to permit

1st person singular, Hiphil perfect

Strong’s #5117 (and #3240) BDB #628

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

The Samuel text has the two following prepositions instead:

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

with a plural noun, it is rendered all of, all; any of

masculine singular construct with a masculine plural noun

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

ʾâyab (אָיַב) [pronounced aw-YABV]

enemy, the one being at enmity with you; enmity, hostility

masculine plural, Qal active participle; with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #340 BDB #33

Perhaps God originally said, “And I subdued all of your enemies and gave you rest from them”?


Translation: And I subdued all your enemies. The verb found here is quite different from the verb in the Samuel text (see the Hebrew exegesis above). Either the Samuel or the Chronicles text is wrong, or God originally said, “And I subdued all of your enemies and gave you rest from them.” The compound sentence actually seems to fit here even more than what is found in the Samuel or Chronicles text.


The time that this was spoken and that time that the Chronicles text was written down is separated by many centuries. God spoke these words to Nathan (to be then repeated to David) around 1000 b.c. The author of this portion of the Samuel text probably recorded this not too long after (perhaps, Nathan woke up from this message from God and wrote these things down before even going to see David). However, the author of Chronicles wrote these things down long after they were first said—500–600 years later (Chronicles is thought to have been composed 450–438 b.c.; quite possibly by Ezra). In other words, these words were written down (copied, for the most part) hundreds of years after the grand monarchies of David and Solomon. These words were copied, and thus affirmed, after Israel had been returned from a 70 year captivity. They were no longer a great and powerful country, and yet this author of Chronicles believed it necessary to record these words once again. “I have subdued your enemies and I have given you rest from them.”


God is always portrayed as being intimately involved in our lives and involved in the conflicts which we face.

God Subdues Our Enemies

Scripture

Text/Commentary

Psalm 18:37–50

I have pursued my enemies and overtaken them; nor did I turn again until they were destroyed. I have shattered them, and they cannot rise again; they have fallen under my feet. For You have girded me with strength for the battle; You have humbled under me those who rose up against me. You have also given me the neck of my enemies; so that I might destroy those who hate me. They cried, but there was none to save; even to Jehovah, but He did not answer them. Then I beat them small as the dust before the wind; I cast them out like the dirt in the streets. You have delivered Me from the strivings of the people; You have made Me the head of the nations; a people whom I have not known shall serve Me. As soon as they hear of Me, they shall obey Me; the sons of strangers shall bow down to Me. The sons of strangers shall fade away and be afraid out of their strongholds. Jehovah lives; and blessed be my rock, and let the God of my salvation be praised. It is God who avenges me, and humbles the people under me. He delivers me from my enemies; yea, You lift me up above those who rise up against me; You have delivered me from the violent man. Therefore I will give thanks to You, O Jehovah, among the nations, and sing praises to Your name, magnifying the salvations to His king, and working mercy to His anointed, to David, and to his seed forevermore. You will notice, like many Scriptures, this morphs from David into the Son of David.

Psalm 21:8–9

Your hand shall find out all Your enemies; Your right hand shall find out those who hate You. You shall make them as a fiery oven in the time of Your presence; Jehovah will swallow them up in His wrath, and the fire shall devour them.

Psalm 89:18–23

For Jehovah is our shield; yea, our King is the Holy One of Israel. Then You spoke in a vision to Your holy one, and You said, I have laid help on a mighty one; I have lifted up a chosen one out of the people. I have found David, My servant; with My holy oil I have anointed him. My hand shall be always with him; My arm also shall make him strong. The enemy shall not use force on him, nor the son of wickedness afflict him. And I will beat down his foes before his face, and plague those who hate him. This is the psalm wherein God’s promises to David are found once again.

Psalm 110:1–2

Jehovah said to my Lord, Sit at My right hand until I place Your enemies as Your footstool. Jehovah shall send the rod of Your strength out of Zion; rule in the midst of Your enemies. Although God the Father promises this to our Lord, He also deals with our enemies.

1Cor. 15:24–26

Then is the end, when He delivers the kingdom to God, even the Father; when He makes to cease all rule and all authority and power. for it is right for Him to reign until He has put all the enemies under His feet. The last enemy made to cease is death. Again, although these are promises of God the Father made to God the Son, there is still some applicability to us.

To understand just how screwed up we are as a nation, we find people completely unable to figure out what to do about our enemies. I recall seeing one celebrity calling for understanding of the cause of the radical Muslims after the attacks of 9/11, and yet, the very same person excoriated President George Bush. No harsh words for terrorists who killed 3000 Americans; but unrelenting hatred for our own president.

There are people who will claim to be nonviolent, or call for a foreign policy of little or no violence; yet, when they are in a demonstration, they will physically attack conservative types. So that there is no confusion: you will have personal enemies as your life progresses. People at your job, neighbors of yours, and many others will lie about you, talk behind your back, and do things, in general, to make your life miserable. Those are the enemies which you love impersonally. That is, you do not hate them, you do not gossip about them, you do not fantasize about revenge against them, and you do not plot revenge against them.

On the other hand—and this is one reason we need to understand the Old Testament—enemies of our nation, that we war against, are to be killed. We do not send soldiers into battle and then tell them to turn the other cheek. We do not allow attacks against the United States and say, “I guess we just need to understand these people better.” We kill our national enemies.

Along the same lines, when we have national enemies in our camps (like the prison camp in Guantanamo Bay), we do not suddenly make them recipients of the rights of American citizens. When they are not parties to the Geneva Convention and if they do not adhere to any of the rules of the Geneva Convention, then we are under no obligation to place ourselves under Geneva Convention restrictions.

Scriptures mostly taken from Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge; by Canne, Browne, Blayney, Scott, and others about 1880, with introduction by R. A. Torrey; courtesy of E-sword, 1Chron. 17:10.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


A nation rots from the inside out. There is a spiritual rot, which includes being unable to face reality, and unabashed idolatry. In the United States, we are suffering from all of that. The Black church is a great illustration of this. African-Americans (before they believed it was important to be so designated), were strong of faith. They had solid families and very low unemployment. Black unemployment before the Great Depression was lower than white unemployment. Their churches taught salvation by faith alone in Christ alone. With the advent of Martin Luther King Jr., some Black churches became more activist in nature, trying to achieve equality in the United States. Although this is certainly a worthy goal, it should never have been the focus of the Black church. That was 50–60 years ago. 20–30 years ago, these same churches who had walked away from the clear gospel of Jesus Christ now began to teach Black Liberation Theology, which is Marxism dressed up special for the African-American (Liberation Theology first began to rear its ugly head in churches throughout South America, with the objective of turning a country toward socialism). This is spiritual rot, and with it, we have a myriad of related social problems—the destruction of the Black family, the increase of out-of-wedlock children, the increase of crime—particularly Black on Black crime, the increase of abortions of Black babies. All of this is a result of some very subtle changes in the spiritual life of African-Americans.


We face the same thing throughout our nation. Since I began writing this, we have elected a man for president who has absolutely nothing to recommend him for this position apart from being good looking, intelligent, moderately well-spoken, and Black. 56% of our country voted for a man who has absolutely no understanding or experience with free enterprise, business or the military.


1Chronicles 17:10c = 2Samuel 7:11c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

nâgad (נָגַד) [pronounced naw-GAHD]

to make conspicuous, to make known, to expound, to explain, to declare, to inform, to confess, to make it pitifully obvious that

1st person singular, Hiphil imperfect

Strong's #5046 BDB #616

The Greek verb here means, instead, to increase.

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

The Samuel text has, instead:

nâgad (נָגַד) [pronounced naw-GAHD]

to make conspicuous, to make known, to expound, to explain, to declare, to inform, to confess, to make it pitifully obvious that

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect

Strong's #5046 BDB #616

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217


Translation: Furthermore, I declare to you... Again, there is a different in text between Chronicles and Samuel. It is possible and reasonable that God said, “Furthermore, I declare to you...” and that Nathan said to David, “Furthermore, Jehovah declares to you...” The Samuel text is known for being corrupt, so it is possible that is the problem here (and elsewhere) was poor manuscripts which may have even been incomplete, where the missing portions were reproduced from memory by an enslaved people.


The Temple of Solomon would have been a library repository for all of the sacred Scriptures (which were separate scrolls), and this Temple was destroyed circa 586 b.c. by the Chaldeans. That these books were sacred was known, but how they were preserved is not. However, after the people of Judah had been removed from their land by the Chaldeans and later returned to the land by the Persians (who conquered the Chaldeans), somehow many of their records were intact—including all of these genealogical records found at the beginning of Chronicles.


1Chronicles 17:10d = 2Samuel 7:11d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

The Samuel text has, instead:

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, because; that; when

explanatory conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

bayith (בַּיִת) [pronounced BAH-yith]

house, residence; household, habitation as well as inward

masculine singular noun

Strong's #1004 BDB #108

ʿâsâh (עָשָֹה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWH]

to do, to make, to construct, to fashion, to form, to prepare, to manufacture

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #6213 BDB #793

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217


Translation: ...that Yehowah will construct a dynasty [lit., house] for you. There is a play on words here, which is often found in the word of God. David wants to build a house for the Ark of God and God says, “I will build a house for you.” Well, David is already sitting in a huge cedar palace constructed for him by Hiram, King of Tyre, so God is not saying, “Listen, David, I am going to build you an even better house than this.” God is going to build for David and from David a dynasty. At the time this was said, it was a bold prophecy, as Saul, Israel’s first king, had no dynasty whatsoever. One weak son attempted to set himself up as king and was assassinated. David will take care of another relative of Saul’s. So, Saul went from having several sons, any of whom could have followed him, to no dynasty whatsoever, essentially. David’s sons, on the other hand, occupied the throne of United Israel and, later, Judah. However, far more important than this is, Jesus—as the Son of David—would occupy this throne, as the King over all the Earth, in the Millennium.


And he is when fulfilled your days to go with your fathers, and I will [cause to] raise up your seed after you who is from your sons and I will establish his reign.

1Chronicles

17:11

And it is when your days are fulfilled, [when you] go with your fathers, then I will raise up your seed after you—[one] who is from your sons—and I will establish his kingdom.

And when your days are fulfilled and you have gone to be with your fathers, I will raise up your seed after you—a man from your sons—and I will establish his kingdom.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

Latin Vulgate                          And when thou shalt have ended thy days to go to thy fathers, I will raise up thy seed after thee, which shall be of thy sons: and I will establish his kingdom.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And he is when fulfilled your days to go with your fathers, and I will [cause to] raise up your seed after you who is from your sons and I will establish his reign.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And it shall come to pass when your days are fulfilled that you shall go to be gathered with your fathers, I will raise up your offspring after you, who shall come out of your loins, and I will establish him in your kingdom.

Septuagint (Greek)                And it will come to pass when your days will be fulfilled, and you will sleep with your fathers, that I will raise up your seed after You, who will be of your bowels, and I will establish his kingdom.

 

Significant differences:           Most significantly, the Samuel text, Syriac and Greek all have the additional text who will come from your bowels. The Latin does not have this phrase. Instead of going to be with one’s fathers, the Greek speaks of David sleeping (as in death) with his fathers (as does the Hebrew text in Samuel).


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       I'll choose one of your sons to be king when you reach the end of your life and are buried beside your ancestors. I'll make him a strong ruler,...

Easy-to-Read Version            When you die, and you join your ancestors, then I will let your own son be the new king. The new king will be one of your sons. And I will make his kingdom strong.

Good News Bible (TEV)         When you die and are buried with your ancestors, I will make one of your sons king and will keep his kingdom strong.

The Message                         When your life is complete and you're buried with your ancestors, then I'll raise up your child to succeed you, a child from your own body, and I'll firmly establish his rule.

New Century Version             ...when I chose judges for my people Israel. I will defeat all your enemies.

" 'I tell you that the Lord will make your descendants kings of Israel after you.

NIRV                                      Some day your life will come to an end. You will join the members of your family who have already died. Then I will give you one of your own sons to become the next king after you. I will make his kingdom secure.

New Jerusalem Bible             And when your days are over and you have gone to join your ancestors, I shall appoint your heir -- who will be one of your sons -- to succeed you, and I shall make his sovereignty secure.

New Life Bible                        When your days are over, the time will come when you must go to be with your fathers. But then I will put into power one of your sons after you. I will make him king.

New Living Translation           For when you die and join your ancestors, I will raise up one of your descendants, one of your sons, and I will make his kingdom strong.

Revised English Bible            When your life ends and you go to join your forefathers, I shall set up one of your family, one of your own sons, to succeed you, and I shall establish his kingdom.

Today’s NIV                          When your days are over and you go to be with your ancestors, I will raise up your offspring to succeed you, one of your own sons, and I will establish his kingdom.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And when the time comes for you to go to your fathers, I will put in your place your seed after you, one of your sons, and I will make his kingdom strong.

God’s Word                         "'When the time comes for you to go and be with your ancestors, I will send one of your descendants. He will be one of your sons. I will establish his kingdom.

JPS (Tanakh)                         When your days are done and you follow your fathers, I will raise up your offspring after you, one of your own sons, and I will establish his kingdom.

NET Bible®                             When the time comes for you to die, I will raise up your descendant, one of your own sons, to succeed you, and I will establish his kingdom.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

MKJV                                     And it will be, when your days have ended so that you must go to be with your fathers, I will raise up your seed after you, who shall be from your sons. And I will make his kingdom sure.

Young’s Updated LT             And it will come to pass, when your days have been fulfilled to go with your fathers, that I have raised up your seed after you, who is of your sons, and I have established his kingdom,...


What is the gist of this verse? God promises to raise up one of David’s sons, after David is gone, and establish his kingdom.


1Chronicles 17:11a = 2Samuel 7:12a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

These first two words (above) are not found in the Samuel text.

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, because; that; when

explanatory conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

mâlêʾ (מָלֵא) [pronounced maw-LAY]

to fill, to make full; to be filled, to be full, to fulfill

3rd person plural, Qal imperfect

Strong's #4390 BDB #569

yâmîym (יָמִים) [pronounced yaw-MEEM]

days, a set of days; time of life, lifetime; a specific time period, a year

masculine plural noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398


Translation: And it is when your days are fulfilled,... God continues His promise to David. We all come to the end of our lives, and when David comes to his, God will bring certain things to pass.


1Chronicles 17:11b = 2Samuel 7:12b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

hâlake (הָלַךְ) [pronounced haw-LAHKe]

to go, to come, to depart, to walk; to advance

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #1980 (and #3212) BDB #229

The Greek has, instead, the verb to sleep. This is the same as the Samuel text (noted below).

ʿîm (עִם) [pronounced ģeem]

with, at, by, near; like; from

preposition of nearness and vicinity with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5973 BDB #767

Instead of the first 3 words above, the Samuel text has:

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

shâkab (שָכַב) [pronounced shaw-KAHBV]

to lie down, to lie down [to sleep, to have sexual relations, to die; because of sickness or humiliation]; to relax

2nd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #7901 BDB #1011

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

with, at, near, by, among, directly from

preposition (which is identical to the sign of the direct object)

Strong's #854 BDB #85

ʾâb (אָב) [pronounced awbv]

father, both as the head of a household, clan or tribe

masculine plural noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #1 BDB #3


Translation:...[when you] go with your fathers,... The differences which we find between this and the Samuel text again suggests to me that much of the Samuel text may have been reconstructed from memory. What we have here are statements which essentially mean the same thing. In the Chronicles text, we speak of David going with his fathers, and the Samuel text has the more common lying down with his fathers. It is as if someone knew the text quite well, but did not completely recall this or that portion of a verse. Or, it is as if we are dealing with a badly destroyed manuscript, and someone who has recited the text many times has been called in to fill in the blanks.


It is my own opinion that it is the Samuel text which is weak, and I primarily base this opinion upon the many commentaries which speak of the Samuel text as being the most poorly transmitted text in the Old Testament.


Allow me to suggest at least one scenario: the writer of Chronicles has access to the royal texts, and has an accurate copy of the Samuel text. He reads through the king’s records and records the book of Chronicles. In the national difficulties which follow over the next 100 or so years, the remaining Samuel manuscripts are either lost or those which remain are in terrible condition.


Another plausible explanation, is that the writer of Chronicles has pieces and portions of manuscripts and the king’s records, many of which are in horrid condition, and he believes that he ought to put together a record of what has happened over the previous centuries. When he comes to unreadable passages in Samuel, he puts down what he remembers from hearing and reading this passages in the past. In later days, after Chronicles has been committed to paper, other Samuel texts, preserved in other areas, become available.


Although the second explanation is more logical to me, I still have this feeling that, somehow, the Samuel text was preserved more accurately in Chronicles and the Samuel text we have today is the weaker text.


To add to this general confusion, the Greek matches the Hebrew text from Samuel but the Latin agrees with the Masoretic text. If all we had was the Greek text, we might suppose that our present-day Chronicles text is incorrect in this verse. However, the Latin translation, made a few centuries later, agrees exactly with the Masoretic text of Chronicles that we have. This might lead one to believe that over that critical period of a few hundred years, the Chronicles text got corrupted. However, the Syriac text, which comes along even later, agrees in part with the Samuel text and in part with the Masoretic text.


In any case—and this is what is most important—I have not come across any textual differences between Samuel, Chronicles or any of the ancient translations of either of these books which ever caused me to entirely rethink the historical narrative which is presented or any doctrine, fundamental or tertiary. So, regardless of what has happened historically, God has not allowed falsehood to be carried in the Samuel or Chronicles texts.


All of these points on textual criticism will be discussed in greater depth in the Addendum for this chapter.


1Chronicles 17:11c = 2Samuel 7:12c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

It is typical in the Hebrew for each sentence—in fact, each thought—to begin with a wâw consecutive (or a wâw conjunction) in the Hebrew. However, it is not necessary in an English translation to include a connective at every such juncture, as our language does not necessarily require that for successive thoughts or actions.

In this case, the wâw conjunction continues the thought of a compound conditional sentence. When this happens, then this will occur is the idea here.

qûwm (קוּם) [pronounced koom]

to cause to raise up, to cause to stand, to establish, to fulfill; to uphold, to perform [a testimony, a vow, a commandment, a promise]

1st person singular, Hiphil perfect

Strong’s #6965 BDB #877

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

zeraʿ (זֶרַע) [pronounced ZEH-rahģ]

a seed, a sowing, an offspring; progeny

masculine singular noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #2233 BDB #282

ʾachărêy (אַחֲרֵי) [pronounced ah-kuh-RAY]

behind, after; following; after that, afterwards; hinder parts

preposition; plural form; with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #310 BDB #29

The preposition ʾachărêy appears to have a rare substantive use as well; here, it can mean the end of, the butt of, the end portion; the back.


Translation: ...then I will raise up your seed after you... As we saw in the text of Psalm 89, there are many passages which ought to be interpreted in two ways. The seed being raised up after David could be seen as Solomon but also, seen as being Jesus Christ.


1Chronicles 17:11d = 2Samuel 7:12d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

bên (בֵּן) [pronounced bane]

son, descendant

masculine plural noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

The Samuel text has, instead:

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

yâtsâʾ (יָצָא) [pronounced yaw-TZAWH]

to go out, to come out, to come forth; to rise; to flow, to gush up [out]

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #3318 BDB #422

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

mêʿiym (מֵעִים) [pronounced may-GEEM]

internal organs, inward parts, intestines, bowels; figuratively the womb; organs of procreation, loins; emotions; stress, love

masculine plural noun (this noun is always found in the plural); with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #4578 BDB #588


Translation:...—[one] who is from your sons—... Both Solomon and Jesus were sons of David. In the Hebrew, the word son also means descendant.


1Chronicles 17:11e = 2Samuel 7:12e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

kûwn (כּוּן) [pronounced koon]

to erect (to stand up perpendicular), to set up, to establish, to prepare, to strengthen, to be stabilized

1st person singular, Hiphil perfect

Strong’s #3559 BDB #465

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

malekûwth (מַלְכוּת) [pronounced mahl-KOOTH]

royalty, royal power, reign, kingdom

feminine singular noun with 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #4438 BDB #574

The Samuel text has the very similar noun:

mamelâkâh (מַמְלָכָה) [pronounced mahme-law-kaw]

kingdom, sovereignty, dominion, reign, dynasty; used to refer to both the royal dignity and to the country of a king

feminine singular noun with 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #4467 BDB #575


Translation: ...and I will establish his kingdom. God established the kingdom of Solomon (future from when this promise was originally given); and God will establish the kingdom of Christ.

 

It is very clear that Jewish theologians saw the Davidic Covenant as a near and a far fulfillment. Often people, long after the fact, point at this or that verse, and say, “This really refers just to David’s son Solomon; you are getting fanciful to throw in the idea of a Savior of all mankind.” But, not only did ancient Jewish Theologians see it that way, but the Bible sees it that way as well.

The Near and Far Fulfillment of the Davidic Covenant

Near Fulfillment

Far Fulfillment

David tells Solomon what God had promised: Behold, a son shall be born to you who shall be a man of rest. And I will give him rest from all his enemies all around. For his name shall be Solomon, and I will give peace and quietness to Israel in his days. He shall build a house for My name. And he shall be My son, and I will be his Father (1Chron. 22:9–10a).

And then David adds these words, also from God: And He shall be My Son, and I will be His Father. And I will establish the throne of His kingdom over Israel forever (1Chron. 22:10b). You will notice that one sentence provides and overlap going from a Solomon fulfillment to a Jesus fulfillment.

David said, “And of all my sons (for Jehovah has given me many sons), He has chosen Solomon my son to sit on the throne of the kingdom of the Lord over Israel. And He said to me, Solomon your son shall build My house and My courts, for I have chosen him to be My son, and I will be his Father.” (1Chron. 28:5–6; 2Sam. 7:13–14a).

Yet David himself understood that this had a fulfillment in the far future as well, because he then says, And I will establish His kingdom forever if He will always do My commandments and My judgments, as at this day. (1Chron. 28:7; 2Sam. 7:16). Solomon did not have a kingdom which was established forever, nor did he always obey all God’s commandments. Furthermore, David was not so stupid as to think that Solomon would obey all of God’s commandments for all of his life.

Solomon recognized that he was the fulfillment of this promise, saying to the elders at the dedication of the Temple: “And it was in the heart of my father David to build a house for the name of Jehovah, the God of Israel. And Jehovah said to my father David, Because it was in your heart to build a house to My name, you did well that it was in your heart. Only, you shall not build the house, but your son who shall come out of your loins, he shall build the house to My name. And Jehovah has performed His Word which He spoke, and I have risen up instead of my father David. And I sit on the throne of Israel, as Jehovah promised. And I have built a house for the name of Jehovah, the God of Israel (1Kings 8:17–20).

And yet, in the very same speech, Solomon asks, prophetically, “But will God indeed dwell on the earth? Behold, the heavens and the heaven of heavens cannot contain You. How much less this house which I have built?” (2Kings 8:27). Solomon himself, with these very words—words which he does not quite understand himself, asks, “Will God live on this earth?” In his mind, Solomon is saying, “No, God cannot dwell in this Temple, as He is omnipresent” but what he says out loud, and what we read centuries later, is entirely different. “Will God live on this earth?”

Years later, a psalmist writes about this covenant that God made with David: Jehovah has sworn to David in truth; He will not turn from it; Of the fruit of your body I will set on the throne for you (Psalm 132:11).

Then he adds these words: If your sons will keep My covenant and My testimonies which I shall teach them, their sons shall also sit on your throne forever. Jehovah has chosen Zion; He has desired it for His dwelling-place. This is My rest forever; here I will dwell; for I have desired it (Psalm 132:12–14). God’s eternal rest will be upon Zion, the place that David chose.

It is important to see how God almost seamlessly moves from Solomon fulfilling these promises to David’s Greater Son fulfilling these promises. The reason this is important is, there are a number of 1st and 2nd Advent prophecies woven together in much the same way. There are many prophecies which have both a near and a far fulfillment. This is the genius of the Bible, which is the mind of Christ.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines

The Davidic Covenant is Applied only to Jesus

Of this Descendant of David, Isaiah writes: His name shall be called Wonderful, Counselor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. There is no end of the increase of His government and peace on the throne of David, and on His kingdom, to order it and to establish it with judgment and with justice from now on, even forever. The zeal of Jehovah of Hosts will do this (Isa. 9:6b–7).

And then, long after David and Solomon, Jeremiah writes: Behold, the days come, says Jehovah, that I will raise to David a righteous Branch, and a King will reign and act wisely, and will do judgment and justice in the earth. In his days Judah will be saved, and Israel will dwell safely. And this is His name by which He will be called, Jehovah, our Righteousness (Jer. 23:5–6).

Zechariah associates the One building the Temple as the Messiah to come. So speaks Jehovah of Hosts, saying, Behold the Man whose name is The BRANCH! And He shall spring up out of His place, and He shall build the temple of Jehovah. Even He shall build the temple of Jehovah; and He shall bear the glory, and shall sit and rule on His throne. And He shall be a priest on His throne; and the counsel of peace shall be between them both (Zech. 6:12a–13).

Throughout the New Testament, Jesus is called the Son of David (Matt. 9:27 12:3 15:22 20:30–31 21:9, 15 Mark 10:47–48 Luke 18:38–39). Paul calls Him the Seed of David (Rom. 1:3 2Tim. 2:8).

An angel refers to Jesus as the fulfillment of the Davidic Covenant in Luke 1:30–32: And the angel said to her, “Do not fear, Mary, for you have found favor with God. And behold! You shall conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you shall call His name JESUS. He shall be great and shall be called the Son of the Highest. And the Lord God shall give Him the throne of His father David.”

Jesus, of course, poses a question to the religious types, as to who the Messiah is—is He the Son of God or the Son of David. While the Pharisees were gathered, Jesus asked them, saying, What do you think of Christ? Whose son is he? They say to Him, David's. He said to them, How then does David by the Spirit call him Lord, saying, "the LORD said to my Lord, Sit on My right until I make Your enemies Your footstool for Your feet?" If David then calls Him Lord, how is He his son? And no one was able to answer Him a word, nor did anyone dare from that day to question Him any more (Matt. 22:41–46). We understand the Hypostatic Union; but the pharisees and theologians of that day did not. This incident is important enough to be found in Mark and Luke as well.

And this basic misunderstanding (or lack of a full understanding) is how men are split: Then when they heard the Word, many of the people said, Truly this is the Prophet. Others said, This is the Christ. But others said, Does the Christ come out of Galilee? Has the Scripture not said that Christ comes from the seed of David and out of the town of Bethlehem, where David was? So a division occurred in the crowd because of Him. And some of them desired to seize Him, but no one laid hands on Him. Then the officers came to the chief priests and Pharisees. And they said to them, Why have you not brought him? The officers answered, Never did any man speak as does this Man. Then the Pharisees answered them, Also, have you not been deceived? Is it not true that not any of the rulers or of the Pharisees have believed into him? But this crowd, not knowing the Law, is cursed. Nicodemus said to them, (he who came to Jesus by night, being one of them), Does our law judge the Man before it hears Him and knows what He does? They answered and said to him, Are you also from Galilee? Search the scriptures and see that a prophet has not been raised out of Galilee. And they each went to his own house (John 7:40–53). Do you see, the entire argument centers around, how can Jesus come from Galilee (that is, be just a man) and yet, at the same time, be the Messiah?

Finally Jesus calls Himself the Root and Offspring of David in Rev. 22:16, which is the last chapter of the Bible.

 

Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines

 

He [even] he will build for Me a house and I will establish a throne of his kingdoms as far as forever.

1Chronicles

17:12

He [even] he will build a house for Me and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever.

He will build a house for Me and I will establish His kingdom forever.

 

Here is how others have translated this verse:

 

Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        He [even] he will build for Me a house and I will establish a throne of his kingdoms as far as forever.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    He will build a house to My name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom for ever.

Septuagint (Greek)                He will build Me a house, and I will set up his throne forever.

 

Significant differences:           None.

 

Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       ...and no one will be able to take his kingdom away from him. He will be the one to build a temple for me.

Easy-to-Read Version            Your son will build a house for me. I will make your son’s family rule forever.

Good News Bible (TEV)         He will be the one to build a temple for me, and I will make sure that his dynasty continues forever.

The Message                         He will build a house to honor me, and I will guarantee his kingdom's rule forever.

New Century Version             He will build a house for me, and I will let his kingdom rule always.

NIRV                                      " ' "He is the one who will build me a house. I will set up his throne. It will last forever.

New Jerusalem Bible             He will build a temple for me and I shall make his throne secure for ever.

New Living Translation           He is the one who will build a house-a temple-for me. And I will secure his throne forever.

Revised English Bible            It is he who will build me a house, and I shall establish his throne for all time.

 

Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             He will be the builder of my house, and I will make the seat of his authority certain for ever.

NET Bible®                             He will build me a house, and I will make his dynasty permanent.

 

Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

LTHB                                     He shall build a house for My Name, and I shall establish the throne of his kingdom forever..

Young's Updated LT              He builds a house for My Name, and I have established the throne of his kingdom unto the age.

 

What is the gist of this verse? David’s son would build a house for God’s name and his throne would be established forever.

 

1Chronicles 17:12a = 2Samuel 7:13a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

hûwʾ (הוּא) [pronounced hoo]

he, it; himself as a demonstrative pronoun: that, this

3rd person masculine singular, personal pronoun

Strong’s #1931 BDB #214

This pronoun can be used in the emphatic sense. Sometimes, the verb to be is implied when this pronoun is used.

Hûwʾ is also used as a masculine singular, demonstrative pronoun and is rendered that; this.

bânâh (בָּנָה) [pronounced baw-NAWH]

to build, to rebuild, to restore

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #1129 BDB #124

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 1st person singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

bayith (בַּיִת) [pronounced BAH-yith]

house, residence; household, habitation as well as inward

masculine singular noun, pausal form

Strong's #1004 BDB #108

The next two words are found in the Samuel text but not in Chronicles. Also for Me is found in the Chronicles text, but not in the Samuel text.

lâmed (ל) (pronounced le)

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

shêm (שֵם) [pronounced shame]

name, reputation, character

masculine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #8034 BDB #1027

 

Translation: He [even] he will build a house for Me... You will note the slight difference in the text between the Samuel and Chronicles texts. In the Chronicles text, Samuel is building a house for God, and in the Samuel text, he is building a house for the reputation of God. This is a legitimate quote from the writer/editor of Chronicles to leave the final two words out. Solomon, who was David’s son, would build the Temple, where people would worship, and where the Ark would be housed.

 

Just as we have already seen, this promise has a double-fulfillment. You will recall that house was also used to mean a dynasty (on rare occasions, but certainly in this context—v. 10). So we may also understand this to be translation, He (God the Son) will build a dynasty for Me (God the Father). Jesus Christ will establish a 1000 year reign on the earth in the Millennium.

 

1Chronicles 17:12b = 2Samuel 7:13b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

kûwn (כּוּן) [pronounced koon]

to set up, to erect; to confirm, to establish, to maintain; to found [a city, the earth, etc]; to direct [e.g., arrows], metaphorically to turn one’s mind [to anything]

3rd person masculine singular, Pilel (Polel) imperfect

Strong’s #3559 BDB #465

The Polel is not acknowledged in Mansoor’s book nor in Zodhiates; it comes from Owen’s book. However, it is essentially the same as the Piel (intensive) stem with a different conjugation. It appears to be called the Pilel in Gesenius and BDB.

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

kiççêʾ (כִּסֵּא) [pronounced kis-SAY]

throne, seat of honor; seat of judgment; royal dignity, authority, kingdom, power

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #3678 BDB #490

mamelâkâh (מַמְלָכָה) [pronounced mahme-law-kaw]

kingdom, sovereignty, dominion, reign, dynasty; used to refer to both the royal dignity and to the country of a king

feminine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #4467 BDB #575

ʿad (עַד) [pronounced ģahd]

as far as, even to, up to, until

preposition

Strong’s #5704 BDB #723

ʿôwlâm (עוֹלָם) [pronounced ģo-LAWM]

long duration, forever, perpetuity, antiquity, futurity

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #5769 BDB #761

Together, they mean and from everlasting to everlasting, from eternity past to eternity future or from antiquity to everlasting, forever; for a lifetime (?); from a point in time to far into the future; to the end of this age.

 

Translation: ...and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. God would establish the line of David to rule over Israel till the end of human history (until God creates a new heavens and a new earth). Jesus Christ, of course, will be the person in David’s line Who will rule forever.

 

The nation Israel split into two nations, the Northern Kingdom did not continue to be ruled by the House of Judah, and, for that reason, showed themselves to be apostate in my other ways as well. God finally removed them by the 5th Cycle of Discipline. The Southern Kingdom also went astray, and the people were also removed from their land, thus [temporarily] ending the dynasty of David. However, A Shoot goes out from the stump of Jesse, and a Branch shall grow out of his roots. And the Spirit of Jehovah shall rest on Him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of Jehovah (Isa. 11:1–2). So, the dynasty of David will be cut off, just as a tree is cut off at its stump; however, from that stump will grow a Shoot, a Branch, which is the Lord Jesus Christ. This illustrates perfectly the sudden end of the Davidic dynasty, when the southern kingdom is overrun and removed from the land. That will cut off the royal Davidic line. However, the line of David would continue, as a shoot coming from this root. Isaiah says of this Branch: His name shall be called Wonderful, Counselor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. There is no end of the increase of His government and peace on the throne of David, and on His kingdom, to order it and to establish it with judgment and with justice from now on, even forever. The zeal of Jehovah of Hosts will do this (Isa. 9:6b–7).

 

I am to Him to a Father and He is to Me to a Son; and My grace I will not remove from with Him as which I removed from whom was to your faces.

1Chronicles

17:13

I will be to Him a Father and He will be to Me a Son; and I will not remove My grace from His custody just as I removed from [him] who was before you.

I will be to Him a Father and He will be to Me My Son. I will not remove My grace from David as I removed it from Saul.

 

Here is how others have translated this verse:

 

Ancient texts:

 

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        I am to him to a Father and he is to Me to a son; and My grace I will not remove from with him as which I removed from whom was to your faces.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    I will be his father and he shall be my son; and I will not take my mercy away from him, as I took it from Saul, who was before you.

Septuagint (Greek)                I will be to him a father, and he will be to me a son: and my mercy will I not withdraw from him, as I withdrew it from them that were before you.

 

Significant differences:           The English translation of the Peshitta identifies the king before David by name. Other than that, the texts are equivalent.

 

Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       I will be like a father to him, and he will be like a son to me. I will never put an end to my agreement with him, as I put an end to my agreement with Saul, who was king before you.

Easy-to-Read Version            I will be his Father, and he will be my son. Saul was the king before you. And I took away my support from Saul. But I will never stop loving your son.

Good News Bible (TEV)         I will be his father, and he will be my son. I will not withdraw my support from him as I did from Saul, whom I removed so that you could be king.

The Message                         I'll be a father to him, and he'll be a son to me. I will never remove my gracious love from him as I did from the one who preceded you.

New Century Version             I will be his father, and he will be my son. I took away my love from Saul, who ruled before you, but I will never stop loving your son.

New Jerusalem Bible             I shall be his father and he will be my son, and I shall not withdraw my favour from him, as I withdrew it from your predecessor.

New Living Translation           I will be his father, and he will be my son. I will never take my favor from him as I took it from the one who ruled before you.

 

Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

God’s Word                         I will be his Father, and he will be my Son. And I will never stop showing him my love as I did to your predecessor.

NET Bible®                             I will become his father and he will become my son. I will never withhold my loyal love from him, as I withheld it from the one who ruled before you.

 

Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                I will be his father, and he shall be My son; and I will not take My mercy and steadfast love away from him, as I took it from him [King Saul] who was before you.

Concordant Literal Version    I am to him for a father, and he is to Me for a son, and My kindness I turn not aside from him as I turned it aside from him who was before you,...

LTHB                                     I shall be a Father to him, and he shall be a son to Me; and I will not take My mercy away from him, as I took it away from him who was before you;...

NRSV                                     I will be a father to him, and he shall be a son to me. I will not take my steadfast love from him, as I took it from him who was before you,...

Young’s Updated LT             I am to him for a father, and he is to Me for a son, and My kindness I turn not aside from him as I turned it aside from him who was before you.

 

What is the gist of this verse? God says that He will be a Father to this son [Son] of David; and that He would never remove His grace from him [Him].

 

1Chronicles 17:13a = 2Samuel 7:14a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾânîy (אָנִי) [pronounced aw-NEE]

I, me; in answer to a question, it means I am, it is I

1st person singular, personal pronoun

Strong’s #589 BDB #58

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

1st person singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾâb (אָב) [pronounced awbv]

father, both as the head of a household, clan or tribe

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #1 BDB #3

 

Translation: I will be to Him a Father... Recall that this promise was made both about Solomon and about David’s Greater Son, Jesus Christ. This was written long after Solomon’s reign, at a time when Israel was no longer a sovereign nation with a powerful king from the tribe of Judah. However this promise still stands, and the editor of Chronicles chooses to keep this promise in this text.

 

1Chronicles 17:13b = 2Samuel 7:14b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

hûwʾ (הוּא) [pronounced hoo]

he, it; himself as a demonstrative pronoun: that, this

3rd person masculine singular, personal pronoun

Strong’s #1931 BDB #214

This pronoun can be used in the emphatic sense. Sometimes, the verb to be is implied when this pronoun is used.

Hûwʾ is also used as a masculine singular, demonstrative pronoun and is rendered that; this.

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 1st person singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

bên (בֵּן) [pronounced bane]

son, descendant

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

 

Translation: ...and He will be to Me a Son;... The most important aspect of the Davidic Covenant was the Son Who was to come, David’s Greater Son, the Lord Jesus Christ. The writer of Chronicles is, in part, looking back at Solomon, during the glory days of Israel; but, more importantly, he is looking forward to the 1st Advent.

 

2Samuel 7:14c–f not found in the Chronicles text

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER] can be used to introduce and apodosis and be rendered if, when.

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

Strong’s# none BDB #88

ʿâvâh (עָוָה) [pronounced ģaw-VAW]

to make crooked, to make perverted; to act perversely; to cause to bend (twist, distort)

Hiphil infinitive construct with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5753 BDB #730

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

yâkach (יָכַח) [pronounced yaw-KAHK]

when there is a dispute involved: to hammer out a decision or an agreement to resolve a conflict, to render a decision; to argue, to dispute

1st person singular, Hiphil perfect; with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #3198 BDB #406

When there is no dispute involved, this word means: it means to correct, to rebuke, to refute, to reprove, to correct [with punishment].

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

Strong’s# none BDB #88

shêbeţ (שֵבֶט) [pronounced SHAYB-vet]

rod, staff, club, scepter and figuratively for a tribe, subdivision of a tribe or family

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #7626 BDB #986

ʾănâsîym (אֲנָשִֹים) [pronounced uh-NAW-seem]; also spelled ʾîyshîym (אִישִים) [pronounced ee-SHEEM]

men; inhabitants, citizens; companions; soldiers, followers

masculine plural noun

Strong's #376 BDB #35

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

Strong’s# none BDB #88

negaʿ (נֶעַע) [pronounced NEH-gahģ]

bruise, injury, wound; swelling, eruption [on the skin]; mark [from a plague]; stripes [from beating]

masculine plural construct

Strong's #5061 BDB #619

bên (בֵּן) [pronounced bane]

son, descendant

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

Owen mistakenly has a singular construct here.

ʾâdâm (אָדָם) [pronounced aw-DAWM]

a man, a human being, mankind, Adam

masculine singular noun

Strong's #120 BDB #9

 

[Translation: ...when he acts perversely [or, if he is twisted or distorted], then I will correct him [or, I will render a (just) decision] with a rod of men and with the bruises [or, welts] of the sons of Adam [or, mankind].] The editor of Chronicles apparently understood, to some degree, the double-fulfillment of these words. However, when it came to this portion of the verse, he left them out. These words were applied to Solomon (in his mind) and he did not realize that these words could also be applied to the Messiah (see my exegesis of 2Sam. 7:14), so he left them out. What this tells us is, the editor of Chronicles understood that these promises made to David would be fulfilled by the Messiah as well as by Solomon. Since Solomon was long dead, the chronicler