2Samuel 7

 

2Samuel 7:1–7

The Davidic Covenant


Outline of Chapter 7:

 

         vv.     1–3           David speaks to Nathan, and Wants to Build a Permanent House for the Ark of God

         vv.     4–17         God speaks to Nathan, and Gives Him the Davidic Covenant

         vv.    18–29         David’s Great Prayer of Faith in Response to the Davidic Covenant


Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines:

 

         Introduction         Gill Outlines 2Samuel 7

         Introduction         The Word House in 2Samuel 7

 

         v.       1              When Did God Give David the Davidic Covenant?

         v.       1              Other Opinions on the Timeline

         v.       1              A Brief Old Testament Dictionary

         v.       1              Online Bible Doctrines and Theological Dictionaries

         v.       2              What Happened When?

         v.       5              An Outline of God’s Words to David

         v.       7              Why Doesn’t God Allow David to Build a Temple for Him?

         v.       8              God’s Unconditional Covenant to David and the Suzerain-Vassal Treaty

         v.      10              A Timeline of Israel

         v.      11              Translations of 2Samuel 7:10–11

         v.      11              How Some Translations Broke up the Middle of 1Samuel 7

         v.      11              A New Approach to Vv. 8–11

         v.      12              Two Interpretations of 2Samuel 7:12

         v.      14              “I Will Be a Father to Him and He Will Be a Son to Me” Summarized

         v.      15              The Divine Dynasphere

         v.      15              Pertinent Information on the Divine Dynasphere

         v.      15              Accessing the Power System

         v.      15              The Doctrine of the Divine Dynasphere

         v.      15              Ancient Language Versions of 2Samuel 7:15

         v.      16              4 Approaches to 2Samual 7:16

         v.      16              Summary: All that God Told David—the Davidic Covenant

         v.      16              Scofield Analyses the Davidic Covenant

         v.      17              David’s Question

         v.      17              God’s Promises to David and his Son

         v.      17              God’s Other Promises to David

         v.      17              God Fulfills these Promises to David in Jesus Christ

         v.      18              Other Statements of Genuine Humility

         v.      19              Four Readings of 2Samuel 7:19

         v.      19              Opinions Concerning This is the Law of Man [or, Adam]

         v.      20              God Knows What Is in Our Hearts

         v.      21              God Fulfills His Word

         v.      22              The Exclusive Nature and Being of God

         v.      23              God’s Great Blessings to Israel

         v.      23              2Samuel 7:23a–c Compared

         v.      23              God Redeems Israel, which Typifies His Redemption of Mankind

         v.      23              2Samuel 7:23d–g Compared

         v.      23              What Do We Learn from Verses with Textual Problems?

         v.      23              2Samuel 7:23 Text from the Greek Septuagint

         v.      24              God’s Eternal Relationship with Israel

         v.      25              The Covenants of God to Israel

         v.      26              Various Translations of 2Sam. 7:25–26a

         v.      27              Lists of the Promises of God

         v.      27              David Finds the Heart to Pray this Prayer to God

         v.      28              The Name Jehovah is Applied to All Three Members of the Trinity

 

         Addendum          A Complete Translation of 2Samuel 7

         Addendum          New Testament Fulfillment of the Davidic Covenant in Jesus


Doctrines Covered

Doctrines Alluded To

The Covenants between God and Man

 

The Ark of God

 

 

 

 

 


Parallel Chapters

1Chronicles 17

 

 

 

Psalms Appropriately Exegeted in this Chapter

Psalm 89

Psalm 132

 

 


I ntroduction: In the previous chapter, and in 1Chron. 15–16, I discussed how David is doing nothing to unite the Ark of God (which he just moved into Jerusalem) with the Tabernacle of God (which is in Gibeon). 2Sam. 7 explains why. What David has in mind is building a Temple—a permanent structure—within which to place the Ark of God, and as a place where God may be worshiped. David first suggests this to Nathan the prophet and Nathan says, “Sounds like a good idea; go ahead and get things started.” However, God speaks to Nathan that night and tells Nathan that David is not going to build a Temple. Then God lays on Nathan the Davidic Covenant. The Davidic Covenant promises David that he will have a son who will build a Temple for God and that this son would sit on to the throne forever. What is going on is, God gives David a set of prophecies which may be applied both to Solomon and to Jesus Christ, both of whom will sit on the throne of David. Obviously, Jesus Christ will reign over all forever.


There is really no other way of looking at this chapter; we may disagree about where once sentence ends and another begins, but it is difficult to disagree on the outline itself. So, let me give you Gill’s outline (identical to almost everyone else’s) along with his commentary:

Gill Outlines 2Samuel 7

Scripture

Commentary

2Sam. 7:1–3

This chapter expresses David's concern for building an house for the ark of God, which he communicated to Nathan the prophet, and was approved of by him.

2Sam. 7:4–17

Nathan was that night dispatched by the Lord to David, to acquaint him, that as he had for many years dwelt in a tent, and had never given directions to the tribes of Israel, and the rulers of them, to build him an house, so neither should David build him one; but his son that would succeed him in the throne should; and also observes to him the many great things He had done for him, and promises him more, and particularly the establishment of his throne and kingdom for ever, in which he has respect to the Messiah, that should spring from him.

2Sam. 7:18–29

Then follows a prayer of David, in which he expresses the sense he had of the greatness and goodness of God, and of his own unworthiness to receive such favours from him he had, returns him thanks for the promises he had made, and prays for the performance of them.

About the only change which we could actually apply here would be to perhaps subdivide up the second section into 2 or 3 parts. The third section could be broken down into 2 parts as well.

Taken from Dr. John Gill, John Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible; from e-Sword, 2Sam. 7 introduction.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines

 

Zodhiates: David’s desire to build a house for the Lord sets the stage for one of the key passages in Scripture relating to the coming Messiah...God’s message through Nathan (vv. 8–16) is called the Davidic Covenant. It is both an expansion and a clarification of God’s promises to Abraham. It represents an unconditional promise to David that he would be the head of an everlasting kingdom (v. 16). David is also promised that his son would reign over Israel (v. 12) and that this son (Solomon) would be the one to build a house for the Lord (v. 13). Footnote


Although the bulk of this psalm is the Davidic Covenant, it begins with David speaking to the prophet Nathan about building a Temple for God. David refers to the Temple in Psalms 5 27 29 65 138, which suggests to me that, during the time of moving the Ark, David entered into a time of great creativity. He wrote several psalms which are associated with moving the Ark (which psalms we have studied). One author simply suggests that David is calling the Tabernacle a temple. Footnote This word is found elsewhere in the psalms, but in most instances, the reference appears to be to the Throne Room of God in heaven (Psalm 11:4 18:6) or to a palace, unrelated to the Jewish religious traditions (Psalm 45:8, 14–15 144:12).


David is sitting at home, in his newly build cedar home (2Sam. 5:11). God has given him rest from his enemies (2Sam. 7:1). David looks around, and sees how greatly he has been blessed, sitting in his cedar home, and it occurs to him that he ought to build a permanent home for God. So, David goes to Nathan the prophet and suggests this (v. 2). Nathan tells David to go ahead and put his plans into motion (v. 3).


God comes to Nathan at night (probably in a dream or a night vision), and tells him what Nathan needs to say to David. Vv. 5b–16 are the words which God says to Nathan, and which Nathan says to David. God first asks David, “Are you the one who will build a house for Me?” (v. 5b). Then God reminds David that He has always been in a tent ever since He bought the children of Israel out of Egypt (v. 6). No matter where God traveled with Israel, at no time did He suddenly speak to a leader, to tell him to build a house for Him (v. 7). God then reminds David of his own humble beginnings, and how God took him from being led around by sheep to leading all Israel (v. 8). In v. 9, God goes from what He has already done (giving David’s enemies in his hand—v. 9a) to what He would do for David in the future (beginning with making David renown in v. 9b). God then speaks of Israel as being planted in a place where they will not be disturbed again (v. 10). God then promises to make a dynasty of David’s kingship (v. 11), after which God launches into a dual prophecy, of Solomon and of Christ Jesus to come (vv. 12–16). After David has died, God would raise up his descendant (Descendant) and God would established his (His) kingdom (v. 12). This descendant would build a Temple for God (v. 13). This descendant would be like a son (Son) to God and God would be a Father to him (Him) (v. 14). God’s grace would not depart from him (Him) and David’s dynasty would be thus established in him (Him) forever (vv. 15–16).


David then goes before God and prays to Him (vv. 18–29). He goes before God and asks who he is for God to have taken him this far (v. 18). He recognizes the insignificance of himself and his own life (v. 19) and is at a loss for words (v. 20). David recognizes that this is within God’s Word and character and that there is no other God besides Him (vv. 21–22). David recognizes that there is no other nation which is like Israel insofar as what God has done for that nation (vv. 23–24). David then implores God to bring these things to pass so that He might be glorified (vv. 25–26). David finds the courage to pray such a prayer, as it is based upon God’s promises to him and that God’s Word is truth (vv. 27–28). Finally, David asks for God’s continued blessings upon him and his house (v. 29).


One of the keys of this chapter is the word house. David is sitting in his house (the palace) and he is thinking about God’s house (right now, only a tent, but David would prefer to make it into a Temple). God tells David, “No, you will not build a house for Me, but I will build a dynasty [house] for you.”


The primary theme of this chapter is the Davidic Covenant. Apart from the New Covenant spoken of in Jeremiah, this is the final covenant made by God to a particular man. God will not make a similar covenant with Solomon, Josiah or Hezekiah. This covenant is so important that we will find Jesus called the son of David 16 times in the New Testament. Jesus is called the son of Abraham only twice in the New Testament, and those two times within the genealogical records. This is the final and most important covenant, one which is far-reaching with great revelation for the people of Israel.


It is also important in this way: David will, primarily in his psalms, tell us about his Son in a number of ways. Many of David’s psalms deal with the Messiah, Who is David’s Greater Son, indicating to us that God the Holy Spirit revealed a great deal of information to David. In the psalms, the Messiah is portrayed as the Suffering Servant (Psalm 22) and as entering into His Kingdom of Glory (Psalm 2 24). He is called the Son of God (Psalm 2:7); God (Psalm 45:6–7 102:24–25 110:1); the Son of Man (Psalm 8:4–6); and the Son of David (Psalm 89:3–4, 27, 29). He is seen as a priest (Psalm 110:4), a prophet (Psalm 40:9–10), a king (Psalm 2 24). As a priest, He offers Himself as a sacrifice (Psalm 22 40:6–8; compare with Heb. 10:5–12); as a prophet, He proclaims the name of the Lord as Father (Psalm 22:22 and John 20:17); and, as king, He fulfills the Davidic Covenant (Psalm 89) and He restores man’s dominion over the earth (Psalm 8:4–8 and Rom. 8:17–21). His very inner thoughts are revealed in the psalms (Psalm 16:8–11 22:1–22 40:1–17). Footnote


God sees the Davidic Covenant to be so important as to place it in the Bible 3 times (2Sam. 7 1Chron. 17 Psalm 89). The Davidic Covenant is alluded to many times in the New Testament. David wrote most of the psalms cited above, indicating that he understood more about the Messiah, his Greater Son, than any man who came before him. Therefore, we ought to study and understand the Davidic Covenant.


Speaking of the Davidic Covenant, there are things which we ought to understand about God’s prophecies. God often tells us about two or more future events within the same verse. God, in the Old Testament, would often seem to be telling us about this or that, and then, suddenly, we find ourselves in the midst of information which is quite different (e.g., there are two passages about Satan, which are not preceded by the words, let me tell you a few things about Satan). Jesus, who is God, did this exact same thing—He spoke in parables. He would tell us a story which made perfect sense, yet behind it (or, more accurately, along side of it) would be a greater truth. In the Davidic Covenant, there will be times we are speaking of Solomon, times we are speaking of David’s Greater Son, the Messiah, and times where the verse is reasonably applied to both. This may sound complex, but it really is not. Particularly now, long after these prophecies and promises have been laid out, they are fairly easy to navigate.


In retrospect, such promises seem quite weighty and profound. David himself recognizes this, being intensely awed that God is making such promises to him (2Sam. 7:18–21). What is the key? It certainly was not David’s sinless life, as he made mistakes over and over again (which he confessed to God). The key is, David was a man after God’s own heart (Acts 13:22). He sought to know and understand God, and God vindicated His Word in David. Do you want blessing from God? Endeavor to know, understand and believe His Word.

 

The bulk of this chapter is about the Davidic Covenant, where God gives David a litany of promises. Concerning the prophetic nature of these promises, Tholuck observes, it can be proved, with all the evidence which is ever to be obtained in support of historical testimony, that David actually received a prophetic promise that his family should sit upon the throne for ever, and consequently an intimation of a royal descendant whose government should be eternal. Anything like a merely subjective promise arising from human combinations is precluded here by the fact that Nathan, acting according to the best of his knowledge, gave his consent to David's plan of building a temple; and that it was not till afterwards, when he had been instructed by a divine vision, that he did the very opposite, and assured him on the contrary that God would build him a house...there is no reason for assuming, as De Wette has done, that Nathan's prophecies were not composed till after the time of Solomon;” that “their historical credibility is attested by Psalm 89 (Psalm 89:4–5, 20–38, and especially Psalm 89:20), Psalm 132:11–12, and Isa. 55:3; and that, properly interpreted, they are also Messianic. Footnote The point is that, even if we want to say that someone during the time of Solomon wrote these prophecies down and pretended that the were prophetical, these are Messianic prophecies which would not be fulfilled for another 1000 years.


People who do not like Christianity (who are negative toward God at God consciousness) absolutely hate the idea of prophecy and they try to denigrate it whenever possible. Here, some like De Wette, Footnote try to minimize the prophetical aspect of this chapter and claim, “No one said this to David; Solomon (or someone during his time or later) wrote this down and pretended that it was prophetical.” Since this was written so long ago and since the unbeliever does not recognize any other corroborating evidence, we must give some weight to their argument. However, because of the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, it is clear that this was written prior to the time of our Lord, and the prophetical statements about Him are more important and more dramatic. So, even if you try to throw out a portion of the prophetical impact of this chapter, you cannot dismiss it entirely.


Critics of the Bible disparage it in any way that they can. Even though Moses is clearly the writer of books 2–5 of the Old Testament, critics claim that these books are the composition of 4 sets of people. They have to claim that prophecy was written after the events take place; but they have to ignore the greatest prophecies of Jesus Christ, which prophecies were written down before our Lord walked this earth (again, the Dead Sea Scrolls—this was a library which preceded our Lord by about 100 years). I have heard the most absurd theories suggesting that Jesus studied these prophecies and then wandered around trying to fulfill them. What makes such a theory absurd is twofold: where He was born and the events of His earliest years are things which He could not fulfill by doing something; and, the actual crucifixion are given in greater detail in the Old Testament than in the New. Furthermore, such an opinion is fraught with logical holes. If Jesus was anything like we believe Him to be, how can His most basic essence be completely and totally fraudulent? Why would He and His followers go through such incredible persecution for something that they all knew was a lie. These would not be religious types who just got caught up in some religion; critics would have them just making this religion up, and therefore, know that their beliefs are fraudulent because they themselves are making these things up. I don’t doubt that there are some Christian leaders today whose entire ministry is fraudulent, but they receive approbation, power and wealth, so they stay with it. Our Lord and His Apostles received poverty, persecution and death. If much of our Lord’s life was simply made up, why don’t we have many anti-Christ books written by a population who were both literate and hated Christianity? If you keep following these things out to their logical conclusions, the theories are riddled with holes. Furthermore, we have books written by dozens of authors, over a period of over a thousand years (even by the harshest of critics) who all speak of a Lamb without spot or blemish Whose death is efficacious. How is it possible to have such agreement, from the earliest books (Gen. 3–4) to the prophecies (Psalm 18 Isa. 53) to the actual fulfillment of these prophecies (the crucifixion in all 4 gospels) with confirmation by Paul and the other Apostles on the theological implications of our Lord’s crucifixion? How do you get dozens of people, most of whom never knew one another as they were separated in time by hundreds of years, to agree on such a theology which is completely foreign to all other world religions? In other religions, almost all of them work from the premise, be good and God will be good to you; which premise is rejected completely by Christian theology. How do you get so many people over such a vast period of time to agree to the tenets of a religion which is contrary to every other religion of man? How do you get them to agree to develop and reveal this religion a piece at a time, so that, when viewed holistically, we see how the whole puzzle fits together, but we do not get this complete view from any of the Old Testament books individually. That is, many parts of Genesis are fulfilled, and fleshed out, and explained in greater detail as we go along. We can look back at the animal skins of Gen. 3 or the offerings of Cain and Abel in Gen. 4 or Abram offering up his own son in Gen. 18 and understand their meaning with much more depth today. At the time that these were written and for hundreds of years, we could not entirely get what was being said. In the light of the gospels, it all fits together and makes sense. How did authors writing thousands of years ago know what to write so that this would be fulfilled and fleshed out hundreds of years later? You can disparage the Bible and you can make up the most absurd theories about it; but none of these theories pan out logically and every theory which denigrates Scripture leaves more unexplained than the theory explains. Footnote


There are other theological theories about this chapter—that it is not prophetical, but that is simply expresses the hopes and dreams of David. However, that approach does not explain how these things just happened to come to pass; nor does that explain how we can have such words which speak of Solomon and also speak of our Lord in His 1st and 2nd Advents. Nor does this explain just how neatly David is a shadow image of our Lord in His 1st and 2nd Advents and how neatly Solomon is a shadow image of our Lord in the Millennium.


You have to bear in mind that, at the heart of these theories is, the Bible cannot be the Word of God; the Bible must be simply the writings of men and it cannot be prophetic. These assumptions must shape the theories of the critic. Now, this does not mean that the believer should not look at the Bible critically and said, what if Jesus put all the Scriptures in a suitcase and meandered around trying to fulfill everything that He read? And then you follow such an hypothesis to its logical end, which ends up being a complete rejection of what we know about human nature. Paraphrasing what I read in Josh McDowell many years ago, you can figure Christ for a lunatic or a charlatan or the Lord and Savior of us all; but you cannot call Him simply a good and moral man, because that is an illogical hypothesis which is not borne out by any of the historical evidence. So, it is okay to think about and logically pursue this or that hypothesis, as long as you do this in the pursuit of truth as opposed to giving yourself and excuse to turn away from the Word of God.


The time frame of this chapter: because of the way the writers of Scripture were, one chapter does not necessarily following another chapter chronologically. One commentator suggests that this chapter may have taken place long after chapter 6. However, I think that it is reasonable to place this immediately after 2Sam. 5–6. In this chapter, David makes reference to his cedar palace (2Sam. 5) and to building a permanent cedar structure for the Ark of God (from 2Sam. 6). So, it does make sense for this to occur in close conjunction with the previous two chapters. Furthermore, it is found in this order in both Samuel and Chronicles. To place this in time before the previous chapters would make little sense; and to place this a decade or so after the previous chapter would be possible, but only after a lot of explaining. Therefore, it is reasonable to place this chapter close in time to the building of David’s palace and the moving of the Ark into Jerusalem. That would also provide a ready explanation as to why David did not make any attempt to bring the Tabernacle to Jerusalem—there would be no need to if he built a Temple for the Ark. There is no pressing reason to set up the time frame any differently (there is one phrase where David is said to be at peace and not dealing with his enemies, and some use this phrase to propose that this chapter occurred much later in time; we will cover that phrase when we come to it).


To sum up this chapter with a few words: it is not what we do for God but what God does for us which is important.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


The word house occurs approximately 14 times in this chapter. As a translator, we are always caught between consistently translating a particular word or translating it in the way which it is being used (which can result in the same word being translated in two or more different ways, even within the same verse).

The Word House in 2Samuel 7

Meaning

Commentary

House = House

One may reasonably argue that, that David’s own house of cedar is simply a house, bur bear in mind that David is king over all Israel and another king has built this house for him. Therefore, it is more reasonable to think of David’s house as a palace.

House = Palace

David now lives in a house made of cedar (vv. 1–2) which the King of Hiram had built for him which may legitimately be translated palace. David had many wives, and it probably became abundantly clear that housing them in the same bedroom could be quite problematic. Therefore, we may assume that, as king of Israel, with about a half-dozen wives, David lived in a pretty good-sized home.

House = Temple

David speaks of building a house for the Lord, which means a permanent structure for the Ark of God, so, in these verses (vv. 5–7, 13).

House = Dynasty

In the ancient word, a family might come to the throne and that same family may rule for one term or it may rule for a hundred or more years. When the same family rules over a country for several generations, we then refer to this as a dynasty. God promises David that his line would become a dynasty which would result in a permanent ruler to come from David (see vv. 11, 16, 19, 25–27, 29).

House = Family

Although this is a legitimate rendering of house, it is not so used in this chapter.

House = Family Line

Even with all of these meanings, we have a difficult time figuring out which one to apply in v. 18, where David asks God, “Who am I and what is my house that You have brought me this far?” Here, he obviously is not referring to any sort of a permanent structure nor is he referring to his wives and children necessarily. He does have a dynasty by divine promise, but David is essentially asking, “What is my house that You have promised me a dynasty?” So here, David is speaking of his family line.

These final 3 uses of house in this chapter help to explain why portions of 2Sam. 5 give an overview of David’s reign over Jerusalem and Israel, as well as a list of his wives and children, even though these things had not all occurred chronologically before some of the later events in 2Sam. 5. In our books, we have chapter headings which we often place ta the beginning of a book; the Hebrew mind often gives us a summary of what occurs, and then goes into greater detail in subsequent chapters—almost like chapter titles. Essentially, the writer of Samuel is telling us what to expect: historical narratives about David’s family (particularly his sons) and historical narratives about his rulership over all Israel.

This classification was inspired by http://www.easyenglish.info/bible-commentary/2samuel-lbw.htm (specifically the commentary which followed 2Sam. 7:1–17).


This chapter closely parallels 1Chron. 17 and it is always interesting to see if there is something to be found in a parallel passage which is not found in the original. At the end of this study, I will recommend that you examine 1Chron. 17 next.


Return to Chapter Outline

Return to Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


David speaks to Nathan, and Wants to Build a Permanent House for the Ark of God

1Chronicles 17:1–2


Slavishly literal:

 

Moderately literal:

And so he is that dwells the king in his house and Yehowah causes rest to him from round about from all his enemies.

2Samuel

7:1

And it is, when the king lived in his [royal] home that Yehowah give him rest from every side from all of his enemies.

And it just so happened that, when the king was living in the royal palace, Jehovah gave him rest on every side from all of his enemies.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text                       And so he is that dwells the king in his house and Yehowah causes rest to him from round about from all his enemies.

Septuagint                              And it is when the king sat in his house, and the Lord had given him an inheritance on every side free from all his enemies round about him;...

 

Significant differences:           It is unclear what God has given to David in the Greek. An inheritance is really part of the verb in the Greek (as to rest is part of the verb in the Hebrew). The Greek translators may be looking at the same Hebrew verb that we look at, but they chose to translate it with a verb which has a slightly different emphasis. The Latin and Syriac agree with the Hebrew.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       King David moved into his new palace, and the LORD let his kingdom be at peace.

Good News Bible                   King David was settled in his palace, and the LORD kept him safe from all his enemies.

NET Bible®                             The king settled into his palace [Heb "house" (also in the following verse)], for the Lord gave him relief [Or "rest"] from all his enemies on all sides [The translation understands the disjunctive clause in v. 1b as circumstantial-causal.].

New Century Version             King David was living in his palace, and the Lord had given him peace from all his enemies around him.

New Life Version                    King David lived in his house. The Lord had given him rest from all those around him who hated him. At this time,...

New Living Translation           When King David was settled in his palace and the Lord had given him rest from all the surrounding enemies,...

Revised English Bible            Once the king was established in his place and the Lord had given him security from his enemies on all sides,...


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

God’s Word                         While King David was living in his house, the LORD gave him peace with all his enemies around him.

HCSB                                     When the king had settled into his palace and the LORD had given him rest on every side from all his enemies,...

JPS (Tanakh)                         When the king was settled in his palace and the Lord had granted him safety from all the enemies around him,...

New Intl. Readers Version     The king settled down in his palace. The Lord had given him peace and rest from all of his enemies who were around him.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                WHEN KING David dwelt in his house and the Lord had given him rest from all his surrounding enemies,...

English Standard Version      Now when the king lived in his house and the LORD had given him rest from all his surrounding enemies...

New King James Version       Now it came to pass when the king was dwelling in his house, and the LORD had given him rest from all his enemies all around,...

Young’s Updated LT             And it comes to pass, when the king sat in his house, and Jehovah has given rest to him round about, from all his enemies,...


What is the gist of this verse? V. 1 sets the initial scene; David is given rest from his enemies and he is sitting in his house.


2Samuel 7:1a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, because; that; when

explanatory conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

yâshab (יָשַב) [pronounced yaw-SHAHBV]

to remain, to stay; to dwell, to live, to inhabit; to sit

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #3427 BDB #442

meleke (מֶלֶך׃) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

bayith (בַּיִת) [pronounced BAH-yith]

house, residence; household, habitation as well as inward

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #1004 BDB #108


Translation: And it is, when the king lived in his [royal] home... The first phrase, and so it is,... often implies chronological order. It implies a natural following from what has gone before. I will be discussing the time frame for these events in greater detail later on in this verse, but these words often affix these events either chronologically or logically to what has come before.


When we examined the previous couple of chapters, I suggested that we do not really know when David fought against the Philistines. It was clear that he fought against them early on, and possibly even before moving to Jerusalem; however, this verse here indicates that David did enjoy a period of time wherein he enjoyed peace from his enemies. This began when he moved into his royal home. I think the idea is, David had his palace built for him by Hiram and once David moved in, he enjoyed some peace. We are not told exactly how long, but apparently for a period of a few years.


It is interesting to note that the verb yâshab (יָשַב) [pronounced yaw-SHAHBV] is found a half-dozen times in this chapter and bayith (בַּיִת) [pronounced BAH-yith] is found 15 times, and the name YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH] is found about 12 times. These words mean to live, to dwell, to stay; house, Temple, dynasty; Jehovah. Not coincidentally, part of this chapter will be about the house (or Temple) where Jehovah will stay. However, the even greater topic of this chapter is the dynasty of David which will remain on this earth forever, which dynasty is David’s Greater Son, Jehovah God.


2Samuel 7:1b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

nûwach (נוּחַ) [pronounced NOO-ahkh]

to deposit, to set down; to cause to rest [to set down]; to let remain, to leave; to depart from; to abandon; to permit

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect

Strong’s #5117 (and #3240) BDB #628

The LXX has a legitimate verb here, but one which has a slightly different English translation: to give an inheritance is the meaning of the LXX verb.

Gnana Robinson, whose opinion I generally do not trust, says that this word does not refer to a physical rest, as in relaxation, but it signifies that David has comes to a settled position. Footnote

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, away from, out from, out of from, off, on account of

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

çâbîyb (סָבִיב) [pronounced sawb-VEEBV]

around, surrounding, circuit, round about, encircle

adverb

Strong’s #5439 BDB #686

The min preposition and çâbîyb mean from round about, from every side.

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, away from, out from, out of from, off, on account of

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

with a plural noun, it is rendered all of, all; any of

masculine singular construct with a masculine plural noun

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

âyab (אָיַב) [pronounced aw-YABV]

enemy, the one being at enmity with you; enmity, hostility

masculine plural, Qal active participle; with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #340 BDB #33


Translation: ...that Yehowah give him rest from every side from all of his enemies. After moving into his palace in Jerusalem, the one built for him by Hiram, king of Tyre, David enjoyed a period of peace in his life. Recall that, for much of his life, David has been on the run from Saul, and on both sides of that, he was at war regularly with the Philistines. At this point, David gets a little R and R.


Application: As growing believers, we are going to face a variety of circumstances. There will be times in our lives when God gives us rest from our enemies round about. David takes this opportunity to ponder some spiritual decisions. When God gives you some R and R, what do you do with it? Is doctrine put on the back burner while you fly off to Mexico, New Orleans, SF or wherever? Do you get so involved with your day-to-day activities (doing the yard, cleaning the house, shopping) that you neglect Bible doctrine? When God trusts you with some downtime, use it wisely. Continue your intake of doctrine. Consider your life options. Consider your plans for the future. But, make certain that you still allot the proper amount of time to doctrinal intake. In fact, with downtime, most of the time, you can increase your intake.


Application: This is an aspect of our lives which few of us appreciate. There will be periods of relative calm in our lives (Joshua 21:44 23:1 2Sam. 7:1 1Kings 5:4). We have this or that problem, but, for the most part, we are at peace with our family, in our workplace, and, when we go off to Bible class, we do not have a myriad of financial or physical problems weighing upon us, so that we may take in the teaching of the Word of God without being mentally distracted by our problems. If this is your life at this point in time, you need to appreciate it and thank God for it. It is nice to have a time that we can rest. We need to wisely use the time which God has given us. Redeeming the time, for the days are evil (Eph. 5:16). God did not leave you here on this earth after salvation just to take up space; and most of the time, not so you can repeat and embellish your glowing testimony.


Application: In this time that we have on earth, we need to realize 2 things: (1) we need to grow spiritually and (2) we are not alone on this earth. We are going to interact with believers and unbelievers alike; that is part of our life; and we ought to interact with them with doctrine in our souls. We should not look at Charlie Brown, whom God has put in our path, and try to figure out what we can get from him. It is better to ascertain why God placed that person in our lives and how we can interact honorably with him.

 

It is this sentence which causes many commentators to place these events farther down the road in David’s reign. Keil and Delitzsch write From the words “when the Lord had given him rest from all his enemies round about,” it is evident that David did not form the resolution to build the temple in the first years of his reign upon Zion, nor immediately after the completion of his palace, but at a later period. Footnote The idea is, this portion of v. 1 indicates that David has been at war with his enemies for awhile, and now is enjoying some peace.


Let me offer up a different perspective. Israel has always been surrounded by enemies—in some ways, this is the point the book of the Judges. So, for God to give David rest from every side of his enemies can imply that this follows a set of battles, but such an implication is not absolutely necessary. The writer of Samuel (probably David or Nathan) is not necessarily recording these things a few days after these incidents occur. In fact, back in 2Sam. 5, we have already listed David’s wives and sons and the length of time which he reigned over Israel. If these words were not inserted several years after David’s death into this narrative, then it means that the writer was looking at this point in David’s life from an historical perspective. Let’s say that someone like Nathan the prophet writes these words and records this information all at once. In 2Sam. 5, the writer of Samuel gives us an overall view of David’s kingship, including the number of years that he reigned, as well as the wives and children he fathered. If we have such an overall view as far back as 2Sam. 5, then the author recognizes that there were periods of time in David’s life when he was at war and there were times when he enjoyed peace. This is a period of peace, and so designated by this writer does not mean that it follows immediately on the heels of lots of fighting. It makes just as much sense for such a writer, taking the long view, to simply recognize this as a period of peace.


Let me present a slight tweaking to my theory that someone wrote this at the end of David’s life: at the beginning of any reign of a king, the official record keeper would write down something like, And King Charlie Brown reigned over all of Israel ___ years and he slept with his fathers after living ___ years. His wives were Missy, Prissy, Sissy, and ___; and his children were ___. As time goes on, these blanks are filled in by either the same writer, or someone who comes along later. This could possibly explain 2Sam. 13:1, which reads: Saul was ___ years old when he began to reign, and he reigned ___ and two years over Israel. The problem with my approach is, we should not find the words and two in this passage if the numbers were supposed to be added later. Furthermore, we would have known his age at the beginning of his reign. It is a nice theory, but there is no real corroboration for it. An explanation which is just as reasonable is, after much of this had been written, someone went back and inserted the basic king information at the very beginning. This is called a gloss and it does not mean that it does not belong in the Bible; it simply means that someone wrote it down after some of the historical information had been written down.


In any case, in order for the writer to say that David was enjoying peace from his enemies from all around does not require that David has just returned from battling 3 or 4 enemies over a period of a decade; it could also mean that the author had a wider scope of David’s life and wars, and recognized that this was a period of peace.


Let me summarize what I have written:

When Did God Give David the Davidic Covenant?

1.      The focus of this chapter, although not clear yet, will be the Davidic Covenant; what God will promise with regard’s to David’s line.

2.      The author of this passage makes reference to a period of peace in David’s life.

3.      For this reason, some have alleged that these events must take place after some of the wars and battles found later in the book of 2Samuel.

4.      Although this is a possibility, it does not make everything fall into place. This approach is not the key to the puzzle.

5.      David has not had a life of peace; Saul had him on the run; David had altercations with various groups, and, since becoming king, there are been situations of intrigue (Ishbosheth) and some specified wars (the taking of Jerusalem).

6.      Saul had also spent much of his kingship at war with various nations.

7.      Therefore, for an author to say that God had given David peace from his enemies at every side, could simply indicate that, finally, David is at home in his own home, enjoying a little peace and quiet. He had not had this for at least a decade of his life; and the king before him never seemed to enjoy much peacetime either. What I am saying is, these things can be in the mind of the author as he commits these words to paper (well, velum, or whatever).

8.      It is also possible that the author of this chapter (possibly David himself) is writing years after these events, which means that the wars which David has been involved in weigh heavily on his mind. Therefore, making this statement, ...when Yehowah give him rest from every side from all of his enemies is apropos.

9.      The chapter here fits in well with the timeline of David moving into his new cedar home and his moving the Ark of God into Jerusalem, but not the Tabernacle.

10.    This time frame helps to explain why David did not move the Tabernacle to Jerusalem as well—his mind was on building a permanent residence for Jehovah (actually, for the Ark of God).

I should point out one thing: David did not see the Ark of God as being God. This was not an idol in David’s eyes. David did not go and bow down before and pray to the Ark of God. Now, he might, in the latter third of this chapter, pray while in the tent which he made for the Ark; but at no time does he treat the Ark as though it is something to be worshiped as God.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines

If you are cool with these chapters being in roughly chronological order and see no reason to shake things up, you can skip this section. If you want to read further about other opinions on the timeline, I have them below:

Other Opinions on the Timeline

Theologian

Opinion

Barnes

There is no indication how soon after the bringing up of the ark these things occurred, but it was probably at no long interval. Footnote

Clarke

And the Lord had given him rest – This was after he had defeated the Philistines, and cast them out of all the strong places in Israel which they had possessed after the overthrow of Saul; but before he had carried his arms beyond the land of Israel, against the Moabites, Syrians, and Idumeans. See 2Sam. 8:1–14. Footnote

Gill

[David remained in his cedar house] which Hiram's servants had built for him, having no occasion to go out to war...and the Lord had given him rest round about from all his enemies; both at home and abroad; though this rest and peace did not last long; for the next chapter gives an account of each of the people he was engaged in war with (2Sam. 8:1). Footnote

Henry

[David] had not been long at rest, nor was it long before he was again engaged in war; but at present he enjoyed a calm, and he was in his element when he was sitting in his house, meditating in the law of God. Footnote

Keil and Delitzsch

From the words “when the Lord had given him rest from all his enemies round about,” it is evident that David did not form the resolution to build the temple in the first years of his reign upon Zion, nor immediately after the completion of his palace, but at a later period (see the remarks on 2Sam. 5:11, note). It is true that the giving of rest from all his enemies round about does not definitely presuppose the termination of all the greater wars of David, since it is not affirmed that this rest was a definitive one; but the words cannot possibly be restricted to the two victories over the Philistines (2Sam. 5:17-25), as Hengstenberg supposes, inasmuch as, however important the second may have been, their foes were not even permanently quieted by them, to say nothing of their being entirely subdued. Moreover, in the promise mentioned in 2Sam. 7:9, God distinctly says, “I was with thee whithersoever thou wentest, and have cut off all thine enemies before thee.” These words also show that at that time David had already fought against all the enemies round about, and humbled them. Now, as all David's principal wars are grouped together for the first time in 2 Samuel 8 and 10, there can be no doubt that the history is not arranged in a strictly chronological order. And the expression “after this” in 2Sam. 8:1 is by no means at variance with this, since this formula does not at all express a strictly chronological sequence. Footnote

Let me comment on Keil and Delitzsch ideas: although it is true that these chapters are not necessarily in a chronological order, we ought to have good reason to scramble them to achieve a chronological order. We’ve already had two Philistine invasions (2Sam. 5) and a history of military confrontations under Saul; so saying that God gave David rest on every side from his enemies, fits in well with these chapters occurring in chronological order.

Wesley

That is, was settled in the house which Hiram's men had built for him, then he reflected upon the unsettled state of the ark. Footnote I think what Wesley says is key—David is thinking about the Ark and the Tabernacle, now both in different cities.

Quite obviously, my opinion lines up with Barnes, Gill, Henry and Wesley.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Why do I make any sort of a deal out of when did these events occur? The narratives in the Word of God are often like a jigsaw puzzle and we must figure out how to put the pieces together so that they fit and make sense. It is possible that David has spent the previous 10 years in war, and now, during a respite, starts thinking about his palace and about the Ark of God. It is also possible—and more likely, in my opinion—that this simply is an event which takes place in the order that we find 2Sam. 1–7—an event which takes place after David has taken Jerusalem and united all of Israel; and after he has moved the Ark of God into Jerusalem.


So, David has just moved the Ark into Jerusalem with great fanfare and celebration. As we have studied, this action was extremely important, as bringing the Ark into Jerusalem—but outside of the Tabernacle—represents Jesus coming into Jerusalem at His 1st Advent. Generations of Israelites never actually saw the Ark of God. It was inside a compartment inside of the Tabernacle (called the Holy of Holies), and only the High Priest saw the Ark. The High Priest went into the Holy of Holies once a year on the Day of Atonement to sprinkle blood on the Mercy Seat of the Ark (if you do not know what I am talking about, see the doctrine Ark of God or refer back to the previous few chapters where it is discussed in much greater detail). In fact, we may reasonably assume that there may have even been some Israelites who did not know even that the Ark of God existed and where it was. After all, we have people in the United States who do not know the gospel of Jesus Christ, even though they may live in a city of 1000 churches or in a household where some have believed in Jesus Christ. But, my point is, inside the Tabernacle, the Ark represents Jesus Christ to come. However, when the Ark was carried into Jerusalem, visible to everyone, this represents our Lord Jesus Christ at His 1st Advent coming into Jerusalem.


In the celebration, all of those interested in Israel could see the Ark move by them, carried by Levites. Then it was placed inside of a tent, which represents Jesus in His human body. Those with positive volition who have come to Jerusalem for this celebration represent believers at the time of our Lord, who recognized Him as the Messiah (the Christ).


In reading over the previous two paragraphs, it occurs to me that, if you have just picked up this particular chapter to read, you may not be familiar with all of these terms.

A Brief Old Testament Dictionary

Old Testament Term

Definition

Further Commentary

Ark of God

This was a small box made of acacia wood and overlain with gold (representing the humanity and deity of our Lord).

As point out, this was not an item to be worshiped. For further information, see: http://kukis.org/Doctrines/ArkCovenant.htm

Mercy Seat

On top of the Ark was a rectangle of pure gold, upon which the High priest would sprinkle blood once a year. On both sides of the Mercy Seat were figures of two cherubs (angels).

The gold mercy seat represents the holiness of God. The blood sprinkled upon it represents the sacrifice of Jesus Christ which attains the mercy of God for us. The two angels represent the elect and fallen angels and the angelic conflict.

Holy of Holies

The Holy of Holies is a compartment (room) inside of the Tabernacle of God. No one went into this room but the High Priest, and he entered it only once a year. He was the only man to see the Ark of God in many generations.

The room inside the Tabernacle represents the throne room of God as well as the absolute holiness of God. Man, in his sinful state, has not access to this place.

Tabernacle of God

This is a large, semi-permanent tent, in and around which the worship of Jehovah Elohim is performed.

Interestingly enough, the furniture of the Tabernacle form the shape of a cross, which is partially hidden from sight. See: http://kukis.org/Doctrines/TabernacleModel.htm

High Priest

The High Priest is a direct descendant of Aaron and he is man’s link to God. The High Priest is the intermediary between man and God, representing man to God.

This High Priest represents Jesus Christ (Heb. 2:17 3:1 4:14–15). He is our true Mediator (1Tim. 2:5).

Jerusalem

This is where David chose to have the capitol of all Israel.

This will be where Jesus Christ chooses to reign from during the Millennium.

1st Advent

This is the time frame when Jesus walked this earth.

His 2nd Advent will be when He returns to the earth at the end of the Tribulation.

As I plow through these books of God, chapter by chapter and verse by verse, it makes me realize that most believers do not have a full comprehension of many of the terms which I use. These may be terms common to the Bible, but not always taught; and some terms may have been from the Colonel’s vocabulary. This realization makes me think that perhaps I should have one or two dictionaries at the very beginning of every chapter so that, when I toss out the term mercy seat, it is more than just a meaningless term. I will take my own suggestion under advisement.

Another alternative is to publish a few dictionaries online and link to them.

Another alternative is to link to dictionaries which are already available online. I have begun a dictionary, but I have not completed it.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines

Since I am in the midst of thinking about a Bible dictionary, let me suggest some others which may be found online:

Online Bible Doctrines and Theological Dictionaries

One of the best lists can be found at Griffin’s Grace Bible Church (there are easily 100 or more visuals here):


http://www.joegriffin.org/MediaMins/visuals.asp

A list of about 30 doctrines:


http://www.countrybiblechurch.us/Doctrines/index.html

A list of about 30 topics:


http://www.fbgbible.org/index.htm

A list of about 30 topics:


http://deanbible.org/andromeda.php?q=f&f=%2FDoctrines

A list of about 50 or so doctrines:


http://www.spokanebiblechurch.com/study/Bible%20Doctrines/Bible-Doctrines.htm

There are in excess of 50 booklets which may be ordered from Thieme Ministries, and there are a handful of these which are available online:


http://www.rbthieme.org/publicat.htm

There are about 250 words and doctrines at grace notes (these appear to be notes based partially or fully upon Bob Thieme’s teaching):


http://www.gracenotes.info/GN_Topics_FrameSet.htm

This is an excellent tool to search through many of 5 famous Bible dictionaries (like Smith’s, ISBE, etc):


http://net.bible.org/dictionary.php

You may also download e-sword and these same dictionaries and search them from your own computer:


http://e-sword.net/downloads.html (I highly recommend this free computer Bible/Bible resource tool)

My own lists:

A list of almost every discussion of every term or concept found in my online writings (there will be thousands of entries here):


http://kukis.org/Doctrines/OTTopics.htm

A list of the doctrines which I have formally examined (there are 83):


http://kukis.org/page3.html

Bobby Thieme has mentioned publishing a dictionary of sorts online, but that has not come to pass yet.

I have included this as part of The List.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


2Sam. 7:1 (And it just so happened that, when the king was living in the royal palace, Jehovah gave him rest on every side from all of his enemies) is in stark contrast to 2Sam. 11:1–2, where David is restless, it is night, and he should be with his men at war. David, in 2Sam. 7, is at peace and legitimately at home. His mind is on spiritual things, which explains his conversation with Nathan (to follow in the next verse). However, when we get to 2Sam. 11, David will be at home when he should not be; and therefore, his mind goes to more carnal things. The idea is, when you are out of the geological will of God, then this messes you up with regards to living the Christian life.


Application: One of the simplest things in the world is divine guidance, and this throws most believers into a tizzy. Where should I be? What should I be doing? These are not difficult concepts. First of all, you need to be in fellowship. That means, when you sin, then you immediately name that sin to God. Not that very day, but that very second. When it is time to go to work, you ought to go to work. When your church opens the doors for Bible class, you ought to go to listen to Bible doctrine. On your off days, when church is not in session, you need about an hour’s worth of doctrine and you fit it in at the most opportune time. For me, I had to start getting up early in the morning for doctrine. I found that, if I waited until the end of the day, most of the time, I just fell asleep or could not concentrate. As a morning person, Bible doctrine is best for me in the morning. You ought not to go to places which essentially encourage you to sin (strip clubs, bars, if drinking too much and/or chasing women is a personal weakness, etc.). You need to order your time so that legitimate activity does not overwhelm your spiritual growth (you may be in love with this little missy, but you cannot spend every extra moment with her if that keeps you from God’s Word). You also need to sleep and eat. Now, I have pretty much taken care of 23 hours of your day, and maybe more.


Application: What if I need to move, marry, change jobs? What do I do? Flip a coin? 1Cor. 7:20 tells us, Let each man remain in the condition in which he was called. Do not make life-changing decisions. If God moves you, then you move; if God requires you to change jobs, then you change jobs. However, wherever you are called, you remain where you are called, until you have good and clear doctrinal reasons for doing otherwise. I have personally been in a particular situation at my previous job, and the first 4 or 5 times it occurred, I stayed at the job. The last time it occurred, 15 years later, I left that job. In all of these decisions, I made the correct decision. We are not to simply leave a job because it is difficult or we have one or two difficult co-workers or a difficult boss; we hang in there and do our jobs as unto the Lord. Quite obviously, if you are recently saved and are in a job which requires you to sin as a part of the job, then that is reason to find new employment. However, if you can continue working there without sinning, then you do that. If your boss requires you to perform some dishonest activity, whether lying to customers, clients or the government, then you have reason to leave. If you can discontinue that approach and still do your job, then you no longer have a reason to leave.


Application: Once you become a believer, God is not going to just bless whatever it is that you do. If you marry the wrong person, there will be hell to pay, even if that other person is a believer. So your decisions as a believer become important to your own peace of mind. Bad decisions will increase the difficulties and unhappiness in your life. That is why Paul suggests that, you remain in whatever state you are when called. Do not think that, you are a believer and whatever thing you do, God is going to make it all swell. Now, in a sense, He does. He can take your life, your sins, your bad decisions, and make it all good (Rom. 8:28), but your sins and bad decisions will have unpleasant repercussions. You cannot make a bad decision, and then turn around and say, “Why did God let me marry this guy? What did God let me change jobs?” Part of the Christian life is learning how to make good decisions. That requires doctrine in the soul. If you have just become a Christian or if you have just realized that doctrine is absolutely necessary to your Christian life, then you put off the life-changing decisions until you have some doctrinal sense.


David is a man with doctrine in his soul. He has been making a series of good decisions. At this point, he has made an extremely important decision. He begins to express this decision in v. 2.


And so says the king unto Nathan the prophet, “Look, please: I am dwelling in a house of cedar [trees] and the Ark of Elohim is dwelling in a midst of the curtain.”

2Samuel

7:2

The king then said to Nathan the prophet, “Look [here], please: I live in a house [made of] cedar [trees] and the Ark of Elohim is living in the midst of a curtain.”

The king then said to Nathan the prophet, “Listen, if you would: at this time, I am living in a house made from cedar trees, yet the Ark of God remains within a cloth partition inside a tent.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          He said to Nathan the prophet, "Do you see that I dwell in a house of cedar, and the ark of God is lodged within skins?"

Masoretic Text                       And so says the king unto Nathan the prophet, “Look, please: I am dwelling in a house of cedar [trees] and the Ark of Elohim is dwelling in a midst of the curtain.”

Septuagint                              ...that the king said to Nathan the prophet, Behold now, I live in a house of cedar, and the ark of the Lord dwells in the midst of a tent.

 

Significant differences:           Both the Greek and Syriac have see now rather than look please; however, that is a legitimate translation of the Hebrew particle. The Greek has that the Ark is inside of a tent; the Hebrew and Syriac have curtains instead (which would be the flaps of the tent). It is possible that the Greek translators were taking a minor liberty with the text.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       Then one day, as David was talking with Nathan the prophet, David said, "Look around! I live in a palace made of cedar, but the sacred chest has to stay in a tent."

Good News Bible (TEV)         Then the king said to the prophet Nathan, "Here I am living in a house built of cedar, but God's Covenant Box is kept in a tent!"

New Century Version             Then David said to Nathan the prophet, "Look, I am living in a palace made of cedar wood, but the Ark of God is in a tent!"

NJB                                        ...the king said to the prophet Nathan, ‘Look, I am living in a cedar-wood palace, while the ark of God is under awnings.’

New Life Version                    the king said to Nathan, the man who spoke for God, "See now, I live in a house of cedar wood. But the special box of God stays within tent curtains."

New Living Translation           ...the king summoned Nathan the prophet. "Look," David said, "I am living in a beautiful cedar palace,[a] but the Ark of God is out there in a tent!"


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Easy English (Pocock)           One day, David said to Nathan, the *prophet, `I am living in a palace. And my palace has the best wood, from trees called cedars. But the *ark of God is still in a tent.'

God’s Word                         So the king said to the prophet Nathan, "Look, I'm living in a house made of cedar, while the ark of God remains in the tent."

HCSB                                     ...the king said to Nathan the prophet, "Look, I am living in a cedar house while the ark of God sits inside tent curtains."

New Intl. Readers Version     Then the king spoke to the prophet Nathan. He said, "Here I am, living in a palace that has beautiful cedar walls. But the ark of God remains in a tent."


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                ...The king said to Nathan the prophet, See now, I dwell in a house of cedar, but the ark of God dwells within curtains.

LTHB                                     The king said to Nathan the prophet, See, now, I am living in a house of cedar, and the ark of God dwells within tent curtains.

NASB                                     ...that the king said to Nathan the prophet, "See now, I dwell in a house of cedar, but the ark of God dwells within tent curtains."

Young’s Updated LT             ...that the king says unto Nathan the prophet, “See, I pray you, I am dwelling in a house of cedars, and the ark of God is dwelling in the midst of the curtain.”


What is the gist of this verse? After moving the Ark to Jerusalem, and after his palace had been built, David spoke to Nathan the prophet, commenting on how he (David) lived in a palace, but the Ark of God was just inside of a tent.


2Samuel 7:2a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

âmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

meleke (מֶלֶך׃) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572

el (אֶל) [pronounced el]

unto, in, into, toward, to, regarding, against

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

Nâthân (נָתָן) [pronounced naw-THAWN]

given; one who is given; transliterated Nathan

masculine singular, proper noun

Strong’s #5416 BDB #681

nâbîy (נָבִיא) [pronounced nawb-VEE]

spokesman, speaker, prophet

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong's #5030 BDB #611


Translation: The king then said to Nathan the prophet,... This is the first time that we hear of Nathan the prophet (this is not one of David’s sons born to him in Jerusalem; that would make little sense, timewise Footnote ). He is introduced here without any fanfare. We do not know how he and David met, at which point David began asking his advice, or anything else. This does represent a change or an addition to David’s entourage. Prior to this, David would inquire of the High Priest via the Ephod to determine what to do. Here, there is no Ephod, and, as far as we can tell, no other things used in determining God’s will. It is also interesting to note that Nathan will give his first best guess to David's proposition, and later, God will speak to Nathan and straighten him out, which means that Nathan will go back to David and give a new opinion.


Nathan will show up at 3 key points in David’s life: here, where David desires to build a temple for the Ark of God; when David sins by taking Bathsheba and killing her husband (2Sam. 12); and, at the very end of David’s life, Nathan was a key player in seeing that Solomon be placed on the throne as David’s successor (1Kings 1). Just as important, Nathan’s writings are one of the sources for the history from this period of time (1Chron. 29:29 2Chron. 9:29). It is possible that he is the principle author of Samuel and the first portion of Kings.


2Samuel 7:2b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

rââh (רָאָה) [pronounced raw-AWH]

look, see, behold, view, see here, listen up

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperative

Strong's #7200 BDB #906

nâ (נָא) [pronounced naw]

now; please, I pray you, I respectfully implore (ask, or request of) you, I urge you

a primitive particle of incitement and entreaty

Strong's #4994 BDB #609

ânôkîy (אָנֹכִי) [pronounced awn-oh-KEE]

I, me; (sometimes a verb is implied)

1st person singular personal pronoun

Strong’s #595 BDB #59

yâshab (יָשַב) [pronounced yaw-SHAHBV]

inhabiting, staying, remaining, dwelling, sitting

Qal active participle

Strong's #3427 BDB #442

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

bayith (בַּיִת) [pronounced BAH-yith]

house, residence; household, habitation as well as inward

masculine singular construct

Strong's #1004 BDB #108

erez (אֶרֶז) [pronounced EH-rez]

cedar

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #730 BDB #72


Translation:...“Look [here], please: I live in a house [made of] cedar [trees]... This most assuredly places us after Hiram, king of Tyre, builds a house for David out of cedar. From what follows, it will be obvious that these events take place after David brought the Ark of God into Jerusalem.


David recognizes that God has blessed him greatly. He looks around and he recognizes all that God has done for him (which is something you ought to do yourself); and he becomes concerned about the Ark which he brought to Jerusalem.


Application: A decade or so ago, I opened my eyes and looked around and realized just how much God had blessed me. Do I have each and every thing that I want? Not necessarily. Do I have a better life and more blessings than anyone on my street? I have no idea. But what I do know is, God has given me a great deal in this life by way of material possessions, time, health, and, of course, stunning good looks. Could I have a newer car, a larger house, more time, better health, and be even more ruggedly handsome? A definite yes to most of those, and a possible yes to the final thing (I’ll admit that Russell Crowe or Brad Pitt may have something on me). But, I recognize that I am in a good place enjoying the wonderful benefits which God has given me. I have a reason for still being alive, and it is not simply to pursue hedonistic pleasures. David also recognizes the great blessings which God has bestowed upon him, and he wants to do something, anything, to show his gratitude and his respect.


We do not know the size of David’s palace. My guess is, there were several sets of rooms for his wives and families; however, I don’t know that it was as large as the castles we read about in the British Isles. I would suspect that some reading this actually have a house which is larger than David’s and is more pleasant to live in, with all the modern conveniences that we have. Our air conditioning, heating, dishwashers, ovens, stoves and refrigerators are things which David, at best, could only dream about; and most of us take these things for granted. I would suspect that had David stepped into the average American home, he would have been completely blown away by what we have. However, for him, as King over all Israel, what David had and where he lived was quite fabulous, given that day and age.


Application: Now, I mention this because you may live in a 30 year old house which is ho-hum average; and you know so many people who live in nicer houses. You may drive a car which is also a bit worn and now considered a late-model car; and you may think that God ought to give you more. What you have is every bit as much as what David had. In his day, what David had may have seemed to be quite impressive; but what we have today by way of modern American housing would simply blow him away. You should not discount your own blessings if God has given you the same thing as He has given your next door neighbors. You should not discount your blessings if you just happen to know 20 other families who live in a lot nicer house than you do. You let God deal with them and you deal with you own relationship with Him as directed by Bible doctrine. Your eyes need to be on God, not on other people and not on things. How do you look toward God? Bible doctrine. You learn Bible doctrine from your right pastor-teacher.


Application: Given that you probably have more by way of conveniences than David did, should indicate to you that an abundance of material possessions is not all that there is to life. I see tons of kids who have far more material possessions than I had as a kid. I have been in the homes of poor people who have more things than I had when I was growing up, yet some of them think that they have been short-changed (I do not, by the way). The key is your capacity for life, and David had a great capacity for life.


Application: You may think, I just want to have more than everyone else; or, I want my fair share; or, I just want these additional items and I will be happy. It isn’t like that. Happiness comes from within; happiness does not depend upon material blessings, happiness depends upon your capacity for life. I don’t care what you have and how much more stuff that you have than Charley Brown down the street; you will not be happy consistently apart from spiritual growth.

 

Matthew Henry contrasts the thinking of Nebuchadnezzar with David: [David] was not called out to serve God and Israel in the high places of the field, instead, he would employ his thoughts, and time, and estate, in serving him another way, and not over-indulge himself in ease, much less in luxury. When God, in his providence, gives us rest, and finds us little to do of worldly business, we must spend this time wisely. How different were the thoughts of David when he sat in his palace from Nebuchadnezzar's when he walked in his! Daniel 4:29–30 reads: At the end of twelve months he was walking on the roof of the royal palace of Babylon, and the king answered and said, "Is not this great Babylon, which I have built by my mighty power as a royal residence and for the glory of my majesty?" That proud man thought of nothing but the might of his own power, and the honour of his own majesty; David’s humble soul is concentrating on how to glorify God, and give honour to Him. David’s life reveal how God resists the proud, and gives grace and glory to the humble. David considered the stateliness of his own habitation (I dwell in a house of cedar), and compared with that the modest habitation of the Ark (the Ark dwells within curtains), thinking this to be incongruous, that he should dwell in a palace and the Ark in a tent. Footnote


2Samuel 7:2c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ărôwn (אֲרוֹן) [pronounced uh-ROHN]

ark, chest; Ark

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #727 BDB #75

Ělôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

gods, foreign gods, god; God; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong's #430 BDB #43

yâshab (יָשַב) [pronounced yaw-SHAHBV]

inhabiting, staying, remaining, dwelling, sitting

Qal active participle

Strong's #3427 BDB #442

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

tâveke (תָוֶך׃) [pronounced taw-VEKE]

midst, among, middle

masculine singular construct

Strong's #8432 BDB #1063

With the bêyth preposition, tâveke can mean in the middle of, in the midst of; into, among. With the 2nd person masculine plural suffix, it can mean in your midst, among you. with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix, it can mean in their midst, among them.

yerîy‛âh (יְרִיעָה) [pronounced yeree-ĢAWH

the curtain of a tent, most often found as the curtains of the tabernacle; a veil, tarp, drapery; a metonym for tent

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3407 BDB #438


Translation: ...and the Ark of Elohim is living in the midst of a curtain.” David brought the Ark of God into Jerusalem and he had set up a tent for it. We do not know any of the specifics of this tent, as they are not important. One might think that David simply refers here to the tent itself; and I suspect that there were cloth partitions (curtains) within the tent, wherein the Tent of God could be found. This is my hypothesis, but whether the Ark of God is within a partitioned area marked by curtains in a tent, or whether it is simply inside a tent, is not important. Footnote


Now you may wonder why does David use the curtains of a tent rather than speak of the tent itself. This is done for emphasis; David wants to cast this inequity is the worst possible light. Certainly there are times when you favored one political candidate over another; so when speaking of your preferences, you cast one man in the absolute worst light possible, for dramatic emphasis. Davie here speaks of his home being build from cedar wood and the Ark of God is essentially under a tarp. He compares the two residences this way for dramatic emphasis and to make a strong contrast.


To David, this is a distinct point of inequity: he enjoys a semi-permanent cedar house, yet the Ark of God—which is infinitely more important than David—is just inside a cloth partition which is inside a tent. It does not make sense, nor does it seem right.


There are several events which are spoken of here: Hiram builds a cedar palace for David; David brings the Ark of God into Jerusalem and places it inside of a tent which he prepared for it; David recognizes that there is some inequity here, that the Ark of God is in a tent while he, David, is in a palace of cedar. David speaks to Nathan the prophet about this inequity. These events had to have a specific order. I have listed some of the options below.

What Happened When?

David brings the Ark to Jerusalem, Hiram builds a cedar palace for him, and David then becomes concerned about the Ark of God, and voices this concern to Nathan.

Hiram builds a cedar palace for David, David brings the Ark to Jerusalem, all the while thinking that he needs to do more than just place this Ark within a tent (or even within the Tabernacle); so he voices his concern to Nathan.

Hiram builds a cedar palace for David, David brings the Ark to Jerusalem, and then, after a few days, recognizes that things are out of balance, that the Ark is in a tent and David is living in a palace. He voices these concerns to Nathan.

Hiram builds a cedar palace for David, David brings the Ark into Jerusalem, he goes off to war for a few months or years, and then, upon returning, begins to consider his surroundings and those of the Ark.

There are other ways of ordering these events. I mention this because, at some point in time, you may come across this or that verse, and then think that there is some kind of contradiction—that it contradicts the order of events as you see them in your own mind. Here, I simply point out there are several ways of ordering these events.

Scripture seems to place the building of David's house before the moving of the Ark. This means that David was thinking about this inequity even as early as the actual celebration of the moving of the Ark. Soon thereafter, David talks to Nathan about this situation.

These chapters in Samuel seem to lead from one to the other, if not chronologically, at least topically.

It is not absolutely necessary that we determine the exact chronology of any set of events. For some odd reason, I enjoy doing that; and, it helps to show that everything is consistent within this or that opinion of the sequence of events.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


So David has come to a point of calm in his life, and he looks around and notices all that God has done for him. He is living in a palace in the city which he chose to live in, but the Ark of God is in a tent. This relative calm allows David to think and to plan, and his mind goes to spiritual things. So he has chosen to built a permanent Temple for the Ark of God, as Jerusalem is a permanent capital city for all Israel. The only problem here is, David has a limited view of things, and God sees and comprehends all of human history at once. Therefore, what seems like a good idea to David and Nathan, two spiritually mature individuals, is not God’s plan.


And so says Nathan unto the king, “All that [is] in your heart, go [and] do, for Yehowah [is] with you.”

2Samuel

7:3

Then Nathan said to the king, “All that [is] in your heart, go [and] do, for Yehowah [is] with you.”

Then Nathan said to the king, “Go and do all that is in your heart, for Jehovah is with you.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text                       And so says Nathan unto the king, “All that [is] in your heart, go [and] do, for Yehowah [is] with you.”

Septuagint                              And Nathan said to the king, Go and do all that is in your heart, for the Lord is with you.

 

Significant differences:           There is an additional conjunction in the Greek.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       Nathan replied, "The LORD is with you, so do what you want!"

Easy English (Pocock)           Nathan replied to the king, `You should do whatever you have decided to do. The *Lord is with you.'.

Good News Version (TEV)     Nathan answered, "Do whatever you have in mind, because the LORD is with you."

NET Bible®                             Nathan replied to the king, "You should go [Several medieval Hebrew manuscripts and the Syriac Peshitta lack this word] and do whatever you have in mind, [Heb "all that is in your heart."] for the Lord is with you."

New Century Version             Nathan said to the king, "Go and do what you really want to do, because the Lord is with you."


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

God’s Word                         Nathan told the king, "Do everything you have in mind, because the LORD is with you."

New Intl. Readers Version     Nathan replied to the king, "Go ahead and do what you want to. The Lord is with you."


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

MKJV                                     And Nathan said to the king, Go, do all that is in your heart, for Jehovah is with you.

NASB                                     Nathan said to the king, "Go, do all that is in your mind, for the LORD is with you."

Young’s Updated LT             And Nathan says unto the king, “All that is in your heart—go, do, for Jehovah is with you.”


What is the gist of this verse? Nathan encouraged David to do what is in his mind.


2Samuel 7:3a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

âmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

Nâthân (נָתָן) [pronounced naw-THAWN]

given; one who is given; transliterated Nathan

masculine singular, proper noun

Strong’s #5416 BDB #681

el (אֶל) [pronounced el]

unto, in, into, toward, to, regarding, against

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

meleke (מֶלֶך׃) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

the whole, all, the entirety, every

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

ăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

Together, kôl ăsher mean all whom, all that [which]; whomever, all whose, all where, wherever.

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

lêbab (לֵבַב) [pronounced lay-BAHBV]

mind, inner man, inner being, heart

masculine singular noun with a 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #3824 BDB #523

hâlake (הָלַךְ) [pronounced haw-LAHKe]

go, come, depart, walk; advance

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperative

Strong’s #1980 (and #3212) BDB #229

׳âsâh (עָשָֹה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWH]

to do, to make, to construct, to fashion, to form, to prepare, to manufacture

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperative

Strong's #6213 BDB #793


Translation: Then Nathan said to the king, “All that [is] in your heart, go [and] do,... Nathan has apparently become David’s trusted spiritual advisor, although we have no idea as to what events led to this. Out of the blue, David calls Nathan in and poses this question to him: “Why should the Ark of God stay in a tent when I live in a house made out of cedar wood?” We do not know if there was more to this conversation than that; we simply know that David is concerned about this issue of inequity. David may or may not have said, “And so, I want to build a more permanent structure in which to house the Ark of God.” However, we are not told that. Nathan tells David to go and do whatever he is thinking about (whether David expressed these thoughts to Nathan or not). It is reasonable to suppose that Nathan pretty much figured out what David had in mind, even if he did not say it directly. Nathan’s non-specific answer implies that Nathan knows that David wants to produce a more permanent structure for the Ark, and implies that David has not stated this.


This simply tells us the Nathan can read David and that Nathan can give spiritual advice apart from first checking in with God directly.


Application: Why do you think that after all of this time that God puts someone in authority over David? David has come up through the ranks and he has shown great authority orientation and great humility. Why does God insert Nathan at this point, with the idea that Nathan knows what's up more than David? We need authority orientation throughout our lives; we need someone over us so that we do not become a law unto ourselves. One place where we find this in the Christian life is, we are supposed to attend a local church. It does not make any difference whether we are the president of the United States or the business CEO who works 90 hours a week. We need to be under a pastor's authority. I was a taper for a long time and there was suddenly a taper's church in my area. I had a choice—I could sit at home and play the series which I wanted to hear, without having to get into my car and drive, or I could go to this taper's church, which involved being under some limited authority. I attended the church of a handful of people, and, in the long run, it turned out to be a very good thing. During these several years before I moved to the Promised Land (Texas), I saw a lot of tapers come and go. I saw a number of people with no authority orientation (which is easy for me to spot, because I have always had authority problems). These people came and went; there was no consistency; and I can guarantee you, there was no consistency with their walk. If you can't get it together enough to attend Bible class 2–4 times a week, then your life is going to be a mess.


Application: We function as a team. Now, I say these things as a person who prefers to go it alone; in my profession, the last thing I wanted when I was teaching was to be put on this or that teaching team. However, when I exegete a verse, I am standing on the shoulders of hundreds of men who have prepared the way for me. These men have done work in the Greek and Hebrew; they have put together concordances, they have written commentary, they have developed translations. If I just opened the Bible and started writing, I can guarantee you, I would get next to nothing done.


Application: There is also the end result of my own work. I have no idea what will happen to it. Will it be carefully read and studied by 2 or 3 men or what? I am a link in the chain of God’s plan. A great example of this is Lewis Sperry Chafer and R. B. Thieme Jr. Chafer wrote Systematic Theology and founded Dallas Theological Seminary, where Bob went. Chafer, in his day, was well-known to a few in Christendom in his day; but his theology was the basis for what Thieme taught his congregation for the next 50 years. Chafer’s students also include Jim Rayburn, founder of Young Life (as well as many of Young Life's first staff members), Ken Taylor, author of The Living Bible translation, and numerous future Christian educators and pastors, including Howard Hendricks, J. Dwight Pentecost, Charles Ryrie, and John Walvoord, Footnote


2Samuel 7:3b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, because; that; when

explanatory conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

׳îm (עִם) [pronounced ģeem]

with, at, by, near; like; from

preposition of nearness and vicinity with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5973 BDB #767


Translation: ...for Yehowah [is] with you.” Nathan does promise David that God is with him in his endeavors. Nathan knows enough about David and David’s thinking to realize that David is pursuing this genuinely, and not for show and not to gain points with God. David’s thinking seems to be straight; David himself seems to be straight; therefore, there is no reason for Nathan to assume otherwise or to assume that David’s ideas are out of line. However, we are going to find out that God has a time and place for everything.


Application: This is what we want to hear. This is what we want to be confident of. We want to know that God is with us. Do you know how most Christians function? God, what are you going to give me today? God, make it stop hurting. This is the thrust of their spiritual life. Have you ever had a child, and all that child understood of your relationship was, will you buy me this? When God entrusts you with a child, you want to raise that child to think for himself and to do for himself. When he is high school, you do not want him to call you on the phone to come and tie his shoelaces. When he is 21 or 22, you want him to naturally choose to get a job and to begin paying his share of the way; and—better yet—move out and begin his independent life. This is what God wants for us. Thieme calls this being spiritually self-sustaining. You grow to a point where you can make spiritual decisions; you don't have to call your best friend or your pastor to figure out what to do. And, as you grow spiritually, God is with you. As you grow spiritually, you are able to figure out what to do with your life.


Application: As you grow spiritually, you do not need someone else to give you feedback, attention, encouragement and/or guidance. In fact, there will be times here you are just out there alone, all by yourself, making spiritual decisions (I mean, all by yourself by way of human interaction). You have to know, from the doctrine which is in your soul (from your inventory of ideas, as Joe Griffin puts it) what to do with your life. Although God is with us, He is not sitting on our shoulder barking out orders: “Turn left, advance forward; halt; at ease!”


Application: As you examine how you were raised; as you examine how you raise your own son—this should help you to understand how God is raising you. God teaches us through analogous situations all of the time (Jesus constantly spoke in parables). You do not train up your son to run to you for each and every problem. You do not teach your son to whine and complain when things aren’t going his way. You do not teach your son to be dependent upon you for everything that he does. Now, if he comes to you and asks your advice now and again, that’s alright. If he keeps you on speed-dial so that he can figure out when to turn left and when to turn right, that is a whole other thing. So should be our relationship with God. He has given us His Word and He has given us a mind which is more powerful and more complex than any computer. He has given us a human spirit where we may store spiritual information and He has given us the ability to understand the Word of God taught by a pastor-teacher. God expects there to be a union and an interaction between our minds and His Word.


David has an idea: to build a Temple for the Ark of God. He asks Nathan the prophet about it (although, I do not believe that David is specific here, given Nathan’s answer), and Nathan gives him the go-ahead. What David has is an interesting idea, which did not come straight out of the Bible, but was extrapolated from the doctrine in his soul and the blessings which God had given him. Now, even though God will tell David no, suddenly, the idea of building a Temple for the Ark of God becomes a new spiritual thing. God did not command Moses to do this; God did not say to Moses, “Okay, once Israel is fully settled into the land, I want you to replace the Tabernacle with a Temple.” Yet, not only will this come to pass, but this will be God’s will, and there will be a Temple in the land of Israel longer than there was a Tabernacle. All of this proceeds from the doctrine in David’s soul. He is sitting on his throne and he looks around at the marvelous cedar palace in which he lives; and then he thinks about the tent where the Ark of God is, and David realizes that this is not as things should be. Here, David’s own thinking, his own spiritual maturity, intersect with God’s sovereignty in a place unchartered by Scripture.


From the thinking of David’s soul, as well as from his life, God paints a picture of the 1st and 2nd Advents of our Lord. In the 1st Advent, God comes to us as a man, in a humble tent. He will return and wipe out all of the enemies of Israel, just as David will do throughout his life. Then, David’s son, Solomon, will reign, and he will reign over a great period of peace and prosperity, just as our Lord will reign over this earth in the Millennium. At that time, God the Son will dwell in a more permanent way on the earth, just as the Temple will be a more permanent structure build by Solomon. It is amazing how God ties all of this together, continually giving us shadows of things to come.

 

You may now be thinking, this is Nathan, he is a prophet of God, and he is giving David the go–ahead; but I have read ahead, and God will tell David not to build Him a Temple; what gives? Matthew Henry answers this: Nathan spoke this, not in God's name, but as from himself; not as a prophet, but as a wise and good man; it was agreeable to the revealed will of God, which requires that all in their places should lay out themselves for the advancement of religion and the service of God, though it seems His will was otherwise, that David should not do this. It was Christ's prerogative always to speak the mind of God, which He perfectly knew. Other prophets spoke it only when the spirit of prophecy was upon them; but, if in any thing they mistook (as Samuel, 1Sam. 16:6—where God sends him to Jesse’s home to pick out God anointed, and he looks at Elias and thinks he’s the guy; and Nathan here) God soon rectified the mistake. Footnote Bear in mind that David is also a man of God, and this idea has come to him, but God is not going to have David himself follow through on this.


Application: There are going to be times in your life when you get it in your mind to do this or that which seems legitimate (it might even be something you would identify as being spiritual), and God is going to let you know, in some way, that you’re not going to do it. Now, God is not going to send Nathan the prophet to your house to straighten you out, nor will He appear to you in a dream, nor will he send a bolt of lightening right in your path to keep you from turning left as you are about to turn left. God speaks to you through His Word, the filling of the Holy Spirit and through a variety of circumstances (but, please do not look for signs or give to God some goofy test to help you figure out what to do). If by examining all of the facts of a situation, while filled with the Holy Spirit, with doctrine in your mind, you come to a conclusion of committing to a course of action, the next thing is to do what you have decided upon. If this is not God’s will, then He will throw up road blocks. Now, if you have little or no doctrine and you have no idea how to be filled with the Holy Spirit, then your decision making process is going to be flawed, and you will decide to do some pretty spectacularly dumb things (which is why Paul urges believers not to make any big changes in their lives in 1Cor. 7:20–27). 1John 2:27: The anointing you received from Him remains in you, and you don't need anyone to teach you. Instead, His anointing teaches you about all things, and is true and is not a lie; just as it has taught you, remain in Him.


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Return to Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


God speaks to Nathan, and Gives Him the Davidic Covenant

1Chronicles 17:3–15


And so he is the night the this is a word of Yehowah unto Nathan, to say,...

2Samuel

7:4

And it is on that [very] night [that] the word of Yehowah came [lit., is] to Nathan, saying,...

That very night, the word of the Lord came to Nathan, saying,...


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text                       And so he is the night the this is a word of Yehowah unto Nathan, to say,...

Septuagint                              And it came to pass in that night, that the word of the Lord came to Nathan, saying,...

 

Significant differences:           None; it appears that the Greek uses to come as most other translators did, to render the common verb to be.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       That night, the LORD told Nathan...

Easy English (Pocock)           That night the *Lord spoke to Nathan. The *Lord said,...

New Living Translation           But that same night the Lord said to Nathan,...


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

HCSB                                     But that night the word of the LORD came to Nathan:...


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

English Standard Version      But that same night the word of the LORD came to Nathan,...

NASB                                     But in the same night the word of the LORD came to Nathan, saying,...

New King James Version       But it happened that night that the word of the LORD came to Nathan, saying,...

Young’s Updated LT             And it comes to pass in that night, that the word of Jehovah is unto Nathan, saying,...


What is the gist of this verse? God comes to speak to Nathan in a dream.


2Samuel 7:4

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

layelâh (לַיְלָה) [pronounced LAY-law]

night; that night, this night, the night

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3915 BDB #538

hûw (הוּא) [pronounced hoo]

that, this

masculine singular, demonstrative pronoun; with the definite article

Strong’s #1931 BDB #214

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

dâbâr (דָּבָר) [pronounced dawb-VAWR]

word, saying, doctrine, thing, matter, command

masculine singular construct

Strong's #1697 BDB #182

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

el (אֶל) [pronounced el]

unto, in, into, toward, to, regarding, against

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

Nâthân (נָתָן) [pronounced naw-THAWN]

given; one who is given; transliterated Nathan

masculine singular, proper noun

Strong’s #5416 BDB #681

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

âmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #559 BDB #55


Translation: And it is on that [very] night [that] the word of Yehowah came [lit., is] to Nathan, saying,... Nathan believed that his answer was a no-brainer; that he did not need to consult God directly. He knew David’s heart and intentions, and, therefore, had no problem with what David intended to do. However, God has a different plan, and He comes to Nathan that night.


You may recall that one of the difficulties in Scripture is determining just exactly how this or that occurs; here, we can be fairly certain that God comes to Nathan in a dream. However, this does not mean that God did not speak to Nathan while in a pre-REM state. The language used here and in v. 17 (where Nathan relays these words to David) emphasize the words which are spoken. Although one could take this and v. 17 and try to twist them to say something else, the natural understanding of this passage is, these are words which Nathan is hearing words rather than perceiving images which he sees and talks about (as in, for instance, the book of Revelation).


It is interesting that God goes and speaks to Nathan, who will then speak to David, rather than going directly to David. I think there are two issues here: (1) David is not to view himself as a king and the man to whom God speaks directly; and (2) God speaks to man through an intercessor; in this case, through Nathan. Jesus Christ is our Intercessor; it is only because of our Lord that we have access to God. So, throughout the Old Testament, we find this intercessor relationship again and again (like priests for example).


One of the problem with some Christian denominations is, they do not realize how much of the Old Testament points toward Jesus Christ in the New. Again and again, we have types in the Old Testament, which point to the anti-type, which is Jesus Christ. The mistake that many of these denominations make is, they try to bring their types into the Church Age, even though it should be clear that they should not. For instance, some Christian denominations have some sort of a priesthood—specific men who are called priests. Now, this is outright silly. In the Bible, it is clear that the only priests from the Old Testament are those who are descended from Aaron, who is a Levite (with the exception of Samuel Footnote ). Quite obviously, a Catholic priest is not descended from Aaron; he is not even descended from Levi. Furthermore, an Old Testament priest, because he is physically descended from other priests, is going to be married and have children (at least, that will be the case for his father). A Catholic priest is supposed to be celibate. Now if the Jewish priesthood is based upon being a descendant from another priest and a Catholic priest cannot be a descendant from another priest, how much sense does that make? The Catholic Church has tried to copy the Old Testament, but it is a very imperfect copy and they completely ignore both the specifics and the purpose of the priesthood in the Age of Israel.


Today, we are all priests. We can all go to God as priests, because we share our Lord’s priesthood. Today, having a specialized priesthood would be like having a specialized intercessory position. It would be like having a bunch of guys at your church who are called the intercessors or the mediators between man and God. You recognize that is stupid, right? Jesus Christ is our intercessor; He is the only mediator between God and man. Similarly, a specialized priesthood for today is also stupid, for the exact same reasons.


Let’s say the Catholic church noticed that there are all of the animal sacrifices in the Old Testament, and decide that they want to duplicate this, but they are going to use donuts instead, which they will roast on a home barbeque at the front of the church. And instead of the priest putting his hand on the parishioner’s head and the other on the donut to transfer the sins, the priest will slap the parishioner on the butt with a flyswatter; and call that all good. Obviously, you see how stupid this all is—to act as though you are following some great commission of God from the Old Testament, but you change up a few details here and there to suit you. The idea that there is this specialized priesthood and that many of them go off to monasteries and live a celibate life for awhile and then they, in some cases, go to various churches and listen to people tell them their sins through an opaque screen, has as much to do with the Old or New Testaments as does my idea of the priest swatting his congregants on the butt with a flyswatter—it is just a dumb idea which is completely unrelated to the Old or New Testaments.


God has proscribed, in both the Old and New Testaments, a system of protocol, which is a rigid, long-established code, prescribing complete deference to superior rank and authority, followed by strict adherence to due order of precedence, coupled with precisely correct procedure. Footnote In other words, in the Christian life, you do not set up some sort of procedure which has some similarities with procedures in the past, and call it good, and that is what your church does for next thousand years.


Now, do not confuse this with some sort of established tradition in the church. At Berachah Church, we meet traditionally on New Year’s Eve, and there is fellowship, and this has been done for about 50 years. It is a nice tradition; and yet, Bobby could stop it this year. Bob had Saturday Night at the Movies for a decade or two, and then stopped this tradition. These traditions are different from establishing a priesthood, which is, quite frankly, seen as a more spiritual function than someone who just comes to church for mass.


David and Nathan are adhering to a system of protocol, even though it is of a fairly recent origin (remember, David is only the 2nd king of Israel). But, just as Saul was to be under the spiritual authority of Samuel, so David must be under the spiritual authority of someone else, and here, it is Nathan. David’s spiritual authority is also the one acting as an intercessor for him.


——————————


In vv. 5–16, we will have God’s words spoken to Nathan, which Nathan is to then convey to David. These 12 verses make up the Davidic Covenant, which are also found in 1Chron. 17 and written about in Psalm 89. In v. 17, we are told that Nathan goes to David and says these things.


God is actually speaking to Nathan in a dream, but He is actually speaking to David. Although I (and almost every other exegete) combine vv. 4–17 into one part, we may outline God’s Words (God is organized).

An Outline of God’s Words to David

1.      God tells David that he would not be building a house for Him. 2Sam. 7:5–7

2.      God’s Covenant to David. 2Sam. 7:8–16

         a.      God identifies Himself. V. 8a

         b.      God tells David what He has done on David’s behalf up until this time. Vv. 8b–9a

         c.      What things God would do for David and for successive generations of Israel. Vv. 9b–16

                  i.       David’s name will be made great. V. 9b

                  ii.      God will appoint a place for Israel and give Israel rest from her enemies. Vv. 10–11

                  iii.      When David passes, God will raise up his son (Son) to rule after David, and a David’s dynasty will be established forever. Vv. 12–16

You will notice that all of this is a gift from God to David. David is not required to do anything to receive these blessings from God.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


“Go and say unto My servant, unto David, thus said Yehowah, Will you build for Me a house to my living?

2Samuel

7:5

“Go and say to My servant David, ‘Thus says Yehowah: Will you build for Me a house to live in?

“Go and speak to My servant David, and tell him, ‘This is from Jehovah: you are not going to build a house for Me to live in.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text                       “Go and say unto My servant, unto David, thus said Yehowah, Will you build for Me a house to my living?

Septuagint                              Go, and say to my servant David, Thus says the Lord, You will not build Me a house for Me to dwell in.

 

Significant differences:           The Hebrew has 2 unto’s and the Greek uses one preposition, face to face with. Also, in the Greek, we have a clearly negative statement: you will not build a house for me. The Hebrew states this negative as a question which demands a negative answer. This will be further discussed in the exegesis. 4 early printed editions of the Hebrew, the LXX, Syriac and Vulgate all have simply unto My servant David. Although I am leaning toward the Greek here, I don’t know really how much difference it makes.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       ...to go to David and give him this message: David, you are my servant, so listen to what I say. Why should you build a temple for me?

Easy English (Pocock)           Go to David and say, "The *Lord has sent this message to you." He says "You must not build a house for me. You are not the right man.

The Message                         "Go and tell my servant David: This is GOD's word on the matter: You're going to build a 'house' for me to live in?

NET Bible®                             "Go, tell my servant David: `This is what the Lord says: Do you really intend to build a house for me to live in?

Good News Bible (TEV)         "Go and tell my servant David that I say to him, 'You are not the one to build a temple for me to live in.

New Jerusalem Bible             ‘Go and tell my servant David, “Yahweh says this: Are you to build me a temple for me to live in?

New Living Translation           "Go and tell my servant David, `This is what the Lord has declared: Are you the one to build a house for me to live in?


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

God’s Word                         "Say to my servant David, 'This is what the LORD says: Are you the one who will build me a house to live in?

HCSB                                     "Go to My servant David and say, 'This is what the LORD says: Are you to build a house for Me to live in?

JPS (Tanakh)                         “Go and say to My servant David: Thus said the Lord: Are you the one to build a house for Me to dwell in?


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

English Standard Version      "Go and tell my servant David, 'Thus says the LORD: Would you build me a house to dwell in?

NASB                                     "Go and say to My servant David, 'Thus says the LORD, "(F)Are you the one who should build Me a house to dwell in?

New King James Version       "Go and tell My servant David, `Thus says the LORD: "Would you build a house for Me to dwell in?

Young’s Updated LT             “Go, and you have said unto My servant, unto David, ‘Thus said Jehovah, Do you build for Me a house for My dwelling in?


What is the gist of this verse? Interestingly enough, God speaks to Nathan, and not to David. He makes it clear that this is from Jehovah God, and He asks the question, “Will you build a house for Me to live in?”


2Samuel 7:5a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

hâlake (הָלַךְ) [pronounced haw-LAHKe]

go, come, depart, walk; advance

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperative

Strong’s #1980 (and #3212) BDB #229

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

âmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

2nd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

el (אֶל) [pronounced el]

unto, in, into, toward, to, regarding, against

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

׳ebed (עֶבֶד) [pronounced ĢEB-ved]

slave, servant

masculine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #5650 BDB #713

el (אֶל) [pronounced el]

unto, in, into, toward, to, regarding, against

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

4 early printed Hebrew editions, the Latin, Greek and Syriac all leave out this extra unto (which is probably the better reading). Footnote

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187


Translation: “Go and say to My servant David,... In a dream, God speaks to Nathan, and He tells Nathan to go speak to David.


2Samuel 7:5b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kôh (כֹּה) [pronounced koh]

so, thus, here, hence

adverb

Strong’s #3541 BDB #462

âmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217


Translation:...‘Thus says Yehowah:... God makes this clear that these words are coming from Him and spoken to David. Although the scene here properly, God speaking to Nathan while he is sleeping, we may see this as God speaking through Nathan to David, as later in this chapter, Nathan will say these things to David (v. 17).


2Samuel 7:5c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

hă (הֲ) [pronounced heh]

interrogative particle which acts almost like a piece of punctuation, like the upside-down question mark which begins a Spanish sentence. The verb to be may be implied.

Strong’s #none BDB #209

attâh (אַתָּה) [pronounced aht-TAW]

you (often, the verb to be is implied)

2nd person masculine singular, personal pronoun

Strong’s #859 BDB #61

bânâh (בָּנָה) [pronounced baw-NAWH]

to build, to rebuild, to restore

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #1129 BDB #124

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 1st person singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

bayith (בַּיִת) [pronounced BAH-yith]

house, residence; household, habitation as well as inward

masculine singular noun

Strong's #1004 BDB #108

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

yâshab (יָשַב) [pronounced yaw-SHAHBV]

to remain, to stay; to dwell, to live, to inhabit; to sit

Qal infinitive construct with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong's #3427 BDB #442


Translation: ...Will you build for Me a house to live in? God begins with a question, “Will you be the person who builds a house for Me to live in?”


This is phrased in such a way as to demand a negative answer. Has your teenaged son, on a school night, grabbed the keys to the car and started walking toward the front door, upon which occasion, you said, “You aren’t going out, are you?” You are not idly inquiring as to what he plans to do; you are telling the kid, “You are not going out.” By the way that you say this, the tone of your voice and the way you ask the question makes it clear to the teen that he needs to turn around, set the keys back down, and go do his homework. Regardless of what the kid says, he understands what you are saying (unless, of course, he’s stupid).


1Chron. 17:3–4 confirms for us that this is God telling David that he will not build a Temple for Him: But that night the word of God came to Nathan: "Go to David My servant and say, 'This is what the LORD says: You are not the one to build Me a house to dwell in.” We will discuss later in 1Chron. 17 the slight difference in the translations.


It is worth noting that God spoke to Nathan immediately, that very night, before David could expend any effort on this project.


Application: We all have our place in the plan of God. Some of us get quite ambitious and we want to establish a church, a seminary, a Bible institute, and flood the radio with the Word of God. Calm down. God has a place for you and me in His plan. He has specific things which He would like for us to do, and we function within the boundaries of our free will and our spiritual growth. David was to bring the Ark into Jerusalem, so as to represent Jesus entering into the city of Jerusalem. Solomon was to build the Temple for the Ark, so as to represent Jesus Christ in His millennial reign over all the earth. I used to be a teacher. There were serious time constraints on my life when it came to working with these kids. If there was a way, I would have been personally involved in almost every one of their lives, trying to help and guide them. However, that just could not be. There are not enough hours in the day to do the basic job of teaching, let alone, get too involved in too many students’ lives. So, there would be some one-on-one interaction offered here and there, depending upon the situation and the circumstances.


Application: Obviously, the biggest time constraint is the number of years that we live on this earth. I would love to write a complete commentary on every book in the Bible; however, I have only so many years to live; furthermore, I sometimes crowd my time with God by doing other things or by making bad decisions. Now, do not get confused over this—we do not function 24-7 for God by way of actually doing things—but there will be times when we are moved to exhaustion by our spiritual function in the plan of God.


Application: On the other hand, you may not have the ambition to do anything in God’s plan. If you have read this far, that indicates positive volition. You simply keep growing in grace and in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ, and there will be a point in time when you desire to have a spiritual impact. But, you must grow first, and act after. Becoming involved in some sort of spiritual service before you grow up spiritually is a waste of time. You simply won’t have the spiritual skills for is and some just won’t have the heart for it.


For I have not dwelt in a house to from a day I brought up sons of Israel from Egypt and as far as the day the this, and so I am going about in a tent and in a Tabernacle.

2Samuel

7:6

For I have not lived in a house from the day [that] I brought up the sons of Israel out from Egypt even to this day, but [lit., and so] I have been moving about in a tent and in a Tabernacle [or, in a tent, namely the Tabernacle].

You see, I have not lived in a house from the day that I brought the people of Israel out of Egypt even to this day, but, instead, I continually move about within a tent or Tabernacle.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text                       For I have not dwelt in a house to from a day I brought up sons of Israel from Egypt and as far as the day the this, and so I am going about in a tent and in a Tabernacle.

Septuagint                              For I have not dwelt in a house from the day I brought up the children of Israel out of Egypt to this day, and I have been walking in a lodge and in a tent...

 

Significant differences:           No significant differences.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       I didn't live in a temple when I brought my people out of Egypt, and I don't live in one now. A tent has always been my home wherever I have gone with them.

Easy English (Pocock)           I rescued the *Israelites from the country called Egypt. I never had a house from that time until now. I moved from one place to another. A tent has always been my home.

Good News Bible (TEV)         From the time I rescued the people of Israel from Egypt until now, I have never lived in a temple; I have traveled around living in a tent.

The Message                         Why, I haven't lived in a 'house' from the time I brought the children of Israel up from Egypt till now. All that time I've moved about with nothing but a tent.

NET Bible®                             I have not lived in a house from the time I brought the Israelites up from Egypt to the present day. Instead, I was traveling with them and living in a tent. Hebrew: "in a tent and in a dwelling." The expression is a hendiadys, using two terms to express one idea.

New Century Version             Nathan said to the king, "Go and do what you really want to do, because the Lord is with you.".

New Jerusalem Bible             I have never lived in a house from the day when I brought the Israelites out of Egypt until today, but have kept traveling with a tent for shelter.

New Living Translation           I have never lived in a house, from the day I brought the Israelites out of Egypt until this very day. I have always moved from one place to another with a tent and a Tabernacle as my dwelling.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

God’s Word                         I haven't lived in a house from the day I took Israel out of Egypt to this day. Instead, I moved around in a tent, the tent of meeting.

HCSB                                     From the time I brought the Israelites out of Egypt until today I have not lived in a house; instead, I have been moving around with the tabernacle tent.

JPS (Tanakh)                         From the day that I brought the people of Israel out of Egypt to this day I have not dwelt in a houes, but have moved about in Tent and Tabernacle.

New Intl. Readers Version     I have not lived in a house from the day I brought the people of Israel up out of Egypt until now. I have been moving from place to place. I have been living in a tent.

New International Version      I have not dwelt in a house from the day I brought the Israelites up out of Egypt to this day. I have been moving from place to place with a tent as my dwelling.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                For I have not dwelt in a house since I brought the Israelites out of Egypt to this day, but have moved about with a tent for My dwelling.

Updated Emphasized Bible    ...seeing that I have not lived in a house since the day that I brought up the sons of Israel out of Egypt, even to this day, but have been wandering in a tent as my inhabitation [Hebrew: “in a tent and in a habitation”]?

English Standard Version      I have not lived in a house since the day I brought up the people of Israel from Egypt to this day, but I have been moving about in a tent for my dwelling.

Young's Updated LT              For I have not dwelt in a house even from the day of My bringing up the sons of Israel out of Egypt, even to this day, and I am walking up and down in a tent and in a tabernacle.


What is the gist of this verse? God tells David that He has not lived in a house all of the time since He brought the children of Israel out of Egypt. All of this time, He is walking around in a tent or in a tabernacle.


2Samuel 7:6a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, because; that; when

explanatory conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

lô (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

yâshab (יָשַב) [pronounced yaw-SHAHBV]

to remain, to stay; to dwell, to live, to inhabit; to sit

1st person singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #3427 BDB #442

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

bayith (בַּיִת) [pronounced BAH-yith]

house, residence; household, habitation as well as inward

masculine singular noun

Strong's #1004 BDB #108

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

The lâmed prefixed preposition and min together almost always form what BDB calls a terminus a quo, which means a starting point, the earliest possible date, or end from which. Footnote We can render the two together as for from, even from, from.

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article)

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

׳âlâh (עָלָה) [pronounced ģaw-LAWH]

to cause to go up, to lead up, to take up, to bring up

1st person singular, Hiphil perfect

Strong's #5927 BDB #748

êth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

bên (בֵּן) [pronounced bane]

son, descendant

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

Yiserâêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 BDB #975

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

Mitserayim (מִצְרַיִם) [pronounced mits-RAH-yim]

Egypt, Egyptians

proper noun

Strong’s #4714 BDB #595


Translation: For I have not lived in a house from the day [that] I brought up the sons of Israel out from Egypt... We do have an interesting approach here, that God speaks of Himself as personified in the Ark, or as the Ark. However, a verb which will occur a little later will indicate that God is not confined to the Ark.


Obviously, God has never lived in a house before, so why do we go back to Him bringing the people of Israel out of Egypt? Two reasons: (1) This marks the beginning of the nation Israel and (2) the Ark of God was constructed during Israel’s trek through the desert (at the very beginning, after Moses received the Law on Mount Sinai). God led Israel out of Egypt before there was an Ark; but the Ark was made soon after, as per God’s specifications. At the same time, the Tabernacle of God was also built, and, when stationary, the Ark was kept in a compartment inside of the Tabernacle.


2Samuel 7:6b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

׳ad (עַד) [pronounced ģahd]

as far as, even to, up to, until

preposition

Strong’s #5704 BDB #723

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article)

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

zeh (זֶה) [pronounced zeh]

here, this, thus

demonstrative adjective with the definite article

Strong’s #2063, 2088, 2090 BDB #260


Translation: ...even to this day,... This is the day in which God speaks to Nathan. This sets up a time frame: from the time that Israel left Egypt (actually, a couple of months after) up until David’s reign, God has resided in a tent (a Tabernacle is simply a semi-permanent tent).


2Samuel 7:6c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

1st person singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

hâlake (הָלַךְ) [pronounced haw-LAHKe]

properly: to go, to come, to depart, to walk; to go for oneself, to walk up and down, to go about, to walk about; to live [walk] [in truth]; to flow

Hithpael participle

Strong’s #1980 (and #3212) BDB #229

The Hithpael conveys the idea that one puts himself into the state or the action of the verb, which is an achieved state. Seow gives several uses: (1) Its primary use is reflexive—the verb describes action on or for oneself. That is, the subject of the verb is also the object of the verb. However, this does not completely convey the reflexive use, as there are examples where the verb takes on another object. These verbs are known as tolerative—the subject allows an action to affect himself or herself. (2) Reciprocal use: Occasionally, the Hithpael denotes reciprocity; that is, they worked with one another, they looked at one another. (3) The third use is known as iterative, which means that the Hithpael suggests repeated activity (he walked about, he walked to and fro, and turned back and forth). (4) The fourth use is known as estimative: the verb indicates how one shows himself or regards himself, whether in truth or by pretense (he pretended to be sick, they professed to be Jews). Footnote (5) The Hithpael can also be used in a passive rather than in a reflexive sense (see Gen. 22:18). Footnote The Hithpael is intensive (and sometimes seen as an accomplished state) and it is something that one does to oneself.

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ohel (אֹהֶל) [pronounced OH-hel]

tent, tabernacle, house, temporary dwelling

masculine singular noun

Strong's #168 BDB #13

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

mîshekân (מִשְכָן) [pronounced mishe-KAWN]

residence, dwelling place, tabernacle, portable sanctuary, tent, abode; semi-permanent structure, semi-permanent tent, temporary dwelling place

masculine singular noun, pausal form

Strong's #4908 BDB #1015

This is the word translated tabernacle throughout the end of Exodus. This is the word used more often for the tabernacle of God, as well as for temporary dwelling place (2Chron. 29:6 Job 18:21 Jer. 9:19), as found in Ex. 26, 36, 40 Num. 1, 3, 9 (yet, interestingly enough, rarely in Leviticus). the two words occur together in Ex. 40:2 Num. 3:25. The latter word seems to be more of a permanent structure, yet still based on the concept of a tent. It is less than a house, but more than a tent. Semi-permanent structure, semi-permanent tent, temporary dwelling place all give a sense as to the meaning of mîshekân. It is a tent, nonetheless and can be taken up and pitched again (Num. 1:51). This appears to be a semi-permanent structure, like our modern day trailer home in function. You will note that Keil and Delitzsch render this pavilion. This threw me for a bit, so I looked it up. The first definition, a light, usually open building used for shelter, concerts, exhibits, etc. is what I thought of. However, one of the secondary meanings of this word is a large and elaborate tent. This is how we should understand this word. Keil and Delitzsch add: Even in the present day, a Beduin, as he approaches an encampment, knows the tent of the sheikh immediately; it is denoted by its size, often also by the lances planted at the door, and also, as is easily imagined, by the rich arrangement of cushions and carpets. Footnote


Translation: ...but [lit., and so] I have been moving about in a tent and in a Tabernacle [or, in a tent, namely the Tabernacle]. We have this interesting relationship between an omnipresent God and this Ark specifically, which is always confined to one place in a point in time. God was the cloud which led Israel and the pillar of fire at night for Israel, even after the construction of the Ark. However, the Ark itself has always been properly kept in the Tabernacle, or, since its return to Israel, in a tent of some sort (we are not given any real specifics as to how the Ark was kept in Kiriath-jearim, but we may reasonably surmise that it was kept in a tent.


The verb used here is in the Hithpael stem. It is basically an intensive reflexive verb. Here, we probably have the iterative use, which means that the Hithpael suggests repeated activity (he walked about, he walked to and fro, and turned back and forth). For the most part, the Ark just sat in one place, in the Holy of Holies. It was taken out when moved and it was taken out twice to go to war; but for most of the time, the Ark is inside a room which is inside the Tabernacle.


God is not speaking of the Ark being taken into battle nor is He speaking of when the Ark was moved (e.g., across the Jordan River), because the verb has God moving about inside of a tent. As we try to wrap our heads around this verb, we must bear in mind the Ark itself is never worshiped; it is not seen as God, even though it clearly shadows Jesus Christ to come.


One might view this as somewhat of the Triune nature of God. We have God confined to one place at one time, pictured by the Ark, and analogous to our Lord Jesus Christ. We have God as omnipotent, leading Israel out of Egypt and delivering Israel from many difficult situations, which we might see as analogous to the working of the Holy Spirit in our lives. And yet, over all and in all is the omnipresent God, analogous to God the Father.


Most commentators do not interpret this passage as I do. Most see the Ark as moving around with Israel, when Israel moved across the desert from Egypt to the Land of Promise; and then as Israel moved throughout the land conquering it; and then, wherever the Tabernacle was established (Shiloh, Nob, Gibeon). Footnote It is possible to read this that God said, “I moved about with the tent; even with the Tabernacle.” An even more rare, but still legitimate translations would be, “I was moved about with the tent—even with the Tabernacle” (the Hithpael can be understood as a passive voice). The idea is, when the Tabernacle was moved, it was moved in pieces, not as a whole; and when the priests moved the Ark, this would be one of the few times the Ark could actually be seen by the public. In the first case, wherever the Ark moves, He moves along with it by His choice. Another approach is, God willingly confined Himself to the Ark, for the most part, and traveled with the Ark after it had become established.


There are previous passages which legitimize this understanding: The cloud covered the tent of meeting, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle. Moses was unable to enter the tent of meeting because the cloud rested on it, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle. The Israelites set out whenever the cloud was taken up from the tabernacle throughout all the stages of their journey. If the cloud was not taken up, they did not set out until the day it was taken up. For the cloud of the LORD was over the tabernacle by day, and there was a fire inside the cloud by night, visible to the entire house of Israel throughout all the stages of their journey (Ex. 40:34–38). So, certainly God did move along side of the Tabernacle when Israel was in the desert (see also Num. 10:33–36 2Cor. 6:16). This would be in keeping with the first understanding of this verse, where God willingly chose to move about along side of or with the Ark.


It is interesting that God should make such a statement to Nathan, because the Ark had not been inside or along side the Tabernacle since the time of Eli, when the Israeli army snatched it up and took it into battle. This was before Samuel and Saul (they were alive, but they were not leaders at this time). So, although the interpretation of other commentators is reasonable, I prefer understand this to refer to God moving around inside of or with the tent which David constructed for the Ark (and the other tents which had been probably constructed for it over the past 50 years or so) and inside of or with the Tabernacle when the Ark was associated with it. In any case, I believe that God the Holy Spirit meant to evoke images of Jesus Christ walking around in His human body (which body God will be eternally associated with).


With many passages of the Bible, there are often 2 or more things going on at the same time. For instance, in these prophecies which will follow—they will speak both of Solomon, David’s son, and of Jesus, God’s Son. When we read a passage, we also need to be aware that the human author and the divine author may be telling us different things. In the words used here—the words of God—we may understand this to refer to the Ark of God and the presence of God moving about with Israel, along with the various tents designed for the Ark (by Abinadab, Obed-edom, and David) Footnote and along side the Tabernacle when it was moved. However, throughout the Old Testament, God reveals Himself and His Son in ways which may not be immediately apparent (and certainly not always clear to the original readers and writers of Scripture). However, in retrospect, we can read a passage like this, and see Jesus Christ in His human body, a body to which He is eternally affixed, just as our souls are completely integral to our human bodies.


The Jewish worship of God was far different than heathen worship of Him. Bear in mind that, David sees this as building a Temple for Jehovah God; but essentially, what will go into the Temple will be the Ark of God, which, David does not deify, per se, nor does he worship the Ark in any way. He treats the Ark with due deference—maybe not in quite the same way that we would deal with uranium, but that is a somewhat similar approach. This is how remarkably different the Jewish religion was from the heathen religions around them. The heathen had god which they built out of wood, stone and precious metals. They built worship halls for these statues and they worshiped before the statues and worshiped the statues themselves. The holiest thing which the Jews had was this Ark of God, and it was clearly recognized as holy, and David speaks of building a Temple for God to mean that he wants to build a Temple for the Ark of God. But, no one in Israel worships the Ark; the Bible never encourages them to worship the Ark; and, throughout most of Israel’s history, no one even sees the Ark, apart from the High Priest once a year on the Day of Atonement. So, even from earliest times, the Jews understood that the Ark represented God in some way, but they knew the Ark was not God; nor was God confined in any way to the Ark. In other words, the Jews had a completely unique approach to this, their most holy religious artifact, which approach is borne out in the Word of God.


It is more difficult for us to find a parallel in our own lives. We all have the Word of God in one form or another (on our computer or 1 or several which we can carry about). No one reading this worships his own Bible; no one looking at his Bible imagines that is God. We understand that the Bible is the mind of Christ and the Word of God, but we do not deify it in any way. It is quite a fascinating dichotomy that our Bible is vastly more important than the Ark of God (which, in itself, revealed truth); however, David (and all previous saints) treated the Ark with extreme deference, as required by the Law. In any case, we do not deify and worship the Bible; nor did David deify and worship the Ark.


In all that I have gone in all sons of Israel, did a word I speak with one of tribes of Israel whom I commanded to shepherd My people Israel, to say, “To what you have not built to me a house of cedars?”

2Samuel

7:7

Wherever I have gone [or, walked] with all the sons of Israel, did I [ever] speak a word with anyone of the tribes [possibly, judges] of Israel whom I commanded to shepherd My people Israel, saying, “Why have you not built Me a house of cedar [trees]?”

In all the places where I have gone out with the sons of Israel, did I ever speak even a word to anyone from the tribes of Israel, anyone that I had commanded to shepherd My people Israel, saying, “Why have you not built Me a house made of cedar?”


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text                       In all that I have gone in all sons of Israel, did a word I speak with one of tribes of Israel whom I commanded to shepherd My people Israel, to say, “To what you have not built to me a house of cedars?”

Septuagint                              ..in all that I went with all Israel. Have I ever spoken to any of the tribes of Israel, which I commanded to tend my people Israel, saying, “Why have you not built me a house of Cedar?”

 

Significant differences:           The Hebrew, Latin and Syriac all have all the sons of Israel; the Greek only has all Israel. We find a word in the Hebrew and Latin, but not in the Greek (it is not in the English of the Syriac). There is little effect here upon the overall meaning.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       I chose leaders and told them to be like shepherds for my people Israel. But did I ever say anything to even one of them about building a cedar temple for me?

Easy English (Pocock)           So I moved with the *Israelites. And I told the rulers of the *Israelites to be like a *shepherd to the people. I never told them to build me a house or *temple from the wood of cedar trees."

Good News Bible (TEV)         In all my traveling with the people of Israel I never asked any of the leaders that I appointed why they had not built me a temple made of cedar.'

The Message                         And in all my travels with Israel, did I ever say to any of the leaders I commanded to shepherd Israel, 'Why haven't you built me a house of cedar?'

NET Bible®                             Wherever I moved among all the Israelites, I did not say [Hebrew "Did I speak a word?" In the Hebrew text the statement is phrased as a rhetorical question] to any of the leaders [Hebrew "tribes" (so KJV, NASB, NCV), but the parallel passage in 1 Chr 17:6 has "judges."] whom I appointed to care for [Hebrew "whom I commanded to shepherd" (so NIV, NRSV)] my people Israel, "Why have you not built me a house made from cedar?"'.

New Century Version             As I have moved with the Israelites, I have never said to the tribes, whom I commanded to take care of my people Israel, "Why haven't you built me a house of cedar?" '

New Jerusalem Bible             In all my travels with all the Israelites, did I say to any of the judges of Israel, whom I had commanded to shepherd my people Israel: Why do you not build me a cedar-wood temple?”

New Living Translation           Yet no matter where I have gone with the Israelites, I have never once complained to Israel's tribal leaders, the shepherds of my people Israel. I have never asked them, "Why haven't you built me a beautiful cedar house?"'


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

God’s Word                         In all the places I've moved with all the Israelites, did I ever ask any of the judges of Israel whom I ordered to be shepherds of my people Israel why they didn't build me a house of cedar?'

HCSB                                     In all My journeys with all the Israelites, have I ever asked anyone among the tribes of Israel, whom I commanded to shepherd My people Israel: Why haven't you built Me a house of cedar?'

JPS (Tanakh)                         As I moved about wherever the Israelites went, did I ever reproach any of the tribal leaders [this is understood by some to mean scepters; 1Chron. 17:6 reads chieftains] whom I appointed to care for My people Israel: Why have you not built Me a house of cedar?

New Intl. Readers Version     I have moved from place to place with all of the people of Israel. I commanded their rulers to be shepherds over them. I never asked any of those rulers, 'Why haven't you built me a house that has beautiful cedar walls?' " '


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

English Standard Version      In all places where I have moved with all the people of Israel, did I speak a word with any of the judges of Israel, whom I commanded to shepherd my people Israel, saying, "Why have you not built me a house of cedar?"'

New King James Version       Wherever I have moved about with all the children of Israel, have I ever spoken a word to anyone from the tribes of Israel, whom I commanded to shepherd My people Israel, saying, `Why have you not built Me a house of cedar?'"'

Young’s Updated LT             During all the time that I have walked up and down among all the sons of Israel, a word have I spoken with one of the tribes of Israel which I commanded to feed my people Israel, saying, “Why have you not built to Me a house of cedars?.


What is the gist of this verse? God, through Nathan, asks that, during all of this time, has He ever requested for anyone to build for Him and house of cedar wood.


2Samuel 7:7a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

Strong’s# none BDB #88

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

all, all things, the whole, totality, the entirety, everything

masculine singular noun without the definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

ăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

In Joshua 1:7, Owen and the NASB translates these three words wherever; Young: in every [place] whither; Rotherham and the KJV: whithersoever. In 2Sam. 7:7, the NASB renders this wherever, but Owen translates it in all places. Young, in an unusual move, renders this during all [the time] that in 2Sam. 7:7. Literally, this is in all which; and wherever is a good modern rendering.

hâlake (הָלַךְ) [pronounced haw-LAHKe]

properly: to go, to come, to depart, to walk; to go for oneself, to walk up and down, to go about, to walk about; to live [walk] [in truth]; to flow

1st person singular, Hithpael perfect

Strong’s #1980 (and #3212) BDB #229

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

Strong’s# none BDB #88

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

Literally, in all. Although I don’t have this in the lexicons, it is rendered by the most literal translations as among all, through all, throughout all, with all.

bên (בֵּן) [pronounced bane]

son, descendant

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

Yiserâêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 BDB #975


Translation: Wherever I have gone [or, walked] with all the sons of Israel,... God has been all over with the sons of Israel. He brought them up out of Egypt; He wandered with them in the desert below the Land of Promise. He brought them up along the eastern coast of the Dead Sea, until the reached the Jordan River, and then He led them across the Jordan to take the Land of Promise. Lev. 26:6–7 reads: I will set My tabernacle in your midst, and My soul will not loathe you; and I will walk always in your midst, and will be God to you, and you, you will be people to Me.


The Land of Promise is a termination point. This is the land which God gave to Israel. God will no longer have to walk with Israel; the Tabernacle will no longer to be something which can be moved from place to place. Therefore, this would be the logical place for God to have a permanent residence.


David has access to God’s Word, and in His Word is a history of God’s interactions with Israel. As we have seen with the moving of the Ark, David has studied the Mosaic Law and the other portions of the Bible which were available to him. David knew that he was going in a logical direction; he knew he was thinking outside of the box; however, he knew the Bible well enough that he believed this not to be a sin (building a permanent dwelling for God).


2Samuel 7:7b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hă (הֲ) [pronounced heh]

interrogative particle which acts almost like a piece of punctuation, like the upside-down question mark which begins a Spanish sentence. The verb to be may be implied.

Strong’s #none BDB #209

dâbâr (דָּבָר) [pronounced dawb-VAWR]

word, saying, doctrine, thing, matter, command

masculine singular noun

Strong's #1697 BDB #182

dâbar (דָּבַר) [pronounced dawb-VAHR]

to speak, to talk [and back with action], to give an opinion, to expound, to make a formal speech, to speak out, to promise, to propose, to speak kindly of, to declare, to proclaim, to announce

1st person singular, Piel perfect

Strong’s #1696 BDB #180

êth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

with, at, near, by, among, directly from

preposition (which is identical to the sign of the direct object)

Strong's #854 BDB #85

echâd (אֶחָד) [pronounced eh-KHAWD]

one, first, certain, only; but it can also mean a composite unity; possibly particular; anyone

numeral adjective construct

Strong's #259 BDB #25

shêbeţ (שֵבֶט) [pronounced SHAYB-vet]

rod, staff, club, scepter and figuratively for a tribe, subdivision of a tribe or family and for a ruler (scepter-bearer), governor

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #7626 BDB #986

This is judges in 1Chron. 17:6. In the Hebrew, tribes is שבטי and judges is שפטי; the letters ב and פ are actually identical in the Hebrew, with the exception of a the apex under the upper stroke in the פ. This particular font makes these letters look much more different than they really are. Therefore, we probably have an error in the text here in Samuel. In 2Sam. 7:11, the writer will speak of the judges again.

Keil and Delitzsch make the argument that this should be rod, staff, club; tribe. They write: if שפטי had been the original expression used in the text, it would be impossible to explain the origin and general acceptance of the word שבטי. For this very reason, therefore, we must regard שבטי as the original word, and understand it as referring to the tribes, which had supplied the nation with judges and leaders before the tie of David, since the feeding, i.e., the government of Israel, which was in the hands of the judges, was transferred to the tribes to which the judges belonged. This view is confirmed by Psalm 78:67–68, where the election of David as prince, and of Zion as the site of the sanctuary, is described as the election of the tribe of Judah and the rejection of the tribe of Ephraim. Footnote I do not follow their argument, because we find tribes used at least 100 times prior to this use, so its meaning is already well-established.

Yiserâêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 BDB #975


Translation: ...did I [ever] speak a word with anyone of the tribes [possibly, judges] of Israel... This is moderately difficult to determine. Is God speaking of an individual here or is He speaking of a particular tribe? This could be just as easily rendered any of the tribes of Israel. The next phrase will indicate that this is an individual; and the phrase after that will have a plural verb referring back to here, which suggests a plural subject. I think the idea is, God is speaking of any individual who has ruled over Israel and He will refers back to them as a group of men.


God here asks David, through Nathan the prophet, “Have I ever spoken even one word with anyone of any tribe of Israel about..?”


It is actually more likely that the reference here is to any one of the judges, as God would have given this responsibility to someone in a leadership position. David knows all about Saul, so, quite obviously, God would have never give such a responsibility to him. However, this question also implies that, David knows the answer to this question. David has been studying not only the Law of Moses but he has also read the book of Judges, and he is familiar with their history and he knows that God never called upon any one of them to build a house for Him.


2Samuel 7:7c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

tsâvâh (צָוָה) [pronounced tsaw-VAW]

to commission, to mandate, to lay charge upon, to give charge to, charge, command, order

1st person singular, Piel perfect

Strong's #6680 BDB #845

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

râ׳âh (רָעָה) [pronounced raw-ĢAWH]

to shepherd, to pasture, to tend to graze, to feed; to rule?

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #7462 BDB #944

êth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

׳am (עַם) [pronounced ģahm]

people; race, tribe; family, relatives; citizens, common people; companions, servants; entire human race; herd [of animals]

masculine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #5971 BDB #766

êth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Yiserâêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 BDB #975


Translation: ...whom I commanded to shepherd My people Israel,... This phrase refers back to the person or tribe that God is speaking of, and this phrase indicates that we are speaking of an individual, as individuals rule over a nation, not tribes. God has had many people shepherd over Israel, from Moses to Joshua to any of the judges to Samuel to David.


This is also a point of divine establishment. There needs to be a system of authority in place in a nation. Even though there were several different sorts of governments in Israel, there was a clear authority, whether he be a judge (Gideon) or a king (David, Saul) or a leader of men (Moses, Joshua).


The word to shepherd could also mean to feed, but that is certainly not the meaning here. It is not up to the state or the leader of the state to feed the people. More than any other ancient nation, Israel looked out for the poor. However, when they wanted to eat, and if they lacked money, they could either put themselves into voluntary service (as a private slave) or they could go to one of the fields and harvest a portion of the crop which had been purposely left unharvested. There was no permanent soup kitchen set up in Israel by divine fiat.


Application: In the United States, we have lost our minds with regards to welfare. There are hundreds of thousands of women today whose job it is to get up in the morning, light up a cigarette, and go and sit on their couch in front of a big screened tv. 2 or 3 times a month, they may have to deal with whatever state offices provide them with assistance. When their babies are young, they feed them and change their diapers (all paid for by us) and when they get older, these children are fed and brought up by the school system. This is against the laws of God. God told Adam, “By the sweat of your face you will eat produce [taken from the ground] until you return to the ground” (Gen. 3:19a). There are some extreme cases wherein serious charity is needed. However, when you have a young, healthy mother, who is reduced to biding her time in front of the tv because of welfare and other social programs (like section 8), our government has gone too far. Clinton, with a Republican Congress, began to take the right steps to require work in exchange for food.


Back to our subject: in Israel, there was always a clear authority, who guided and who led and who shepherded God’s people. Such a leader had to make the big decisions. Such a leader needed to be ready to defend the country with an established army.


2Samuel 7:7d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

âmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

lâmed (ל) (pronounced le)

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

mâh (מָה) [pronounced maw]

what, how, why

interrogative; exclamatory particle

Strong’s #4100 BDB #552

Lâmed + mâh can be rendered why, for what reason, to what purpose, for what purpose, indicating an interrogatory sentence.

lô (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

bânâh (בָּנָה) [pronounced baw-NAWH]

to build, to rebuild, to restore

2nd person masculine plural, Qal perfect

Strong’s #1129 BDB #124

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 1st person singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

bayith (בַּיִת) [pronounced BAH-yith]

house, residence; household, habitation as well as inward

masculine singular construct

Strong's #1004 BDB #108

erez (אֶרֶז) [pronounced EH-rez]

cedar

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #730 BDB #72


Translation: ...saying, “Why have you not built Me a house of cedar [trees]?” God asks David, “Have I asked any of these men to build me a house made of cedar?” Here, we have the plural of the verb used, which, again, suggests that we are speaking of a tribe; however, it could refer to the many individuals shepherding Israel as well.


God is not saying, "This is not to be done; I would like My Ark to remain within a tent." He is asking David, "From where did you get this idea?" God knows that David has searched the Scriptures. David understands a great deal from what he has read. He did not simply read the Bible available to him; he studied it. However, he is taking things one step beyond what we find in the Bible, which is not something which I recommend to the average believer.


God is not berating David for having an original thought. God is not saying, “David, I have never commanded anyone before you to build a house for Me; you have become a presumptuous little twit.” What David has proposed to do takes Tabernacle worship one step further. The Tabernacle was specifically designed to be moved from time to time; and, as we have historically observed, it needed to be moved on many occasions. David has established the kingdom of Israel under one king; he has established the capital city of Israel. There is no reason, after this point, to have a moveable Tabernacle. David knows the Law and he is not violating the Law. God did require the construction and use of the Tabernacle; bt circumstances have changed, and David is moving the plan of God forward, without suggesting something which is blasphemous. Footnote


So God asks David, “Have I asked anyone at any time to build a house of cedar for Me?” Obviously, the answer is no. However, this is not phrased in such a way as to demean David or to issue to strict prohibition. In fact, what God will do is allow for this desire of David’s to be a springboard from which God would give David a series of promises, which is what this chapter is actually all about.


God will go with David’s idea, and He will allow Solomon, David’s son, to build the Temple. Allow me to explain why in the short doctrine below.


Although I have covered this material in the past, I want to make certain that it is clear to you:

Why Doesn’t God Allow David to Build a Temple for Him?

1.      The overarching principle is this: David foreshadows Jesus in His 1st and 2nd Advents (never clearly separated in the Old Testament) and his son Solomon will foreshadow our Lord’s Millennial reign.

2.      David was a man of bloodshed and war (1Kings 5:3 1Chron. 22:8 28:3) whereas his son, Solomon, was a man of peace. In this way, David more aptly represented our Lord in His 2nd Advent, when He will return and wipe out hundreds of thousands of warriors who are converging upon Israel (Rev. 14:20 describes the blood as being as high as the horse’s bridle).

         a.      Now, one might object at this point and say, this means that David is a man of war, so he is not worthy of building a Temple for God; Solomon was a man of peace, so he will build God’s Temple.

         b.      First of all, the wars which David fought were battles of the Lord (1Sam. 25:28). David did not have the option of making nice with Israel’s enemies in order to keep from going to war. In most cases, foreign countries were the aggressors (2Sam. 5:17–25).

         c.      Solomon will enjoy peace for two reasons: (1) David soundly defeated the enemies of Israel and (2) God wanted Solomon to foreshadow our Lord’s Millennial reign. There is nothing to suggest that Solomon was able to negociate peace where David could not.

         d.      David was clearly closer to God than was Solomon, although both men contributed a great deal of Scripture (David wrote many of the psalms; Solomon wrote Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and the Song of Solomon). David suffered some significant personal failings in his life; Solomon spent much of his time pursuing human viewpoint, unhindered by financial constraints (the book of Ecclesiastes).

         e.      Keil and Delitzsch write: But inasmuch as these wars were necessary and inevitable, they were practical proofs that David's kingdom and government were not yet established, and therefore that the time for the building of the temple had not yet come, and the rest of peace was not yet secured. The temple, as the symbolical representation of the kingdom of God, as also to correspond to the nature of that kingdom, and shadow forth the peace of the kingdom of God. For this reason, David, the man of war, was not to build the temple; but that was to be reserved for Solomon, the man of peace, the type of the Prince of Peace (Isa. 9:5). Again, the primary point is, Solomon was a picture of Jesus Christ ruling over the earth in the Millennium.

3.      David needed to focus on national security (1Kings 5:3–4).

4.      David was allowed to begin stockpiling materials that Solomon would use to build the Temple (1Chron. 22:2–19). Just as God sets the foundation for all the would occur in Christ, so David lays a foundation for Solomon.

One of these passages really requires us to take a second look at it: 1Kings 5:2–3: Solomon sent this message to Hiram: "You know my father David was not able to build a temple for the name of the LORD his God. This was because of the warfare all around him until the LORD put his enemies under his feet.” Where have you heard this line before? Psalm 110:1: The LORD declared to my Lord: "Sit at My right hand until I make Your enemies Your footstool." God the Father said to God the Son, “Sit at My right hand while I make Your enemies Your footstool.” I told you how David represents our Lord in His 1st and 2nd Advents, and it is over this period of time when God the Father makes the enemies of God the Son His footstool. These are angelic enemies and human enemies. David’s destruction of Israel’s enemies parallels and foreshadows this, just as David is a shadow–figure (a type) of Jesus Christ. The writer of Hebrews will quote this passage twice (Heb. 1:10 10:13), clearly referring to God the Son. But this Man [Christ Jesus], after offering one sacrifice for sins forever, sat down at the right hand of God. He is now waiting until His enemies are made His footstool (Heb. 10:12–13). Peter also quotes this in Acts 2:34–35 in his first evangelistic sermon on the Day of Pentecost. In fact, we find this in 3 of the gospels and quoted twice by Paul (Matt. 22:42–45 Mark 12:36 Luke 20:42–43 1Cor. 15:25 Eph. 1:22).

God will place all of His enemies under the feet of Jesus (under His control) at the end of the 2nd Advent. Jesus will kill millions of people who have not believed in Him and who have attacked Israel. Similarly, God will put all of Israel’s enemies under David’s feet—he will be a man of war and he will wipe out Israel’s enemies.

After David, Solomon will rule over Israel, a peaceful kingdom. After the 2nd Advent, our Lord will rule over Israel, a peaceful kingdom, for His Millennial reign. Because of this parallel, God applies these words both to David in 1Kings 5:2–3 and also applies these same words to Jesus Christ at the end of he 2nd Advent.

Some of these reasons came from The Complete Word Study Old Testament; Dr. S. Zodhiates; ©1994 AMG Publishers; p. 824 (footnote). The Keil and Delitzsch quote is from Keil and Delitzsch, Commentary on the Old Testament; from e-Sword; 2Sam. 7:8–11.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


This is a little off-topic, but I want to point out one more thing: throughout the history of Israel, God never mandated that the people worship the Ark or the Tabernacle (or, later, the Temple). These things were closely associated with God, as they all spoke of Jesus Christ, but they were never to be worshiped. This puts Israel in contrast to the heathen nations which surrounded Israel. They worshiped their own statues and religious objects; they did obeisance before these objects. No one in Israel, for instance, ever came and bowed and prostrated themselves before the Ark of God (at least, we have no recorded instances of this). Primarily this is true, because God never commanded such worship nor did He allow the hoi polloi to see the Ark. My point in all of this is, the religious artifacts of Israel were treated much differently than the religious artifacts of their surrounding neighbors.


——————————


A covenant is a treaty, contract or agreement which is made between two parties. A suzerain vassal covenant is a treaty/contract/agreement/covenant made between two unequal parties. The suzerain (king) dictates all the terms, lays down the law, makes certain promises, and explains the sanctions if the covenant is violated. Footnote What follows is not a suzerain-vassal treaty, which requires the ratification of the vassals and requires something from them (they will have obligations, duties, and/or taxes to render to their suzerain). What follows is known as an unconditional covenant—God makes unconditional promises to David and to Israel concerning what He will do on their behalf in the future. David is not required to do anything in order to receive God’s blessing.


God’s covenant to David does not follow the Suzerain-Vassal Treaty model exactly.

God’s Unconditional Covenant to David and the Suzerain-Vassal Treaty

Section

Suzerain-Vassal Treaty

Davidic Covenant (2Sam. 7:8b–16)

1.      Preamble:

Identifying the Lordship of the Great King & stressing his greatness, dominance & immanence

This is what the LORD of Hosts says:

2.      Historical Prologue:

Recounting the Great King's previous relationship to his vassal (with special emphasis on the benefits or blessing of that relationship).

I took you from the pasture and from following the sheep to be ruler over My people Israel. I have been with you wherever you have gone, and I have destroyed all your enemies before you.

3.      Ethical Stipulations:

Enumerating the vassal's obligations to the Great King (his guide to maintaining the relationship)

God does not list those things which David must do in order to maintain this relationship.

4.      Sanctions:

 A list of the blessings for obedience and the curses that will fall on the vassal if he breaks the covenant.

There is no list of blessings or cursings which apply to David; however, with respect to David son, God says: I will be a father to him, and he will be a son to Me. When he does wrong, I will discipline him with a human rod and with blows from others. But My faithful love will never leave him as I removed it from Saul (vv. 14–15).

5.      Succession Arrangements:

Arrangements and provisions for the continuity of the covenant relationship over future generations.

I will make a name for you like that of the greatest in the land. I will establish a place for My people Israel and plant them, so that they may live there and not be disturbed again. Evildoers will not afflict them as they have done ever since the day I ordered judges to be over My people Israel. I will give you rest from all your enemies. "'The LORD declares to you: The LORD Himself will make a house for you. When your time comes and you rest with your fathers, I will raise up after you your descendant, who will come from your body, and I will establish his kingdom. He will build a house for My name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. I will be a father to him, and he will be a son to Me. When he does wrong, I will discipline him with a human rod and with blows from others. But My faithful love will never leave him as I removed it from Saul; I removed him from your way. Your house and kingdom will endure before Me forever, and your throne will be established forever.

Obviously, I will go into greater detail throughout this study when it comes to explaining what we have here.

The Suzerain-Vassal Treaty outline comes from:

http://www.agapebiblestudy.com/charts/The%20Covenant%20Treaty%20Format%20in%20Sacred%20Scripture.htm accessed June 3, 2008. This approach ultimately can be attributed to Meredith G. Kline (see http://faculty.gordon.edu/hu/bi/ted_hildebrandt/OTeSources/02-Exodus/Text/Articles/Kline-TwoTables-WTJ.htm accessed June 3, 2008).


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


And now so you will say to My servant, to David, now speaks Yehowah of armies, ‘I took you from the pasture from following the flock to be a prince over My people over Israel.

2Samuel

7:8

“Now, therefore, you will say to My servant David: ‘Thus speaks Yehowah of the armies: I took you from the pasture, from following the sheep, to be a prince over My people, over Israel.

“This you will say to My servant David: ‘Thus speaks Jehovah of the Armies: I took you from out of the pasture, away from following after sheep, to be a prince over My people, over Israel.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          And now thus will you speak to my servant David: Thus says the Lord of hosts: I took you out of the pastures from following the sheep to be ruler over my people Israel.

Masoretic Text                       And now so you will say to My servant, to David, now speaks Yehowah of armies, ‘I took you from the pasture from following the flock to be a prince over My people over Israel.

Septuagint                              And now thus you will say to My servant David, Thus says the Lord Almighty, I took you from the sheep–cote, that you should be a prince over my people, over Israel.

 

Significant differences:           The Greek has Lord Almighty; the Hebrew, Syriac and Latin all have the Lord of the Armies [hosts]. The Hebrew, Syriac and Latin all have the additional phrase from following the sheep, which is not found in the Greek.

 

We find an extra to in the Hebrew text which is not in the Greek, Latin or Syriac (at least, not in the English translations of the Latin and Syriac). We have the word over twice at the end of this verse in the Greek and Hebrew, but not in the Latin or Syriac (and there is 1 printed edition of the Hebrew which lacks this second over as well Footnote ). This to is also missing in one early printed edition of the Hebrew. As we find again and again, these are real differences, but they have little overall effect on the overall meaning of the text.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       David, this is what I, the LORD All-Powerful, say to you. I brought you in from the fields where you took care of sheep, and I made you the leader of my people.

Easy English (Pocock)           Nathan, you must give this message to my servant David. "The *Lord is the leader of armies of *angels. And this is what the *Lord says: You were just a young *shepherd who looked after the sheep. But I chose you to lead my people *Israel.

Good News Bible (TEV)         "So tell my servant David that I, the LORD Almighty, say to him, 'I took you from looking after sheep in the fields and made you the ruler of my people Israel.

The Message                         "So here is what you are to tell my servant David: The GOD-of-the-Angel-Armies has this word for you: I took you from the pasture, tagging along after sheep, and made you prince over my people Israel.

NET Bible®                             "So now, say this to my servant David: `This is what the Lord of hosts says: I took you from the pasture and from your work as a shepherd [Hebrew "and from after the sheep."] to make you leader of my people Israel.

New Living Translation           "Now go and say to my servant David, `This is what the Lord of Heaven's Armies has declared: I took you from tending sheep in the pasture and selected you to be the leader of my people Israel.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

God’s Word                         "Now this is what you will say to my servant David: 'This is what the LORD of Armies says: I took you from the pasture where you followed sheep so that you could be the leader of my people Israel.

HCSB                                     "Now this is what you are to say to My servant David: 'This is what the LORD of Hosts says: I took you from the pasture and from following the sheep to be ruler over My people Israel.

JPS (Tanakh)                         “Further, say thus to My servant David: Thus said the Lord of Hosts: I took you from the pasture, from following the flock, to be ruler of My people Israel,...

New Intl. Readers Version     I have moved from place to place with all of the people of Israel. I commanded their rulers to be shepherds over them. I never asked any of those rulers, 'Why haven't you built me a house that has beautiful cedar walls?' " '


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

English Standard Version      Now, therefore, thus you shall say to my servant David, 'Thus says the LORD of hosts, I took you from the pasture, from following the sheep, that you should be prince over my people Israel.

WEB                                      Now therefore thus shall you tell my servant David, Thus says Yahweh of Hosts, I took you from the sheep pen, from following the sheep, that you should be prince over my people, over Israel;...

Young’s Updated LT             And now, thus you will say to My servant, to David: ‘Thus said Jehovah of Hosts, I have taken you from the comely place, from after the flock, to be leader over My people, over Israel;...


What is the gist of this verse? This begins a long speech to David spoken by Nathan as per the Word of God, and this will come to be known as the Davidic Covenant. In this verse, God, through Nathan, reminds David that He took him from the sheep pen, away from the sheep, to make him a prince over God’s people Israel.


2Samuel 7:8a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

׳attâh (עַתָּה) [pronounced ģaht-TAWH]

now, at this time, already

adverb of time

Strong’s #6258 BDB #773

When followed by an imperative or an interrogative, we + the adverb ׳attâh mean and so, thus, things being so, therefore, now therefore. Sometimes, the concept of time is lost when this combination is used to incite another.

kôh (כֹּה) [pronounced koh]

so, thus, here, hence

adverb

Strong’s #3541 BDB #462

âmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

2nd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

lâmed (ל) (pronounced le)

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

׳ebed (עֶבֶד) [pronounced ĢEB-ved]

slave, servant

masculine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #5650 BDB #713

lâmed (ל) (pronounced le)

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187


Translation: “Now, therefore, you will say to My servant David:... God works through a intermediary, even though David is a man after God’s own heart, and the king over all Israel. God speaks to Nathan and God tells Nathan what he should say to David.


Nathan does have spiritual credibility with David. When David was thinking of building a permanent home for the Ark of God, he talks this over with Nathan. Nathan, apart from any other divine revelation, assumes that there is no problem with David doing this. However, what we might assume to be occurring that very night, God speaks to Nathan, and tells him exactly what to say to David regarding this matter.


Nathan, when he speaks the Word of God to David, will have the full and complete attention of David. David fully believes, when Nathan speaks to him, that this is the Word of God. At no time will David view this merely as Nathan’s learned opinion. When I examine the Word of God, I am giving you my learned opinion. I do my best to get it right. After I put together what I believe a verse says, then I double-check this against several other commentators to get their take on it (which sometimes will cause me to change my opinion). But, what I say is not the Word of God; I attempt to get it right, and I expect that I do get it right 95% of the time (actually, I am hoping for a higher percentage when I take a dogmatic position).


This verse will begin a series of verses where God, through Nathan, reminds David of certain things, which will then morph into promises which God will make to David.


Why doesn’t God speak directly to David? Two reasons: (1) God does not want David to get fatheaded. David is the ruler over all Israel. A person’s spiritual life can be ruined by prosperity or power, and David has both. Can you imagine how someone could become egotistical if he rules over a great country, if he has a boatload of blessings, and if God speaks to him directly? God makes it clear that He will speak to David through Nathan, a prophet who may have little by prosperity and power—but, he does have authority over David. (2) God continues the theme of mediatorship. There needs to be someone standing between man and God. In this way, God reveals His Son, Jesus Christ. Nathan is a mediator between David and God.


Now you may stop and ask, Isn’t God already speaking to Nathan telling him to tell this to David? Isn’t that what is said in v. 5? From vv. 8–16, we have what is known as the Davidic Covenant. At the beginning of this verse, I set this passage up and compared it to the Suzerain-vassal treaty. This is called an unconditional covenant, because one section will not be a pat of the covenant: God will not lay down rules and conditions for David to follow. So, yes, God has already been speaking to David through Nathan; Footnote but this will begin a new section.


2Samuel 7:8b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

׳attâh (עַתָּה) [pronounced ģaht-TAWH]

now, at this time, already

adverb of time

Strong’s #6258 BDB #773

âmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

Owen lists this as recurring in this verse from before, making it a 2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect; however, this is more likely a 3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect.

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

tsebâôwth (צְבָאוֹת) [pronounced tzeb-vaw-OHTH]

armies, hosts; wars

masculine plural noun, simply the plural of Strong’s #6635, but often used in titles

Strong’s #6635 BDB #838


Translation:...“Thus speaks Yehowah of the armies:... Here, it is made clear that this is God speaking to David through Nathan. Nathan is not going back to David the next day after ruminating and thinking things over, and coming to a slightly different opinion—this is God of the Universe, the Creator of All, speaking to David through Nathan. These words carry God’s full weight and authority with David. There is no indication that David questions what is said to him.


2Samuel 7:8c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ânîy (אָנִי) [pronounced aw-NEE]

I, me; in answer to a question, it means I am, it is I

1st person singular, personal pronoun

Strong’s #589 BDB #58

lâqach (לָקַח) [pronounced law-KAHKH]

to take, to take from, to take away, to take in marriage; to seize, to take possession of; to send after, to fetch, to bring; to receive

1st person singular, Qal perfect; with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #3947 BDB #542

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

nâveh (נָוֶה) [pronounced naw-VEH]

inhabiting, dwelling, abiding; as a substantive: a seat; a habitation or an area [or region] of habitation [for man, God, shepherds, shepherd’s flocks]; meadow, pasture

masculine singular adjective; masculine singular noun

Strong’s #5116 BDB #627

mêachar (מֵאַחַר) [pronounced may-ah-KHAHR]

from, from after, from (being) after, from behind, from following after

compounded prepositions

Strong’s #4480 BDB #577 and Strong’s #310 BDB #29

tsôn (צֹאן) [pronounced tzohn]

small cattle, sheep and goats, flock, flocks

feminine singular collective noun with the definite article

Strong’s #6629 BDB #838


Translation: ...I took you from the pasture, from following the sheep,... God reminds David who he is and where he came from. He was a young shepherd pretty much hanging out on the desert, pretty much in the middle of nowhere, watching over a flock of sheep. Even David’s own family did not see any strikingly important or inherent qualities in David which set him apart from everyone else—God saw in him a king, in fact, the greatest king over all Israel. Here, David is reminded of his humble beginnings.


The way that this is phrased could be taken as an insult. David is not said here to be leading the sheep; he is said to be following the sheep. So, David was not even a leader from his youth, but a follower of sheep, which is just about as low as a person can be. In any case, David’s humble beginnings are found back in 1Sam. 16, as well as God’s recognition of his potential (see also Psalm 78:70).


If you are a growing maturing believer, and if you have 5 or more years in your rear view mirror since you began to grow spiritually, you can look back and see amazing things which have been done in your life. When I believed in Jesus Christ almost 40 years ago, I could not have guessed much about any of my life that has come to pass. You may not appreciate what God has done if you look back to yesterday or to last week, but if you have a few years over which you can look back, most growing believers can see a big difference.


2Samuel 7:8d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lâmed (ל) (pronounced le)

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

Qal infinitive construct

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

nâgîyd (נָגִיד)   [pronounced naw-GEED]

prince, crown-prince, leader, ruler, noble

masculine singular noun

Strong's #5057 BDB #617

׳al (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

׳am (עַם) [pronounced ģahm]

people; race, tribe; family, relatives; citizens, common people; companions, servants; entire human race; herd [of animals]

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #5971 BDB #766

׳al (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

Yiserâêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 BDB #975


Translation: ...to be a prince over My people, over Israel. God’s plan was for David to become king over all Israel, over God’s own people. These entities are listed separately, because not all Israel is Israel. My people refers to those who have believed in Jesus Christ, known then as the God of Israel, Jehovah Elohim; and Israel refers to the entire nation Israel, in which there are both believers and unbelievers.


That God put David in charge of Israel, to shepherd His people rather than a bunch of sheep, is found in 1Sam. 9:16 10:1 2Sam. 6:21. This is an amazing rise to power, but certainly not unique.


This is the great contrast—between being an unappreciated shepherd boy in the fields of Judea to becoming king over all Israel. You may recall the David’s own family had little respect for him. When Samuel came to Jesse, David’s father, in order to anoint the next king of Israel, it never occurs to Jesse that this might be David. When David, as a very young man, shows up on the battlefield wherein he will face Goliath, his older brothers demean him and his questions.


Application: It is important to note that many of our presidents have come from very low places in our society to occupy the highest office in the land (and, given the status of the United States, the most powerful position in the world). Bear in mind, God has His hand in this. He brings down powerful men and he raises up men from nothing (Luke 1:52). In fact, we tend to lose sight of what has occurred in these cases. We like to say, “Anyone in American can go from nothing to becoming the president of the United States. American is a land of opportunity.” But the key is, our spiritual heritage—we live in a country where there is a pivot of mature believers, a country where God has blessed us beyond any country ever in the history of man. God promotes these people—who are, for the most part, believers in Jesus Christ—to the highest office of authority in the world. We may questions some of these men and their decisions (e.g., FDR allowing millions of people to be subjected to a godless Communist dictatorships), but, in one of his speeches, FDR spoke of the United States as being the country where the Word of God was taught (and he was referring specifically to the Bible). God finding and promoting the appropriate leader for our country is done again and again, even if this man is born in a small apartment above a local bank. Many of our presidents came from very humble means—in fact, Jimmy Carter was the first president actually born in a hospital. All presidents prior to him were born at home. Most of our presidents came from humble means. He raises the poor from the dust; He lifts up the needy from the dunghill, to cause them to sit with nobles; yea, He causes them to inherit a throne of honor; for to Jehovah are the pillars of the earth; and He sets the habitable world on them (1Sam. 2:8; also see Psalm 113:7–8 Luke 1:52).


Application: We are in the midst of a presidential election at this time, the two candidates being Barrack Obama and John McCain. It is fascinating because God has fashioned one of these men to lead the United States, and not necessarily for the benefit of the United States. We have become a very immoral nation. We have become a nation fueled by lust for money and lust for power and lust for sex, along with a whiney population who think that, because their life is difficult, government is to blame. We have a huge number of our population who are fed, clothed and housed based upon the hard work of others. However, we also have a pivot of mature believers. What God has done in the past, with some nations, is destroy great numbers of people within a nation in order to preserve this nation. Men of great character and bravery will be destroyed, along with men of little or no character. These two men hold the keys as to what will happen in our near and far future; and the reasons for choosing one man over another is a key to the degeneracy or to the honor of the souls who vote for one or the other. God has known all of these things from eternity past. These men are not just random choices—they both represent radically different visions for our country, and they each represent a radically different constituent. Seeing this contest play out has been quite fascinating to me; and it may represent a pivotal moment in the history of the United States.


And so I am with you in all which you have gone and so I cut off your enemies from your faces and I have made for you a name great as a name of the great ones who [are] in the earth.

2Samuel

7:9

I have been with you wherever you have gone and I have cut off your enemies from before you. I have made your name great, like the names of the great ones on the earth.

I have been with you no matter where you went. When you faced enemies, I cut them off right in front of you. I have made your name great on this earth, as notable as any famous or powerful person.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text                       And so I am with you in all which you have gone and so I cut off your enemies from your faces and I have made for you a name great as a name of the great ones who [are] in the earth.

Septuagint                              And I was with you wherever you went, and I destroyed all your enemies before you, and I made you renowned according to the renown of the great ones on the earth.

 

Significant differences:           Apart from the pronoun for, there are no significant differences.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       Wherever you went, I helped you and destroyed your enemies right in front of your eyes. I have made you one of the most famous people in the world.

Easy English (Pocock)           I have been with you everywhere that you have gone. I defeated all your enemies. Now I will make you as famous as any of the great people in the world.

Good News Bible (TEV)         I have been with you wherever you have gone, and I have defeated all your enemies as you advanced. I will make you as famous as the greatest leaders in the world.

The Message                         I was with you everywhere you went and mowed your enemies down before you. Now I'm making you famous, to be ranked with the great names on earth.

NET Bible®                             was with you wherever you went, and I defeated [Hebrew "cut off"] all your enemies before you. Now I will make you as famous as the great men of the earth [Hebrew "and I will make for you a great name like the name of the great ones who are in the earth"].

New Jerusalem Bible             I have been with you wherever you went; I have got rid of all your enemies for you. I am going to make your fame as great as the fame of the greatest on earth.

New Life Version                    I have been with you in all the places you have gone. I have destroyed from in front of you all those who fought against you. I will make you a great name, like the names of the great men who are on the earth.

New Living Translation           I have been with you wherever you have gone, and I have destroyed all your enemies before your eyes. Now I will make your name as famous as anyone who has ever lived on the earth!

Revised English Bible            I have been with you wherever you have gone, and have destroyed all the enemies in your path. I shall bring you fame like the fame of the great ones of the earth.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

God’s Word                         I was with you wherever you went, and I destroyed all your enemies in front of you. I will make your name famous like the names of the greatest people on earth.

HCSB                                     I have been with you wherever you have gone, and I have destroyed all your enemies before you. I will make a name for you like that of the greatest in the land.

JPS (Tanakh)                         ...and I have been with you wherever you went, and have cut down all your enemies before you. moreover, I will give you great renown like that of the greatest men on earth.

New Intl. Readers Version     I have been with you everywhere you have gone. I cut off all of your enemies when you were attacking them.

 

" ' "Now I will make you famous. Your name will be just as respected as the names of the most important people on earth.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Updated Emphasized Bible    ...and I was with you wherever you went, and I cut off all of your enemies from before you; and I will make you a name, like the name of the great ones who are in the earth;...

WEB                                      ...and I have been with you wherever you went, and have cut off all your enemies from before you; and I will make you a great name, like the name of the great ones who are in the earth.

Young’s Updated LT             ...and I am with you wherever you have gone, and I cut off all your enemies from your presence, and have made for you a great name, as the name of the great ones who are in the earth,...


What is the gist of this verse? God continues through Nathan to remind David that He has been with David everywhere that he has gone and, when David had enemies, God destroyed them in his sight. God made David as famous as any person on this earth.


2Samuel 7:9a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

1st person singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

׳îm (עִם) [pronounced ģeem]

with, at, by, near; like; from

preposition of nearness and vicinity with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5973 BDB #767

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

Strong’s# none BDB #88

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

all, all things, the whole, totality, the entirety, everything

masculine singular noun without the definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

ăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

In Joshua 1:7, Owen and the NASB translates these three words wherever; Young: in every [place] whither; Rotherham and the KJV: whithersoever. In 2Sam. 7:7, the NASB renders this wherever, but Owen translates it in all places. Young, in an unusual move, renders this during all [the time] that in 2Sam. 7:7. Literally, this is in all which; and wherever is a good modern rendering.

hâlake (הָלַךְ) [pronounced haw-LAHKe]

to go, to come, to depart, to walk; to advance

2nd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #1980 (and #3212) BDB #229


Translation: I have been with you wherever you have gone... This first phrase is interesting, because, as we have studied, there were times when David faced great difficulties and incredible injustices. However, God was with David, in prosperity as well as in adversity (1Sam. 18:14 2Sam. 5:10 8:6, 14 22:30, 34–38 1Chron. 17:8). This is how it is for us—we go through a variety of situations in our lives, some good, some bad, and God is with us throughout.


Application: We may rest assured that God is with us everywhere that we go as well. After all, we all have the indwelling Spirit of God and we have all been baptized into Christ (Rom. 5:5 8:9 1Cor. 12:13—I am assuming that we have all believed in Jesus Christ). Our spiritual assets are made operational by the filling of the Holy Spirit and the function of doctrine in our souls. And, when we are out of fellowship, God is there, encouraging us to get back into fellowship (with divine discipline).

 

Gill writes about the fact that God was with David throughout his life: When he went against Goliath, when he went forth against the Philistines, when in Saul's court, when he fled from Saul, and was obliged to go to various places, God was with him protecting and preserving him, prospering and succeeding him every where, and in everything. Footnote


Application: Some time ago, I wrote an article called the Cacophony of Whining, because, during this election year, I have listened to so many hard-luck stories. I have an apartment in a poor part of town, and what is most remarkable about this is, there are businesses all over the place and, huge numbers of the people that I observe are fat. No one is starving; in Houston, virtually no one is without a job unless that is their choice. The most hunger some of these people have endured is a long line at a fast food restaurant. Yet, I have been subjected to such incessant whining; e.g., someone has been working two jobs and its hard and they aren’t getting ahead in life. God has promised man that, from the sweat of his brow, he would bring forth food from a stubborn and fallen earth. In most cases, these people covet the material possessions and the lifestyle of others they have observed (in real life or on TV), and they are working hard and they don’t have as much stuff as they think they deserve. Many of these of believers in Jesus Christ and they have no comprehension of the 10th Commandment.


Application: There will always be someone who appears to have more than we have. There will always be someone who appears to have an easier life and an easier job. You can look up and down your street, and most of the time, you can find someone who lives in a better house and someone who lives in a worse house; you can find someone who has a nicer car than yours and someone whose car is worse than yours. God has given us all that is necessary for us to be content; and when we are not, it is our fault, not His and not the government’s. The biggest key to your success and to the material things in your life is, doctrine in your soul and, as a result, you do not covet what others have.


Application: I have a younger brother who is much more successful than I am; and he has a huge house in a great location. To me, this is great. I love going over there; I enjoy dinner parties and social events at his house, and I fully understand that there is no reason for me to be jealous of his possessions or of his lifestyle. These are blessings from God. I also have been blessed from God, and I have more than I can say grace over. Furthermore, I have a very full life with the option, most of the time, of doing whatever I want to do. It would be wrong for me to be jealous of my brother and his lifestyle, just as it would be wrong for anyone else to be jealous of mine. There is no need. I know that God has blessed him and I know that God has blessed me. Furthermore, I know that if he and I suddenly changed places somehow, I would be no happier than I am right now. For me, it is great to know him, great to spend time with him and his family, and I receive a great deal of enjoyment and blessing from that.


Up until this point in time, David has led an incredible life. He has lived in the palace of the king and married the king’s daughter; and he has lived under the stars as a shepherd; he now heads one of the most powerful nations on earth, and he has lived as a refugee from this same nation; he has been rejected to some degree by man members of his own family, and he has been beloved by millions in Israel. So his life has been quite spectacular. God has a spectacular life for all of us; it may or may not have all the highs and lows of David’s life, but God has designed a life for every single one of us in eternity past, and this life is designed to correspond with who we are. What keeps us from fully appreciating and enjoying what God has given to us is, not having the doctrine in our souls to orient to life.


2Samuel 7:9b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

kârath (כָּרַת) [pronounced kaw-RAHTH]

to kill, to destroy [men]; to separate, to remove, to withdraw; to cut off, to cut down; to allow to perish

1st person singular, Hiphil imperfect

Strong's #3772 BDB #503

êth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

with a plural noun, it is rendered all of, all; any of

masculine singular construct with a masculine plural noun

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

âyab (אָיַב) [pronounced aw-YABV]

enemy, the one being at enmity with you; enmity, hostility

masculine plural, Qal active participle; with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #340 BDB #33

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, away from, out from, out of from, off, on account of, since, above, than, so that not, above, beyond, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

pânîym (פָּנִים) [pronounced paw-NEEM]

face, faces, countenance; presence

masculine plural noun (plural acts like English singular); with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #6440 BDB #815

Together, mipânîym mean from before your face, out from before your face, from one’s presence. However, together, they can also be a reference to the cause, whether near or remote, and can therefore be rendered because of, because that.


Translation: ...and I have cut off your enemies from before you. David has had to deal with personal enemies, like Saul; and with national entities, like the Amalekites or the Philistines. God has always been with David and God has continually delivered David through many difficult circumstances.


Application: As a believer, you will never need to search for enemies. You will not need to develop some level of belligerence in order to cultivate enemies. And the last thing that you need to do is to try to anger family members and friends. You will have enemies; you will have those who barely know you and hate you. There will believers who develop a dislike for you. In my own personal life, I had someone that I always believed to be an ally, and when he ambushed me, even though all the signs were there, I had not even a clue that he was setting me up. Having enemies in the Christian life is natural. You don’t need to—and, in fact, you shouldn’t—try to make yourself obnoxious in order to cultivate some enemies. You do not need to be self righteous; nor do you need to be a know-it-all; nor do you need to correct every person that you speak to. These enemies will present themselves to you. And, as you go through life, God will deal with those enemies. He may not deal with them as quickly as you would like, but He will. You do not have to gossip about them, run them down behind their backs, run around to mutual acquaintances and give your side of the story, or plan some sort of revenge against them. In fact, most of the time when you do those kinds of things, God steps back, taps His foot, and waits for you to get it out of your system; and then, once you are done with whatever nonsense you are engaged in, He handles the situation. You may see the results and you may not. From my own life, I can guarantee that I have seen my own enemies cut off from before me. As a teacher, I worked with a lot of people; so I did not see the judgment against each and every enemy from my past; I can specifically recall two cases where I heard about the end results. But, we simply need to depend upon God to resolve that which we cannot, and deal with those whom we cannot endear to ourselves.


2Samuel 7:9c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

׳âsâh (עָשָֹה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWH]

to do, to make, to construct, to fashion, to form, to prepare, to manufacture

1st person singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #6213 BDB #793

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition; with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

shêm (שֵם) [pronounced shame]

name, reputation, character

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #8034 BDB #1027

gâdôwl (גָּדוֹל) [pronounced gaw-DOHL]

large, great or mighty [in power, nobility, wealth; in number, or magnitude and extent], loud, older, important, distinguished; vast, unyielding, immutable, significant, astonishing

masculine singular adjective

Strong’s #1419 BDB #152

kaph or ke (כְּ) [pronounced ke]

as, like, according to; about, approximately

preposition of comparison or approximation

No Strong’s # BDB #453

shêm (שֵם) [pronounced shame]

name, reputation, character

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #8034 BDB #1027

gâdôwl (גָּדוֹל) [pronounced gaw-DOHL]

large, great or mighty [in power, nobility, wealth; in number, or magnitude and extent], loud, older, important, distinguished; vast, unyielding, immutable, significant, astonishing

masculine plural adjective with a definite article

Strong’s #1419 BDB #152

When used as a substantive, as here, gâdôwl means a great [mighty, noble] man.

ăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

Strong’s# none BDB #88

erets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, ground, soil

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: I have made your name great, like the names of the great ones on the earth. We don’t know where David is at this point in his life. I suspect that he is in about the 5th year of his reign over the united kingdom. However, God, from eternity past, has made David great—and he is considered great, like the many other men of history who have led great nations and who have had an impact on history. Even people who do not believe that David existed know about him.


During David’s life, he became well-known throughout the ancient world. Women of Israel gathered and sang his praises. When David was out of fellowship and riding with the Philistines, many of them knew who David was and his reputation, and by this, God kept David from falling into a morally questionable area (supporting a Philistine who had supported him, which would have required him to raise his sword against Israel). During his life, David was probably the most well-known military hero and political leader of his day (2Sam. 5:10 8:6, 14 22:34–38).


Why is God telling this to David? Why is God telling David that He took David from humble means and promoted him to become one of the great men on earth? God is letting David know that, He is not rejecting David from building a Temple to Him due to any displeasure or disregard. Footnote God is not unhappy with David nor does God think that David’s idea here is stupid. David is called a man after God’s own heart (1Sam. 13:14 Acts 13:22). God is telling David that He is pleased with him; and God will make this even more clear by issuing the Davidic Covenant at this point.


And I appointed a place for My people, for Israel and I planted him [Israel] and he tabernacled below him and he is not agitated again and they have not added sons of unrighteousness to afflict him as that in the first.

2Samuel

7:10

I have appointed a place for My people, for Israel. I planted them and they dwelt [there] instead of them [the indigenous heathen]. Furthermore, Israel [lit., he] will no longer be agitated nor will they be afflicted [by] men of unjust violence [or, unrighteousness] as in the past,...

I have determined in eternity past a particular place for My people Israel. I will plant them there and they will live in that area instead of the indigenous heathen. Furthermore, Israel will no longer be agitated nor will they be afflicted by men of unjust violence as in the past;...


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          And I will appoint a place for my people Israel, and I will plant them, and they will dwell therein, and they will be disturbed no more: neither will the children of iniquity afflict them any more as they did before.

Masoretic Text                       And I appointed a place for My people, for Israel and I planted him [Israel] and he tabernacled below him and he is not agitated again and they have not added sons of violence to afflict him as that in the first.

Septuagint                              And I will appoint a place for my people for Israel, and I will plant it [Israel], and they shall dwell by themselves, and shall be no more distressed; and the son of iniquity shall no more afflict them, as [he has done] from the beginning,...

 

Significant differences:           There is an extra for in the Hebrew and Greek which is not found in the Aramaic, Latin, Syriac or in 3 early printed Hebrew editions. Footnote We have had missing prepositions like this throughout these first few verses, and it may be nothing more than a more compact way to state essentially the same thing in the other languages (which would be the case for the English as well).

 

The prepositional phrase by themselves in the Greek is rather difficult to translate from the Hebrew. This indicates that there is not a problem with the manuscript here. Son of iniquity in the Greek is sons of violence or sons of unrighteousness in the Hebrew, the only difference, really, is the number. This is the only significant difference, and, obviously, it is not that significant. In the Greek, one might interpret this verse as referring to Satan or to a particular king of people; in the Hebrew, it is more obviously applied to the myriads of people who hate Israel.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       I have given my people Israel a land of their own where they can live in peace, and they won't have to tremble with fear any more. Evil nations won't bother them, as they did...

Easy English (Pocock)           I have provided a place for my people *Israel to live. They will live in this country and they will be safe. They will have permanent homes here. Wicked people will not continue to cause trouble for my people. They had trouble in the past...

Good News Bible (TEV)         I have chosen a place for my people Israel and have settled them there, where they will live without being oppressed any more. Ever since they entered this land, they have been attacked by violent people, but this will not happen again. I promise to keep you safe from all your enemies and to give you descendants. [vv. 10–11]

The Message                         And I'm going to set aside a place for my people Israel and plant them there so they'll have their own home and not be knocked around any more. Nor will evil men afflict you as they always have,...

New Century Version             Also I will choose a place for my people Israel, and I will plant them so they can live in their own homes. They will not be bothered anymore. Wicked people will no longer bother them as they have in the past...

New Jerusalem Bible             I am going ot provide a place for my people Israel; I shall plant them there; and there they will live and never be disturbed again; nor will they be oppressed by the wicked any more; as they were in former times...

New Life Version                    I will choose a place for My people Israel and will plant them, that they may live in their own place and not be troubled again. The sinful will not bring trouble to them any more, as they did before.

New Living Translation           And I will provide a homeland for my people Israel, planting them in a secure place where they will never be disturbed. Evil nations won't oppress them as they've done in the past,...


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

God’s Word                         I will make a place for my people Israel and plant them there. They will live in their own place and not be troubled anymore. The wicked will no longer oppress them as they used to do...

HCSB                                     I will establish a place for My people Israel and plant them, so that they may live there and not be disturbed again. Evildoers will not afflict them as they have done...

JPS (Tanakh)                         I will establish a home for My people Israel and will plant them firm, so that they shall dwell secure and shall tremble no more. Evil men shall not oppress them any more as in the past,...

New Intl. Readers Version     I will provide a place where my people Israel can live. I will plant them in the land. Then they will have a home of their own. They will not be bothered anymore. Evil people will no longer crush them, as they did at first.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

LTHB                                     And I will designate a place for My people Israel, and will plant them, that they may dwell in their own place and not be made to tremble any more. Nor shall the sons of evil afflict them again, as at the first,...

MKJV                                     And I will appoint a place for My people Israel, and will plant them so that they may dwell in a place of their own, and move no more. Neither shall the sons of wickedness afflict them any more, as before.

New King James Version       Moreover I will appoint a place for My people Israel, and will plant them, that they may dwell in a place of their own and move no more; nor shall the sons of wickedness oppress them anymore, as previously,...

Young’s Updated LT             And I have appointed a place for My people, for Israel, and have planted it, and it has tabernacled in its place, and it is not troubled any more, and the sons of perverseness do not add to afflict it any more, as in the beginning;...


What is the gist of this verse? God has set up a permanent place for His people, for Israel, and He will plant them, and they will remain there untroubled by the surrounding heathen, as has been true of their past.


2Samuel 7:10a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

It is typical in the Hebrew for each sentence—in fact, each thought—to begin with a wâw consecutive (or a wâw conjunction) in the Hebrew. However, it is not necessary in an English translation to include a connective at every such juncture, as our language does not necessarily require that for successive thoughts or actions.

sîym (שִׂים) [pronounced seem]; also spelled sûwm (שׂוּם) [pronounced soom]

to put, to place, to set; to make; to appoint

1st person singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #7760 BDB #962

mâqôwm (מָקוֹם) [pronounced maw-KOHM]

place, situated; for a soldier, it may mean where he is stationed; for people in general, it would be their place of abode (which could be their house or their town)

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #4725 BDB #879

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

׳am (עַם) [pronounced ģahm]

people; race, tribe; family, relatives; citizens, common people; companions, servants; entire human race; herd [of animals]

masculine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #5971 BDB #766

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

The additional lâmed preposition is not found in the Latin, Syriac, Aramaic or in 3 early printed editions of the Hebrew. Footnote

Yiserâêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 BDB #975


Translation: I have appointed a place for My people, for Israel. God has, from eternity past, chosen a portion of real estate wherein Israel would be able to live. This portion of real estate has been described in several portions of Scripture, and, interestingly enough, does not today seem to live up to its description as a land flowing with milk and honey. However, it is a testimony to God and that these are God’s people, for the Jews to occupy approximately 0.2% of the Middle East, that this particular area where they live apparently has no oil, and that hundreds of thousands (if not millions) of Arabs are incredibly incensed about it. In any case, no matter how upset Arabs may be, God has appointed a place for Israel. The circumstances will be discussed as we go further along in this verse.


Application: Now, I do not want you to be confused about the present-day Israel. They exist there by virtue of military power and our support. If the United States withdrew support for Israel, this country might be wiped out overnight. This little country, which is celebrating its 60th birthday as I write this, may live on until the Tribulation and it may be overrun again. There are no guarantees for Israel as a nation during the Church Age. However, for the Millennium, this will become the center of the world, if not the center of the universe.


Application: The United States is very blessed as a nation. What we have and how God has blessed us is incredible. This is tied, in part, to our relationship with Israel and our bond that we have with Israel. Both presidential candidates have vowed continued support for Israel (although, with one candidate, it is not easy to determine whether this is what he really plans to do).


Application: When I was younger, the Republican party, although it had its good points, also had a strong fringe element, one which was anti-Semitic and believed in a variety of Jewish conspiracies. For the reason, the Republican party languished for several decades. Once the Republicans dumped the anti-Semitic faction along with the conspiracy faction (many of whom have gone over to the Democratic party), the Republican party has begun to flourish again, holding the executive branch of our government for a much longer period of time since Reagan (which marks the time at which the Bilderberger Conspiracy theorists left the Republican party).


2Samuel 7:10b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

It is typical in the Hebrew for each sentence—in fact, each thought—to begin with a wâw consecutive (or a wâw conjunction) in the Hebrew. However, it is not necessary in an English translation to include a connective at every such juncture, as our language does not necessarily require that for successive thoughts or actions.

nâţa׳ (נָטַע) [pronounced naw-TAHĢ]

to set upright; to plant; to place; to fix, to fasten [with a nail]; to pitch [a tent], to set up; figuratively to establish

1st person singular, Qal perfect; with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5193 BDB #642


Translation: I planted them... God has planted Israel and God has uprooted Israel. In fact, this has occurred several times. God first placed Israel in the land under Joshua; eventually, in the Millennium, Israel will be back in the land, and their living there will be more permanent.


We find similar verbiage in Psalm 80:8 Jer. 18:9 24:6 Ezek. 37:25–27 Amos 9:15. The idea is, God plants the nation Israel and then watches over it and takes care of it as one would a garden.


2Samuel 7:10c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

shâkan (שָכַן) [pronounced shaw-KAHN]

to tabernacle, to pitch a tent; to dwell, to reside, to live in, to domicile at, to settle, to settle down, to encamp

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #7931 BDB #1014

tachath (תַּחַת) [pronounced TAH-khahth]

underneath, below, under, beneath; instead of, in lieu of; in the place [in which one stands]; in exchange for; on the basis of

preposition of location or foundation; with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #8478 BDB #1065


Translation: ...and they dwelt [there] instead of them [the indigenous heathen]. The preposition here is moderately difficult, but one sense is, it means in place of, instead of, in exchange for. The heathen were living there in the Land of Promise before. God will plant Israel there instead of the heathen who are there. Israel will live in the Land of Promise instead of the heathen who first occupied it. This will not occur suddenly and miraculously. From the time that God originally promised this to Abraham to the time of David, nearly a millennium had gone by. Under David and Solomon, the kingdom of Israel will reach its zenith, insofar as the Age of Israel goes. However, Israel will occupy a much greater piece of land in the Millennium when our Lord, David’s Greater Son, rules over the land.


The Jews occupied the land of the Canaanites between 1400 b.c. and 70 a.d. Footnote It is quite helpful to have an overview of the history of Israel. Most of the dates below are approximate.

A Timeline of Israel

Time Period

Scripture

Commentary

2100–1859 b.c.

Gen. 12–49

From Abraham, the first Jew, to Joseph, his great grandson. God calls Abraham and interacts with Abraham and his progeny. Joseph ends up as prime minister of Egypt, and brings all of his family there to ride out a famine.

1859–1440 b.c.

Ex. 1–15

The children of Abraham remain in Egypt, during which time they are enslaved for hundreds of years. Moses, with the power of God, is able to take his people and lead them out of Egypt.

1440–1400 b.c.

Ex. 16–Deut. 34

Moses leads his people to Mount Sinai, where God gives them the Law, and then Moses takes his people to the Land of Promise. Because of the great failures of these Jews, God leaves them out in the desert for 40 years, killing off those who are 20 and older when they left Egypt (this is the sin unto death).

1400–1397 b.c.

Joshua

Joshua takes the Jews into the Land of Promise and conquers it.

1397–1050 b.c.

Judges 1–1Sam. 8

The period of the Judges. Israel is in the land given them by God and they settle in. However, due to continued national reversionism, God allows other nearby nations to occasionally conquer and subdue Israel.

1050–930 b.c.

1Sam. 9–1Kings 11

Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Solomon

The United Kingdom. Israel is a united kingdom under the 3 kings Saul, David and Solomon. There are periods of time when a wedge is driven between the northern and southern kingdoms (e.g., between the reigns of Saul and David). The rulership of David and Solomon is considered to be the golden period of Israel.

930–725 b.c.

1Kings 12–2Kings 18, portions of Isaiah,

Hosea, Amos and Micah

The Divided Kingdom. The Northern Kingdom (Israel) functions as a nation separate from the Southern Kingdom (Judah) with a different power structure in each kingdom. The Assyrians conquer the Northern Kingdom and remove them from the land.

725–586 b.c.

2Kings 19–25, portions of Isaiah,

Nahum, Zephaniah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Habakkuk, portions of Daniel, portions of Ezekiel

The Southern Kingdom. Judah survived for about 140 years before Babylon conquers the remaining Jews and removed them from the land. Some Jews from the northern kingdom moved south when their land was being conquered.

586–516 b.c.

Esther, portions of Ezekiel, portions of Daniel, Ezra 1–6, Obadiah

The 70 Year Captivity. The inhabitants of Judah live outside of the land in Babylon. Babylon is conquered by Persia. Cyrus decrees that Israel might be returned to rebuild Jerusalem. Some begin to return to the land.

516–400 b.c.

Ezra 6–Nehemiah, Zechariah, Haggai, Malachi

Many of those living in the Persian empire (formerly Babylonia) return to the land of promise, rebuilding the Temple. 400 b.c. marks the end of the writing of the Old Testament.

400–6 b.c.

The Apocrypha, Portions of Luke and Matthew

Judah loses its independence, but it appears to be a gradual process. When Alexander the Great conquered such a great portion of land, the Jews in Judah came under his control, but they were apparently granted great privileges (so great, in fact, that the Samaritans revolted against Alexander because of this). However, in contrast to this, a later Hellenistic leader, Antiochus IV, massacred thousands of Jews because of an internal civil strife, and then he plundered the Temple. He returned to Jerusalem in 168 b.c. and destroyed the city, killing the men and selling the women and children into slavery. Some Jews escaped and the staged a revolt under Judah Maccabeus. By 165 b.c., Judah was free of Greek dominance and was ruled by the high priest. However, Hellenistic culture and control eventually took hold over the Land of Promise, which later, in 63 b.c., fell under Roman rule. Rome, in general, was not a cruel master, and allowed for some autonomy and also brought in good roads and public works to the areas which they conquered.


During this time, there were some internal battles between the Roman aristocrats. Pompey, who conquered Jerusalem, became a rival of Caesar’s for power, and Cæsar defeated his army in 48 b.c.


Herod the Great rebuilt the Temple in Jerusalem, which was called Herod’s Temple. Herod the Great is the ruler who tried to kill Jesus, the newly born king of the Jews, beginning around 6 b.c. For this, Herod died an excruciatingly painful death in 4 b.c.


Rome essentially made 2 demands on the Jews: pay taxes and acknowledge the authority of Rome. Beyond that, Rome allowed the Jews a great deal of religious freedom, although they apparently appointed the high priest and the head of the Sadducees.

b.c.–30 a.d

The gospels

Dispensation of the Hypostatic Union. Jesus is on the earth. His actual ministry is quite short—approximately 3½ years. He primarily ministers to the Jews from the Galilee area down into Judea.


At this time Rome ruled over Judea (as well as Greece, Syria and North Africa). This actually provided some counterbalance to the priests and sadducees of Judah, who had gone far from the faith of their fathers.


The family of Herod continued to rule over the Palestine area; Pontius Pilate is the prefect (governor) of Judea in 26 a.d. After the crucifixion of Jesus, Pilate was soon removed from his post and died a few years later.

30–73 a.d.

Acts and the epistles.

The church is founded on the Day of Pentecost. Rome still rules over a huge empire, although Rome did not seek to wipe out the Jewish or Greek cultures (or languages). For many, being a Roman citizen was a good thing.


However, relations between the Jews and Rome was on a downward spiral during much of this time. Caligula, one Roman emperor, was about to place a bust of himself in the Temple of the Jews, but was assassinated before he could do this. Claudius, the next emperor, tried to calm Roman-Jewish relations, but turned against the Jews himself. He even expelled the Jews from Rome because of their constant rioting.


The Jews revolted against Rome in 66 a.d. Nero, Claudius’ successor, dispatched Roman general Vepsian to deal with this, and he had Jerusalem nearing defeat when Nero died and he became emperor of Rome. His son, Titus, completed this war against the Jews, destroying Jerusalem in 70 a.d. and continuing the war against the Jews until all Jewish self-rule was ended. Approximately a million people died during the siege of Jerusalem and nearly 100,000 were put into slavery.

This did not wipe out the Jews, many of whom fled during this war. There would be two more major wars between the Jews and the Romans (115–117 and 132–135). Jews lived throughout the Roman empire during this time as well as beyond.

Much of this came from The Bible Almanac, J.I. Packer, Merrill C. Tenney, William White, Jr.; ©1980 Thomas Nelson Publishers; p. 162–186. Supplemental material came from various places in Wikipedia.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


2Samuel 7:10d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

lô (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

râgaz (רָגַז) [pronounced rawg-GAHZ]

to be agitated, to quiver, to quake, to become excited, perturbed, disquieted

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #7264 BDB #919

׳ôwd (עוֹד) [pronounced ģohd]

still, yet, again, again and again, repeatedly, in addition to; more, farther, besides; as yet, yet, still, even yet

adverb

Strong’s #5750 BDB #728

With the negative, this means never again, no more, not...anymore, not again.


Translation: Furthermore, Israel [lit., he] will no longer be agitated... We have a near fulfillment and a far fulfillment for this prophecy. In the short term, Israel would remain in this spot for about another 300 years, with great prosperity under David and Solomon. However, this nation would split into two kingdoms: Israel, the Northern Kingdom, and Judah, the Southern Kingdom. Then northern Israel will be taken from the land and then southern Israel. Therefore, there would be a time in the future when Israel will be agitated, but not for awhile.


We find similar verbiage in Psalm 89:22–23 Isa. 60:18 Ezek. 28:24 Hos. 2:18 Rev. 21:4.


In the long view, at some point in the future, during the Millennium, Israel will be planted in this place for a longer period of time. Now, eventually, there will be a new heavens and a new earth; but, for 1000 years, Israel will live in this land undisturbed.


2Samuel 7:10e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

It is typical in the Hebrew for each sentence—in fact, each thought—to begin with a wâw consecutive (or a wâw conjunction) in the Hebrew. However, it is not necessary in an English translation to include a connective at every such juncture, as our language does not necessarily require that for successive thoughts or actions.

lô (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

yâçaph (יָסַף) [pronounced yaw-SAHPH]

to add, to augment, to increase, to multiply; to add to do = to do again

3rd person masculine plural, Hiphil imperfect

Strong's #3254 BDB #414

bên (בֵּן) [pronounced bane]

son, descendant

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

׳avelâh (עַוְלָה) [pronounced ģahve-LAW]

unrighteousness; injustice; iniquity, unjust violence

feminine singular substantive

Strong’s #5766 BDB #732

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

׳ânâh (עָנָה) [pronounced ģaw-NAWH]

to oppress, to depress, to afflict

Piel infinitive construct with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #6031 BDB #776

kaph or ke (כְּ) [pronounced ke]

like, as, according to; about, approximately

preposition of comparison or approximation

No Strong’s # BDB #453

ăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

Together, kaăsher (כַּאֲשֶר) [pronounced kah-uh-SHER] means as which, as one who, as, like as, just as; because; according to what manner. Back in 1Sam. 12:8, I rendered this for example.

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

rîshôwnâh (רִשוֹנָה) [pronounced ree-show-NAW]

first [in time, in degree, chief, former [in time], ancestors, former things; foremost; beginning

feminine singular adjective with the definite article

Strong’s #7223 BDB #911

With the bêyth preposition, rîshôwnâh means first, in front, in the first rank; before, formerly, previously, aforetime.

These four words together are rendered as before, as formerly, as at the first, as in the beginning; as in the past; and more informally as they have done, as they used to do.


Translation: ...nor will they be afflicted [by] men of unjust violence [or, unrighteousness] as in the past,... Again, this has a short term and a long term fulfillment. During a portion of David’s reign and all of Solomon’s reign, there would be few problems for the nation Israel from the evil men who surround them or are within their borders. During this time, Israel would enjoy a lot of peace and prosperity (particularly under Solomon). This is in stark contrast with the time of the Judges, where Israel would cycle down into a period of degeneracy and a nearby nation would come and attack and subdue Israel.


The first to afflict Israel in the past was Egypt (Ex. 1:13–14, 22). Then we have several oppressors during the time of the Judges (Judges 1–16). Throughout the time of Eli, Samuel, Saul and David, the Philistines continued to attack Israel. This was the unjust violence to which Israel was subjected.


God would give Israel great protection and blessing for many years. However, even this would change and Israel would go down, and the nation would suffer loss at the hands of men who practice unrighteousness and injustice. There will be approximately 300 years of relative peace; and the reign of Solomon will be perhaps the greatest period of prosperity for Israel.


Application: Modern-day Israel occupies approximately 0.2% of the Middle east, and yet, millions of Arabs are upset over this nation being there. In my present day, Iran calls for the destruction of the Jew. In other countries, there are television shows devoted to children which teach them to hate Jews. In the previous few decades, several nations have attacked Israel. Today, random groups of Palestinians fire rockets continually into Israel. The Jews are God’s chosen people, and therefore, those who serve Satan will constantly move aggressively against Israel.


Application: Our own country is degenerate in many ways, but we have consistently supported the nation Israel and we have bonded with Jews, both in our land and elsewhere. This is one of the things which protects and preserves the client nation United States. If we ever get a president who put Israel on an equal footing with her Arabic neighbors, become very concerned, because that means that the United States could face great national discipline (do you recall President Carter, and what happened during his tenure in office?).


David will spend a great deal of his time on the throne defeating his enemies. As I have mentioned in the past, David is associated with the 1st and 2nd Advents of our Lord (which are not seen as separate events in the Old Testament). This is one reason that God has chosen for David to be associated with the Ark of God sitting in a tent (which is like our Lord’s body). Solomon, who rules over Israel during a time of great peace and prosperity, is associated with Jesus Christ during the Millennium. This will be our Lord’s semi-permanent rule over this earth, during a time when the lion will lie down with the lamb. This is why Solomon is associated with building the Temple, which represents our Lord’s physical rule over this earth.


I should add that the Old Testament nowhere clearly differentiates between the two advents of our Lord. They are sometimes treated separately and often together, but the Jews were somewhat confused because these two advents seemed so different. One of the reasons that the church is seen as an intercalated age, is because, when you remove the Church Age, we have the uninterrupted Age of Israel with the advent of Jesus Christ occurring 7 years before the end of the Age of Israel. If we ignore the Church Age, the 1st and 2nd Advents of our Lord come back to back, and can be perceived as one advent. This comports perfectly with Old Testament prophecy.


The long term prophecy, again, refers to the Millennium, when Israel will not be troubled by these sorts of men.


——————————


Many of the translations took the last part of v. 10 and connected it to the first part of v. 11. Many of them also began a new paragraph in the midst of v. 11. For this reason, I will need to later put a chart in of how several translations dealt with this passage.


...and for from the day that I commissioned judges over My people Israel. And I caused rest to you from all your enemies. And declares to you Yehowah that a house will do for you Yehowah.

2Samuel

7:11

...[as] from the day that I commissioned judges over My people Israel. So I caused you to rest from all your enemies. Furthermore, Yehowah declares to you that Yehowah will construct a dynasty [lit., house] for you.

...and from the day that I commissioned judges over My people Israel. Also, I gave you rest from all your enemies. Further, Jehovah declares to you that Jehovah will build a dynasty for you.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text                       And for from the day that I commissioned judges over My people Israel and I caused rest to you from all your enemies. And declares to you Yehowah that a house will do for you Yehowah.

Septuagint                              ...from the days when I appointed judges over my people Israel: and I will give you rest from all your enemies, and the Lord will tell you that you will build a house to him.

 

Significant differences:           In the Greek, David is building the house for God; and in the Hebrew, God is building the house for David. The Latin and Syriac are in agreement with the Hebrew (which is how it usually goes).


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       ...when I let judges rule my people. And I have kept your enemies from attacking you. Now I promise that you and your descendants will be kings.

Easy English (Pocock)           ...even when I chose judges (leaders) for my people *Israel. Now I will keep you safe from all your enemies. I, the *Lord, am speaking to you. I will make a house for you. (In other words, I will establish your royal family.).

The Message                         ...even during the days I set judges over my people Israel. Finally, I'm going to give you peace from all your enemies. "Furthermore, GOD has this message for you: GOD himself will build you a house!

NET Bible®                             ...and during the time when I appointed judges to lead my people Israel. Instead, I will give you relief [or "rest"] from all your enemies. The Lord declares [In the Hebrew text the verb is apparently perfect with vav consecutive, which would normally suggest a future sense ("he will declare"; so the LXX,ἀπαγγελεί [apangelei]). But the context seems instead to call for a present or past nuance ("he declares" or "he has declared"). The synoptic passage in 1 Chr 17:10 has וָאַגִּד (va'aggid, "and I declared"). The construction used in 2 Sam 7:11 highlights this important statement.] to you that he himself [Hebrew "the Lord"] will build a dynastic house [Hebrew "house," but used here in a metaphorical sense, referring to a royal dynasty. Here the Lord's use of the word plays off the literal sense that David had in mind as he contemplated building a temple for the Lord. To reflect this in the English translation the adjective "dynastic" has been supplied.] for you.

New Century Version             ...when I chose judges for my people Israel. But I will give you peace from all your enemies. I also tell you that I will make your descendants kings of Israel after you.

New Jerusalem Bible             ...ever since the time wen I instituted judges to govern my people Israel; and I shall grant you rest from all your enemies. Yahweh furthermore tells you that he will make you a dynasty

New Living Translation           ...starting from the time I appointed judges to rule my people Israel. And I will give you rest from all your enemies.

 

"`Furthermore, the Lord declares that he will make a house for you-a dynasty of kings!


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

God’s Word                         ...ever since I appointed judges to rule my people Israel. So I will give you peace with all your enemies. I, the LORD, tell you that I will make a house for you.

HCSB                                     ...ever since the day I ordered judges to be over My people Israel. I will give you rest from all your enemies. "'The LORD declares to you: The LORD Himself will make a house for you.

JPS (Tanakh)                         ...ever since I appointed chieftains over My people Israel. I will give you safety from all your enemies.

“The Lord declares to you that He, the Lord, will establish a house for you

New Intl. Readers Version     That is what your enemies have done ever since I appointed leaders over my people Israel. But I will give you peace and rest from all of them.

 

" ' "I tell you that I myself will set up a royal house for you.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

MKJV                                     And even from the time that I commanded judges to be over My people of Israel, so will I cause you to rest from all your enemies. Also Jehovah tells you that He will make you a house.

NASB                                     ...even from the day that I commanded judges to be over My people Israel; and I will give you rest from all your enemies The LORD also declares to you that the LORD will make a house for you.

WEB                                      ...and as from the day that I commanded judges to be over my people Israel; and I will cause you to rest from all your enemies. Moreover Yahweh tells you that Yahweh will make you a house.

Young's Updated LT              ...even from the day that I appointed judges over My people Israel; and I have given rest to you from all your enemies, and Jehovah has declared to you that Jehovah does make for you a house.


What is the gist of this verse? It appears as though God is promising rest to Israel since He gave judges over Israel, which is somewhat confusing. However, it is clear that God promises that He will make David a house.


2Samuel 7:11a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

The lâmed prefixed preposition and min together almost always form what BDB calls a terminus a quo, which means a starting point, the earliest possible date, or end from which. Footnote We can render the two together as for from, even from, from.

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article)

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

ăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

tsâvâh (צָוָה) [pronounced tsaw-VAW]

to commission, to mandate, to lay charge upon, to give charge to, charge, command, order

1st person singular, Piel perfect

Strong's #6680 BDB #845

shâphaţ (שָפַט) [pronounced shaw-FAHT]

those judging, the ones judging [governing]; judges, governors

masculine plural, Qal active participle

Strong’s #8199 BDB #1047

׳al (עַל) [pronounced ģahl ]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

׳am (עַם) [pronounced ģahm]

people; race, tribe; family, relatives; citizens, common people; companions, servants; entire human race; herd [of animals]

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #5971 BDB #766

Yiserâêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 BDB #975


Translation: ...[as] from the day that I commissioned judges over My people Israel. During the time of the Judges, Israel went through a cycle of degeneracy, which was repeated again and again (see Judges 2:14–16 1Sam. 12:9–11 Psalm 106:42). I have seen a similar cycle play out in history. A people are free; they fall into degeneracy; they trade freedom for security; they fall into bondage to their lusts, and begin to degenerate as a nation from the inside out; they are conquered from the outside; they are in bondage; they fight for their freedom; they gain freedom—and so the cycle repeats itself.


I must admit being thrown by this statement. Is it a continuation of the previous verse? Should it end there? Does it begin a logical statement? There is really no other way to explore the various ways that this can be interpreted without looking at v. 10 as well:


This obviously caused many translators no little difficulty, so where v. 11 really begins and ends is a matter of a number of opinions. Therefore, I will list several approaches here:

Translations of 2Samuel 7:10–11

Ancient texts:

Latin Vulgate                          And I will appoint a place for my people Israel, and I will plant them, and they shall dwell therein, and shall be disturbed no more: neither shall the children of iniquity afflict them any more as they did before, from the day that I appointed judges over my people Israel: and I will give you rest from all your enemies. And the Lord foretells to you, that the Lord will make you a house.

Peshitta                                  Moreover I will appoint a place for my people Israel, and I will plant them and I will make them to dwell in their own place in peace and be disturbed no more; neither will wicked men enslave them any more, as formerly. From the day that I commanded you to be a judge over My people Israel, I have given you rest from all your enemies. Also the Lord declares to you that He will make you a house.

Septuagint                              And I will appoint a place for my people Israel, and I will plant them [lit., it], and they will dwell by themselves, and will be no more distressed; and the son of iniquity shall no more afflict them, as he has done from the beginning, from the days when I appointed judges over my people Israel: and I will give you rest from all your enemies. And the Lord will tell you that you will build a house to him.

Note that the Peshitta is one of the few manuscripts which ends the thought at v. 10; their primary reason being that the text of v. 11 is quite different from the Greek and the Hebrew texts.

Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

New American Bible              I will fix a place for my people Israel; I will plant them so that they may dwell in their place without further disturbance. Neither shall the wicked continue to afflict them as they did of old, since the time I first appointed judges over my people Israel. I will give you rest from all your enemies. The Lord also reveals to you that he will establish a house for you.

New Jerusalem Bible             I am going to provide a place for my people Israel; I shall plant them there, and there they will live and never be disturbed again; nor will they be oppressed by the wicked any more, as they were in former times ever since the time when I instituted judges to govern my people Israel; and I shall grant you rest from all your enemies. Yahweh furthermore tells you that he will make you a dynasty.

New Living Translation           And I have provided a permanent homeland for my people Israel, a secure place where they will never b disturbed. It will be their own land where wicked nations won’t oppress them as they did in the past, from the time I appointed judges to rule my people. And I will keep you safe from all your enemies. ¶ And now the Lord declares that he will build a house for you—a dynasty of kings!

Revised English Bible            I shall assign a place for my people Israel; there I shall plant them to dwell in their own land. They will be disturbed no more; never again will the wicked oppress them as they did in the past, from the day when I appointed judges over my people Israel; and I shall give you peace from all your enemies. ¶ The Lord has told you that he would build up your royal house.

Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

JPS (Tanakh)                         I will establish a home for My people Israel and ill plant them firm, so that they shall dwell secure and shall tremble no more. Evil men shall not oppress them any more as in the past, ever since I appointed chieftains over My people Israel. I will give you safety from all your enemies. ¶ The Lord declares to you that He, the Lord, will establish a house for you.

New International Version      And I will provide a place for my people Israel and will plant them so that they can have a home of their own and no longer be disturbed. Wicked people will not oppress them anymore, as they did at the beginning and have done ever since the time I appointed leaders over my people Israel. I will also give you ret from all your enemies. ¶ The Lord declares to you that the Lord himself will establish a house for you:...

Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

The Amplified Bible                And I will appoint a place for My people Israel, and will plant them, that they may dwell in a place of their own, and be moved no more; and wicked me shall afflict them no more, as formerly, And as from the time that I appointed judges over My people Israel; and I will cause you to rest from all your enemies. Also the Lord declares to you that He will make you a house.

NASB                                     “I will also appoint a place for My people Israel and will plant them, that they may live in their own place and not be disturbed again, nor will the wicked afflict them any more as formerly, even from the day that I commanded judges to be over My people Israel, and I will give you rest from all your enemies. The Lord also declares to you that the Lord will make a house for you.

New King James Version       Moreover I will appoint a place for My people Israel, and will plant them, that they may dwell in a place of their own and move no more; nor shall the sons of wickedness oppress them anymore, as previously, since the time that I commanded judges to be over My people Israel, and have caused you to rest from all your enemies. Also the Lord tells [declares to you] you that He will make you a house [royal dynasty].

I want you to take note that even to the Amplified Bible continues v. 10 into v. 11, and this is a rarity for them. They rarely continue one verse into the next, and attempt to present each verse as a separate entity.

You will also notice that many translations present the second half of v. 11 as a new paragraph, as indeed it should be, as we go, temporarily, from the 1st person to the 3rd person. Furthermore, we are dealing with a slightly new topic.

We will explore these differences more fully at the end of this verse.


Return to Chapter Outline

Return to Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Here is what is going on: David wants to build a place for the Ark of God—David wants this to be a permanent place where the Ark can always be. God instead tells David what He has done. He’s set up a place for His people Israel and He will put them in that place permanently, a place which will be their own. So, do you see the contrast? David wants a permanent place for the Ark of God, but God instead says that He has provided a permanent place for Israel. And, at some point in time, the evil indigenous and surrounding tribes of people will no longer oppress them, as they have done in the past, going back to the time of the judges. Problems with the peoples in and around Israel essentially began during the time of the judges, but God promises that this will end. That has a twofold fulfillment: (1) at some point in David’s reign (actually, during several periods of time), there would be an extended peace time, which would be continued for the entire reign of Solomon. (2) More importantly, there will be a time in the future when peace would be permanent, and God will provide a permanent rest for Israel from all her enemies.


Application: Even though what David wanted to do was a natural soul response, God continues to pour grace upon David, and counter David’s desire to build a Temple with God’s blessings to David. There are things that we will be able to achieve in our lifetimes and things we will not. I would love to complete an Old and New Testament commentary. However, given the number of years that I will likely live, that appears to be unlikely. It often takes me about 6 weeks to do one chapter. However, God continues to pour blessings, which I certainly cannot complain about.


2Samuel 7:11b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

nûwach (נוּחַ) [pronounced NOO-ahkh]

to deposit, to set down; to cause to rest [to set down]; to let remain, to leave; to depart from; to abandon; to permit

1st person singular, Hiphil perfect

Strong’s #5117 (and #3240) BDB #628

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

with a plural noun, it is rendered all of, all; any of

masculine singular construct with a masculine plural noun

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

âyab (אָיַב) [pronounced aw-YABV]

enemy, the one being at enmity with you; enmity, hostility

masculine plural, Qal active participle; with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #340 BDB #33


Translation: So I have caused you to rest from all your enemies. Quite obviously, in vv. 10–11, it is difficult to determine where one verse leaves off and where another verse begins. I have changed my mind on this issue several times. However, what seems to be the clincher for me is, in vv. 10–11a, God is speaking about Israel. Here, in v. 11b, He returns to speaking to David (using the 2nd person). Therefore, this is a good place to begin a new paragraph. There is also a good place to begin a paragraph in v. 11c, where God says, “And the Lord also declares to you...”


Again, there is a two-fold fulfillment for this promise: (1) in David’s immediate future and (2) in the Millennium. The immediate fulfillment will be under Solomon. Somewhere near the end of David’s reign, he will have conquered as much land as he can conquer, and his enemies around him will no longer come in to invade. This will be true throughout the reign of Solomon, David’s son. However, in the long view, there will be multiple attacks against Israel during the Tribulation, but God will give Israel rest throughout the Millennium.


2Samuel 7:11c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

nâgad (נָגַד) [pronounced naw-GAHD]

to be made conspicuous, to be made known, to be expounded, to be explained, to be declared, to be informed

1st person singular, Hophal perfect

Strong's #5046 BDB #616

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217


Translation: Furthermore, Yehowah declares to you... This is an interesting move from the 1st person to the 3rd person, and there can be two schools of thought here: (1) God changes from the 1st to the 3rd in order to make a point or in order for His declaration to stand out; or (2) One member of the Trinity (say, Jesus Christ) is revealing the promise of another member of the Trinity to David. Since God the Father planned out what would happen from eternity past, then He would have determined what would happen to David (of course, recognizing that David has free will and adjusting that plan in eternity past to reflect David’s free will choices).


2Samuel 7:11d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, because; that; when

explanatory conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

bayith (בַּיִת) [pronounced BAH-yith]

house, residence; household, habitation as well as inward

masculine singular noun

Strong's #1004 BDB #108

׳âsâh (עָשָֹה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWH]

to do, to make, to construct, to fashion, to form, to prepare, to manufacture

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #6213 BDB #793

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217


Translation: ...that Yehowah will construct a dynasty [lit., a house] for you,... Again, note the contrast: David wants to build a permanent home for the Ark of God and God herein promises David that He will build for him a house. This does not refer to the palace which Hiram king of Tyre built for David; the key is, God will establish a permanent dynasty for David.


This also continues a precedent—God is going to do a lot more for us than we can ever do for Him. David has an idea as to what he wants to do in service to God, and God tells him not to do it; but, then makes a set of great and wonderful promises to David.


Application: We won’t always be able to do all that we have in our minds to do, with regards to divine service. Now, I recognize that there are 3 sets of believers with regards to this: (1) those who could care less; (2) those who are constantly involved in various forms of legalism in order to do service to God; (3) growing believers who have a personal sense of destiny. I will give you a personal for instance: I would love to write a full and complete commentary on every book in the Bible; and if that is not possible, then on every Old Testament book. So far, I have done a complete commentary on 1Samuel and I will expect to have, over the next 5 or 10 years, complete my commentary on 2Samuel, as well as on the related chapters in the Psalms and Chronicles (I am not particularly pleased with my commentaries written prior to 1Samuel). That leads me to believe that I will not be able to write commentary for the entire Old Testament, as I do not think I will live to the age of 362. When I write, I also note a level of mental exhaustion after a couple of hours. That is, writing for 4–8 hours is just not going to happen. So, I am under a real time constraint. I know what I would like to do, and I recognize what I want to do and what I will do are different things. If you are a believer with a personal sense of destiny, you simply have to be realistic about what you can accomplish, and you need not sweat it if you have set some spiritual goals that you will not meet.


There are some literary nuances to this portion of v. 11. The word used here is the word for house, which, in some rare cases, can refer to a dynasty. God uses the word house to tie this to the house which David wants to construct for the Ark. However, God herein promises David a dynasty, which will be clear by the next phrase. This is essentially a play on words, “You will not build Me a house; I will build you a house” is the gist of what God is saying. Throughout the Bible, God enjoys the language in which He speaks to us, and there are times when interpreting the words of Jesus Christ that we need to bear this in mind. God can be quite serious, as He is with this promise to David, and yet, still be playful with regards to the language. Playful is not exactly the word I am looking for, but when reading the words of our Lord, recognize that He often uses figures of speech, as we have here. “You will not build a house [Temple] for Me, but I will make a house [establish a dynasty] for you.” This goes back all the way to the end of v. 5, and stating the implications of what God is telling David (God does not directly say, “You will not build a house for Me;” that is simply the gist of what God says). In between all of this has been God’s dealings with David, His promises about Israel, which He then concludes with the promise to establish David’s dynasty.


in the subsequent verses, God will both tell David what to expect in his life, and what God will do for both David and his son Solomon (and for David’s Greater Son, Jesus Christ).


One further comment: Solomon is not named by name because David does not know which son God is talking about. This is early on in David’s rule, and, if we accept Samuel as being basically chronological, he has not even fathered Solomon yet.


Most translators are aware that there is nothing magic about the verse or chapter divisions in the Bible, these things being added, at time, a millennium or more after the original writing. Therefore, sometimes, a new paragraph will occur in the middle of a verse or one verse will carry on over into the next verse.

I have a few examples below, so that you can see the diverse ways that translators handled this.

How Some Translations Broke up the Middle of 1Samuel 7

Source

Translation/Commentary

The Net Bible

2Sam. 7:8–17

1 paragraph

7:8 “So now, say this to my servant David: ‘This is what the Lord of hosts says: I took you from the pasture and from your work as a shepherd to make you leader of my people Israel. 7:9 I was with you wherever you went, and I defeated all your enemies before you. Now I will make you as famous as the great men of the earth. 7:10 I will establish a place for my people Israel and settle them there; they will live there and not be disturbed any more. Violent men will not oppress them again, as they did in the beginning 7:11 and during the time when I appointed judges to lead my people Israel. Instead, I will give you relief from all your enemies. The Lord declares to you that he himself will build a dynastic house for you. 7:12 When the time comes for you to die, I will raise up your descendant, one of your own sons, to succeed you, and I will establish his kingdom. 7:13 He will build a house for my name, and I will make his dynasty permanent. 7:14 I will become his father and he will become my son. When he sins, I will correct him with the rod of men and with wounds inflicted by human beings. 7:15 But my loyal love will not be removed from him as I removed it from Saul, whom I removed from before you. 7:16 Your house and your kingdom will stand before me permanently; your dynasty will be permanent.’” 7:17 Nathan told David all these words that were revealed to him.

The New Century Version

2Sam. 7:8–16

2 paragraphs

 8 "You must tell my servant David, 'This is what the Lord All-Powerful says: I took you from the pasture and from tending the sheep and made you leader of my people Israel. 9 I have been with you everywhere you have gone and have defeated your enemies for you. I will make you as famous as any of the great people on the earth. 10 Also I will choose a place for my people Israel, and I will plant them so they can live in their own homes. They will not be bothered anymore. Wicked people will no longer bother them as they have in the past 11 when I chose judges for my people Israel. But I will give you peace from all your enemies. I also tell you that I will make your descendants kings of Israel after you.


 12 " 'When you die and join your ancestors, I will make one of your sons the next king, and I will set up his kingdom. 13 He will build a house for me, and I will let his kingdom rule always. 14 I will be his father, and he will be my son. When he sins, I will use other people to punish him. They will be my whips. 15 I took away my love from Saul, whom I removed before you, but I will never stop loving your son. 16 But your family and your kingdom will continue always before me. Your throne will last forever.' "

The New International Readers Version

2Sam. 7:8–16

4 paragraphs

 8 "So tell my servant David, 'The Lord who rules over all says, "I took you away from the grasslands. That's where you were taking care of your father's sheep and goats. I made you ruler over my people Israel. 9 I have been with you everywhere you have gone. I cut off all of your enemies when you were attacking them.


   " ' "Now I will make you famous. Your name will be just as respected as the names of the most important people on earth. 10 I will provide a place where my people Israel can live. I will plant them in the land. Then they will have a home of their own. They will not be bothered anymore. Evil people will no longer crush them, as they did at first. 11 That is what your enemies have done ever since I appointed leaders over my people Israel. But I will give you peace and rest from all of them.


   " ' "I tell you that I myself will set up a royal house for you. 12 Some day your life will come to an end. You will join the members of your family who have already died. Then I will make one of your own sons the next king after you. And I will make his kingdom secure. 13 He is the one who will build a house where I will put my Name.


   " ' "I will set up the throne of his kingdom. It will last forever. 14 I will be his father. And he will be my son. When he does what is wrong, I will use other men to beat him with rods and whips. 15 I took my love away from Saul. I removed him from being king. You were there when I did it. But I will never take my love away from your son.


 16 " ' "Your royal house and your kingdom will last forever in my sight. Your throne will last forever." ' "

The New Living Translation

2Sam. 7:8–18

2 paragraphs

 8 "Now go and say to my servant David, `This is what the Lord of Heaven's Armies has declared: I took you from tending sheep in the pasture and selected you to be the leader of my people Israel. 9 I have been with you wherever you have gone, and I have destroyed all your enemies before your eyes. Now I will make your name as famous as anyone who has ever lived on the earth! 10 And I will provide a homeland for my people Israel, planting them in a secure place where they will never be disturbed. Evil nations won't oppress them as they've done in the past, 11 starting from the time I appointed judges to rule my people Israel. And I will give you rest from all your enemies.

   "`Furthermore, the Lord declares that he will make a house for you-a dynasty of kings! 12 For when you die and are buried with your ancestors, I will raise up one of your descendants, your own offspring, and I will make his kingdom strong. 13 He is the one who will build a house-a temple-for my name. And I will secure his royal throne forever. 14 I will be his father, and he will be my son. If he sins, I will correct and discipline him with the rod, like any father would do . 15 But my favor will not be taken from him as I took it from Saul, whom I removed from your sight. 16 Your house and your kingdom will continue before me for all time, and your throne will be secure forever.'"

Those translations which broke this up into two paragraphs (the most common approach) tended to follow the New Living Translation above. I should point out, certain translations keep their verses separate (like The Amplified Bible or the KJV) and some have extremely long paragraphs (The Easy English Bible or the NKJV).

Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines

What makes the most sense to me is to treat vv. 10–11a (which is about Israel) parenthetically, or to take v. 11b, and put it back with v. 9, which would give us:

A New Approach to Vv. 8–11

“Now, therefore, you will say to My servant David: ‘Thus speaks Yehowah of the armies: I took you from the pasture, from following the sheep, to be a prince over My people, over Israel. I have been with you wherever you have gone and I have cut off your enemies from before you. I have made your name great, like the names of the great ones on the earth. So I caused you to rest from all your enemies.

I have appointed a place for My people, for Israel. I planted them and they dwelt [there] instead of them [the indigenous heathen]. Furthermore, Israel will no longer be agitated nor will they be afflicted [by] men of unjust violence as in the past, from the day that I commissioned judges over My people Israel.

Furthermore, Yehowah declares to you that Yehowah will construct a dynasty for you,...

Basically, what we have here is a possibly different way of thought organization that I would have (in the original text). God is speaking to David about making his name great, and then parenthetically Footnote (as well as logically), speaks about Israel and what God would do for Israel. God concludes that He would give Israel rest from her enemies, and then goes back to David, saying, “I will give you rest from your enemies too.” At this point, God will focus on Solomon, and, on David’s Greater Son, Jesus Christ.

I have gone over this set of verses many times, and finally, based upon the person used, it all fits together for me now. Vv. 8–9 and 11b are all addressed directly to David about what God would do for David. Vv. 10–11a are all about Israel, where Israel is addressed in the 3rd person. The last half of v. 11 begins a new paragraph. So, one may view v. 11b as a completion of vv. 8–9, returning us from a parenthetical thought, or it can be added onto the end of vv. 8–9 (as I have done here), so that the remarks about Israel are no longer parenthetical, but simply a new subject, giving us 3 paragraphs in these 3 verses.

What is surprising is, some translations like the CEV are known for moving around this or that phrase (which is not illegitimate); however, they did not do this.

When it comes to the understanding of this passage, it can be taken apart, phrase by phrase and examined that way. I just feel better when I have the gist of the author’s sense of organization (in this case, the organization of God’s thinking).


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


For make full your days and you have lain down with your fathers, and I will raise up your seed after you who comes forth from your internal organs and I have established his kingdom.

2Samuel

7:12

When your days are be fulfilled and you lie down with your fathers, I will raise up your progeny after you, who will come from your loins and I will establish his kingdom.

When your days are fulfilled and you lie down with your fathers, I will raise up from your loins one who will come after you, whose kingdom I will establish.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          And when your days are fulfilled, and you sleep with your fathers, I will raise up your seed after you, which will proceed out of the bowels, and I will establish his kingdom.

Masoretic Text                       For make full your days and you have lain down with your fathers, and I will raise up your seed after you who comes forth from your internal organs and I have established his kingdom.

Septuagint                              And it is if your days have been fulfilled, and you will sleep with your fathers, and I will raise up your seed after you, [even] your own issue, and I will establish his kingdom.

 

Significant differences:           There are some words found at the beginning of the LXX which are not found in the MT. In the midst of the MT, you will see a verb along with some other words which may be implied from the LXX text, but which is not found in the MT.

 

Although the first portion of Jerome’s Vulgate sounds different, it is an alternate way of rendering the Hebrew text. The Hebrew, Latin and Syriac texts appear to be identical.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       I'll choose one of your sons to be king when you reach the end of your life and are buried in the tomb of your ancestors. I'll make him a strong ruler,...

Easy English (Pocock)           One day you will die. But I will make one of your own sons the king. I will establish his *kingdom.

Good News Bible (TEV)         When you die and are buried with your ancestors, I will make one of your sons king and will keep his kingdom strong.

The Message                         When your life is complete and you're buried with your ancestors, then I'll raise up your child, your own flesh and blood, to succeed you, and I'll firmly establish his rule.

NET Bible®                             When the time comes for you to die, [Hebrew, "when your days are full and you lie down with your ancestors"] I will raise up your descendant, one of your own sons, to succeed you, [Hebrew "your seed after you who comes out from your insides"] and I will establish his kingdom.

New Century Version             " 'When you die and join your ancestors, I will make one of your sons the next king, and I will set up his kingdom.

New Jerusalem Bible             And when your datys are over and you fall asleep with your ancestors, I shall appoint your heir, your own son to succeed you (and I shall make his royal throne secure for ever.

New Life Version                    When your days are done and you lie down with your fathers, I will raise up your son after you, who will be born from you. And I will build his nation.

New Living Translation           For when you die and are buried with your ancestors, I will raise up one of your descendants, your own offspring, and I will make his kingdom strong.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

God’s Word                         "'When the time comes for you to lie down in death with your ancestors, I will send one of your descendants, one who will come from you. I will establish his kingdom.

HCSB                                     When your time comes and you rest with your fathers, I will raise up after you your descendant, who will come from your body, and I will establish his kingdom.

JPS (Tanakh)                         When your days are done and you lie with your fathers, I will raise up your offspring after you, one of your own issue, and I will establish his kingship.

New Intl. Readers Version     Some day your life will come to an end. You will join the members of your family who have already died. Then I will make one of your own sons the next king after you. And I will make his kingdom secure.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Updated Emphasized Bible    And it will be that [so it should be, as per the LXX and 1Chron. 17:11 Footnote ], when your days are fulfilled and you sleep with your fathers, then I will raise up your seed after you—who proceeds from your body—and I will establish his kingdom.

English Standard Version      When your days are fulfilled and you lie down with your fathers, I will raise up your offspring after you, who shall come from your body, and I will establish his kingdom.

MKJV                                     And when your days are fulfilled, and you shall sleep with your fathers, I will set up your seed after you, who shall come out of your bowels. And I will make his kingdom sure.

Young’s Updated LT             “When your days are full, and you have lain with your fathers, then I have raised up your seed after you which goes out from your bowels, and have established his kingdom.


What is the gist of this verse? David is told that, when his days are over, God will raise up from him a king whose kingdom God will establish. .


2Samuel 7:12a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, because; that; when

explanatory conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

mâlê (מָלֵא) [pronounced maw-LAY]

to fill, to make full, to fill up, to fulfill; to overflow

1st person singular, Piel imperfect

Strong's #4390 BDB #569

yâmîym (יָמִים) [pronounced yaw-MEEM]

days, a set of days; time of life, lifetime; a specific time period, a year

masculine plural noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398


Translation: When your days are be fulfilled... Everyone has a time frame within which their life is led; we have a beginning point and a termination point. Within this time frame, there will be the fulfillment of one’s life. God speaks to David of the time when his life has been fulfilled; when he has spent all the time on earth which God has allowed. For David, this time period would be 70 years (2Sam. 5:4).


The verb here is in the imperfect tense, which means, continuous action or action in the future. The kîy conjunction acts as a temporal marker which is associated with the verb to fulfill in the imperfect tense. So, this means that what will occur will all occur during the time period when David’s days are being fulfilled. The verbs which follow will all be in the perfect tense, indicating completed action.


Now, what is actually happening is, God is speaking to Nathan, and Nathan will speak these words to David, as the new ruler over all Israel. However, this is spoken of as being at the end of David’s life, once his time on earth has come to a close—something which will be true of our lives down the road.


2Samuel 7:12b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

shâkab (שָכַב) [pronounced shaw-KAHBV]

to lie down, to lie down [to sleep, to have sexual relations, to die; because of sickness or humiliation]; to relax

2nd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #7901 BDB #1011

êth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

with, at, near, by, among, directly from

preposition (which is identical to the sign of the direct object)

Strong's #854 BDB #85

âb (אָב) [pronounced awbv]

father, both as the head of a household, clan or tribe

masculine plural noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #1 BDB #3


Translation: ...and you lie down with your fathers,... To drive home His point, God adds and you lie down with your fathers, a very common phrase indicating that David will die. All those in David’s line who have preceded him in death are those who God is speaking of; and God indicates to David that at some point in time, he will die, and be put to rest, just as his fathers died before him.


This could be interpreted in two ways: David has laid down on his deathbed and David has laid down and died. Each understanding leads us to a slightly different fulfillment. When your days are coming to a close and you have laid down on your deathbed... or When your days are coming to a close and you have died... There is one prophecy here, but there are two fulfillments. The words used here can be understood in both ways, and each approach leads us to a different fulfillment.


While David’s days are coming to a close and when he has laid upon his deathbed, apparently not to get up again, then God raises up his seed after him. One of the fascinating power struggles of the Bible is Solomon coming to power, which all takes place while David is on his deathbed, as his days are being fulfilled (coming to a close). The first few chapters of 1Kings cover the attempted power grab and Solomon’s triumph, and these things all take place while David is on his deathbed. This fulfills this prophecy exactly.


There is the second way that this prophecy may be understood. David’s days are drawing to a close, and he lays down with his fathers, meaning he dies. After his death, God will raise up Jesus, the Messiah, to reign as David’s Greater Son. The imperfect tense of the verb to fulfill followed by the perfect tense of the verb to lie down (which is not a word which must be understood as meaning to die) together, using the temporal form of the kîy conjunction (when) perfectly sets up this prophecy. So we have two reasonable interpretations from the very beginning, and these will take us into two different directions.


2Samuel 7:12c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

It is typical in the Hebrew for each sentence—in fact, each thought—to begin with a wâw consecutive (or a wâw conjunction) in the Hebrew. However, it is not necessary in an English translation to include a connective at every such juncture, as our language does not necessarily require that for successive thoughts or actions.

In this case, the wâw conjunction continues the thought of a compound conditional sentence. When this happens, then this will occur is the idea here.

qûwm (קוּם) [pronounced koom]

to cause to raise up, to cause to stand, to establish, to fulfill; to uphold, to perform [a testimony, a vow, a commandment, a promise]

1st person singular, Hiphil perfect

Strong’s #6965 BDB #877

êth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

zera׳ (זֶרַע) [pronounced ZEH-rahģ]

a seed, a sowing, an offspring; progeny

masculine singular noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #2233 BDB #282

achărêy (אַחֲרֵי) [pronounced ah-kuh-RAY]

behind, after; following; after that, afterwards; hinder parts

preposition; plural form; with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #310 BDB #29

The preposition achărêy appears to have a rare substantive use as well; here, it can mean the end of, the butt of, the end portion; the back.


Translation: ...I will raise up your progeny after you,... This is an interesting word to find here; although many English translations say that God is going to raise up a son after David, we do not find the word for son here; instead, we find the word for seed, which may be rendered offspring or progeny. The idea is, we are dealing with someone who is physically related to David; the one spoken of here has David’s genes in him.


There are a couple of things which ought to be noted here. The words used allow for this to refer to Solomon, the near fulfillment, as well as to Christ, the far fulfillment. Even though I have reasonably translated this verb to raise up, it can also mean to establish. Therefore, we do not have to be looking way down the road for this to be fulfilled, although the verbiage used allows for us to look way off into the future. In other words, with Solomon, who will be alive and a man when David dies, will be established by God as a ruler over all Israel. He becomes a ruler because God establishes him as one (David has a lot of children, and Solomon is far from being his firstborn). This verb also allows for God to raise up—even from birth—One Who will come long after David, even Jesus Christ our Lord.


It is an interesting observation that usually the firstborn of a king succeeded him to the throne. This was the tradition of David’s world and time. Solomon, interestingly enough, was not the firstborn—not by a long shot—and he was not even the firstborn from his mother, Bathsheba.


2Samuel 7:12d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

yâtsâ (יָצָא) [pronounced yaw-TZAWH]

to go out, to come out, to come forth; to rise; to flow, to gush up [out]

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #3318 BDB #422

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

mê׳iym (מֵעִים) [pronounced may-GEEM]

internal organs, inward parts, intestines, bowels; figuratively the womb; organs of procreation, loins; emotions; stress, love

masculine plural noun (this noun is always found in the plural); with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #4578 BDB #588


Translation: ...who come out from your loins... The fact that this person is related to David is emphasized once again in this phrase—who come out from your loins [your organs of procreation]. It will become clear that God is not simply speaking of Solomon, but He is speaking of David’s greater Son, the Son of Man, Jesus Christ; this is the kingdom which God will establish. Peter tells us, in Acts 2:29b, 30b: “The patriarch David, being a prophet, knew that God swore with an oath to him that of the fruit of his loin, as concerning flesh, to raise the Christ [the Messiah] to sit on his throne.” See Psalm 132:11 as well.


Jesus Christ will be legally related to David via David’s line through Solomon and eventually through Joseph, our Lord’s step-father; and Jesus will be genetically related to David through Nathan (another son of David; not the Nathan to whom God is speaking) and eventually through Mary, our Lord’s mother. The first line is found in the beginning of Matthew; the second line is found at the beginning of Luke. Both Nathan and Solomon would be by Bathsheba, whom we will meet in 2Sam. 11 (see 2Sam. 5:14–16 1Chron. 3:5).


2Samuel 7:12e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

kûwn (כּוּן) [pronounced koon]