Deuteronomy 1

 

Deuteronomy 1:1–46

Moses on the Importance of Established Authority


These studies are designed for believers in Jesus Christ only. If you have exercised faith in Christ, then you are in the right place. If you have not, then you need to heed the words of our Lord, Who said, “For God so loved the world that He gave His only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son, so that every [one] believing [or, trusting] in Him shall not perish, but shall be have eternal life! For God did not send His Son into the world so that He should judge the world, but so that the world shall be saved through Him. The one believing [or, trusting] in Him is not judged, but the one not believing has already been judged, because he has not believed in the Name of the only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son of God.” (John 3:16–18). “I am the Way and the Truth and the Life! No one comes to the Father except through [or, by means of] Me!” (John 14:6).


Every study of the Word of God ought to be preceded by a naming of your sins to God. This restores you to fellowship with God (1John 1:8–10). If there are people around, you would name these sins silently. If there is no one around, then it does not matter if you name them silently or whether you speak aloud.


Sometime ago, I did a verse-by-verse exegesis of the books of the Pentateuch, and, in my opinion, did not really give these books the full treatment that they deserved. Here, I am going back and redoing the book of Deuteronomy. All of the information from that previous study will be included in here and this study will eventually supplant the shorter study of the book of Deuteronomy (HTML) (PDF). From time to time, there will be concepts and exegetical material which will be repeated, because I do not always do a good job in the end editing this material.

 

Links to the completed chapters of Deuteronomy are found here (HTML) (PDF). This chapter is a part of that study.

 

One more thing: it is not necessary that you read the grey Hebrew exegesis tables. They are set apart from the rest of the study so that you can easily skip over them. Footnote However, if you ever doubt a translation of a phrase or a verse, these translation tables will tell you exactly where that translation came from.


Deut. 1:1a, 3a, 5b: These are the words which Moses spoke to all Israel beyond the Jordan; in the 40th year, in the 11th month on the 1st day of the month. [He] began to explain this law, saying...

 

The Voice (commentary): The Book of Deuteronomy, even as it follows a covenant-treaty form, has almost a cinematic quality to it. Much of the action takes place in flashbacks as Moses recalls events and describes them to the Israelites in a drama. As we've been seeing in this opening historical section of the book, sometimes there are even layers of voices. At one point, Moses speaks in the voice of the people as they speak in the voice of the spies. Shortly we'll see Moses speaking in the voice of the Lord as He speaks in Moses' own voice! It begins by showing a storyteller and then shifts locations repeatedly in space and time to depict the various episodes he's describing, with his voice providing continuity throughout. Deuteronomy has a timeless, ancient-modern feel because the story of God's work on earth really is written and told by people as they struggle, with varying degrees of success, to understand God's purposes and to join with those people of God who have gone before us. Footnote

 

J. Vernon McGee: Moses is reviewing the journeys of the children of Israel and interpreting a great deal of what had taken place. All of that generation is now dead, with the exception of Caleb and Joshua. He is preparing the new generation to enter the land, and rehearsing the experiences of their fathers so that they might profit from them rather than repeat the failures. Footnote

 

Kukis (2013): A good Bible teacher is going to use the world around him to make this or that bit of doctrine understandable. You may not relate to this or that passage where Moses is taking his people into the land; but you occasionally read a newspaper or a news website, and you are aware of certain current events. By referencing these current events, you get to see parallels between them. You get to see this history as found in Deuteronomy placed side-by-side a recent event concerning which you have some knowledge. The idea is, you will be able to take your current knowledge and better understand the time of Moses with that knowledge.

 

Kukis (2013): Black liberation theology has taken the book of Exodus and has given it a great distortion, somehow identifying the African-Americans as the Jews in slavery; and now they are free, so, in some weird way, they are to suddenly support big government liberal solutions to everything.


There are many chapter commentaries on the book of Deuteronomy. This will be the most complete and accurate examination of Deut. 1 available, where you will be able to examine in depth every word of the original text.


An alternate title for this chapter: Moses Begins One of His Final Sermons to the Israelites


Outline of Chapter 1:

 

Introduction

 

         vv.     1–5           Introduction to the Great Sermons of Moses to the Generation of Promise

         vv.     6–8           Historic event: God Tells Israel to Leave Mount Horeb for the Land of Promise

         vv.     9–18         Historic event: Moses Delegates His Authority

         vv.    19–25         Historic event: Spies are Sent out to Reconnoiter the Land of Promise

         vv.    26–28         Historic event: The Fearful Jews Refuse to Take the Land

         vv.    29–33         Historic event: Moses Reminds the People of God’s Power and Faithfulness

         vv.    34–40         Historic event: God Judges Gen X Because of Their Lack of Faith

         vv.    41–46         Historic event: Gen X Attacks the Amorites and Loses; God is not With Them

 

Addendum


Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines:

 

         Introduction         Moses Pleading with Israel (graphic)

         Introduction         The Prequel of Deuteronomy 1

         Introduction         The Principals of Deuteronomy 1

         Introduction         A Synopsis of Deuteronomy 1

         Introduction         Matthew Henry Summarizes Deuteronomy 1

         Introduction         Introductory Material from the Expositor’s Bible Commentary

         Introduction         Moses in the Book of Deuteronomy

 

         v.       1              Deuteronomy 1:1 (graphic)

         v.       1              Relief map of the Arabah

         v.       1              Map of Hazeroth

         v.       1              Whedon Summarizes the Geographical Places Named

         v.       2              Map of Horeb

         v.       2              Map of the Way of Mount Seir

         v.       2              Summary of Deuteronomy 1:1–2

         v.       3              The Great Analogy of the Exodus

         v.       3              Why Does Moses Need to Give a Second Law?

         v.       5              A Summary of Deuteronomy 1:1–5

         v.       6              Quotation formatting in Deuteronomy

         v.       6              A Summary of What is Happening

         v.       6              When Critics Ask: Isn’t this former generation dead?

         v.       7              Map of Canaan

         v.       7              Descriptions of the Areas in Deuteronomy 1:7

         v.       8              God’s Promises to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob

         v.       8              Deuteronomy 1:8 (graphic)

         v.       8              Peter Pett’s Chiasmos of Deuteronomy 1:6–8

         v.       8              Evidence of the Land Grant to Generation X

         v.      11              Deuteronomy 1:11 (graphic)

         v.      11              God Blesses His People with Children

         v.      15              Clarke on the Authority Structure of the Israelites

         v.      16              Israel, the Law, and Immigrants

         v.      17              The Pulpit Commentary on “The Blessing of Good Government”

         v.      18              Summary and Application of Deuteronomy 1:9–18

         v.      21              The Logical Progression of Deut. 1:6–21

         v.      21              The Morality of Taking the Land of Promise

         v.      21              Charles Foster’s Offering to Molech (graphic)

         v.      22              The Sovereignty of God versus the Free Will of Man

         v.      23              The Likely Order of Events in Choosing Spies to Go into the Land

         v.      25              Numbers 13 Interlude

         v.      25              Map of the Trek of the Spies

         v.      25              Map of Israel’s Early Inhabitants

         v.      28              The Anakim

         v.      28              Numbers 14:1–39 interlude

         v.      28              The Jews, Negative to the Plan of God, Rationalize their Negative Volition

         v.      29              The Christian and War—Links

         v.      30              Deuteronomy 1:29–30a (graphic)

         v.      30              Deuteronomy 1:30 (graphic)

         v.      31              Deuteronomy 1:31 (graphic)

         v.      35              God Wants to Kill All Israel and then He Changes His Mind

         v.      35              The Parallel that Moses Sets Up as Israel’s Mediator

         v.      37              Moses, this Statement and the Inspiration of Deuteronomy

         v.      38              Moses Expertise in the Realm of Public Speaking

         v.      41              Gen X has repented and they are going to war; what are they doing wrong?

         v.      44              The Interpretations Of Deuteronomy 1:44

         v.      44              Map of Numbers 13–14

         v.      44              Numbers 14:40–45 Interlude

         v.      46              Explaining the Final Phrase of Deut. 1:46

 

         Addendum          What We Learn from Deuteronomy 1

         Addendum          Josephus’ History of this Time Period

         Addendum          A Complete Translation of Deuteronomy 1

         Addendum          Word Cloud from a Reasonably Literal Paraphrase of Deuteronomy 1

         Addendum          Word Cloud from Exegesis of Deuteronomy 1


Chapter Outline

 

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines

Forward

Doctrines Covered and Alluded to

Chapters of the Bible Alluded To

Psalms Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Other Chapters of the Bible Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Definition of Terms

Introduction

Text

Addendum

www.kukis.org

 

Exegetical Studies in Deuteronomy


Doctrines Covered

Doctrines Alluded To

The Law Code of Hammurabi

The Anakim Parts One and Two

Arabah

Historical Military Events and Personnel in Israel

 

Laws of Divine Establishment

Liberalism, Conservatism and Christianity

Military

 

Military Doctrines Related to the Word of God

Typology

War

 

 

Will of God

 


Chapters of the Bible Alluded To

Gen. 6

Gen. 24

 

 


Psalms Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Psalm 78

Psalm 106

 

 


Other Chapters of the Bible Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Numbers 13

Numbers 14

 

 


Many who read and study this chapter are 1st or 2nd generation students of R. B. Thieme, Jr., so that much of this vocabulary is second nature. One of Bob’s contributions to theology is a fresh vocabulary along with a number of concepts which are theologically new or reworked, yet still orthodox. Therefore, if you are unfamiliar with his work, the definitions below will help you to fully understand all that is being said. In addition to this, I will use a number of other more traditional technical theological terms which will be used and therefore defined as well.

Definition of Terms

Anthropopathism

This is the assignment of human feelings, passions or characteristics to God, attributing to Him feelings or characteristics which He does not possess. This often helps to explain God’s actions in human terms.

Antitype

A type is a person, thing or circumstance which looks forward into the future and finds its fulfillment in an antitype, which may be a person, thing or circumstance. Example: Moses striking the rock and from it flows waters of life is a type; Christ being judged on the cross for our sins and from Him flows living waters is the antitype.

Biblical inspiration

Biblical inspiration may be defined as human authors wrote as moved by the Holy Spirit, so that, without waving their human intelligence, their vocabulary, their personal feelings, their literary style, their personality, their environmental influences or their individuality, they recorded God’s complete and connected message to man with perfect accuracy in the original languages of Scripture, the very words bearing the authority of divine authorship. Footnote The is known as the verbal, plenary view of inspiration.

Faith-rest

Faith-Rest is taking the promises from the Bible and mixing them with faith. This approach to life is characterized by a moment-by-moment tranquillity, happiness, and stability, even when you are in the midst of pressure, adversity, and disaster.

Gen X

This is a short and clever reference to the generation of the Exodus. I was going to try to represent this as Gen Ex, but that looked too much like I was just naming the first two books of the Bible. At least with Gen X, most understand that we are speaking of a specific generation. Gen X stands for generation exodus; the generation of adults who left Egypt. Their children with them and the children born in the wilderness will be called the generation of promise.

Generation of Promise

These are the Israelites who will actually go into the Land of Promise and take it (which process is described in the first half of the book of Joshua). They were under the age of 20 at leaving Egypt in the exodus and some of them were born in the desert-wilderness, either as sons of Gen X-ers or as sons of the generation of promise.

Quite obviously, it would have been cooler to refer the second generation as GOP, but that designation may not have as easily contributed to your understanding of the 2nd generation.

Laws of Divine Establishment

These are natural laws which apply to people and nations, which cause a nation to be preserved and a people to be perpetuated. These laws are designed for believers and unbelievers alike.

Rebound (Restoration to fellowship with God)

In the New Testament, this is naming your sins to God, so that you are both restored to temporal fellowship with God and are then filled with the Spirit of God. In the Old Testament, naming your sins to God would result in a restoration of fellowship and, in some cases, the empowerment of the Holy Spirit once again (the Holy Spirit was not given to all Old Testament believers).

Type

A type is a preordained representation wherein certain persons, events, and institutions of the O.T. stand for corresponding persons, events, and institutions of the N.T. Types are pictures or object lessons by which God has taught His redemptive plan. They are a shadow of things to come, not the image of those things (Col. 2:17 Heb. 8:5 10:1). The Mosaic system, for example, was a kind of kindergarten in which God's people were trained in divine things and taught to look forward to the realities of things yet to come. Footnote

Some of these definitions are taken from

http://gracebiblechurchwichita.org/?page_id=1556

http://www.bibledoctrinechurch.org/?subpages/GLOSSARY.shtml

http://rickhughesministries.org/content/Biblical-Terms.pdf

http://www.gbible.org/index.php?proc=d4d

http://www.wordoftruthministries.org/termsanddefs.htm

http://www.realtime.net/~wdoud/topics.html

http://www.theopedia.com/


——————————


An Introduction to Deuteronomy 1


I ntroduction: Deut. 1 begins several sermons given by Moses to the generation of promise. This chapter in particular will cover a time period of one year at the beginning, and then take us back to the present time. At the beginning of this book, we are east of the Jordan and Moses is speaking to the people, before they cross over the river and begin taking the land.


Although the book of Deuteronomy appears to be mostly a rehash of the things which have already taken place in the lives of the people of Israel, this is an important book, and you will not feel as if you are just covering old ground here that you already covered before. In fact, there is so much information packed into this chapter that, I would not be surprised if this exegetical study ran 400 pages when all is said and done.


However, Moses will begin to talk about the first time that these Israelites came to this Land of Promise, and how they sent in spies, and then how the people refused to enter into the land. Moses, in this sermon, will take these people from Mount Sinai to the Land of Promise and end with Israel's failure at the foot of the land promised them by God.


At this time, the generation of twenty years and older who left Egypt (also known as Generation Exodus, Generation X, Gen X) have all died, with the exception of Moses, Joshua and Caleb. Their failures discussed by Moses were observed by the children of generation  X; now Moses will give the divine viewpoint concerning these failures in hopes that the new generation, the generation of promise, will profit by the mistakes of the elders rather than repeat them. In this chapter, as in all of the book of Deuteronomy, Moses will recall events in a topical manner.


For much of the book of Deuteronomy, Moses is going to give his listeners a true telling and interpretation of their history. They lived this history, but Moses is going to make certain that they understand it.


moses_pleading_with_israel_(crop).jpg

Moses Pleading with Israel (graphic), as in Deut. 6:1-15, illustration from a Bible card published 1907 by the Providence Lithograph Company from theBibleRevival.com, accessed November 7, 2013.


Application: In our country, much of what is taught as American history in public schools is slanted to the far left. America is often presented as a villain in taking this country, as a perpetrator of genocide, and as enthusiastic slave-owners. The founding fathers are often presented as deists, who believe that God began this world, but then just wandered off somewhere, leaving us here on our own. We are taught that FDR got us out of the Great Depression. All of these things are lies at worst; distortions at best. What would change our young people would be for them to learn some real American history and learn the ideals upon which this country was founded; and none of our history can be separated from the Christian faith that most of the original settlers and the founding fathers had. It is estimated by some that 90% of those who originally settled the United States would be considered Protestant Christians today.


So this is what Moses is doing. Even though these people have experienced this history, Moses is making sure that they understand their own history, and how it relates them to God.


The book of Deuteronomy is a result of God telling Moses to speak to the people before they entered into the Land of Promise: And Yahweh spoke to Moses in the plains of Moab by the Jordan at Jericho, saying, Speak to the sons of Israel, and say to them, When you+ pass over the Jordan into the land of Canaan, then you+ will drive out all the inhabitants of the land from before you+, and destroy all their figured [stones], and destroy all their molten images, and demolish all their high places: and you+ will take possession of the land, and dwell in it; for to you+ I have given the land to possess it. And you+ will inherit the land by lot according to your+ families; to the more you+ will give the more inheritance, and to the fewer you will give the less inheritance: wherever the lot falls to any man, that will be his; according to the tribes of your+ fathers you+ will inherit. But if you+ will not drive out the inhabitants of the land from before you+, then will those who you+ let remain of them be as pricks in your+ eyes, and as thorns in your+ sides, and they will vex you+ in the land in which you+ dwell. And it will come to pass, that, as I thought to do to them, so I will do to you+. (Num. 33:50–56; Updated Bible Version 2.11 Footnote )


John Gill makes the brilliant observation Footnote that, we find out in this chapter that it is not Moses (who represents the Law) who will lead this people into the Land of Promise but Joshua, whose name means savior.


It is important to understand what has gone before.

The Prequel of Deuteronomy 1

Yehowah God originally brought the children of Israel out of Egypt, where they had been slaves for several centuries. He worked through Moses, who became their spiritual and national leader. The designation people of Israel refers not to Israel the nation—which does not exist yet—but to their patriarch Israel, originally named Jacob, but renamed Israel by God. The people standing before Moses are descended from Israel (Jacob). God brought them out of Egypt with great signs and wonders.


These people, once free of Egypt, first crossed over the Sea of Reeds and went to Mount Sinai, also known as Mount Horeb. There, God gave them the Law. God first spoke to the children of Israel audibly, giving them the Ten Commandments, and they requested that God speak only to Moses, and that Moses would speak to them.


After receiving the Law of God, which was more than simply the Ten Commandments, God led them northward into what would become southern Judah, and told them to take the land that He promised them. First they sent 12 spies into the land, and they confirmed that the land was everything that God said it was—a land flowing with milk and honey. However, they also brought back stories of the fortified cities and the size and power of their adversaries in the land. Ten of the spies actively lobbied the people to not go into the land, and that night after the spies returned, the people cried and accused God of bringing them there to kill them and they did not want to go into this good land. Two spies, Caleb and Joshua, were ready to lead the people into the land to take it. They believed God’s promises and the rest of the people did not.


God was quite disgusted with them; and then, suddenly, after God told them to turn around and go back into the desert, many of them decided that they had changed their minds and they would attack the Amorites in the land. God told Moses to tell them not to do this, because He would not be with their whiney, sorry butts if they tried to attack the Amorites. They still went and attacked and they were soundly defeated, and chased all over, until they finally came back to Kadesh, where all the people had been camped out.


They lived there for awhile. They moved around to different parts of the desert. During this time, God killed off all the older generation—Gen X as I have designated them (the generation of the exodus)—all those who were 20 and older when they left Egypt. They dropped like flies in the desert, dying the sin unto death, yet while God preserved their children and their children’s children.


So now it is 38 or so years after their failure at Kadesh-barnea and God is leading this new generation of Israelites—I will call them the generation of promise—back to take the land. These are the people who were 20 or younger when they left Egypt, who are now between the ages of 40 and 60, and who have their own children now. As adults, all they have known is God taking care of them in the desert-wilderness.


There is also a set of young adults, aged 20–40, who were born in the desert (all those between ages 1 and 40 were born in the desert-wilderness). The young adults will be considered a part of the generation of promise; they will not be distinguished from those between the ages of 40 and 60.


In the final few chapters of Numbers, God brings this new generation up along the east side of the Dead Sea, to Mountains overlooking the Jordan River to the west of them. God will bring them across this river in the book of Joshua to take the land He has promised them.


However, there is a problem, and that is that Moses will not go with them. He will die east of the Dead Sea. God will not allow Moses to lead them into the land. Here’s what happened:


Near the beginning of this trek from Egypt to the land, there was no water, and the people complained, and God provided water for them through Moses. Moses was to strike this huge rock (which represents the judgment of Jesus on the cross) and from that rock would flow a river of living waters (just as Jesus, by His sacrifice, would provide us with the living water of salvation). This water gushed out and gave the people the water they needed; without which, they would have died in that dry, desolate place.


This same no-water test occurred again near the end of this 40 years in the desert. The people were again thirsty—there was no water. This time, God told Moses to speak to the rock. Jesus, their Savior, represented by the rock, would again give them all the water that they needed. Moses was not to strike the rock, because Jesus died for our sins one time—He is never judged again for our sins. That had already been represented when Moses struck the rock previously. Therefore, the proper way to represent this is by speaking to the rock. Moses was upset with the people, and he yelled at them, and he hit that rock hard, twice, with his walking stick. God still provided the people water, but He could not allow Moses to lead them into the Land of Promise, as he had failed to continue the type which God was setting up. Since Jesus was not judged twice for our sins, the rock was only to be struck one time, which occurred during the first no-water test.


For Moses and for many centuries of Jews, this is seen as simply an act of disobedience. However, since Jesus died on the cross, we understand that there was more to the provision of water than just obedience or lack thereof. God wanted the striking of the rock to represent Jesus dying on the cross for our sins and from Him would flow a river of living waters. When one wished to be refreshed by those waters after the crucifixion, he mere speaks to the rock (for the believer, this is rebound; for the unbeliever, this is expressing saving faith in Jesus Christ). God wanted Moses to establish that as a type; Moses did not; and so Moses was not allowed to cross over the Jordan.


So, here Israel stands, east of the Jordan River, about to cross over and take the land. Moses is going to speak a few words to them—which words will fill up the book of Deuteronomy.

Only a few verses will introduce this book. Most of it will be Moses speaking to the people.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


We need to know who the people are who populate this chapter.

The Principals of Deuteronomy 1

Characters

Commentary

Moses

Moses is the leader of the children of Israel, those he led out of Egypt with great signs and wonders done by God—signs and wonders which were seen both by the Egyptians and the Israelites.

Caleb

Caleb is one of the 12 spies who was ready to go into the Land of Promise from the very beginning and take it. Moses will indicate that he will go into the Land of Promise because he fully followed God.

Joshua

Joshua was the other one of the 12 spies who was willing to obey God and go into the land to take it. Joshua would become Israel’s next great leader after Moses.

The children of Israel

This is a general term applied to the people who left with Moses out of Egypt. One could include the children who were born to them when in the desert in this category.

Gen X

There are actually two distinct generations to which Moses will only occasionally refer. Gen X are those who are 20 and older when they begin to consider taking the Land of Promise, which lies before them. These would be those considered adult enough to go to war. God would wipe out this generation of Jews because of their cowardice and unbelief. Gen X is a term I came up with; it is not found in the Bible.

The Generation of Promise

Those who are children when the Israelites come to the southern border of Judah (what would soon become Judah), who were not old enough to fight when God told them to take the land, they are the generation of promise. Them and those born to them in the desert over the next 40 years.

Generation of Promise A

If you wanted to be complete accurate, there are actually two generations which make up the generation of promise: the GOP A and the GOP B. The GOP A are those who were between the ages of 1 and 20 and they came into the land with their parents, following Moses. After 40 years in the desert, they are now between the ages of 40 and 60.

Generation of Promise B

GOP B are those who were born in the desert wilderness to any of the generations named above. They would be between the ages of 1 and 40, and they had never known slavery or Egypt. This does not mean that they do not suffer from the bad influence of their parents. That is, these same people, having never been under slavery, may express a desire to return to their true homeland, which is Egypt (to their way of thinking).

Because of the overlapping and fluid nature of generations, these distinctions are only occasionally made. Most of the time that these distinctions are made, I will be making them as a part of the exegesis. Moses is speaking to the children of Israelites, he is actually speaking to the generation of promise about their parents, Gen X.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


One of the fascinating things to me both the power of Moses’s voice and his great intelligence at this time, at age 120. Today, we cannot imagine a person being age 120, let alone a man having all of his faculties, in excellent physical health, and talking for 20 or so hours over a period of a few days. Moses is cogent and completely organized in his thinking. This is tremendous blessing from God for a man to have his faculties all the way until his death. This is in accordance with Deut. 34:7 Moses was one hundred and twenty years old when he died. His eyes had not dimmed nor had his natural vigor abated. (VW) Joshua was also blessed in the same way (Joshua 14:11).


Here is what to expect in Deuteronomy 1:

A Synopsis of Deuteronomy 1

It would be very easy to interpret this chapter in the light of Moses explaining the important of obedience to established authorities. He will not be going with the Jews over the Jordan River to take the land; and they must therefore be able to submit themselves to the established authorities. Moses will give examples of how their disobedience caused them trouble.

Deut. 1:1–5 is simply the historical set up for the book of Deuteronomy. It tells us when and where this all took place, and what events immediately preceded the teaching of this chapter.

God told Israel that they needed to go into the land and to take the land which He has given them. Deut. 1:6–8

Moses appears to go off on a tangent, at this point, about how he was unable, as a leader, to function as the sole authority over Israel. However, the reason that he was unable to lead them is, just as God had promised, Israel had grown greatly in population. The connection they were supposed to make is, God both promised to give them the land of Canaan and he promised to increase them in number. They could look around and see that the latter had taken place; therefore, they should have the faith to obey God and to take the land. Deut. 1:9–11

Because Moses alone could function as their sole authority, he established a number of intermediate positions of authority, some in the courts and some for the military. Deut. 1:12–16

Moses told the judges how they were to operate with fairness to all. He had also taken take to lay out the Law of God to them. Deut. 1:17–18

At that time, they needed to leave Horeb (Mount Sinai), and to travel to the land of Canaan, and to take it from the present occupants—as God had told them to do. Deut. 1:19–21

The people suggest that they first send spies into the land. Moses views this suggestion with favor; and apparently consults God about it in the book of Numbers. Deut. 1:22–23

The spies go into the land, and observe the people, the cities and bring back huge clusters of grapes, to show just how wonderful this land was. Deut. 1:24–25

However, just as Caleb and Joshua appear to be the men who bring them the good news of the land, the other ten spies are afraid and express this fear, and they sway the Israeli people against going into the land. This would be going against what God had told them to do. Deut. 1:26–28

Moses tells them that they should not be afraid, and that they should understand that they are going into Canaan with God on their side. They know first-hand how God led them out of Egypt and how He sustained them in the desert for two years. Therefore, Moses reasons, they should be able to trust this same God. Deut. 1:29–33

However, God heard their whining and He was disgusted with them and He swore that they would not enter into the land—with the exception of Caleb and Joshua. In fact, the people had given the excuse of their children—they could not invade Canaan because their children would be taken into slavery as a result. Well, these same children would be the ones to go into the land and take it. Deut. 1:34–39

God told them to go back, but they changed their minds and decided to invade. God told Moses to tell them that He is not with them, and they invaded Canaan anyway. They were beaten back badly and they retreated back to Kadesh. Deut. 1:40–46

You will note that almost every section deals with the authorities to which Israel should have subjected herself to.

Like all chapters of the Word of God, you need more than just the simple plot outline to understand what God wants us to know.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


It is always good to see how someone else sees this chapter.

Matthew Henry Summarizes Deuteronomy 1

The first part of Moses's farewell sermon to Israel begins with this chapter, and is continued to the latter end of the fourth chapter. In the first five verses of this chapter we have the date of the sermon, the place where it was preached (Deut. 1:1, Deut. 1:2, Deut. 1:5), and the time when (Deut. 1:3, Deut. 1:4).

The narrative in this chapter reminds them,

I.       Of the promise God made them of the land of Canaan (Deut. 1:6–8).

II.      Of the provision made of judges for them (Deut. 1:9–18).

III.     Of their unbelief and murmuring upon the report of the spies (Deut. 1:19–33).

IV.     Of the sentence passed upon them for it, and the ratification of that sentence (Deut. 1:34, etc.).

Even though Henry does not emphasize the authority factor, you will notice that every section deals with an authority issue.

John Gill’s Outline and Summary

Matthew Poole’s Outline and Summary


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines

 

F. B. Hole gives us a brief introduction to this chapter: The title of this book, which translated into English, is "Second-Law," indicates its character; for in it Moses recapitulates and enforces the whole law system to which Israel was committed. Deuteronomy 1:2-3 remind us that the wilderness journey from Horeb, where the law was given, to the border of the land would normally occupy eleven days; they had taken forty years because of their unbelief. The old generation that had been at Horeb had died out and so the law had to be freshly emphasized to the new generation. Once given, the binding force of the law remained, as we saw in our last issue, when considering the closing words of Malachi, written probably about a thousand years later. Footnote


The Expositor’s Bible Commentary makes some good introductory remarks. Some editing was done (such as, instead of the author of Deuteronomy, I simply used the name of Moses.

Introductory Material from the Expositor’s Bible Commentary

It was natural and it was inevitable, therefore, that Moses, the author of Deuteronomy, standing, as he did, on the threshold of a great crisis in the history of Israel, should turn the thoughts of his people back to the history of the past. To him the great figure in the history of Israel in those trying and eventful years during which they wandered between Horeb, Kadesh-Barnea, and the country of the Arnon, is Yahweh their God. God is behind all their movements, impelling and inciting them to go on and enjoy the good land He had promised to their fathers. He went before them and fought for them. He bare them in the wilderness, as a man bears his son. He watched over them and guided their footsteps in cloud and fire by day and night. Moreover all the nations by whom they passed had been led by Him and assigned their places, and only those nations whom Yahweh chose had been given into Israel's hand. In the internal affairs of the community, too, He had asserted Himself. They were Yahweh's people, and all their national action was to be according to His righteous character. Especially was the administration of justice to be pure and impartial, yielding to neither fear nor favor because the "judgment is God's."

And how had they responded to all this grace on the part of God? At the first hint of serious conflict they shrank back in fear. Notwithstanding that the land which God had given them was a good and fruitful country, and notwithstanding the promises of Divine help, they refused to incur the necessary toils and risks of the conquest. Every difficulty they might encounter was exaggerated by them; their very deliverance from Egypt, which they had been wont to consider "their crowning mercy," became to their faithless cowardice an evidence of hatred for them on the part of God.

To men in such a state of mind conquest was impossible; and though, in a spasmodic revulsion from their abject cowardice, they made an attack upon the people they were to dispossess, it ended, as it could not but end, in their defeat and rout. They were condemned to forty years of wandering, and it was only after all that generation was dead that Israel was again permitted to approach the land of promise. But Yahweh had been faithful to them, and when the time was come He opened the way for their advance and gave them the victory and the land. For His love was patient, and always made a way to bless them, even through their sins.

That was the picture that Moses spread out before the eyes of his countrymen, (the next generation), to the intent that they might know the love of God, and might see that safety lay for them in a willing yielding of themselves to that love. The disastrous results of their wayward and faint-hearted shrinking from this Divine calling is the only direct threat he uses, but in the passage there is another warning, all the more impressive that it is vague and shadowy, God is to Moses the universal ruler of the world. The nations are raised up and cast down according to His will, and until He wills it they cannot be dispossessed. But He had willed that fate for many, and at every step of Israel's progress they come upon traces of vanished peoples whom for their sins He had suffered others to destroy. The Emim in Moab, the Zamzummim in Ammon, the Horites in Self, and the Avvims in Philistia, had all been destroyed before the people who now occupied these lands, and the whole background of the narrative is one of judgment, where mercy had been of no avail. The sword of the Lord is dimly seen in the archaeological notes which are so frequent in this section of our book and thus the final touch is given to the picture of the past which is here drawn to be an impulse for the future. While all the foreground represents only God's love and patience overcoming man's rebellion, the background is, like the path is sometimes strewn with the remains of predecessors in the same path. With stern, menacing finger this great teacher of Israel points to these evidences that the Divine love and patience may be, and have been, outworn, and seems to re-echo in an even more impressive way the language of Isaiah: "The anger of Yahweh was kindled (against these peoples), and He stretched forth His hand (against them) and smote (them); and the hills did tremble, and (their) carcasses were as refuse in the midst of the streets. For all this His anger is not turned away, but His hand is stretched out still." Without a word of direct rebuke he opens his people's eyes to see that shadowy outstretched hand. Behind all the turmoil of the world there is a presence and a power which supports all who seek good, but which is sternly set against all evil, ready, when the moment comes, "to strike once and strike no more."

Some of the material above has been edited.

Taken from http://www.studylight.org/com/teb/view.cgi?bk=4&ch=1 accessed November 4, 2013.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines

 

Arno Gaebelein's Annotated Bible introduces and summarizes Deut. 1: The people were still on...[the east] side of Jordan in the wilderness. The second verse, containing a parenthetical statement, gives the story of their unbelief, as recorded in the Book of Numbers. "There are eleven days' journey from Horeb by the way of Mount Seir unto Kadesh-barnea." They might have reached the place they occupied now, facing Jordan and the land, in eleven days. [However, instead] It took them almost forty years. Unbelief had kept them back. It was towards the end of the fortieth year, in the eleventh month, that Moses began his wonderful addresses. In the first month of that memorable year Miriam had died (Numbers 20:1). His brother Aaron had died in the fifth month (Numbers 33:38). Moses was soon to follow him at the close of the fortieth year, at the...age of one hundred and twenty. Forty years were spent by Moses in the palaces of Egypt; forty years he was a shepherd in the land of Midian and forty years he was the leader of God's people through the wilderness. Before he went to the top of Pisgah to behold the land and to die, he...[teaches this new generation of Israelites Bible doctrine]. His words were "according unto all that the Lord had given him." All he had received from the Lord, he passed on faithfully to the Lord's people. "Moses verily was faithful in all God's house, as a servant, for a testimony of those things, which were to be spoken afterward" (Hebrews 3:5). Once more, therefore, he placed the words of the Lord before their hearts [that is, their thinking]...[Therefore, before his death], Moses declared [God’s love, His provision, and] the Law unto them. Footnote


There are things about the book of Deuteronomy which are absolutely unique.

Moses in the Book of Deuteronomy

1.      In the books of Exodus, Leviticus and Deuteronomy, Moses is very careful about separating God’s words from his words from narrative. We always know who is speaking in these 3 books.

2.      In Deuteronomy, there is going to be a change, and that will occur in this first chapter. There will be a point at which Moses begins to speak for God, but he does not make a clear transition. He will not say, “And this is what God is saying to you...” or “This is what God has said...” or “This is what God would be saying to you...” He simply begins to speak for God. His words become God’s Word. Moses, through the power of the Holy Spirit, speaks truth to the children of Israel. As a result, no Jew and no Christian ever views the words of Moses, which comprise almost all of the book of Deuteronomy, as being inferior to the words of God. They are seen as the inspired Word of God.

3.      Deuteronomy is often referred to as the second law; but it is never called the secondary law.

4.      There are several things about Moses which are typically ignored. He was trained to be a leader in Egypt. He was groomed to be the prime minister or pharaoh of Egypt. He would have learned law and history and geography and warfare and language. He was not lost in the desert; he was at home as a judge over Israel; and he knew what to do to lead his men in battle.

5.      Moses was trained, unlike anyone else, to lead this recalcitrant people.

6.      Furthermore, Moses would possess knowledge that none of the Israelites would possess—again, about law, geography, history, warfare and language.

7.      Moses, in many of these early chapters of Deuteronomy, is going to teach history to these Jews. It is important that you have an accurate understanding of history. Propagandists have discovered that, you can lead a people astray if your lie to them about their own history (which pretty much describes the teaching of history in our public schools).

         1)      As an aside, let me give you two examples of what “I learned in school.” I was not a good history student—I recall very few things about American history. However, I walked out of high school “knowing” two things: that our founding fathers were mostly deists and that FDR saved us from the Great Depression. These are both demonstrably false statements. They are lies. But I learned them in school, and, as a result, that helped to shape my thinking about our founders and about FDR.

         2)      Similarly, I know a Chinese woman—an adult Chinese woman living here in America. She knows nothing about how Mao Tse Tung killed millions upon millions of his own people. This is how false history was taught to her, and it certainly shaped her thinking. Even today, after living perhaps 20 years in America, she does not realize what a depraved, vicious tyrant Mao was.

         3)      Controlling the education means you control the people.

8.      Therefore, Moses is going to teach the Israelites their true history, history which they themselves lived and observed, and he will teach them many spiritual lessons by doing this.

         1)      As an aside, many of us in the midst of a variety of historical events, are not able to properly interpret them or to give them their correct historical context.

         2)      Moses separates out what is important about the history and re-teaches it to the generation of promise.

         3)      This also establishes the power of the Word of God in the souls of believers. This generation of promise, because of the implanted Word of God, will do better than their parents did. The implanted Word of God is much more powerful than all of the miracles which they observed.

These points are useful to take note of throughout the book of Deuteronomy.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines

 

The Geneva Bible makes some comments about the failure of the previous generation: The wonderful love of God toward His people is actively set forth in this book. Even through their ingratitude and many rebellions against God, for the space forty years. (Deuteronomy 9:7) they deserved to have been cut off from the number of his people, and forever to have been deprived of the use of his holy word and ordinances: yet he ever preserved His people even for his own mercy’s sake, and would still have his name called upon among them. Wherefore he brings them into the land of Canaan, destroys their enemies, gives them their country, towns and goods, and exhorts them by the example of their fathers (whose infidelity, idolatry, adulteries, complaining and rebellions, he had most severely punished) to fear and obey the Lord, to embrace and keep his law without adding to it or diminishing from it. For by his word he would be known to be their God, and they his people, by His Word He would govern His people, and by the same they would learn to obey Him: by His Word the believer would be able to discern the false prophet from the true, light form darkness, ignorance from knowledge, and his own people from all the other nations and infidels: teaching them by it to refuse and detest, destroy and abolish whatever is not agreeable to his holy will, seem it otherwise never so good or precious in the eyes of man. For this cause God promised to raise up kings and governors, for the setting forth of his word and preservation of His people, giving to them a special charge for the executing of it: whom therefore he wills to exercise themselves diligently in the continual study and meditation of the same: that they might learn to fear the Lord, love their subjects, abhor covetousness and vices, and whatever offends the majesty of God. As He had before instructed their fathers in all things belonging both to his spiritual service and also for the maintenance of that society which is between men: so he prescribes here anew all such laws and ordinances, which either concern his divine service, or else are necessary for a common good: appointing to every estate and degree their charge and duty: as well, how to rule and live in the fear of God, as to nourish friendship toward their neighbours, and to preserve the order which God has established among men: threatening most horrible plagues to them that transgress His commandments, and promising blessings and happiness to those who observe and obey them. Footnote


There is one thing which should be noted about Moses’ audience—these are adults who have spent their adult life in the desert watching their parents all die the sin unto death. They have no experience in warfare or in farming and ranching; they do not even know how to weave and sow. God has taken care of them for all their adult lives (from ages 20 to 60). Furthermore, whereas often a father will impart his knowledge and skills to his children; that was not the case here. Therefore, there are going to be many things which Moses teaches these people which are simply a matter of common sense—not common sense to them, because they never learned these things.

 

Moses, as a father figure, teaches them some basic things in this book of Deuteronomy—some things which are of a neutral moral value. We will see that these things are often taken out of context by detractors of God’s Word, and set side-by-side with some moral value taught in the Word of God. The idea is, they want to make the Word of God seem foolish and arbitrary.

 

One example is, on pro-gay sites, they will tell you that the same Bible which treats homosexual acts as a sin, also says that you cannot wear cotton blend clothing. They try to equate these two things, while glossing over what is really said about cotton blend clothing. So, as a general principle: mixing types of cloth (cotton and wool) when making clothes is a matter of common sense; is not a moral issue. The banning of homosexual acts is a moral issue. There was no penalty for mixing wool and cotton when making a cloak, apart from that cloak becoming worthless after the first time it is washed. The penalty for homosexual acts was death. So when you see some clever graphic trying to treat these issues as being morally equivalent in the Bible—they are not, nor does the Bible present these as being morally equivalent. This comes from the lies of pro-gay sites.

 

I used the term lies for this reason. If you contact one of these sites and explain exactly what is going on with the mixture of cotton and wool, they will not respond by saying, “Oh, okay; now I understand what the Bible was saying; and that this is not some kind of great moral issue in the Bible. So I will take my anti-Bible graphic down.” They won’t do that. They want people to turn away from the Bible. If a dishonest graphic facilitates that, that is fine with them. Pro-gay sites (and I am using them as one example of anti-Bible sites) do not care what the Bible says nor do they care about how to interpret the Bible; they want others to be turned away from the Bible. That is their purpose.

 

Now, why are these non-moral, practical information issues found in the Bible? Originally, these non-spiritual issues are just what they appear to be on the surface—common sense advice from Moses, who is a genius in many fields, delivered to a generation of Israelites who have almost no common sense, given their upbringing in the desert.

 

However, these non-moral issues are often used as illustrations of spiritual issues. They themselves are not spiritual issues; but they can be used to illustrate spiritual issues. One which comes to mind is yoking two different animals together to pull a plow. This is not a moral issue. Moses was not going to observe Charley Brown putting a mule and an ox into a dual harness, and then sentence Charley to 30 lashes. This is a matter of practicality. However, Paul would use this illustration many centuries later to teach that a believer should not marry an unbeliever—that they should not be unequally yoked.


It is easy to have the mistaken notion that, if you have studied the books of Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers, that you can bypass the book of Deuteronomy. That is a mistake. Throughout the Bible, there are many parallel and overlapping passages. The gospels are 4 different biographies of the same Man over roughly the same period of time; yet each gospel is important, and each gospel has important information, as well as an important narrative for us to know. The book of Deuteronomy is far more than just a rehash of previous history; and even when it is, there are many important things for us to learn.


Furthermore, God takes many incidents in the history of Israel and discusses them in a variety of ways, sometimes in the Psalms and sometimes by various prophets. And, in this case, Moses, simply recalling things which occurred over the past 40 years. If you give this exegesis of Deut. 1 some time, you will find our some things that you did not know before; and you will begin to make connections which you have never made before. As is pretty much every chapter of the Bible, this chapter is rich with spiritual information.


I named this chapter Moses on the Importance of Established Authority, because the Israelites just spent the last 38 years in the desert because they simultaneously rejected the authority of Moses and of God. All that the Israelites have suffered is a result of their negative volition and unbelief. God would tell them to do X and they would quickly do not-X. Moses had also set up a system of authority, which the people themselves had participated in, to allow them both good military leadership as well as a quicker resolve of their grievances. Even this broke down, as 10 of the spies (who would have been considered high military authorities) were not on board for God’s plan. Moses will also introduce his replacement, Joshua, near the end of this chapter, with the implication, “Don’t treat him as you have treated me.” In short all of the guidance and the direction that was necessary for the Israelites to take the land was provided, and generation X (the exodus generation) was so locked into negative volition that they were often uncontrollable.


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Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Introduction to the Great Sermons of Moses to the Generation of Promise


Kukis slavishly literal:

 

Kukis moderately literal:

These [are] the words which spoke Moses unto all Israel in a region beyond the Jordan in the wilderness in the Arabah opposite Suph in between Paran and in between Tophel and Laban and Hazeroth and Di-zahab; one-ten day from Horeb, a way of Mount Seir, as far as Kadesh-barnea.

Deuteronomy

1:1–2

These [are] the words which Moses spoke to Israel in the region beyond the Jordan, in the wilderness, in the Arabah opposite Suph and in between Paran and Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth and Di-zahab. [It takes] eleven days [to go] from Horeb, [along the] way of Mount Seir, [to get] to Kadesh-barnea.

Kukis not so literal:

Moses spoke the following words while he was east of the Jordan, in the wilderness, in the Arabah which is opposite Suph and in between Paran, Tophel, Laban, Hzeroth and Di-zahab. It takes eleven days to go from Horeb, along the road around Mount Seir, to get to Kadesh-barnea.


Here is how others have translated this verse:

 

Ancient texts:                       Note: I compare the Hebrew text to English translations of the Latin, Syriac and Greek texts, using the Douay-Rheims translation Footnote ; George Lamsa’s translation, and Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton’s translation as revised and edited by Paul W. Esposito, respectively. I often update these texts with non-substantive changes (e.g., you for thou, etc.). I often use the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible instead of Brenton’s translation, because it updates the English text.

 

The Septuagint was the earliest known translation of a book (circa 200 b.c.). Since this translation was made before the textual criticism had been developed into a science and because different books appear to be translated by different men, the Greek translation can sometimes be very uneven.

 

When there are serious disparities between my translation and Brenton’s (or the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible), I look at the Greek text of the Septuagint (the LXX) to see if a substantive difference actually exists (and I reflect these changes in the English rendering of the Greek text). I use the Greek LXX with Strong’s numbers and morphology available for e-sword. The only problem with this resource (which is a problem for similar resources) is, there is no way to further explore Greek verbs which are not found in the New Testament. Although I usually quote the Complete Apostles’ Bible here, I have begun to make changes in the translation when their translation conflicts with the Greek and note what those changes are.

 

The Masoretic text is the Hebrew text with all of the vowels (vowel points) inserted (the original Hebrew text lacked vowels). We take the Masoretic text to be the text closest to the original. However, differences between the Masoretic text and the Greek, Latin and Syriac are worth noting and, once in a great while, represent a more accurate text possessed by those other ancient translators.

 

In general, the Latin text is an outstanding translation from the Hebrew text into Latin and very trustworthy (I say this as a non-Catholic). Unfortunately, I do not read Latin—apart from some very obvious words—so I am dependent upon the English translation of the Latin (principally, the Douay-Rheims translation).

 

Underlined words indicate differences in the text.

 

Bracketed portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls are words, letters and phrases lost in the scroll due to various types of damage. Underlined words or phrases are those in the Dead Sea Scrolls but not in the Masoretic text. I will not make too many references to the Dead Sea Scrolls, because they are not generally helpful when trying to clear up ancient translations which disagree. Not enough of the Bible survived in the Dead Sea Scrolls to allow us to check each and every verse.

 

The Targum of Onkelos is actually the Pentateuchal Targumim, which are The Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan Ben Uzziel. On the Pentateuch With The Fragments of the Jerusalem Targum From the Chaldee by J. W. Etheridge, M.A. Taken from http://targum.info/targumic-texts/pentateuchal-targumim/ and first published in 1862.


Ancient texts:

 

Targum (trans. By Cook)        These are the words of admonition which Mosheh spake with all Israel. He gathered them together to him while they were beyond the Jordan, and answered and said to them:

Was it not in the wilderness at the mountain of Sinai that the law was given to you? and in the plains of Moab you were made to understand how many miracles and signs the Holy One, blessed be He, had wrought for you, from the time that you passed over the border of the Weedy Sea, where He made for you a way for every one of your tribes. But you declined from His word, and wrought provocation before Him, in Pharan, on account of the words of the spies, and put together lying words against Him, and murmured about the manna, which He had made to come down for you, white from the heavens; in Hazeroth you demanded flesh, and made yourselves deserving to perish from the midst of the world, but for the memory, on your behalf, of the merit of your righteous fathers, the tabernacle of ordinance, and the ark of the covenant, and the holy vessels which you had covered with pure gold, and made atonement for you on account of the sin of the golden calf. It is a journey of eleven days (only) from Horeb by the way of Mount Gebal unto Rekem Giah; but because you declined and provoked the Lord to displeasure, you have been retarded forty years.

Jerusalem targum                  These are the words which Mosheh, spake with all Israel, reproving them, while as yet they were situate beyond the Jordan. Mosheh answering said to them: Was it not in the wilderness at Mount Sinai, that the law was given to you? and on the plains of Moab was shown you what miracles and mighty acts the Word of the Lord had wrought on your behalf. When you stood by the Weedy Sea, the sea was divided before you, and there were made twelve ways of one way, (a path) for each tribe. Yet you provoked Him at the sea, and rebelled at the Sea of Suph. On account of the matter of the spies who had been sent from the wilderness of Pharan, the decree (came forth) against you, that you should not enter into the land of Israel; and for that of the manna, of which you said, Our soul is afflicted with this bread, whose eating is too light, the serpents were let loose upon you; and in Hazeroth, where your carcasses fell on account of the flesh, and concerning the calf that you had made, He would have spoken in His Word to destroy you, had He not been mindful of the covenant which He sware to your fathers, Abraham, Izhak, and Jakob, and of the tabernacle of ordinance which you had made unto His name, and the ark of the covenant of the Lord, and of your burnt sacrifices in the midst (of the tabernacle and the ark) which you covered with purified gold. A journey of eleven days is it from Mount Horeb by way of Mount Gebal unto Rekem Giah; yet, because you sinned and provoked anger before Him, you have been delayed, and have been journeying for forty years.

Latin Vulgate                          These are the words, which Moses spoke to all Israel beyond the Jordan, in the plain wilderness, over against the Red Sea, between Pharan and Thophel and Laban and Haseroth, where there is very much gold. Eleven days' journey from Horeb by the way of mount Seir to Cadesbarne.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        These [are] the words which spoke Moses unto all Israel in a region beyond the Jordan in the wilderness in the Arabah opposite Suph in between Paran and in between Tophel and Laban and Hazeroth and Di-zahab; one-ten day from Horeb, a way of Mount Seir, as far as Kadesh-barnea.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    THESE are the words which Moses spoke to all Israel beyond the Jordan in the wilderness, in the low desert plain opposite the Red Sea, between Paran and Tophel and Lebanon and Hazeroth and Dizahab. (There are eleven days journey from Horeb to mount Seir to Rakim-gia.).

Septuagint (Greek)                These are the words which Moses spoke to all Israel on this side of the Jordan in the desert towards the west near the Red Sea, between Paran, Tophel, Laban, and Aulon, and the gold works. It is a journey of eleven days from Horeb to Mount Seir as far as Kadesh Barnea.

 

Significant differences:           You will note that there is a gob of additional sentences in the two targums. However, bear in mind that these are as much commentary as anything else. It might be best to view them as a very word the Voice, but without being carefully italicized.

 

You will note a mentioned of gold in the Greek, Syriac and Latin; that is a translation of the Hebrew word, which I transliterated.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           The first heading: Introducing Deuteronomy

These are the words that Moses spoke to all Israel across the Jordan River, in the desert, on the plain across from Suph, between Paran and Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth, and Di-zahab. (It is eleven days from Horeb to Kadesh-barnea along the Mount Seir route.)

Contemporary English V.       This book contains the speeches that Moses made while Israel was in the land of Moab, camped near the town of Suph in the desert east of the Jordan River. The town of Paran was in one direction from their camp, and the towns of Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth, and Dizahab were in the opposite direction. Earlier, Moses had defeated the Amorite King Sihon of Heshbon. Moses had also defeated King Og of Bashan, who used to live in Ashtaroth for part of the year and in Edrei for the rest of the year. Although it takes only eleven days to walk from Mount Sinai to Kadesh-Barnea by way of the Mount Seir Road, these speeches were not made until forty years after Israel left Egypt. The LORD had given Moses his laws for the people of Israel. And on the first day of the eleventh month, Moses began explaining those laws by saying:... These are the first 5 verses.

Easy English                          These are the words that Moses spoke to the *Israelites. They were in the *desert on the east side of the Jordan river. This is the Jordan valley opposite to Suph. It is between the towns called Paran, Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth and Dizahab. (It is a journey of 11 days from *Mount Sinai (Horeb) to Kadesh-Barnea, past *Mount Seir.) v3 Moses spoke on the first day of the 11th month, in the 40th year. He repeated to the *Israelites all the words that the *Lord had spoken about them.

Easy-to-Read Version            This is the message that Moses gave the people of Israel. He told them these things while they were in the Jordan Valley, in the desert east of the Jordan River. This was across from Suph, between the desert of Paran and the cities Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth, and Dizahab. The trip from Mount Horeb (Sinai) through the Seir mountains to Kadesh Barnea takes only eleven days.

Good News Bible (TEV)         In this book are the words that Moses spoke to the people of Israel when they were in the wilderness east of the Jordan River. They were in the Jordan Valley near Suph, between the town of Paran on one side and the towns of Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth, and Dizahab on the other. (It takes eleven days to travel from Mount Sinai to Kadesh Barnea by way of the hill country of Edom.)

The Message                         These are the sermons Moses preached to all Israel when they were east of the Jordan River in the Arabah Wilderness, opposite Suph, in the vicinity of Paran, Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth, and Dizahab. It takes eleven days to travel from Horeb to Kadesh Barnea following the Mount Seir route.

New Berkeley Version           February-March, 1406 b.c.

These are the words which Moses spoke to all Israel on the other side of the Jordan, in the wilderness, in the Arabah [The term Arabah or Plain is in common use in the O.T. to designate any region of the Jordan valley from the Sea of Galilee to and including the Dead Sea and the territory south of it. Our words Arab and Arabian are related to it.] opposite Suph, between Paran on the one hand and Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth and Di-Zahab on the other. By the Mount Serir rod it is eleven days’ journey from Horeb to Kadesh-barnea. Deuteronomy is one of the great books of the Old Testament. It expresses truths which always reflect the mind of God. Its leading thought for Israel was that she must ever remember that God is one; and that He chose her for a great mission. To be true to Him she must always be true to the Covenant which He had made with her at the beginning. Deuteronomy shows the way. Jesus knew this wonderful book. Compare Mark 12:28–30 with Deut. 6:4–5.

New Century Version             Moses Talks to the Israelites

This is the message Moses gave to all the people of Israel in the desert east of the Jordan River. They were in the desert area near Suph, between Paran and the towns of Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth, and Dizahab.

(The trip from Mount Sinai to Kadesh Barnea on the Mount Seir road takes eleven days.)

New Living Translation           Introduction to Moses' First Address

These are the words that Moses spoke to all the people of Israel while they were in the wilderness east of the Jordan River. They were camped in the Jordan Valley[a] near Suph, between Paran on one side and Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth, and Di-zahab on the other. Normally it takes only eleven days to travel from Mount Sinai[b] to Kadesh-barnea, going by way of Mount Seir.

The Voice                               These are the words Moses spoke to all the people of Israel who were gathered in the wilderness in the Arabah Valley east of the Jordan River, across from Suph. They'd traveled through many places on their way here, from Paran through Tophel and on to Laban, Hazeroth, and Dizahab.

These places serve as various destinations along Israel's wilderness route before they reach the plains of Moab, facing the Jordan River, just outside the land of Canaan.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          These are the things that Moses said to all the IsraElites while they were in the desert, on the east side of the JorDan, near the Red Sea (between Pharan-Tophol, Lobon, Aulon, and the gold works), eleven day's journey from the Dry Place (Horeb) by way of Mount Seir, to Kadesh Barne.

Beck’s American Translation This is what Moses said to all Israel east of the Jordan, in the wilderness, in the Jordan valley, in front of Eupph, between Paran, Rophetl, Laban, Hazeroth, and Dizahab.

(It takes 11 days to go from Horeb by way of the mountains of Seir to Kadesh-barnea.)

Christian Community Bible     These are the words that Moses spoke to all Israel, at the other side of the Jordan River, in the Arabah desert. They were facing Suf, between Paran, Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth and Dizahab. From Mount Horeb to Kadesh-Barnea they had had a journey of eleven days through the mountains of Seir.

God’s Word                         This is the speech Moses gave in the desert east of the Jordan River, on the plains, near Suph, between Paran and Tophel, and near Laban, Hazeroth, and Di Zahab. He spoke to all the Israelites. (It takes 11 days to go from Mount Horeb to Kadesh Barnea by way of Mount Seir.)

New Advent (Knox) Bible       It was thus Moses spoke to the people of Israel while they were still on the other side of Jordan, in the desert plain that looks towards the Red Sea, with Pharan and Thophel and Laban and Haseroth, a country where gold abounds, for its frontiers; the plain that is spanned by a journey of eleven days from Horeb to Cades-Barne, by way of mount Seir. It is not certain whether the first words of the sentence refer to what went before, or to what follows. The geographical indications here given seem to be very vague, and have occasioned much controversy. `A country where gold abounds' should perhaps be a fresh proper name, Dizahab.

New American Bible              These are the words which Moses spoke to all Israel beyond the Jordan (in the desert [The local setting of all these discourses is in the land of Moab beyond the Jordan (cf Deut 1:5), also known as the plains of Moab (Numbers 36:13).], in the Arabah, opposite Suph, between Paran and Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth and Dizahab; it is a journey of eleven days from Horeb to Kadesh-barnea by way of the highlands of Seir).

New American Bible (R.E.)    Introduction.

These are the words that Moses spoke to all Israel beyond the Jordan [The entire book of Deuteronomy is set "beyond the Jordan," in the land of Moab (cf. v. 5; Nm 36:13), on the eve of the Israelites' crossing of the Jordan (Jos 3). The Arabah: the valley of the Jordan and the depression south of the Dead Sea.] in the wilderness, in the Arabah, opposite Suph, between Paran and Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth, and Dizahab. It is a journey of eleven days from Horeb [Horeb: an alternative name for Mount Sinai, the wilderness mountain where the Israelites received revelation from God (cf. Ex 3; 19). Kadesh-barnea: the southern gateway to the land of Canaan, from which Moses sent spies to reconnoiter the land (cf. Nm 13:26; 32:8). Seir: Edom, the land just south of Moab.] to Kadesh-barnea by way of the highlands of Seir.

NIRV                                      The Lord Commands Israel to Leave Mount Horeb

These are the words Moses spoke to all of the people of Israel. At that time, they were in the desert east of the Jordan River. It's in the Arabah Valley across from Suph. They were between Paran and Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth and Dizahab. It takes 11 days to go from Mount Horeb to Kadesh Barnea if you travel on the Mount Seir road.

New Simplified Bible              These are the words Moses spoke to all Israel. He was on this side of the Jordan in the desert wilderness, in the plain near the Red Sea (Suph), between Paran, Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth, and Dizahab. It is only an eleven-day journey from Horeb by the way of Mount Seir to Kadesh-barnea.

Revised English Bible            These are the words that Moses addressed to all Israel in the wilderness beyond the Jordan, that is to say, in the Arabah opposite Suph, between Paran on the one side and Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth, and Dizahab on the other. (The journey from Horeb through the hill-country of Seir to Kadesh-barnea takes eleven days.)

Today’s NIV                          The Command to Leave Horeb

These are the words Moses spoke to all Israel in the wilderness east of the Jordan--that is, in the Arabah--opposite Suph, between Paran and Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth and Dizahab. (It takes eleven days to go from Horeb to Kadesh Barnea by the Mount Seir road.)


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      These are the words which Moses spoke to all of Israel in the wilderness across the Jordan, in the plain area of the Sea of Reeds, between Central-Sinai, and between Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth, and Dizahab: eleven days' journey from Horeb by the way of the Seir mountains to the rest-stop in Barnea.

Bible in Basic English             These are the words which Moses said to all Israel on the far side of Jordan, in the waste land in the Arabah opposite Suph, between Paran on the one side, and Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth, and Dizahab on the other. It is eleven days' journey from Horeb by the way of Mount Seir to Kadesh-barnea.

The Expanded Bible              Moses Talks to the Israelites

This is the message [LThese are the words] Moses gave to all the people of Israel in the ·desert [wilderness] east of the Jordan River. They were in the ·desert [wilderness] area near Suph, between Paran and the towns of Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth, and Dizahab. (The trip from Mount Sinai to Kadesh Barnea on the Mount Seir road takes eleven days.)

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 The following are the Speeches which Moses addressed to all the Children of Israel, before the passage over the Jordan, in the desert, extending from Suf, between Paran, and Thofel. and Laban. and Khatzroth and Yahb. This Introduction was probably written by Aliazer, the High Priest, for the Sacred Copy kept in the Ark of the Covenant.- F. F. (It is eleven days' journey from Horeb, when marching by the way of Mount Santo Kadesh-Barnea.) V. 2, in parentheses, is an explanatory note of an old Hebrew editor. - F. F.

NET Bible®                             The Covenant Setting

This is what [Heb "These are the words."] Moses said to the assembly of Israel [Heb "to all Israel."] in the Transjordanian [Heb “on the other side of the Jordan.” This would appear to favor authorship by someone living on the west side of the Jordan, that is, in Canaan, whereas the biblical tradition locates Moses on the east side (cf. v. 5). However the Hebrew phrase בְּעֵבֶר הַיּרְדֵּן (bÿ’ever hayyrÿden) is a frozen form meaning “Transjordan,” a name appropriate from any geographical vantage point. To this day, one standing east of the Jordan can describe himself as being in Transjordan.] wastelands, the arid country opposite [The Hebrew term מוֹל (mol) may also mean “in front of” or “near” (cf. NCV, TEV, CEV, NLT).] Suph [This place is otherwise unattested and its location is unknown. Perhaps it is Khirbet Sufah, 4 mi (6 km) SSE of Madaba, Jordan.], between [The Hebrew term בֵּין (ben) may suggest “in the area of.”] Paran [Paran is the well-known desert area between Mount Sinai and Kadesh Barnea (cf. Num 10:12; 12:16).] and Tophel [Tophel refers possibly to et£-T£afîleh, 15 mi (25 km) SE of the Dead Sea, or to Da,bîlu, another name for Paran. See H. Cazelles, "Tophel (Deut. 1:1)," VT 9 (1959): 412-15.], Laban [Perhaps this refers to Libnah (Num 33:20).], Hazeroth [Hazeroth. This probably refers to àAin Khadra. See Y. Aharoni, The Land of the Bible, 199-200.], and Di Zahab [Di Zahab. Perhaps this refers to Mina al-Dhahab on the eastern Sinai coast.] Now it is ordinarily an eleven-day journey [An eleven-day journey was about 140 mi (233 km).] from Horeb [Horeb is another name for Sinai. "Horeb" occurs 9 times in the Book of Deuteronomy and "Sinai" only once (33:2). "Sinai" occurs 13 times in the Book of Exodus and "Horeb" only 3 times.] to Kadesh Barnea [Kadesh Barnea. Possibly this refers to àAin Qudeis, about 50 mi (80 km) southwest of Beer Sheba, but more likely to àAin Qudeirat, 5 mi (8 km) NW of àAin Qudeis. See R. Cohen, “Did I Excavate Kadesh-Barnea?” BAR 7 (1981): 20-33.] by way of Mount Seir [Mount Seir is synonymous with Edom. "By way of Mount Seir" refers to the route from Horeb that ended up in Edom Cf. CEV "by way of the Mount Seir Road"; TEV "by way of the hill country of Edom."]. When it comes to making an actual material change to the text, the NET Bible® is pretty good about indicating this. Since most of these corrections will be clear in the more literal translations below and within the Hebrew exegesis itself, I will not continue to list every NET Bible® footnote.

NIV, ©2011                             The Command to Leave Horeb

These are the words Moses spoke to all Israel in the wilderness east of the Jordan [Nu 13:29; Dt 4:46]-that is, in the Arabah [ver 7; Dt 2:8; 3:17; Jos 3:16; 8:14; 11:2; Eze 47:8]-opposite Suph, between Paran [Nu 10:12] and Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth and Dizahab. (It takes eleven days to go from Horeb [Ex 3:1] to Kadesh Barnea [Ge 14:7; Dt 2:14; 9:23; Jos 15:3] by the Mount Seir [Nu 24:18] road.) [ver 19].


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           These are the words Moshe spoke to all Isra'el on the far side of the Yarden River, in the desert, in the 'Aravah, across from Suf, between Pa'ran and Tofel, Lavan, Hatzerot and Di-Zahav. It is eleven days' journey from Horev to Kadesh-Barnea by way of Mount Se'ir.

exeGeses companion Bible   RESUME' OF THE SONS OF YISRA EL

These are the words Mosheh worded to all Yisra El

on this side Yarden in the wilderness,

in the plain opposite the reeds,

between Paran and Tophel and Laban

and Hazeroth and Di Zahab

- eleven days from Horeb by the way of mount Seir

to Qadesh Barnea.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               These are the words that Moses addressed to all Israel on the other side of the Jordan. —Through the wilderness, in the Arabah near Suph, between Paran and Tophet, Laban, Hazeroth, and Di-zahab, it is eleven days from Horeb to Kadesh-barnea by the Mount Seir route.— The last portion of these two verses is unclear; compare Deut. 1:19 and Num.33:16–36.

Kaplan Translation                 Introduction

These are the words that Moses spoke to all Israel [Although Moses taught the Israelites many things, most were taught through Aaron and the elders (Eruvim 54b). From here until Deuteronomy 4:49, however, there are presented orations that Moses himself delivered to all Israel (Ramban; Chizzkuni; Adereth Eliahu; Malbim; HaKethav VeHaKabbalah). These orations were stated in the places mentioned in this verse.] on the east bank [Literally, 'far side.'] of the Jordan, in [Or, 'regarding' (Targum; Rashi; Ralbag). Some say that Moses named areas around the Israelite camp after events that had happened to them earlier (Hirsch).] the desert [See Deuteronomy 1:9-14, 1:16,17.] [and] in the Arabah [This is the deep valley running to the north and south of the Dead Sea. Specifically, it usually denotes the valley to the south, leading to the Gulf of Aqaba (see Deuteronomy 2:8; Chizzkuni).], near Suf [Many sources identify this with the Yam Suf, the 'Reed Sea,' the 'Southern Sea,' or the 'Red Sea,' possibly identified here with the Gulf of Aqaba (Targum; Rashi; Saadia; Septuagint). It may also be identified with Sufah in Numbers 21:14.], in the vicinity [Or, literally, 'between.' or, '[and] in the vicinity.'] of Paran [The area to the north of Sinai and west of the Aravah, now known as the wilderness of el-Tih. The reference is most probably to Rithmah (Numbers 33:18), or Kadesh Barnea (Numbers 13:3), the place from which the spies were sent (Rashi). The reference would then be to Deuteronomy 1:20,21, 1:29-33. The context then seems to indicate that the Aravah and Suf were places between Sinai and Kadesh Barnea. It appears that instead of heading directly north, the Israelites took a roundabout way to Kadesh Barnea through the Aravah passing by the Gulf of Aquaba (Suf). Some say that this was when Moses appointed judges in Deuteronomy 1:16,17 (cf. Adereth Eliahu ad loc.). Suf might then have been Kivroth HaTaavah (Numbers 11:34) along the west shore of the Gulf of Aqaba. See note on 'Tofel' below.], Tofel [Some say that Suf was between Paran and Tofel, where Tofel is identified with the Kivroth HaTaavah area (Sifri; Rashi). Others say that it is in the area of Shittim, perhaps where the Tabernacle stood (Ralbag). Others identify it with Marah (Paaneach Razah). The Septuagint notes that Tofel was in the Paran Desert. Some sources identify it with el Tafile, a village about 15 miles southwest of the Dead Sea.], Lavan [Some say that this was the place of Korach's rebellion (Ralbag). Others identify it with the place where there were complaints about the Manna (Sifri; Rabbi; cf. Numbers 11:6). It is also possibly identified with Livnah in Numbers 33:20.], Chatzeroth [See Numbers 11:35, 33:17. Some say that this was the place of Korach's rebellion (Rashi; Lekach Tov; Chizzkuni).] and Di Zahav [A place name (Ibn Ezra; Abarbanel). Some say that it was the area where the Golden Calf was built (Targum; Sifri; Berakhoth 32a; Rashi). Others identify it as the area where the Tabernacle stood (Paaneach Razah). The Septuagint translates it as katachrusea, literally, 'the gold works.' There are a number of possible interpretations regarding these place names: 1. That they are places surrounding the Aravoth Moab where the Israelites were now camped. 2. That they were places along the way, where Moses presented these orations to Israel (the interpretation favored in our translation). 3. That they were places regarding which Moses spoke in his orations.]. [This is in the area] [Following the second interpretation above, all these places were in that area. (cf. Chizzkuni; Abarbanel).] which is an eleven day journey [The distance between Sinai and Kadesh Barnea is actually 150 miles.] from Horeb [(Ramban on Deuteronomy 1:6). This was the area around Sinai (Exodus 17:6, Deuteronomy 1:6, 4:10, cf. Ben Sirah 48:7). Sinai is thus sometimes referred to as 'the mountain of Horeb' (Exodus 33:6). Others, however, say that Horeb was the lower of the two peaks of Sinai (cf. Ibn Ezra on Deuteronomy 1:6). Most early sources identify Mount Sinai with Jebel Musa or Mount Catherine on the southern Sinai peninsula, a five day journey (200 miles) from Egypt, and some 40 miles from the Red Sea (Ma'asoth Binyamin 24; Masa Rabbi Obadiah Bertenoro 3). According to this, Moses had traveled approximately 100 miles along the west coast of the Gulf of Aqaba. There are some difficulties, with this, however, since this 'Mountain of God' seems to have been on a direct route between Midian and Egypt (Exodus 4:27), and not more than a three day journey (some 120 miles) from where the Israelites lived (Exodus 3:18). On the basis of this, it may be conjectured that Mount Sinai was Jebel Ya'llaq (some 32 miles from the northern end of the Gulf of Suez) or Jebel Sinn Bishr (60 miles due east of Bitter Lakes). Obviously, this question is very important in determining the route of the Exodus. The area was called Horeb (Chorebh) because of its dryness (Ibn Ezra). See note on Exodus 3:2.] to Kadesh Barnea [Some say that they were then in Rithma, which was the next stop after Chatzeroth as we see in Numbers 33:18 (Sforno on Numbers12:16). Other sources, however, indicate that they were in Kadesh Barnea, as evident from Numbers 13:26 (Chizzkuni on Numbers 12:16; Lekach Tov on Numbers 13:17). See Numbers 32:8; Deuteronomy 1:19,22, 9:23, Joshua 14:7. However, it appears that Kadesh Barnea is simply another name for Rithmah (Chizzkuni on Numbers 33:16). Kadesh Barnea is not to be confused with the Kadesh to which the Israelites came at the end of the 40 years (Numbers, 20:1; Ramban, Chizzkuni, ad loc.).] by way of the Seir highlands. The Kaplan Translation, particularly in Exodus through Deuteronomy, takes note of historic rabbinic opinions.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           These are the devarim (words) which Moshe spoke unto kol Yisroel on the far side of the Yarden in the midbar, in the Aravah opposite Suf between Paran, and Tophel, and Lavan, and Chatzerot, and Di-Zahav. (There is eleven days' journey from Chorev unto Kadesh-Barnea by way of Mount Seir.).

The Scriptures 1998              These are the words which Mosheh spoke to all Yisraʼĕl beyond the Yardĕn in the wilderness, in the desert plain opposite Suph, between Paran and Tophel, and Laan, and Ḥatsĕroth, and Di Zaha, eleven daysʼ journey from Ḥorĕ by way of Mount Sĕʽir to Qaĕsh Barnĕa.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                These are the words which Moses spoke to all Israel [still] on the [east] side of the Jordan [River] in the wilderness, in the Arabah [the deep valley running north and south from the eastern arm of the Red Sea to beyond the Dead Sea], over near Suph, between Paran and Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth, and Dizahab. It is [only] eleven days' journey from Horeb by the way of Mount Seir to Kadesh-barnea [on Canaan's border; yet Israel took forty years to get beyond it].

English Standard V. – UK       The Command to Leave Horeb

These are the words that Moses spoke to all Israel beyond the Jordan in the wilderness, in the Arabah [ch. 3:17] opposite Suph [[Num. 21:14]], between Paran [1 Sam. 25:1] and Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth, and Dizahab. It is eleven days' journey from Horeb by the way of Mount Seir to Kadesh-barnea [ch. 2:14; 9:23; Num. 13:26; 32:8; 34:4].

The Geneva Bible                  These [be] the words which Moses spake unto all Israel on this side Jordan [In the country of Moab. ] in the wilderness, in the plain [So that the wilderness was between the sea and the plain of Moab. ] over against the Red [sea], between Paran, and Tophel, and Laban, and Hazeroth, and Dizahab. ([There are] eleven days [journey] from Horeb [In Horeb, or Sinai, forty years before the law was given: but because all that were then of age and judgment were now dead, Moses repeats the same to the youth who either then were not born, or had not judgment. ] by the way of mount Seir unto Kadeshbarnea.)

NASB                                     Israel's History after the Exodus

These are the words which Moses spoke to all Israel across the Jordan [Deut 4:46] in the wilderness, in the Arabah [Deut 2:8] opposite Suph [Perhaps Red Sea], between Paran and Tophel and Laban and Hazeroth and Dizahab. It is eleven days' journey from Horeb [Ex 3:1; 17:6] by the way of Mount Seir [Gen 32:3] to Kadesh-barnea [Num 13:26; 32:8; Deut 9:23].

New King James Version       The Previous Command to Enter Canaan

These are the words which Moses spoke to all Israel on this side of the Jordan in the wilderness, in the plain[a] opposite Suph,[b] between Paran, Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth, and Dizahab. It is eleven days' journey from Horeb by way of Mount Seir to Kadesh Barnea.

Syndein/Thieme                     These be the words/'doctrinal communications' {dabar} which Moses spoke unto all Israel on this side of the Jordan {River} in the desert, in the plain over against the Red sea, between Paran, and Tophel, and Laban, and Hazeroth, and Dizahab. (there are eleven days' journey from Horeb by the way of mount Seir unto Kadeshbarnea.).

Third Millennium Bible            These are the words which Moses spoke unto all Israel on this side of the Jordan in the wilderness, in the plain opposite the Red Sea, between Paran, and Tophel, and Laban, and Hazeroth, and Dizahab. (There are eleven days' journey from Horeb by the way of Mount Seir unto Kadeshbarnea.)

A Voice in the Wilderness      These are the words which Moses spoke to all Israel on this side of the Jordan in the wilderness, in the plain opposite Suph, between Paran, Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth, and Dizahab. (It takes eleven days to get from Horeb by way of Mount Seir to Kadesh Barnea.).

Webster’s Bible Translation  These [are] the words which Moses spoke to all Israel on the east side of Jordan in the wilderness, in the plain over against Suf, between Paran, and Tophel, and Laban, and Hazeroth, and Dizahab. ([There are] eleven days [journey] from Horeb by the way of mount Seir to Kadesh-barnea.)

Young’s Updated LT             These are the words which Moses has spoken unto all Israel, beyond the Jordan, in the wilderness, in the plain over-against Suph, between Paran and Tophel, and Laban, and Hazeroth, and Di-Zahab; eleven days from Horeb, the way of mount Seir, unto Kadesh-Barnea.

 

The gist of this verse:          These first few verses set up this book for Moses’ final speeches to his people. This tells where Moses and the people are and how far they are from Mount Horeb (Mount Sinai).


The first five verses of Deut. 1 just give us a summary of time and place; most of this book will be Moses speaking to the people, which begins in v. 6 (but there are important things to know before we get there).


Deuteronomy 1:1a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾêlleh (אֵלֶּה) [pronounced ALE-leh]

these, these things

demonstrative plural adjective (often the verb to be is implied)

Strong's #428 BDB #41

debârîym (דְּבָרִים) [pronounced dawb-vawr-EEM]

words, sayings, doctrines, commands; things, matters, reports

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong's #1697 BDB #182

The book of Deuteronomy is sometimes called Elleh hadebarim after these first two words.

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun; sometimes the verb to be is implied

Strong's #834 BDB #81

dâbar (דָּבַר) [pronounced dawb-VAHR]

to speak, to talk [and back with action], to give an opinion, to expound, to make a formal speech, to speak out, to promise, to propose, to speak kindly of, to declare, to proclaim, to announce

3rd person masculine singular, Piel imperfect

Strong’s #1696 BDB #180

The Piel stem is intensive, making dâbar is stronger. It can carry with it the idea of providing guidance and direction, if not a set of mandates (and this would be determined by context). The kind of intensification is determined by context. The Piel may call for talk, backed with action; give your opinion; expound; make a formal speech; speak out; talk it around, to give a somber and tragic report.

Mosheh (מֹשֶה) [pronounced moh-SHEH]

to draw out [of the water] and is transliterated Moses

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #4872 BDB #602

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

Yiserâʾêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

God prevails; contender; soldier of God; transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 & #3479 BDB #975

With a voluntative, cohortative or jussive, the wâw conjunction means that, so that. It expresses intention. The wâw conjunction can express informal inference or consequence (so, then, therefore); especially at the beginning of a speech. The wâw conjunction can connect alternative cases or contrasting ideas and be properly rendered or, but, yet. The wâw conjunction can also be rendered for.


Translation: These [are] the words which Moses spoke to Israel... The book of Deuteronomy is sometimes called Elleh hadebarim after these first two words. Translated, These [are] the words.


This actually represents quite a change, and this is key in understanding the book of Deuteronomy. Prior to this, for most of the 40 years Moses was with the children of Israel in the desert, he was very careful to separate narrative from the words of God and from his own words. When he spoke, it was from Moses; when God spoke, it was from God. However, at this point, Moses speaks with great authority; and traditionally, all have accepted his authority in this book as the words of God. Yet in the book of Deuteronomy, there is no longer a clear-cut distinguishing between what comes from Moses and what came from God. In other words, in all respects, the words of Moses become the word of God.


Moses is said to speak to Israel. There are about 2 million people and this is a very specific group of people. When the people of Israel (those who were descended from Jacob), every one of them walked out of Egypt, having been slaves to the Egyptians. However, these were actually two distinct groups of Jews: the parents, whom I have called Gen X (those who left Egypt at age 20 and above) and the generation of promise, those who were under age 20 when they left Egypt. Gen X was supposed to go into the land of Canaan and take it. They were unable to because of fear.


Besides this, they thwarted God’s will at every turn. If God told them to jump, then they all sat down. Over and over again, after agreeing to obey God, they disobeyed Him. God killed them all in the desert—every last one of them, with the exception of Moses, Joshua and Caleb. These are the only men to survive from Gen X (Moses is actually from the generation before them).


God wants to take this new generation into the land of Canaan, and they will take the land, under God’s direction.


Deuteronomy 1:1b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, upon, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʿêber (עֵבֶר) [pronounced ĢAYB-ver]

region beyond [across]; region on the other side [of a valley, stream, sea]; the opposite region [side]; beyond, side

masculine singular construct

Strong's #5676 BDB #719

The bêyth preposition with the masculine noun ʿêber literally mean in the opposite region, in the opposite side; together, they often act as the single preposition beyond, on the other side of.

Yâredên (יָרְדֵן) [pronounced yare-DAYN]

transliterated Jordan

proper noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3383 BDB #434

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, upon, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

midebâr (מִדְבָר) [pronounced mide-BAWR]

wilderness, unpopulated wilderness, desert wilderness; mouth

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4057 BDB #184


Translation: ...in the region beyond the Jordan, in the wilderness,... Moses is a very precise person. He got that as a result of being raised to rule over Egypt; and from his experience as a judge. As a judge, everything has to be very precise and in accordance with set norms and standards.


Moses is at Jordan River, across from the city of Jericho where Joshua will invade in a month or so. The phrase, beyond the Jordan, refers to the east side of the Jordan (Deut. 3:20, 25). The term wilderness is a general term, referring to the uninhabited areas that the Jews transversed. We often see this word translated desert, and much of that is because the way the Land of Promise looks today. However, it was much more overgrown and watered in the time of Moses and Joshua.


At this point in time, these people are all east of the Jordan. We followed their movement along the east side of the Dead Sea traveling north along the King’s Highway throughout much of the book of Numbers.


Moses failed at the very end. God gave him some very specific instructions, and Moses did not follow these instructions. At the first, there was no water, and the people complained, Moses was to strike the rock one time. After striking the rock one time, from the it would flow waters of life. Moses obeyed these instructions. This is an illustration of Jesus being struck for our sins, one time; and from Him flow the waters of life. Jesus told the woman at the well, "Everyone who drinks of this water will be thirsty again, but whoever drinks of the water that I will give him will never be thirsty again. The water that I will give him will become in him a spring of water welling up to eternal life." (John 4:13–14; ESV) See also John 7:37–38. And in both the Old and New Testaments, Jesus is the Rock of God. There is none holy like the Lord; there is none besides You; there is no rock like our God (1Sam. 2:2; ESV capitalized). The Lord is my rock and my fortress and my deliverer (2Sam. 22:2; ESV) As it stands written, "Behold, I place in Zion a Stone-of-stumbling, and a Rock-of-offense, and everyone believing on Him will not be shamed." (Rom. 9:33; Isa. 28:16 8:14). Paul also testified in 1Cor. 10:4 And all drank the same spiritual drink; for they drank of the spiritual rock following, and that Rock was Christ. He was referring back to those who drank from this rock, from which flowed living waters. In summary, this first no-water situation was a type. What God told Moses to do and what happened all looked ahead to the antitype—to Jesus on the cross dying for our sins, having been struck by God the Father. For further information, see the Doctrine of Typology (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).


A second no-water situation occurs with the new generation of Israelites. God tells Moses to speak to the rock so that living waters would flow from it. However, Moses does more than simply speak to the rock. He is quite enraged at this generation, after all of the miracles that they have seen, and he strikes the rock twice. That was not what God wanted him to do. To receive the living waters from Jesus Christ we need only speak to Him. He cannot be crucified a second time. Because Moses messtup this type, God would not allow him to cross over the Jordan and to lead the people into the land of Canaan to take it.


So that there is no misunderstanding, Moses simply understood that he disobeyed God’s explicit instructions; and this is how this was understood by everyone during Old Testament times. He did not fully understand types and antitypes. Moses had a slight clue, as he spoke of God raising up a prophet like himself (referring to the Messiah). Moses understood that God would raise up a Messiah, and that there were similarities between himself and this Messiah. However, Moses did not know anything more than this. Today, in the Church Age, it is clear Who the Rock was, and what it stood for, and what the living waters were. Today, we understand what the problem was, God was setting up a type of Christ, and Moses messed that up.


Despite this mistake, Moses had a quite few things to say to the people before he died and before they crossed over into Canaan. That is what the book of Deuteronomy is all about—it is a series of several sermons given by Moses to the people of Israel.


That Moses made this mistake will be touched upon in this chapter, but there will be no details coming from the mouth of Moses. (1) He saw it only as a matter of disobedience and (2) Moses was probably ashamed that he disobeyed God in this way.


Deuteronomy 1:1c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, upon, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʿĂrâbâh (or, ʿărâbâh) (עֲרָבָה) [pronounced guh-rawb-VAW]

plain; arid, sterile region; a desert; transliterated Arabah with the definite article

sometimes a proper noun; feminine singular noun; with the definite article

Strong’s #6160 BDB #787

With the definite article, ʿărâbâh often refers to the valley which runs from the Sea of Chinnereth (the Sea of Galilee) down to the Gulf of Aqaba.

mûwl (מוּול) [pronounced mool]

in front of, opposite

preposition

Strong's #4136 BDB #557

Çûwph (סוּף) [pronounced soof]

reed, rush, sea weed; transliterated Cuph, Suph

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #5489 BDB #693

Considered to be the weedy sea, and therefore referring to the Arabian Gulf.


Translation: ...in the Arabah opposite Suph... First of all, we know where we are. Regardless of what Moses is telling us here, we know that we are east of the Jordan River, over which Joshua will eventually cross. Therefore, we should be able to place these areas based upon knowing where we are.


deut1_1.jpg

Deuteronomy 1:1 (graphic). Image from the Daily Bible Plan, accessed November 7, 2013.


The Arabah takes in a huge valley which runs all the way from the Sea of Chinnereth (the Sea of Galilee) down to the Gulf of Aqaba. It would take in the Jordan River and the Dead Sea. It is the valley around these water formations.


The name Arabah is retained in the name Wady el- Arabah. These other areas might describe the border of Arabah.


The Doctrine of the Arabah (HTML) (PDF) will provide a great deal more information about this land and where it occurs in Scripture.


Relief map of the Arabah from Seek the Old Paths. The map on the right shows the southern portion of the Arabah, not showing the Gulf of Aqaba, the Jordan River, or the Sea of Chinnereth. Very often, Arabah refers to just the southern portion of this valley, that portion which is below the Dead Sea.

arabah.jpg

We have never heard of Suph before, and it occurs nowhere else in the Bible. The word means reeds and it might be the area of the Dead Sea which extends southward or the gulf of Aqaba extending northward. In either case, it is south of where Moses and the children of Israel are right now. Another option is that there are reeds off the Jericho River at that place.

 

Regarding Suph, ISBE offered a few of the common theories, and then concluded: No identification is possible. Footnote


The Arabah is a fairly spread out area. When Moses says that they are in the Arabah opposite Suph, that tells us that we are at a very particular part of the Arabah (we know this to be a little north of the Dead Sea). In Moses’ time, they understood where the Arabah and Suph were, and where Moses was when he said they were in the Arabah opposite Suph.

 

Barnes tackles this location as well: This could not have been the Red Sea, not only because the word yam, “sea,” is not joined with it as usual, but because they were now east of Jordan, and farther from the Red Sea than ever. It seems to be the same which is called Suphah in Num. 21:14; which must necessarily signify some place in or adjoining to the plains of Moab, and not far from the Jordan and Arnon. Ptolemy mentions a people called Sophonites that dwelt in Arabia Petrea, who may have taken their name from this place. Footnote


Suph appears to be a much smaller location than the Arabah, so it is not the Arabah which is opposite Suph, but Moses and the Israelites which are opposite Suph. So, it is very likely that the people of Israel are not far from Suph, and that it is very likely the Suphah named in Num. 21:14, which is not far from Arnon. This understanding does not cause us any problems with other geographical references.


Deuteronomy 1:1d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

bêyn (בֵּין) [pronounced bane]

in the midst of, between, among; when found twice, it means between

preposition

Strong's #996 BDB #107

Pâʾrân (פָּארָן) [pronounced paw-RAWN]

(possibly) boughs; abounding in foliage [or caverns]; and is transliterated Paran

proper noun/location

Strong’s #6290 BDB #803

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

bêyn (בֵּין) [pronounced bane]

in the midst of, between, among; when found twice, it means between

preposition

Strong's #996 BDB #107

Tôphel (תֹּפֶל) [pronounced TOH-fehl]

white; tasteless, unseasoned; whitewashed; transliterated Tophel

proper singular noun/location

Strong’s #8603 BDB #1074

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Lâbân (לָבָן) [pronounced lawb-VAWN]

white; shining; gentle; brittle; and is transliterated Laban

masculine singular proper noun; location

Strong’s #3838 BDB #526

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Chătsêrôwth (חֲצֵרוֹת) [pronounced khats-ay-ROWTH]

settlement, villages; palaces transliterated Hazeroth; Chazeroth

proper singular noun/location

Strong’s #2698 BDB #348

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Dîy-zâhâb (דִּי־זָהָב) [pronounced dee-zaw-HAWBV]

enough gold, where much gold is; and is transliterated Dizahab

proper singular noun location

Strong’s #1774 BDB #191

I added the bar in the name; that is not found in the Hebrew.


Translation: ...and in between Paran and Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth and Di-zahab. Paran is a roughly defined area north-northwest of the Gulf of Aqaba and Hazeroth, a stopping point, was along the Gulf of Aqaba. The city or area of Laban is mentioned only here and some think it might refer to Libnah, although that would be possibly too far north. Tophel is sometimes identified with Tafile, which is fifteen miles southeast of the Dead Sea. I could not even find De-Zahab or Zahab in my Bible dictionaries or encyclopedias. The point of this geography is that these areas are pretty well spread out, however, they likely are the bordering area for Arabah.


Laban, as a city, occurs only here. Tophel and Di-zahab only occur here. Laban is possibly Libnah found in Num. 33:20. However, we cannot today clearly identify any of these places, apart from Paran and Hazeroth. Whereas, for many years it is possible that the people of Israel knew these places; at this point and time, we do not. All we know is, if we put a dot where we know Moses and company to be, then these cities or places would be like the points of a star around that point.

 

Barnes identifies the location of these places with great confidence: “Suph” is either the pass Es Sufah near Ain–el–Weibeh (Num. 13:26 note), or the name of the alluvial district (the Num. 21:14 note). Tophel is identified with Tufileh, the Tafyle of Burckhardt, still a considerable place – some little distance southeast of the Dead Sea. Paran is probably “Mount Paran” Deut. 33:2; or a city of the same name near the mountain. Compare Gen. 14:6. Laban is generally identified with Libnah Num. 33:20, and Hazeroth with Ain Hadherah (Num. 11:34 note); but the position of Dizahab is uncertain. Footnote


Hazeroth is also found in Num. 11:35 33:17–18, and it is one of the places where the children of Israel traveled. All of the maps I have viewed place Hazeroth way down in the southern area next to the Gulf of Aqaba, which is far, far south of where Moses and the children of Israel are. So these places could be setting up very spread out places, within which is Moses and the Israelites.


This Map of Hazeroth comes from Bibleatlas.org (accessed September 29, 2013). You see how it is located far into the south near the Gulf of Aqaba. The wilderness of Paran is located above Hazeroth.

deuteronomy01.gif

 

BDB tells us that Paran usually refers to a wilderness area bounded on the north by Palestine, on the west by the wilderness of Etham, on the south by the desert of Sinai, and on the east by the valley of Arabah. Footnote


More simply the desert-wilderness of Paran is simply the land between Mount Sinai and Kadesh-barnea.


Several exegetes say that the designations of Paran and Hazeroth as we understand them must be incorrect, as they are quite far from where Moses is. If the cities or places that Moses is naming are clumped together closely, that would certainly be true. However, Moses may be giving some places which are spread apart, and that he and the children of Israel are in between those places. There is no reason to think that Moses can see the various places simply by looking in a different direction.


Now, if Laban is taken to refer to the area where Laban lived, also quite a distance from there (in Haran near the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers), then Moses is taking in a very wide view of this area. As a former pharaoh in training, Moses would have received extensive training in law, geography and history. He would have had a map of the Middle East in his head, so that he could hover above it and take in this grand area (something which most people would have not had the training to do).


v. 1 reads: These are the words which Moses spoke to all Israel beyond the Jordan; in the wilderness, in the Arabah, opposite to Suph, between Paran and Tophel, and Laban and Hazeroth, and Dizahab;... (Green’s literal translation) Daniel Whedon does a nice summary of the places named above.

Whedon Summarizes the Geographical Places Named

Place

Whedon’s Description

On this side Jordan

The Hebrew expression which is used here is in other places translated beyond Jordan; and it was unquestionably employed as a geographical term for the region east of the Jordan, which in the time of our Saviour was called Perea. The term does not indicate the location of the writer, whether he lived on the east or west side of the river. In this connexion it is equivalent to the expression before they crossed the Jordan.

In the wilderness

That region north of the Sinaitic peninsula, extending to the Mediterranean Sea and the mountains of Judah on the north, and from the isthmus of Suez to the Arabah. It bears at the present time the name Badut et Tih, literally signifying the "Desert of the Wandering."

In the plain

The Hebrew word here translated plain is used as a proper name - in the Arabah. The broad valley which extends from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Akabah, a distance of about a hundred miles, is now called el Arabah.

Over against the Red sea

Rather, over against Sufah. Our version adds, improperly, we think, the word sea. Knobel supposes the pass Sufah is meant. It was probably near Ain el Weibeh, not far from the southern border of Palestine.

Between Paran, and Tophel

In Numbers 10:12, we read: "The children of Israel took their journeys out of the wilderness of Sinai, and the cloud rested in the wilderness of Paran." It is generally held that the wilderness of Paran comprised the whole of the desert of et Tih, and that Mount Paran was the southernmost portion of the mountain plateau in the northeast part of it. Paran was associated with remembrances of Jehovah's manifestations to his people: "He shined forth from Mount Paran." Deuteronomy 33:2. So the prophet Habakkuk, in his sublime ode, Habakkuk 3:3 : "God came from Teman, and the Holy One from Mount Paran."

Tophel

This is identified with the modern Tufileh, located in the mountains of Edom, southeast of the Dead Sea. It is surrounded with groves of fruit trees, which are abundantly watered by numerous fountains. The inhabitants furnish supplies to the caravans. It is thought that this is the place where the Israelites purchased food of the Edomites. Deuteronomy 2:29.

Laban

Thought to be the same as Libnah. Numbers 33:20. "It may, perhaps, have been the place referred to in Numbers 16, where the rebellion of the company of Korah occurred." - Keil.

Hazeroth

Literally, enclosures. It may be the place mentioned in Numbers 11:35, where Aaron and Miriam spake against Moses, and where Miriam became leprous. Numbers 12:10. "We may without difficulty identify Hazeroth with Ain Hudherah, not only in the Semitic orthography of the name, but also in being situated exactly a day's journey from Erweis el Eberrig." - Desert of the Exodus. Erweis el Eberrig has been identified with Kibroth-hattaavah, or "graves of lust." Numbers 11:34.

Dizahab

This name means a place of gold. Robinson thought it might be Dahab, a place on a tongue of land on the west coast of the Gulf of Akabah. The sense of the passage is, that what has been narrated in the preceding books Moses spoke to the people before they crossed the Jordan, while they were in the Desert of Wandering, and in the Arabah opposite Sufah, as they journeyed between Paran and Tophel, and when they were at Libnah and at Hazeroth and at Dizahab. The discourses that are to follow were spoken "in the plains of Moab, by Jordan, near Jericho."

From http://www.studylight.org/com/whe/view.cgi?bk=4&ch=1 accessed November 5, 2013.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


In any case, although the names and locations of these places may cause us some difficulty, we can rest assured, based upon his training, that Moses knew the places of which he spoke. In fact, this is our takeaway from v. 1. By all of these places named by Moses, it is quite clear that he is not lost or even slightly confused as to where he is. He knows exactly where he is and he has always known exactly where he is. His movement or lack of same with Israel was never based upon confusion or not knowing exactly where to go; he stayed in a few specific places simply because that was God’s geographical will for the people of Israel. They were not just wandering about trying to find the Land of Promise. Moses knew every minute of the day exactly where that land is.


This tells us that Moses understood maps, he understood where he was, and that he had a map of his surroundings in his brain. He learned this area probably when being brought up to become pharaoh in the palace of the pharaoh. Obviously, he would have learned geography and law; he would have been completely untrained to become the pharaoh had he not learned those two topics.

 

J. Vernon McGee gives the brief description of the promised land, including Jerusalem, which he could see from Mount Nebo: What I saw did not look like a promised land at all. It looked like a total waste, and this reveals what has happened to that land down through the centuries. When Moses looked at it, I think he was seeing a green and a good land. Today it is a desert. It looks like the desert area of California and Arizona. Footnote


So far, v. 1 reads: These [are] the words which Moses spoke to Israel in the region beyond the Jordan, in the wilderness, in the Arabah opposite Suph and in between Paran and Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth and Di-zahab.

 

Kretzmann: The geographic reference at this point recalls the entire journey and offers a picture of the entire country traversed, as it extended from the Red Sea to the northern boundary of the Wilderness of Paran, and from there to the western boundary of Edom and Moab. Footnote


Deuteronomy 1:2a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾechâd (אֶחָד) [pronounced eh-KHAWD]

one, first, certain, only; each, every; but it can also mean a composite unity; possibly particular; anyone

numeral adjective

Strong's #259 BDB #25

ʿâsâr (עָשָׂה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWR]

ten; –teen [resulting in numbers 11–19]

masculine/feminine singular noun

Strong’s #6240 BDB #797

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article); possibly immediately

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

Chôrêb (חֹרֵב) [pronounced khoh-REBV]

waste, desert and is transliterated Horeb

proper noun

Strong’s #2722 BDB #352


Translation: ...[It takes] eleven days [to go] from Horeb,... The journey from Mount Sinai (or, Horeb) to Kadesh-barnea, would be eleven days. It was normal in the ancient world to assign a time frame to this or that trip, allowing 20 miles a day if traveling on foot; 30 miles a day if traveling by camel; and 25 miles in a day if traveling by caravan. Footnote


There is a certain amount of irony exhibited by the author here; from Mount Sinai, to enter into the land, for the average person, would have been an eleven day journey. This stands in contrast to the mention of the 40th year in the next verse. Israel took over thirty-eight years to complete this same journey. Again, it has nothing to do with being lost, as Moses clearly knew exactly where he was and where everything else was around him. Moses simply kept the children of Israel within God’s geographical will.


exodus_mount_horeb.jpg

This Map of Horeb comes from Bible-history.com (accessed September 29, 2013). Mount Horeb is the same as Mount Sinai, and Moses seems to be suggesting here that, on a forced march, he could have taken these Jews from Mount Horeb to where he stands before them.


Horeb means desert.


There are around twenty stops between the wilderness of Sinai and Kadesh-barnea listed in Num. 33:15–36. ZPEB associates Horeb (the Mount of God in Ex. 3:1) with Mount Sinai, which makes sense because the golden calf incident, which occurred when Moses was receiving the Law, was at the foot of Mount Sinai (Ex. 32 Psalm 106:19). However, Horeb is separate from Mount Sinai in Ex. 17:6 in Rephidim, which is one stop away from Mount Sinai (Ex. 17:1–17 Num. 33:14–15). This obviously causes us some problems. Horeb is thought to be synonymous with Mount Sinai, but then separated from Mount Sinai. What appears to be the case is, Mount Horeb could simply be a prominent mountain (range) on the Sinai Peninsula. Or, Horeb is the general area (or mountain range) and Mount Sinai is a particular mountain.


The estimates are, the distance between Mount Horeb (Sinai) and where they are is 140–150 miles, which corresponds nicely to an 11 day march. This tells us that Moses knows and knew that, if he wanted to lead the children of Israel to this entry into the land of promise, he could have done it in 11 days. Now, the people under his command? They probably had no idea as to where they were or where they were going. But that was not true of Moses. He knew where he was, he knew where he was going; but he had to allow God to lead him.


This is about a 140–150 mile march, which would therefore require a 13–14 mile per day pace, which is not a difficult march. Now, since it does not appear that Moses doubled-back and took the children of Israel back to Mount Sinai, Moses is indicating here that he knows where he is and how long it would have taken him to lead the children of Israel to where they are now. Again, consider Moses’ background. He did not get lost in the desert. He was not confused and led the people of Israel in circles (or whatever). Moses led the children of Israel as he did because those were God’s directions. Once Gen X refused to cross over and go to war against the people of Canaan, so that meant they could not progress into the land until the generation died in the desert (which they all did). There was a point in time for them to march into the land and take it, and they refused. But now Moses stands before a new generation, and that generation will go into the Land of Promise.

 

Peter Pett: The indication of the length of journey from Horeb to Kadesh-barnea of eleven days, contrasts strongly with the fact that it was now the fortieth year and they were still not yet in the land. What then had caused the delay? The reason for it will shortly be brought out. Footnote

 

L. M. Grant: Thus this Scripture emphasizes that if Israel had been obedient to the Lord they might have entered the land only 11 days after leaving Mount Horeb, but because of disobedience the time was lengthened to about 40 years. Moses spoke to them here just one month before the forty years was complete (v.3). This tells believers today that our wilderness history does not necessarily have to be long, but because of our natural selfish propensities it is necessary for God to put us through the trial of hard circumstances in order to learn that obedience is the only way of blessing. Footnote In that 40 years, some died the sin unto death; and others, who negative volition was not as pronounced, died a natural death.


Deuteronomy 1:2b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

dereke (דֶּרֶך׃) [pronounced DEH-reke]

way, distance, road, path; journey, course; direction, towards; manner, habit, way [of life]; of moral character

masculine singular construct

Strong's #1870 BDB #202

har (הַר) [pronounced har]

hill; mountain, mount; hill-country, a mountainous area, mountain region

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #2022 (and #2042) BDB #249

Sêʿîyr (שֵׂעִיר) [pronounced say-ĢEER]

hairy, shaggy; transliterated Seir

masculine singular, proper noun

Strong’s #8165 BDB #973

ʿad (עַד) [pronounced ģahd]

as far as, even to, up to, until

preposition of duration or of limits

Strong’s #5704 BDB #723

Qâdêsh (שקָדֵ) [pronounced kaw-DAYSH]

sacred, holy, set apart; transliterated Kadesh

proper noun; location

Strong’s #6946 and #6947 BDB #873

Barenêaʿ (בַּרְנֵעַ) [pronounced bahr-NAY-aģ]

desert of a fugitive; transliterated Barnea

proper noun; location

Strong’s #6947 BDB #873

Together, they mean holy place in the desert of wandering; and they are transliterated Kadesh-barnea; Kadesh of [the] Wilderness of Wandering.


Translation:... [along the] way of Mount Seir, [to get] to Kadesh-barnea. Mount Seir is in Edom, where the descendants of Esau, Jacob's twin brother, lived. This places the Jews directly north of the Gulf of Aqaba (map to follow), along which the Israelites traveled toward the Land of Promise. Kadesh-barnea was their last stop prior to sending the spies into the land. This short travelogue will be the time period which Moses speaks of in this chapter, which begins in Num. 10:11, the date being 2/20/02 ae (After the Exodus) and ends with Num. 14:45, perhaps a few months later (with the exception of Moses choosing men to judge under him, which goes back to Ex. 18, not too much earlier than 2/20/02 ae).


Moses is letting us know the route which he could have taken. He could have moved up from Mount Horeb along a route along Mount Seir, up to Kadesh-barnea. This route along Mount Seir (which is directly south of the southern tip of the Dead Sea), would have brought them close to Kadesh-barnea.


As an aside, when we read something like along the route [or, way] of Mount Seir, this refers to a commonly traveled road that goes to Mount Seir, just as the Way of the Red Sea simply refers to a road that would eventually take you to the Red Sea. It does not mean that is the direction in which you are going; it simply has this name, and that is how the people of that time understood it. We have a road here called Aldine Westfield; and it simply connects those two areas. However, a person may not get onto Aldine Westfield in order to go to Aldine or to go to Westfield.


If they were going to travel to where they are now, then they would have circled around Mount Seir, first going north and then veering eastward taking caravans to the east side of the Jordan and up the King’s Highway. Again, because of his training, Moses knew all of the trading routes. He knew how to get from point A to point B. He knew where all of these routes traveled to. Had they run into a trading caravan, Moses could have determined where that caravan had been and where it was going to.


deuteronomy011.gif

Map of the Way of Mount Seir, from jesuswalk.com (accessed September 29, 2013). What Moses appears to be taking into consideration is the route that the Jews originally followed. They were going to up through southern Judah, which meant that they would not take the King’s Highway starting at Zion-geber, but they would follow the red path up to Kadesh-barnea (which is placed in several locations according to the maps which I have looked at). This route would take us around Mount Seir, which is the land of Edom (where Esau and his descendants lived).


I have always been a map-lover; and often when I go to a place that I have never been, I like having a map of that place in my head, where I know what is north or east; and what the major roadways are. Given Moses’ language in this book, he had a map of all the area in his own mind.


V. 2 reads: It takes eleven days to go from Horeb, along the road around Mount Seir, to get to Kadesh-barnea. I believe was Moses is doing here is essentially documenting a path and a time period over which Israel could have gone from Mount Sinai on up where he stands right now, north of Moab. He is not bragging or showing off; he is simply indicating a route and a reasonable time frame.


Application: No doubt, you have made some mistakes in your life and this or that blessing was put on hold because of your mistakes. You are not necessarily being punished (although that is a possibility), but you lack the capacity to enjoy the blessings which God has for you. Therefore, God puts these blessings on hold until you reach the point where you can appreciate them.


The people of Israel could have gone right into the land. It would have taken them 11 days to stand where they stand right now. But, instead, it has taken them 40 years. They refused to get with God’s program, and, as a result, their great blessing was set aside for those 40 years.


Here was God’s will for the people: He wanted to lead them out of Egypt, into the land of Canaan; have them take the land of Canaan as their own, and settle into this land—a people who were once slaves now, 10–20 years later, living in their own homes looking out upon their own orchard, living in peace and prosperity. This could have been their future. Living for 40 years out in the desert is their choice.


As Moses would later say to the people: “So I spoke to you, yet you did not listen to me; you defied the clear direction of Yehowah and you showed arrogance, and you ascended to the hill-country [when God told you not to].” (Deut. 1:43). And Jesus spoke to Israel saying, "Yerushalayim! Yerushalayim! You kill the prophets! You stone those who are sent to you! How often I wanted to gather your children, just as a hen gathers her chickens under her wings, but you refused!” (Matt. 23:37; CJB). "For forty years I loathed that generation, And said they are a people who err in their heart [or, they go astray in their thinking], And they do not know My ways.” (Psalm 95:10: NASB). And with whom was He angry for forty years? Was it not with those who sinned, whose bodies fell in the wilderness? (Heb. 3:7). Therefore, even as the Holy Spirit says, "Today if you will hear his voice, Don't harden your hearts, as in the provocation, Like as in the day of the trial in the wilderness, Where your fathers continually tested Me, even though they saw My works for forty years. Therefore I was displeased with that generation, And said, 'They always err in their heart, But they didn't know my ways;' As I swore in my wrath, 'They will not enter into my rest.' " Beware, brothers, so that no one of you has an evil heart of unbelief, and fall away from the living God. (Heb. 3:7–12). These words are not just for believers back in the time of Moses and then later in the first century a.d.


Application: We all have a set time on this earth as believers. We might live to age 60 and we might live to age 80. But we are always moving toward the end of our lives. God has blessings for us here on earth, and we can grab those blessings if we choose to, but that involves being in the plan and will of God. We get into God’s plan first by believing in Jesus Christ; and then by spiritual growth. If we choose not to do this, then we are like Gen X, who rejected God’s will for their lives. They could have gone into the land and taken it, but they chose not to. For that reason, they will die off in the desert. If that describes your spiritual life, living in a desert, yet you seem to be so close to great blessings, then perhaps it is your own damn fault.


The entire first two verses read: Moses spoke the following words while he was east of the Jordan, in the wilderness, in the Arabah which is opposite Suph and in between Paran, Tophel, Laban, Hzeroth and Di-zahab. It takes eleven days to go from Horeb, along the road around Mount Seir, to get to Kadesh-barnea.

Summary of Deuteronomy 1:1–2

1.      These will be the final sermons of Moses. He will remain east of the Jordan and he will die there.

2.      Over this 40 years in the desert, the first generation of adults, Gen X, has died out, and a new generation, the generation of promise, has taken their place. Moses is speaking to this new generation.

3.      The only ones who remain from Gen X are Caleb and Joshua.

4.      The children of Israel could have made this trip in 11 days, from Horeb to Kadesh-barnea. It is their negative volition which kept them from going into the land and taking it.

5.      Originally, the people were to leave Horeb (Mount Sinai) and go north into what would become southern Judah and take the land. Because the people were unwilling, they spent a total 40 years in the desert.

6.      This new generation has traveled up along the eastern border of the Dead Sea, and now they stand poised to cross over the Jordan, to come into the Land of Promise through the middle section from the east.

7.      Joshua will lead them into the Land of Promise, and he will replace Moses.

Application: All leaders will die and all leaders will be replaced. The key to the failure of Gen X was the character of the people, not the leadership of Moses.

Application: Leaders are often a reflection of the people that they lead. Personally, I am less than happy with President Obama; but when there are millions of people who think they simply deserve to take from someone else’s work, or they don’t know where money comes from, or they feel like everyone ought to give them a free ride, a society like that is degenerate, and changing the leadership will not change this degeneracy. Therefore, the key is not changing Obama, the key is the population of the United States.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


These first two verses tie the book of Deuteronomy to the rest of the Pentateuch. If we leave out the areas listed, then we have The sermons of Moses to the people up to the eleventh month of the fortieth year. Footnote These words are the title for the book of Deuteronomy.


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And he is in the fortieth year in one+ten month in a first to a month spoke Moses unto sons of Israel as all that had commanded Yehowah him unto them after his defeating Sihon king of the Amorite who lives in Heshbon and Og a king of the Bashan who lives in Ashtaroth in Edrei, in a region beyond the Jordan in a land of Moab had undertaken Moses he made clear the law the this, to say,...

Deuteronomy

1:3–5

And it is in the fortieth year in the eleventh month at the first of the month [when] Moses spoke to the sons of Israel according to all that Yehowah had commanded him concerning them after he defeated Sihon, the king of the Amorites (who lived in Heshbon) and Og, the king of Bashan (who lived in Ashtaroth in Edrei in the region beyond the Jordan in the land of Moab). Moses began to clarify [and explain] the law [of God], saying,...

And it came about in the 11th month of the 40th year, on the first day of the month that Moses spoke to the sons of Israel according to all that Jehovah had commanded him after he defeated Sihon and Og (Sihon was the king of the Amorites who lived in Heshbon and Og was the king of Bashan who lived east of the Jordan in the land of Moab). Moses, therefore, began to clarify and re-explain this law of God, saying,...


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And it was at the end of forty years, in the eleventh month, the month of Shebat, on the first of the month, that Mosheh spake with the sons of Israel according to all that the Lord had given him commandment for them.

After He had smitten Sihon king of the Amorites, who dwelt in Heshbon, and Og the king of Mathnan, who dwelt at Astarvata in Edrehath, beyond Jordan, in the land of Moab, began Mosheh to speak the words of this law, saying: The Lord our God spake with us (and not I, of my own mind) in Horeb, saying:...

Latin Vulgate                          In the fortieth year, the eleventh month, the first day of the month, Moses spoke to the children of Israel all that the Lord had commanded him to say to them After that he had slain Sehon king of the Amorrhites, who dwelt in Hesebon: and Og king of Basan who abode in Astaroth, and in Edrai, Beyond the Jordan in the land of Moab. And Moses began to expound the law, and to say:...

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And he is in the fortieth year in one+ten month in a first to a month spoke Moses unto sons of Israel as all that had commanded Yehowah him unto them after his defeating Sihon king of the Amorite who lives in Heshbon and Og a king of the Bashan who lives in Ashtaroth in Edrei, in a region beyond the Jordan in a land of Moab had undertaken Moses he made clear the law the this, to say,...

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And it came to pass in the fortieth year, in the eleventh month, on the first day of the month, that Moses spoke to the children of Israel according to all that the LORD had given him in commandment concerning them; After he had slain Sihon the king of the Amorites, who dwelt in Heshbon, and Og the king of Mathnin, who dwelt in Astaroth and in Erdei, Beyond the Jordan, in the land of Moab; Moses began to explain this law, saying,...

Septuagint (Greek)                And it came to pass in the fortieth year, in the eleventh month, on the first day of the month, that Moses spoke to all the children of Israel, according to all things which the Lord commanded him for them; after he had killed Sihon king of the Amorites who dwelt in Heshbon, and Og the king of Bashan who dwelt in Ashtaroth and in Edrei. Beyond the Jordan in the land of Moab, Moses began to declare this law, saying,...

 

Significant differences:           You may notice that I have the word region and that is lacking in the older translations. This is simply because that is the way I chose to translate a particular word (in a region beyond); and they simply when with beyond.

 

As usual, there are a lot of additional words in the targum.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           It was in the fortieth year, on the first day of the eleventh month, that Moses spoke to the Israelites precisely what the Lord had commanded him for them. (This was after the defeat of Sihon, the Amorite king who ruled in Heshbon, and Og, Bashan's king, who ruled in Ashtaroth and [LXX, Syr, Vulg; MT lacks and] Edrei.) Beyond the Jordan, in the land of Moab, Moses began to explain this Instruction. He said the following:...

Easy English                          Moses spoke on the first day of the 11th month, in the 40th year. He repeated to the *Israelites all the words that the *Lord had spoken about them.

These people are the children of the *Israelites who left Egypt. They were born in the *desert. They have now arrived on the east side of the River Jordan. They need to hear the *Law of God before they cross the river. It will teach them how to live in Canaan.

This happened after Moses had beaten Sihon, king of the *Amorites. Sihon ruled in the town called Heshbon. Moses had also beaten Og, the king of Bashan, at the town called Edrei. Og ruled in the town called Ashtaroth. Moses began to speak on the east side of the Jordan river, in the country called Moab. He explained the *Law of God. He said,...

Easy-to-Read Version            But it was 40 years from the time the people of Israel left Egypt until the time they came to this place. On the first day of the eleventh month of the 40th year, Moses spoke to the people. Moses told them all the things the Lord commanded. This was after the Lord defeated Sihon and Og. (Sihon was the king of the Amorite people. Sihon lived in Heshbon. Og was the king of Bashan. Og lived in Ashtaroth and Edrei.) The people of Israel were on the east side of the Jordan River in the land of Moab, and Moses began to explain the things that God commanded. Moses said:...

Good News Bible (TEV)         On the first day of the eleventh month of the fortieth year after they had left Egypt, Moses told the people everything the LORD had commanded him to tell them. This was after the LORD had defeated King Sihon of the Amorites, who ruled in the town of Heshbon, and King Og of Bashan, who ruled in the towns of Ashtaroth and Edrei. It was while the people were east of the Jordan in the territory of Moab that Moses began to explain God's laws and teachings. He said,...

The Message                         It was on the first day of the eleventh month of the fortieth year when Moses addressed the People of Israel, telling them everything GOD had commanded him concerning them. This came after he had defeated Sihon king of the Amorites, who ruled from Heshbon, and Og king of Bashan, who ruled from Ashtaroth in Edrei. It was east of the Jordan in the land of Moab that Moses set out to explain this Revelation. He said:...

New Berkeley Version           In the fortieth year, on the first day of the eleventh month, Moses addressed Israel in accord with all that the Lord had commanded him to say to them. After [Shortly before his death, Moses delivered four addresses to the Israelites.] he had defeated Sihon, king of the Amorites, whose capital was Heshbon, and Og king of Bashan, who dwelt in Ashtaroth and Edrei beyond the Jordan in the land of Moab, Moses began to explain this law. He said,...

New Century Version             (The trip from Mount Sinai to Kadesh Barnea on the Mount Seir road takes eleven days.) Forty years after the Israelites had left Egypt, on the first day of the eleventh month, Moses told the people of Israel everything the Lord had commanded him to tell them. This was after the Lord had defeated Sihon and Og. Sihon was king of the Amorite people and lived in Heshbon. Og was king of Bashan and lived in Ashteroth and Edrei.

Now the Israelites were east of the Jordan River in the land of Moab, and there Moses began to explain what God had commanded. He said:... V. 2 is included for context.

New Life Bible                        On the first day of the eleventh month in the fortieth year, Moses spoke to the children of Israel. He told them all the Lord said they must do. This was after he had won the war against Sihon the king of the Amorites, who lived in Heshbon, and Og the king of Bashan, who lived in Ashtaroth and Edrei. On the other side of the Jordan in the land of Moab, Moses talked to the people about this Law. He said,...

New Living Translation           Normally it takes only eleven days to travel from Mount Sinai[b] to Kadesh-barnea, going by way of Mount Seir. But forty years after the Israelites left Egypt, on the first day of the eleventh month [Hebrew In the fortieth year, on the first day of the eleventh month. This day in the ancient Hebrew lunar calendar occurred in January or February.], Moses addressed the people of Israel, telling them everything the Lord had commanded him to say. This took place after he had defeated King Sihon of the Amorites, who had ruled in Heshbon, and King Og of Bashan, who had ruled in Ashtaroth and Edrei.

While the Israelites were in the land of Moab east of the Jordan River, Moses carefully explained the Lord's instructions as follows. V. 2 is included for context.

The Voice                               Now on the first day of the 11th month, 40 years after the nation left Egypt and sometime after Moses had defeated Sihon (king of the Amorites who ruled in Heshbon) and Og (king of Bashan who ruled in Ashtaroth and Edrei), Moses began to give to a new generation of the Israelites each word the Eternal had commanded him to tell them. Beyond the Jordan River in the land of Moab, Moses tried to explain this law and its outworking for the people.

Moses now explains to the current generation of Israelites what the Lord has done for them, so the Israelites can confidently give their full allegiance to this One God, who has already proven Himself as their protector and guide. Even today it's helpful for us to remember God's faithfulness to earlier generations in our own families and nations. Our confidence in God is strengthened most when we recall how He has worked directly in our own lives to protect, provide for, and guide us.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          It was the first day of the eleventh month of the fortieth year that Moses spoke to the children of IsraEl, and [he recounted] all the instructions that Jehovah had given Him concerning them. This was after he had cut down Seon, the king of the Amorites (who lived in Hesh-Eboneh), as well as Og, the king of BaShan (who lived in AstarOth and Edrain), in the land of Moab. Moses said this about [God's] Law:...

Beck’s American Translation In the 40th year, on the first day of the 11th month, Moses told Israel everything the LORD ordered him to tell them— after defeating Sihon, king of the Amorites, who lived in Heshbon, and Og, king of Bashan, who lived in Ashtaroth and Edrei. There in the country of Moab east of the Jordan Moses undertook to state clearly the following instructions.

Christian Community Bible     But now it was the first day of the eleventh month of the fortieth year after they left Egypt, when Moses told the children of Israel all that Yahweh had commanded him regarding them.

After defeating Sihon, the king of the Amorites, who lived in Heshbon, and Og, the king of Bashan who ruled in Ashtaroth and in Edrei, Moses began to explain this law. They were in the land of Moab, at the other side of the Jordan.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       It was the first day of the eleventh month of the fortieth year, when Moses handed on to the Israelites the commands which the Lord had entrusted to him. He had now given them victory over Sehon, king of the Amorrhites, that lived at Hesebon, and Og, king of Basan, that lived at Astaroth and Edrai, still beyond the Jordan, in the Moabite country.

Moses, then, began to expound the law, with these words:...

New American Bible              In the fortieth year, on the first day of the eleventh month, Moses spoke to the Israelites all the commands that the LORD had given him in their regard. After he had defeated Sihon, king of the Amorites, who lived in Heshbon, and Og, king of Bashan, who lived in Ashtaroth and in Edrei, Moses began to explain the law in the land of Moab beyond the Jordan, as follows: ...

New American Bible (R.E.)    In the fortieth year [counting from the exodus from Egypt (cf. Ex 12:2; 13:20-22).], on the first day of the eleventh month, Moses spoke to the Israelites according to all that the LORD had commanded him to speak to them, after he had defeated Sihon, king of the Amorites, who reigned in Heshbon,a and Og, king of Bashan, who reigned in Ashtaroth and in Edrei. Beyond the Jordan, in the land of Moab, Moses undertook to explain this law:...

NIRV                                      It was now the 40th year since the people of Israel had left Egypt. On the first day of the 11th month, Moses spoke to them. He told them everything the Lord had commanded him to tell them. They had already won the battle over Sihon. Sihon was the king of the Amorites. He had ruled in Heshbon. Israel had also won the battle over Og at Edrei. Og was the king of Bashan. He had ruled in Ashtaroth.

The people were east of the Jordan River in the territory of Moab. There Moses began to explain the law. Here is what he said.

New Jerusalem Bible             It was in the fortieth year, on the first day of the eleventh month, that Moses told the Israelites everything that Yahweh had ordered him to tell them. He had defeated Sihon king of the Amorites, who lived at Heshbon, and Og king of Bashan, who lived at Ashtaroth and Edrei. There, in Moab beyond the Jordan, Moses resolved to expound this Law. He said:...

New Simplified Bible              It was the fortieth year, eleventh month, on the first day of the month. Moses spoke to the children of Israel, according to all the commandments Jehovah (YHWH) gave him for them. After he killed Sihon king of the Amorites, who lived in Heshbon, and Og king of Bashan, who lived at Astaroth in Edrei: On this side (east) of Jordan in the land of Moab, Moses declared the Law. He said:...

Revised English Bible            On the first day of the eleventh month of the fortieth year, Moses repeated to the Israelites all the commands that the Lord had given him for them. This was after the defeat of Sihon king of the Amorites who ruled in Heshbon, and the defeat of Edrei of King Og of Bashan who ruled in Ashtaroth, and it was beyond the Jordan, in Moab, that Moses resolves to expound this law.

These were his words.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      It was in the year forty, in the eleventh month, on one of the month. Moses spoke to the sons of Israel all that Yahweh commanded to them after he smote King Sihon of North-Jordan that dwelled in Hesban, and King Og of South-Syria that dwelled in Ashtaroth in Dera. Across the Jordan, content in the land of Central-Jordan, Moses inscribed this Torah, saying,...

Bible in Basic English             Now in the fortieth year, on the first day of the eleventh month, Moses gave to the children of Israel all the orders which the Lord had given him for them; After he had overcome Sihon, king of the Amorites, ruling in Heshbon, and Og, king of Bashan, ruling in Ashtaroth, at Edrei: On the far side of Jordan in the land of Moab, Moses gave the people this law, saying,...

The Expanded Bible              Forty years after the Israelites had left Egypt [LIn the fortieth year], on the first day of the eleventh month, Moses told the ·people [Lsons; Tchildren] of Israel everything the Lord had commanded him to tell them. This was after the Lord had ·defeated [Lstruck] Sihon and Og. Sihon was king of the Amorite people and lived in Heshbon. Og was king of Bashan and lived in Ashteroth and Edrei [Num. 21:21-35].

Now ·the Israelites [Lthey] were ·east of [Lbeyond] the Jordan River in the land of Moab, and there Moses began to ·explain [make clear] ·what God had commanded [Lthis law/instruction]. He said:.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 It was during the fortieth year, in the eleventh month, upon the first of the month, Moses related to the children of Israel all that the Ever-living had commanded him for them; after he had defeated Sihon, King of the Amorites, who lived in Hesnbon, and Og King of Bashan, who lived at Ashtaroth, in Adarai, on this side [That is the eastern side. This geographical description proves this Introduction to have been written before Joshua invaded Palestine, and shows the age of the Orations, and is an internal proof that we have them now as Moses wrote and spoke, except for a few inserted explanatory notes which I shall indicate as my version proceeds. - F. F.] of the ford of the Jordan, in the land of Moab, Moses began to publish the law, and said ; -...

HCSB                                     In the fortieth year, in the eleventh month, on the first of the month, Moses told the Israelites everything the LORD had commanded him to say to them. This was after he had defeated Sihon king of the Amorites, who lived in Heshbon, and Og king of Bashan, who lived in Ashtaroth, at Edrei. Across the Jordan in the land of Moab, Moses began to explain this law, saying:...

NET Bible®                             However, it was not until [Heb "in" or "on." Here there is a contrast between the ordinary time of eleven days (v. 2) and the actual time of forty years, so "not until" brings out that vast disparity.] the first day of the eleventh month [The eleventh month is Shebat in the Hebrew calendar, January/February in the modern (Gregorian) calendar.] of the fortieth year [The fortieth year would be 1406 b.c. according to the "early" date of the exodus. See E. H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, 66-75.] that Moses addressed the Israelites just as [Heb "according to all which."] the Lord had instructed him to do. This took place after the defeat [Heb "when he struck [or "smote"]."] of King Sihon [See Deut 2:26-3:22.] of the Amorites, whose capital was [Heb "who lived."] in Heshbon [Heshbon is probably modern Tell Hesban, about 7.5 mi (12 km) south southwest of Amman, Jordan.], and King Og of Bashan, whose capital was [Heb "who lived."] in Ashtaroth [Ashtaroth is probably Tell àAshtarah, about 22 mi (35 km) due east of the Sea of Galilee.], specifically in Edrei [Edrei is probably modern Deràa, 60 mi (95 km) south of Damascus (see Num 21:33; Josh 12:4; 13:12, 31).]. So it was in the Transjordan, in Moab, that Moses began to deliver these words [Heb “this instruction”; KJV, NIV, NRSV “this law”; TEV “God’s laws and teachings.” The Hebrew noun תוֹרָה (torah) is derived from the verb יָרָה (yarah, “to teach”) and here it refers to the Book of Deuteronomy, not the Pentateuch as a whole.]:....

New Heart English Bible        It happened in the fortieth year, in the eleventh month, on the first day of the month, that Moses spoke to the children of Israel, according to all that the LORD had given him in commandment to them; after he had struck Sihon the king of the Amorites, who lived in Heshbon, and Og the king of Bashan, who lived in Ashtaroth, at Edrei. Beyond the Jordan, in the land of Moab, began Moses to declare this law, saying,...

NIV, ©2011                             In the fortieth year [Nu 14:33; 32:13; Dt 8:2; Heb 3:7-9], on the first day of the eleventh month [Ge 50:3; Dt 34:8; Jos 4:19], Moses proclaimed [Dt 4:1-2] to the Israelites all that the Lord had commanded him concerning them. 4 This was after he had defeated Sihon [Nu 21:21-26] king of the Amorites [Ge 10:16; S 14:7], who reigned in Heshbon [Nu 21:25], and at Edrei had defeated Og [Nu 21:33-35; Dt 3:10] king of Bashan, who reigned in Ashtaroth [Jos 9:10; 12:4; 1Ch 11:44].

East of the Jordan in the territory of Moab [Nu 21:11], Moses began to expound this law, saying:...


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           On the first day of the eleventh month of the fortieth year, Moshe spoke to the people of Isra'el, reviewing everything ADONAI had ordered him to tell them. This was after he had defeated Sichon, king of the Emori, who lived in Heshbon, and 'Og, king of Bashan, who lived in 'Ashtarot, at Edre'i. There, beyond the Yarden, in the land of Mo'av, Moshe took it upon himself to expound this Torah and said:...

exeGeses companion Bible   And so be it, in the fortieth year,

in the eleventh month, on the first of the month,

Mosheh words to the sons of Yisra El,

according to all Yah Veh misvahed concerning them;

after he smote Sichon the sovereign of the Emoriy

who settled in Heshbon

and Og the sovereign of Bashan

who settled at Astaroth in Edrei:

on this side Yarden in the land of Moab,

Mosheh willed to explain this torah, saying,...

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               It was in the fortieth year, on the first day of the eleventh month, that Moses addressed the Israelites in accordance with the instructions that the Lord had given him for them, after he had defeated Sihon king of the Amorites, who dwelt in Heshbon, and King Og of Bashan, who dwelt at Ashtaroth [and] [Compare Joshua 12:4 13:12, 31.] Edrei. On the other side of the Jordan, in the land of Moab, Moses undertood to expound this Teaching. He said:...

Judaica Press Complete T.    It came to pass in the fortieth year, in the eleventh month, on the first of the month, that Moses spoke to the children of Israel according to all that the Lord had commanded him regarding them; After he had smitten Sihon, king of the Amorites, who dwelt in Heshbon, and Og, king of the Bashan, who dwelt in Ashtaroth in Edrei. On that side of the Jordan, in the land of Moab, Moses commenced and explained this Law, saying,...

Kaplan Translation                 On the first of the eleventh month [1 Shevat, 2488 (January 18, 1273 b.c.e.).] in the fortieth year, Moses [also] [(cf. Adereth Eliahu; Ramban). See Deuteronomy 5:1 ff.] spoke to the Israelites regarding all that God had commanded him for them. This was after he had defeated Sichon [Numbers 21:21-24, Deuteronomy 3:2.] king of the Amorites who lived in Cheshbon, and Og [Numbers 21:31-35, Deuteronomy 3:3.], king of the Bashan, who lived in Ashtaroth, [who was defeated in] [(Ramban). Or, 'Ashtaroth in Edre'i' (Rashi).] Edre'i [See Numbers 21:33.]. Moses began [(Rashi). Or, 'spoke at length' (Saadia). See note on Genesis 18:27.] to explain this law on the east bank of the Jordan, in the land of Moab [The former land of Moab, which had been taken by Sichon.], saying:...

Orthodox Jewish Bible           And it came to pass in the fortieth year, in the eleventh month, on the first day of the month, that Moshe spoke unto the Bnei Yisroel, according unto all that Hashem had given him in commandment unto them, After he had slain Sichon Melech HaEmori, which dwelt in Cheshbon, and Og Melech HaBashan, which dwelt in Ashtarot at Edre'i; On the far side of the Yarden, in Eretz Moav, began Moshe to expound this torah, saying,...

The Scriptures 1998              And it came to be in the fortieth year, in the eleventh month, on the first day of the month, that Mosheh spoke to the children of Yisraʼĕl according to all that יהוה had commanded him concerning them, after he had smitten Siḥon sovereign of the Amorites, who dwelt in Ḥeshbon, and O sovereign of Bashan, who dwelt at Ashtaroth in Ereʽi. Beyond the Yardĕn, in the land of Moʼa, Mosheh undertook to declair this Torah, saying,...


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                And in the fortieth year, on the first day of the eleventh month, Moses spoke to the Israelites according to all that the Lord had given him in commandment to them, After He had defeated Sihon king of the Amorites, who lived in Heshbon, and Og king of Bashan, who lived in Ashtaroth [and] Edrei. Beyond (east of) the Jordan in the land of Moab, Moses began to explain this law, saying,...

Concordant Literal Version    It came to be in the fortieth year, in the eleventh month, on day one of the month, that Moses spoke to all the sons of Israel according to all that Yahweh had instructed him concerning them, after his smiting Sihon king of the Amorite (who was dwelling in Heshbon) and Og king of Bashan (who was dwelling in Astaroth) at Edrei. In Transjordan in the country of Moab, Moses was disposed to make this law plain by saying.

Context Group Version          In the fortieth year, in the eleventh month, on the first day of the month, Moses spoke to the sons of Israel, according to all that YHWH had given him in commandment to them; after he had struck Sihon the king of the Amorites, who dwelt in Heshbon, and Og the king of Bashan, who dwelt in Ashtaroth, at Edrei.

Beyond the Jordan, in the land of Moab, Moses began to declare this law, saying,...

Green’s Literal Translation    And it happened, in the fortieth year, in the eleventh month on the first of the month, Moses spoke to the sons of Israel according to all that Jehovah had commanded him concerning them; after he had stricken Sihon the king of the Amorites, who lived in Heshbon, and Og the king of Bashan, who lived in Ashtaroth in Edrei, beyond the Jordan in the land of Moab, Moses began to explain this law, saying,...

NASB                                     In the fortieth year [Num 33:38], on the first day of the eleventh month, Moses spoke to the children of Israel, according to all that the Lord had commanded him [Deut 4:1, 2] to give to them, after he had defeated [Lit smitten] Sihon [Num 21:21-26; Deut 2:26-35; Josh 13:10; Neh 9:22] the king of the Amorites, who lived in Heshbon, and Og [Num 21:33-35; Josh 13:12] the king of Bashan, who lived in Ashtaroth [Josh 12:4] and [So with ancient versions; M.T. omits and] Edrei. Across the Jordan in the land of Moab, Moses undertook to expound this law, saying,...

New King James Version       Now it came to pass in the fortieth year, in the eleventh month, on the first day of the month, that Moses spoke to the children of Israel according to all that the Lord had given him as commandments to them, after he had killed Sihon king of the Amorites, who dwelt in Heshbon, and Og king of Bashan, who dwelt at Ashtaroth in [Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate read and (compare Joshua 12:4).] Edrei.

On this side of the Jordan in the land of Moab, Moses began to explain this law, saying...

New RSV                               In the fortieth year, on the first day of the eleventh month, Moses spoke to the Israelites just as the Lord had commanded him to speak to them. This was after he had defeated King Sihon of the Amorites, who reigned in Heshbon, and King Og of Bashan, who reigned in Ashtaroth and* in Edrei. Beyond the Jordan in the land of Moab, Moses undertook to expound this law as follows:....

Syndein/Thieme                     And it came to pass in the fortieth year, in the eleventh month, on the first day of the month, that Moses spoke unto the children of Israel, according unto all that Jehovah/God had given him in commandment unto them . . . after he had slain Sihon, the king of the Amorites, who dwelt in Heshbon, and Og, the king of Bashan, who dwelt at Astaroth in Edrei. On this side Jordan {River}, in the land of Moab, began Moses to declare this law, saying,...

Webster’s Bible Translation  And it came to pass in the fortieth year, in the eleventh month, on the first [day] of the month, [that] Moses spoke to the children of Israel, according to all that the LORD had given him in commandment to them; After he had slain Sihon the king of the Amorites, who dwelt in Heshbon, and Og the king of Bashan, who dwelt at Astaroth in Edrei: On the east side of Jordan, in the land of Moab, began Moses to declare this law, saying,...

Young’s Updated LT             And it comes to pass in the forties year, in the eleventh month, on the first of the month has Moses spoken unto the sons of Israel according to all that Jehovah has commanded him concerning them; after his smiting Sihon king of the Amorite who is dwelling in Heshbon, and Og king of Bashan who is dwelling in Ashtaroth in Edrei, beyond the Jordan, in the land of Moab, has Moses begun to explain this law, saying,...

 

The gist of this verse:          On the 1st day of the 11th month of the 40th year, Moses began to speak to the sons of Israel according to what God had commanded him regarding the sons of Israel. This communication between God and Moses took place after Israel had defeated Sihon and Og.


Deuteronomy 1:3a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

Without a specific subject and object, the verb hâyâh often means and it will come to be, and it will come to pass, then it came to pass (with the wâw consecutive). It may be more idiomatically rendered subsequently, afterwards, later on, in the course of time, after which. Generally, the verb does not match the gender whatever nearby noun could be the subject (and, as often, there is no noun nearby which would fulfill the conditions of being a subject).

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, upon, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʾarebâʿîym (אַרְבָעִים) [pronounced are-BAW-ĢEEM]

forty

undeclinable plural noun

Strong’s #705 BDB #917

shânâh (שָנָה) [pronounced shaw-NAW]

year

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #8141 BDB #1040

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, upon, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʿashetêy (עַשְתֵּי) [pronounced ģahsh-TAY]

one; eleven, eleventh

numeral

Strong’s #6249 BDB #799

This word appears to be used only in conjunction with Strong’s #6240.

ʿâsâr (עָשָׂה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWR]

ten; –teen [resulting in numbers 11–19]

masculine/feminine singular noun

Strong’s #6240 BDB #797

chôdesh (חֹדֶש) [pronounced KHOH-desh]

new moon, month; monthly; first day of the month

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #2320 BDB #294

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, upon, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʾechâd (אֶחָד) [pronounced eh-KHAWD]

one, first, certain, only; each, every; but it can also mean a composite unity; possibly particular; anyone

numeral adjective

Strong's #259 BDB #25

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

chôdesh (חֹדֶש) [pronounced KHOH-desh]

new moon, month; monthly; first day of the month

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #2320 BDB #294


Translation: And it is in the fortieth year in the eleventh month at the first of the month... Moses is a very precise man. He is very conscious of time and place. He is not just wandering about aimlessly with the rest of the people of Israel. He was raised in the palace of Egypt with the intention of him becoming pharaoh. Therefore, he understood geography and geopolitical situations. This was second nature to Moses.

 

Peter Pett: Such dating was common in ancient records long before the time of Moses, and its form bears comparison with other ancient records, Egyptian and otherwise. Footnote


Throughout the books of the Law, Moses kept us informed as to when everything was occurring. There was the time period during which the children of Israel left Egypt with Moses and they walked out of a life in bondage and God gave them the Law. Then they were to go into the land of Canaan to take it. However, they did not, bringing their progress to a halt.


Black liberation theology has taken the book of Exodus and has given it a great distortion, somehow identifying the African-Americans as the Jews in slavery; and now they are free, so, in some weird way, they are to suddenly support big government liberal political solutions to everything.

It is a mistake to think that the Old and New Testaments are disparate theologies, sometimes at war with one another. What is found in the Old Testament directly leads us into the New Testament. There is no set of warring theologies; there is no mean God in the Old Testament and a loving God in the New. It is all the same God; these simply represent looking forward to Jesus (the Old Testament); the life and ministry of Jesus (the gospels); and looking backward to Jesus (the rest of the New Testament). in any case, Jesus is the same today, yesterday and forever (Heb. 13:8).

The Great Analogy of the Exodus

The Exodus

What it Represents

The children of Israel were in slavery; they were in a helpless, hopeless situation.

As humans, we are born into the slave market of sin. We have sinned personally and we have a sin nature. For these reasons, we are completely unacceptable to God.

Moses became their leader and led them out of bondage. A slave cannot purchase another slave; people cannot buy themselves from the slave market. It took someone who was not a slave to lead the Israelites to freedom.

Jesus Christ is not in the slave market of sin. He was not born into sin as we are. Jesus is able to die for our sins because He is not subject to a sin nature or to personal sin.

The Law of God, given at Mount Sinai, defines righteous behavior, and reveals how we are lacking in righteousness.

We cannot keep the Law of God for salvation. The Law tells us that we need a Savior.

Moses leads us to the rock, which he strikes with his walking stick, and out from that rock flows rivers of living water.

Jesus is the Rock Who was struck (judged) for our sins, and from Him flow the rivers of life.

None of this is complex; nor should it be controversial.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


It was in the first year or two of Moses and the children of Israel in between Egypt and Canaan when the progress of the sons of Israel suddenly came to a stop. They were supposed to invade the land and take it, and they did not (more details will be given later in this chapter).


As a result, 38 years go by as these adults fail test after test after test; and God kills them off in the desert, every adult dying a natural death or the sin unto death during that 38 years (with the exception of Moses, Joshua and Caleb). What they are left with is the generation of promise, who were children when they left slavery to Egypt, and they have known nothing else, apart from this desert-wilderness where they have been raised. There are also the children who have been born in the desert, some of whom are now young adults. At this point, they have spend nearly 40 years in the desert, and they were taken care of by God. Their parents have all died. Furthermore, their great leaders died at this time. Miriam, the sister of Moses, died in the first month of year 40 (Num. 20) and Aaron died on the 1st day of the 5th month (Num. 33:38). Although the people do not realize it yet, but Moses will also die during this year. A new generation with a new generation of leaders will go into the Land of Promise.


Now we come to the final year or so in the land east of the Jordan, where these people have marched due north with the intention of coming across the Jordan and attacking the land of Canaan in the center coming from the east.


Deuteronomy 1:3b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

dâbar (דָּבַר) [pronounced dawb-VAHR]

to speak, to talk [and back with action], to give an opinion, to expound, to make a formal speech, to speak out, to promise, to propose, to speak kindly of, to declare, to proclaim, to announce

3rd person masculine singular, Piel imperfect

Strong’s #1696 BDB #180

The Piel stem is intensive, making dâbar is stronger. It can carry with it the idea of providing guidance and direction, if not a set of mandates (and this would be determined by context). The kind of intensification is determined by context. The Piel may call for talk, backed with action; give your opinion; expound; make a formal speech; speak out; talk it around, to give a somber and tragic report. Some translations translate this to repeat.

Mosheh (מֹשֶה) [pronounced moh-SHEH]

to draw out [of the water] and is transliterated Moses

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #4872 BDB #602

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

bânîym (בָּנִים) [pronounced baw-NEEM]

sons, descendants; children; people; sometimes rendered men

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

Yiserâʾêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

God prevails; contender; soldier of God; transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 & #3479 BDB #975


Translation:... [when] Moses spoke to the sons of Israel... Moses was going to teach all of these people of Israel—most of whom had formerly been children taken out of Egypt. Most of the book of Deuteronomy is Moses speaking to these adults, who are between the ages of 20 and 60 now (those between 20 and 40 had been born in the desert).


The date of this message is 11/1/40 a.e., thirty-eight years after the events herein described, making this roughly 1407 b.c. Almost all of the book of Deuteronomy will be the speeches of Moses delivered to the children of Israel. This is his swan song, his farewell sermon. Being that this sermon is about thirty-five pages long, this would have been delivered over a period of several days. Moses will recall this history of the fathers of his listeners and properly interpret this history for them. This verse does not tell us that God specifically commanded Moses to deliver these sermons; Moses took it upon himself, operating under the influence and guidance of God the Holy Spirit, to teach the things to the generation of promise the things spoken by God to Moses and delivered to their parents, Gen X.


Deuteronomy 1:3c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kaph or ke (כְּ) [pronounced ke]

like, as, according to; about, approximately

preposition with a pronominal suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #453

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]; also kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

all, all things, the whole, totality, the entirety, everything

masculine singular noun without the definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced ash-ER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

tsâvâh (צָוָה) [pronounced tsaw-VAW]

to commission, to mandate, to appoint; to ordain; to lay charge upon, to give charge to, charge, command, order; to instruct [as in, giving an order]

3rd person masculine singular, Piel perfect

Strong's #6680 BDB #845

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

him; untranslated mark of a direct object; occasionally to him, toward him

sign of the direct object affixed to a 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied) with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #413 BDB #39


Translation: ...according to all that Yehowah had commanded him concerning them... We do not know exactly how God commanded these things to Moses. Did God take Moses aside, as He did before, and teach him more things? Or did Moses, by writing down the Law and studying the Law, come to a point where these laws were ingrained in his soul and spirit? In that way, Moses would not need to have God come and speak to him personally, but he had access to all of the commandments of God.


Logically, I would interpret this literally, that God had spoken to Moses—we are given the time, but not a lot of details. Assuming that God has been talking with Moses after Israel defeated the armies which opposed them, this would suggest that when God told Moses that he was not to go into the land, God spoke to him about other things as well.


These talks seem to be fairly specific, covering what Moses is to say to the people and the consequences of Moses not doing what God told him to do in Num. 31–32, at the end of Num. 33 and Num. 34–36. However, Moses took these things and expounded upon them greatly, going into more detail than is recorded in the book of Numbers. This either means that God laid out another list of very explicit commands for Moses, or that Moses, filled with the Spirit, based upon his life under God’s command and a few things said to him after the military victories, figured out what he should say. I lean toward this latter approach, where Moses is no longer quoting God, word-for-word, but has some general guidelines or guidance and goes with that. This would explain why Moses is not giving long quotations from God; and it helps to explain the concept of Biblical inspiration.


Although God clearly spoke with Moses after the battles mentioned in v. 4, it appears as if these things which God spoke about were attended to immediately. There does not appear to be a period of time necessarily where God spoke to Moses and said, “Okay, here is what I want you to say in the book of Deuteronomy.”


In previous sessions, it has always been clear what is dialogue, what are the commands from God, what is simply narrative; but this is less clear in Deuteronomy. Moses just starts talking. The last few chapters of Numbers is mostly God speaking to Moses; so it is possible that these final chapters of Numbers are a prelude to these final messages by Moses.


The fact that, on previous occasions, Moses was very specific about what God said and when He said it; but here, Moses just talked to the people and reviewed their history and some of the Law with them—this suggests that God gave Moses a more general direction as to what to do. It was as if God said, “Now, Moses, you are not going over the Jordan with your people; but this is a new generation, so you need to prepare them for going into the land. You need to tell them the things which they need to know.” Obviously, this quote does not occur anywhere in the Bible; but the communication of Moses to the people in this book suggests God giving Moses more general instructions.

 

On one occasion, Paul wrote, We have the mind of Christ (1Cor. 2:16b). And Paul, throughout his epistles, teaches with great authority. This suggests, along with the book of Deuteronomy, that some men on some occasions, can speak the words of God, as their thinking is so aligned with the Word of God. Quite obviously, this was the case for every writer of Scripture. This was clearly the case for the humanity of Jesus Christ. And this was the case for Peter, for Stephen, and for Paul in many portions of the book of Acts, where what they taught was accurate, as if from the mouth of God. Let me suggest the possibility that, on some occasions, throughout some sermons, there are some pastor-teachers whose minds are so aligned with the mind of Christ, that much of their teaching is as if it came from the mouth of God. I do not want to suggest that this occurs with many pastors or even a large segment of pastors (I have seen a number of abysmal pastors on television); but with those who have had the proper training, and have put in the hours or study, God makes it possible for them to communicate divine viewpoint thinking to their congregation.


Moses’ failure goes all the way back to Num. 20. Moses will speak of it about midway through this chapter (although he will not give any details).


But, again, what is most remarkable is Moses speaking to the people without clearly identifying exactly what God told him to say. Whereas we have great, lengthy word-for-word quotations in previous books, we do not have that here—Moses is simply speaking, although here, he does says that this came from God.


Taking it in this way, this would suggest that Moses has a soul filled with doctrine and divine viewpoint. He knows the mind of God and he is able to express God’s thinking without nailing down a specific quotation. God gave him an agenda, but there is nothing to suggest that this is only things which God said to Moses; nor is there a suggestion that what Moses says is a word-for-word quotation of what God said to him.


This brings us to the logical question:

Why Does Moses Need to Give a Second Law?

Or, restated, why do we have the book of Deuteronomy? If God has spoken to all of the people through Moses and has given them the Law, then why is there a reason to go back over it and add some material? Did God forget some stuff? Would Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers be incomplete without Deuteronomy?

1.      The most important reason is, this is a new generation. They would have been 20 and younger when Moses first gave them the Law. Therefore, since their Kindle Readers appear to have been lost in the mail, Moses walks them through the Law once again. They need to have fresh eyes on the Law (or portions and applications of the Law); because they may not have appreciated it before.

2.      Moses is also like a father-figure to these young men. Their parents all died in the desert—dying the sin unto death. They lived in the desert where God provided all of their needs. So Moses needs to provide for them some simple, common sense information (that they should not link up two different incompatible animals together; that they should not mix cotton and wool threads in the same garment, etc.). They did not know any of this common sense stuff. No reason to learn it in the desert and now, here they are, about to enter into a new life in the Land of Promise, and they do not have any idea how lead normal lives. Moses will provide this information for them.

         1)      What is fascinating about this information is, God the Holy Spirit will use many of these principles and make spiritual applications, taking a common sense suggestion and turning it into a spiritual application.

         2)      One example of this is, Moses tells his people not to hook together to plow animals who are incompatible. A common sense thing; but if you have never farmed before, it might be good to know this. Paul will take this bit of common sense and say that incompatible people should not be linked in marriage—in particular, you should not link together a believer and an unbeliever in marriage.

3.      The Mosaic Law required parents to teach this law to their children. But the parents were Gen X, who were constantly rebelling against God and against Moses. Therefore, we do not expect them to have taught their children as they should of. This continues, because if you have one generation that does not teach their children; then that generation does not teach their children. So we have 2 generations (all summed up as the generation of promise) who have not been taught the Law of God.

4.      During this time, Moses has been handling a myriad of court cases, as have his underlings. When court cases are brought before a judge, this stuff all takes a lot of time. So Moses is going to give some rulings which will preclude some people from bringing a case to court. “Oh, that is how this should shake out?” is what the potential litigants would say; and then they would settle matters.

5.      A large portion of Deuteronomy deals with recent history and its meaning and importance. People do not tend to understand their own history and often misapply history that they really do not understand.1

6.      This also sets us up for the way things will be. Never again will there be a great leader who goes off in the mountains and communes with God, and then comes back with God’s Word and the design for a country in a world of sin. This is done but one time. There will be prophets and those who speak with God, but nothing will occur as occurred with Moses. Therefore, the people need to be able to accept the authority of Moses, even if he does not preface every few paragraphs with, “And then God told me to tell you this...”

7.      Therefore, what we have in the book of Deuteronomy is the true concept of Biblical inspiration.

The short answer is, this is a new generation whose parents did not teach them the Law; so they need to hear the Law. Secondly, this essentially defines Biblical inspiration for us for the rest of the Bible.

1 George W. Bush is a great example of this. If you can put aside your silly notions about this man, he was one of the most learned, well-read presidents of my lifetime, and he knew history. But, here is the problem: the key to our current relationship with Germany and Japan is the United States sending over missionaries to those countries. That same factor is in play in South Korea. President Bush certainly had a good understanding of those conflicts and what happened as a result, but he mistakenly believed that the key was establishing a democracy in those countries. That was wrong. The key was evangelism and the spreading of Bible doctrine to the population of those countries. That is how we took people who were either our enemies or our uneasy allies, and changed them, because the Word of God changed their thinking. It just turns out that there can be a good alliance between the people of God and a constitutional republic. However, instead of flooding Iraq and Afghanistan with missionaries, the spreading of the gospel of Jesus Christ was curtailed; and this is why I can say, with absolute confidence, that these countries will not have a long-lasting good relationship with the United States similar to the relationship that we have with South Korea, German and Japan. The point that I am making here is, you have to know more than history; you need to understand how to properly interpret history.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Application: One thing I have notices among unbelievers and even some Christians is, they do not seem to like the idea that we can know the mind of God. Somehow, that idea is arrogant. However, God purposefully reveals His thinking in Scripture. Not only are we able to learn how to think as God thinks, but God wants us to think as He thinks. Let this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus (Philip. 2:5; KJV). We learn this from the Bible, and from the New Testament, because Paul and the apostles had the mind of Christ (1Cor. 2:16). Thinking like God thinks is what we are designed to do as believers in Jesus Christ.


Deuteronomy 1:4a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾachărêy (אַחֲרֵי) [pronounced ah-kuh-RAY]

behind, after; following; after that, afterwards; hinder parts

preposition; plural form

Strong’s #310 BDB #29

The plural form of this preposition occurs more often than the singular, although I am uncertain as to any difference in meaning when used as a preposition.

nâkâh (נָכָה) [pronounced naw-KAWH]

to smite, to assault, to hit, to strike, to strike [something or someone] down, to defeat, to conquer, to subjugate

Hiphil infinitive construct with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong #5221 BDB #645

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Çîychôn (סִיחֹן) [pronounced see-KHOWN]

warrior; tempestuous; and is transliterated Sihon

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #5511 BDB #695

meleke (מֶלֶ) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572

ʾĔmôrîy (אֱמֹרִי) [pronounced eh-moh-REE]

mountaineer (possibly); and is transliterated Amorite

gentilic adjective; with the definite article

Strong’s #567 BDB #57

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced ash-ER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

yâshab (יָשַב) [pronounced yaw-SHAHBV]

are inhabiting, were staying, remaining, dwelling, sitting

Qal active participle

Strong's #3427 BDB #442

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, upon, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

Cheshebôwn (חֶשְבּוֹן) [pronounced khesh-BOHN]

stronghold; transliterated Heshbon, Cheshbon

proper singular noun/location

Strong’s #2809 BDB #363


Translation: ...after he defeated Sihon, the king of the Amorites (who lived in Heshbon)... This all took place during a particular time period. 38 years passed while Gen X died off in the desert and then in Num. 20 we pick up the narrative once again where Miriam, the sister of Moses, dies. Then the people begin to move again and in Num. 21:21–33, the Israelites defeat Sihon. This is the new generation; this is the generation of promise that defeats Sihon.


The narrative that Moses is referring to is Num. 21:21–26 And Israel sent messengers to Sihon king of the Amorites, saying, Let me pass through your land; we will not turn into a field or into a vineyard; we will not drink waters of a well; we will go in the king's highway until we have passed over your border. And Sihon would not allow Israel to pass through his border. And Sihon gathered all his people and went out to meet Israel in the wilderness, and they came to Jahaz and fought against Israel. And Israel struck him by the mouth of the sword and seized his land, from Arnon to Jabbok, to the sons of Ammon. For the border of the sons of Ammon was strong. And Israel took all these cities. And Israel dwelt in all the cities of the Amorite, in Heshbon and in all its daughter villages. For Heshbon was the city of Sihon king of the Amorites. And he had fought against the former king of Moab and had taken his land out of his hand, to Arnon. (Green’s Literal translation) Moses tried to go past Sihon, as he had no direct fight with him. However, Sihon’s negative volition toward the Jews meant that he had negative volition toward God. God allowed Sihon’s negative volition to be an occasion for the Jews to learn how to fight in a war. This would have also given the Jews some additional confidence when going into the Land of Promise.


Application: This battle with Sihon illustrates negative volition in a different way. There was no need for Sihon to have a fight with the Jews. Moses told them that they were just passing through; Moses made no threats against Sihon or his people; Moses simply indicates that the people wanted to go from point A to point B. Sihon did not need to make a big deal out of this, but he chose to.


Deuteronomy 1:4b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʿÔwg (חוֹג) [pronounced ģohg]

round; long-necked; transliterated Og

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #5747 BDB #728

meleke (מֶלֶ) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572

Bâshân (בָּשָן) [pronounced baw-SHAWN]

sandy soil; fruitful; and is transliterated Bashan

proper singular noun; a location; with the definite article

Strong’s #1316 BDB #143

Owen mistakenly says there is another direct object here; but it is a definite article.

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced ash-ER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

yâshab (יָשַב) [pronounced yaw-SHAHBV]

are inhabiting, were staying, remaining, dwelling, sitting

Qal active participle

Strong's #3427 BDB #442

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, upon, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʿAshetârôwth (עַשְתָּרוֹת) [pronounced ģahsh-taw-ROHTH]

star; transliterated Ashtaroth, Ashtartes, Ashtaroths

feminine proper noun; plural form

Strong’s #6252 BDB #800

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, upon, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʾEdereʿîy (אֶדְרֶחִי) [pronounced ehd-REH-ee]

goodly pasture; mighty; transliterated Edrei

proper singular noun/location

Strong’s #154 BDB #204


Translation: ...and Og, the king of Bashan (who lived in Ashtaroth in Edrei... Along with Sihon, the children of Israel also defeat Og, also information found in Num. 21.


Owen's translates this as the king of Bashan, whereas it actually reads king of the Bashan; which accounts for other translations you may have read. Bashan means plain, large open area, champaign; and, as was mentioned back in Num. 33:21, is not necessarily the name given to that country by the natives, but could be a designation given it by Moses or by the Israelites. The definite article seems to indicate that. It is common for some areas to by typically preceded by a definite article (like the Philippines).


The way v. 4 reads, it sounds as though Ashtaroth is in Edrei; however, this is properly understood as Ashtaroth is where Og, king of the Bashan lived; and Edrei is possibly where he died. This is elliptical and it should read: After his striking down of Sihon king of the Amorite, who was dwelling in Heshbon, and Og, king of the Bashan [or, king of the wide, open area], who was dwelling in Ashtaroth [whom he struck down] in Edrei. The and as is found in several of the other codices, helps us somewhat with this understanding. It is clear from Num. 21:33 and Deut. 3:1 that Edrei is where the Israelites defeated Og, king of the Bashan.


Israel has just had two great victories east of the Jordan, conquering a great deal of land which has gone to the tribes of Reuben, Gad and a portion of the tribe of Manasseh. These victories were principally the efforts of the generation of promise. But Sihon would not permit Israel to pass through his border. So Sihon gathered all his people and went out against Israel in the wilderness, and came to Jahaz and fought against Israel. The Israel struck him down with the edge of the sword, and took possession of his land from the Arnon to the Jabbok, as far as the sons of Ammon; for the border of the sons of Ammon [was] Jazer. And Israel took all these cities and Israel lived in all the cities of the Amorites, in Heshbon, and in all her villages (Num. 21:23–25).


The narrative of this is in Num. 21:33–35 And they turned and went the way of Bashan. And Og king of Bashan came out to meet them, he and all his people, to battle at Edrei. And Jehovah said to Moses, Do not fear him, for I have given him into your hand, and all his people and his land. And you shall do to him as you have done to Sihon king of the Amorites, who dwelt at Heshbon. And they struck him and his sons and all his people until he did not have a remnant left. And they seized his land. When it says that Og king of Bashan came out to meet them, that would suggest that he came out with a complete army, ready to go to war with the Israelites. Bear in mind that the Israelites would have had a reputation. God led them out of Egypt, the greatest army of that region. It was very clear that this was a spiritual battle and that the Jews had been led by their God. Therefore, the people of Bashan would have known all of this. They probably knew that the Jews defeated Sihon. However, negative volition causes people to do awful and awfully stupid things.


Application: The power of negative volition is phenomenal. Nearly every person knows that heroin and cocain and methamphetamine are highly addictive drugs. Some person in the drug culture probably, before his first use of any of these drugs, knows meth-heads or heroin addicts. Such a person, if he really thought about it, would think, “That is not really how I want to live my life” or “I don’t want to end up like that.” And yet, tens of thousands of people begin taking these drugs year after year after year, until they become someone else’s bad example.


Application: In politics, the United States of America has the worst president of my lifetime, Barack Obama (I write this in October 1013). He has clearly made a complete mess of the finances of the United States; and for any person who knows even a little history, it should be clear that his plan to jump-start the American economy through a massive stimulus bill did not work. It came nowhere close to working. Less than a 2% growth per year is essentially no growth, as that many people enter the workforce every year. Therefore, when the growth rate for years on end are in that range and lower, it ought to be clear that, what he is doing regarding the economy is not working (or, if you believe in conspiracy theories, the absolute lack of growth is Obama’s intention). In any case, there are millions of people who support the president and believe that he is brilliant in the realm of the financial world, despite any sort of evidence for this. Many of his supporters that he works with feel the same way. President Obama himself probably feels the same way. All of them have access to simple information to tell them that, what he is doing is not working; and yet, he continues to move in the same direction—often called “moving the country forward.” They never even attempt a partial conservative economic approach (even though he goes out of his way on many occasions to use conservative language, used for the purpose of selling very liberal ideas). Many of his supporters are young, college-aged kids, and they are exiting college with $25,000 in student-loan debt, and looking around and seeing that there are no jobs, and still, 5 years after the presidency of George W. Bush, they still blame President Bush for destroying the economy and impute absolutely no blame whatsoever to President Obama—who has been president for the last 5 years. And these are college students! People you would expect to have a clue, and yet, they do not. The problem is, they have negative volition toward the Laws of Divine Establishment (HTML) (PDF) (WPD). Therefore, they oppose God’s ways of doing things. If we fell into the worst depression in American history tomorrow, I will guarantee you that 90% or more of these students would either blame Republicans in Congress or they would blame Bush still for that depression. It would not even occur to them to blame President Obama.


V. 4 once again: After his striking down of Sihon king of the Amorite, who was dwelling in Heshbon, and Og, king of the Bashan [or, king of the wide, open area], who was dwelling in Ashtaroth [whom he struck down] in Edrei. It is actually quite surprising just how many times Og and Sihon are mentioned. Because this chapter is so filled with information as it is, I go into any further detail, but, at some point, this should be further examined. Deut. 2:26–37 3:1–11 Num. 21:21–35 Joshua 12:2–6 13:10–12 Neh. 9:22 Psalm 135:11 136:19, 20. What appears to be the case is, these battles with Og and Sihon were sudden. There was no time for apprehension to build up; they just happened. And the Jews trusted God and went into the battle and they were victorious. Moses speaks of these battles on several occasions in part to give the Jewish soldiers confidence in God, and in His Presence during war.

 

Peter Pett: This took place after the defeat of Sihon and Og, kings of the Amorites (Numbers 21:21-35). The defeat of those kings, which would eventually lead to the possessing of their land, brought home to Israel that the dream was now becoming a reality. They had achieved their first victories in the process of possessing the land, and their hearts were lifted high. Unlike their fathers they were going forth in belief and obedience. Footnote


So far, vv. 3–4 read: And it came about in the 11th month of the 40th year, on the first day of the month that Moses spoke to the sons of Israel according to all that Jehovah had commanded him after he defeated Sihon and Og (Sihon was the king of the Amorites who lived in Heshbon and Og was the king of Bashan who lived east of the Jordan in the land of Moab). These victories ought to be significant to the Israelites. These victories are empirical proof that God is with them; and that God is leading them correctly into the Land of Promise. Had anyone expressed hesitation like the 10 spies 38 years previous, someone would have said, “We just defeated Sihon and Og; that should clearly tell us that God is with us.”


These victories represent a turning point in nation Israel and in God’s relationship to them. Israel is back on track, listening to God (through Moses) and not rebelling against God’s directives. They are people that God can work with.


Application: The generation of promise represent just how much can change in one generation. Of the previous generation, God speaks many times of how much He despised that generation—in the Old and New Testaments (God’s hatred is an anthropopathism).


Deuteronomy 1:5a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, upon, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʿêber (עֵבֶר) [pronounced ĢAYB-ver]

region beyond [across]; region on the other side [of a valley, stream, sea]; the opposite region [side]; beyond, side

masculine singular construct

Strong's #5676 BDB #719

The bêyth preposition with the masculine noun ʿêber literally mean in the opposite region, in the opposite side; together, they often act as the single preposition beyond, on the other side of.

Yâredên (יָרְדֵן) [pronounced yare-DAYN]

transliterated Jordan

proper noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3383 BDB #434

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, upon, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular construct

Strong's #776 BDB #75

Môwʾâb (מוֹאָב) [pronounced moh-AWBV]

of his father; transliterated Moab

masculine singular, proper noun

Strong’s #4124 BDB #555


Translation: ...in the region beyond the Jordan in the land of Moab). This all takes place east of the Jordan, around the Moab area (which is east of the Dead Sea). This is where these two altercations take place.


Originally, the Moabites lived in this area (remember that they are descended from Lot via an unholy relationship between Lot and his daughters). However, at this time, the Amorites control the land (Num. 21:25).


Deuteronomy 1:5b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

yâʾal (יָאַל) [pronounced yaw-AHL]

to willingly chose, to be willing to, to willingly undertake; to give ascent to; to undertake, to attempt, to try

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil perfect (not found in the Qal)

Strong's #2974 BDB #383

Mosheh (מֹשֶה) [pronounced moh-SHEH]

to draw out [of the water] and is transliterated Moses

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #4872 BDB #602

bâʾar (בָּאַר) [pronounced baw-AHR

to make distinct, to make clear [plain], to expound; letters on a tablet

3rd person masculine singular, Piel perfect

Strong’s #874 BDB #91

Clarke: to make bare, clear, etc., fully to explain, this law. Footnote The Pulpit Commentary: The Hebrew word here used...signifies primarily to cut or dig, then to cut into, to grave, and then to cut or dig out so as to make evident, to declare, to make plain. Footnote

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

tôwrah (טוֹרַה or טֹרַה) [pronounced TOH-rah]

instruction, doctrine; [human and divine] law, direction, regulations, protocol; custom; transliterated Torah

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #8451 and #8452 BDB #435

zôʾth (זֹאת) [pronounced zoth]

here, this, this one; thus; possibly another

feminine of singular zeh; demonstrative pronoun, adverb

Strong’s #2063 (& 2088, 2090) BDB #260

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #559 BDB #55


Translation: Moses began to clarify [and explain] the law [of God], saying,... The Law here (literally, this Law) refers of course to the Law which Moses received on Mount Sinai, which includes the Ten Commandments and the myriads of other laws given to him from God.

 

The NIV Study Bible: In Deuteronomy the laws are summarized and interpreted, and adjusted to the new specific situation Israel would face in Canaan. Thus Deuteronomy is, in essence, a covenant renewal (and updating) document. Footnote


Moses is going to try or he is willingly going to assent to making the law clear and understandable. This suggests that many of those in this new generation had not had the law fully explained to them. Although there was a lot of the Law which was supposed to be passed on from parents to their children, recall that Gen X was a recalcitrant generation, so that they probably did little or nothing about passing down the Law to their children.


There is a verb in the next verse which is moderately difficult. First let's examine what other translators have done:

 

The Amplified Bible               Moses began to explain this law, saying...

The Emphasized Bible           ...did Moses take in hand [or, to take upon himself] Footnote to expound this law, saying...

KJV                                        ...began Moses to declare this law, saying,...

NASB                                     Moses undertook to expound this law, saying, ...

NIV                                         Moses began to expound this law, saying,...

NRSV                                    Moses undertook to expound this law as follows:

Owen's Translation                Moses undertook to explain this law as follows


The verb in question is the Hiphil perfect of yâʾal (יָאַל) [pronounced yaw-AHL] and BDB gives its meanings variously as to show willingness, to be pleased, to determine, to undertake. In the Niphal, the easier version, this means to be foolish. However, the Hiphil is tougher to follow. We find this verb in the Hiphil perfect in Gen. 18:27 and 31, translated in the NASB venture, and footnoted as undertaken. We don't see this verb again in the Hiphil perfect until Joshua 7:7, where it is translated willing, content. We find this verb several times in the Hiphil imperfect in Ex. 2:21 Joshua 17:12 Judges 1:27, 35 17:11. What appears to be the case is that this is an act of free will, this is an act where a person desires to do something, but it comes not from lust but from contentment from a comfortable position; even from a relaxed mental attitude. I have willingly chosen to translate this willingly chose. This means that, God told Abraham, I want you to go back with this people and re-explain and clarify the Law for them. Abraham was glad to do this. He was happy to do this. Strong's #2974 BDB #383.


God had already given the Law to Moses who had given it to the people. Moses had been enjoined to write it down, which he did, and, we will see later in Deuteronomy, that the Law was, in some way, distributed—not to every person or to every tribe, but the general population did have some access to it, as they will be directed to write verses down and carry them around and learn them. So Moses is not giving them the Law here, but he is explaining it. The Law which Moses spoke of was more than the actual words spoken by God between Ex. 20 and Num. 36. Here, the use of the word Law, goes beyond the Ten Commandments and the ordinances and the civil and criminal laws recorded by Moses. Here, the word law, if we look to what Moses will begin explaining, covers the recorded events of the previous three books of Scripture.

 

The Pulpit Commentary: What Moses set himself to do, then, was not to publish a new law, but to make plain to the people the Law already promulgated, to set forth clearly and pointedly what they were required by the Law to be and to do...The expression used by Moses plainly indicates that this book was not intended to furnish a second code of laws different from the former, but simply to explain and enforce what had before been enjoined. Footnote


God the Holy Spirit definitely, and Moses, probably, recognized that all which had been recorded by Moses in the Pentateuch was the Law of God. Near the end of his life, Moses will definitely realize that he is recording God's Word. That will be the clear indication of Deut. 4:1–2 (And now, Israel, listen to the statutes and to the judgments which I am teaching you to do, so that you may live and go in, and possess the land which Jehovah the God of your fathers is giving to you. You shall not add to the Word which I command you, nor take from it, to keep the commandments of Jehovah your God which I command you—Green’s literal translation). and 12:32 (All the things that I command you, take heed to do them and you shall not add to it, nor take away from it.—Green’s literal translation). Moses teaches, develops, interprets, and adjusts the Law throughout the book of Deuteronomy, applying it to different sets of circumstances (they were in peace outside of their country and how they were looking at entering their land, going to war and being at war for a considerable amount of time. The book of Deuteronomy renews the covenant which God had made with their fathers.


Although the book of Numbers appeared to end artificially and abruptly. there is no doubt that this is a new topic or a new book. We have five verses which introduce this book. As you have found out, I am interested in certain details, such as, how did this come to be written down? I have three different notions: (1) Moses wrote his sermons down, much in the way that many studied pastors do, making certain points, referring back to certain doctrines and occurrences, keeping in mind that this is being spoken to an audience.  (2) Moses may have verbally put this sermon together and spoke it to his servant Joshua, who wrote it down and Moses delivered it from his notes.  (3) Moses may have spoken extemporaneously, which at first appears to be the case, but then it had to be written down in order for us to have it in the form that we do today. Either Moses wrote this down after the fact (which I find doubtful) or these are the notes that Joshua took. I like option #1 just because a pastor should have something to say and that comes as a result of study. The idea of a pastor just standing in front of his congregation just winging it, as though God's Word comes directly from him, is an incorrect notion. If you have a pastor who speaks from the heart most of the time, meaning that he does not study before teaching, then I recommend you find another pastor. Usually what is delivered under those circumstances is pap, half-truths and a great many inaccuracies. At best, the pastor might evangelize his congregation for the umpteenth time. Footnote


Moses did have a different sort of seminary professor than most of us have had (the Lord Jesus Christ Himself); but then his professor was certainly more exacting than ours. In any option, Moses had the student hours behind him. I originally leaned toward option #3, as we smoothly move from the book of Deuteronomy into the death of Moses, into the book of Joshua, both of which were recorded by Joshua. What more natural thing would there have been than to have written the sermons of Moses as he gave them and then continue with a post script? After writing about the death of Moses, then Joshua would have realized that that is part of his duties under Yehowah, to record the history of Israel and the doctrine of Jesus Christ. However, there is a passage or two in Deuteronomy (Deut. 31:9, 24) which tell us this was written by the hand of Moses.


The problem I have with Moses simply speaking extemporaneously is, these are a lot of topics to be delivered without a set of notes. On the other hand, I believe that the closer man was to Adam, the greater the development of man’s brain. So it is not difficult to imagine some man like Moses, with great intelligence, being able to put together an outline of a sermon, of topics, in his own mind, and then to go from there. For instance, I might be able to talk for 5 minutes about Num. 13–14 from the top of my head. It is not out of the question that Moses, who lived these events, who is much more intelligent than I am, to give this topic an hour, if need be.


One of the things which I find fascinating are the actual nuts and bolts of what is really occurring. I don't believe that I have even seen this addressed in this way. There are over two million Israelites. With a microphone system and a stage speaker, it would have been difficult to address even a quarter of that number. There is no indication that Moses had either, nor have I found yet a supernatural implication. There are millions of Christians on this planet; even in this nation. Only a fraction of those actually have a real interest in God's Word. If there is an inconvenience tied to attending church, such as distance or lack of a nursery, then some will not attend. If they oversleep or don't feel like getting up in the morning, others will not attend. If it is not a friendly church or if there are no activities arranged for the young people or for the single adults or for the retired but still active, then some will not attend. The point here is that not all two million of these Israelites have a strong interest in God's Word and there are certainly inconveniences and things that they would object to. We too often try to lump groups of people together as though they are one person. This is the essential basis of all prejudice. Here we have two million individuals, far greater than their predecessors, but all carrying within them one each old sin nature. Therefore, some would attend these talks of Moses and many would not. We will see a certain amount of repetition in these sermons of Moses—they are given in such a way, that those who attend several sessions will get something new each time, but those who attend only a few, will walk away with important information also. I recall bringing an evangelist into our high school and he spoke six or seven times in a row. The students flocked to see him, some staying for all sessions. He gave the save essential message each time, but each time is was different enough that anyone attending all sessions got something new every time. I know this, as I attended all sessions.


So we have Moses speaking to a huge group of people, perhaps as many as tens of thousands during each session. We have complete silence during his message and all the weather conditions are perfectly suited for his message to reach the entire congregation. Furthermore, this information was also recorded, word-for-word, so that others could read what Moses had to say.


One of the great differences of the book of Deuteronomy and the other books of the Law is, previously, Moses would carefully distinguish what God said and give the Israelites a complete, exact quote. That will not be the case in Deuteronomy. A few quotations from God are given; but mostly Moses will speak in his own voice to the people.


There are two pieces of information which are quite pertinent at this time: Moses has been formally trained in law when he was preparing to become the pharaoh. He would have known the laws in all of the nearby areas, and how well they worked or did not work. Furthermore, Moses has been the supreme court judge over a myriad of cases which this population of 2 million had been bringing against one another.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


The first 5 verses, which set up the book of Deuteronomy, read like this: Moses spoke the following words while he was east of the Jordan, in the wilderness, in the Arabah which is opposite Suph and in between Paran, Tophel, Laban, Hzeroth and Di-zahab. It takes eleven days to go from Horeb, along the road around Mount Seir, to get to Kadesh-barnea. And it came about in the 11th month of the 40th year, on the first day of the month that Moses spoke to the sons of Israel according to all that Jehovah had commanded him after he defeated Sihon and Og (Sihon was the king of the Amorites who lived in Heshbon and Og was the king of Bashan who lived east of the Jordan in the land of Moab). Moses, therefore, began to clarify and re-explain this law of God, saying,...

A Summary of Deuteronomy 1:1–5

1.      This gives us the time, and the place, as well as the who. Moses is speaking east of the Jordan near the end of the 40th year.

2.      We get the background: the children of Israel had just defeated Sihon and Og in battle, which are impressive victories, as the Israelites were not soldiers.

3.      We find out the Moses knows exactly where they are and exactly the day and the time in history. This tells us that he clearly had a calendar system and was recording information pertinent to their time in the desert-wilderness. In other words, there were other records kept besides Holy Writ.

4.      Jehovah Elohim had told Moses that he must teach the children of Israel.

5.      The content of the Mosaic Law would be clarified and re-explained to the generation of promise.

6.      Their personal history must also be properly explained and interpreted.

7.      What we are not informed of here, but will find out later in the book of Deuteronomy is, Moses is going to stop right here; he will not go with the Israelites in to take the Land of Promise.

As an aside, these first 5 verses tell us that Moses was not lost nor confused about where he was or how to get from point A to point B. If you pick up a commentary, and it says anything about Moses or the children of Israel were lost and/or confused, then you know you are reading the thoughts of an amateur.


——————————


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Historic event: God Tells Israel to Leave Mount Horeb for the Land of Promise

Numbers 10:11–13


V. 5 reads: Moses began to clarify [and explain] the law [of God], saying,... What Moses will say begins in v. 6 and continues through Deut. 4:43. He is preparing the people of Israel, those standing before him, to enter into the land promised them by God. He must review their history, so that they understand how they are related to God and where God has been in their lives and what God will do for them in the future. Moses needs to inspire confidence in them—not toward themselves or their own abilities—but toward God, Who has been with them every step of the way since Egypt. Moses will contrast faith and unbelief; obedience (Deut. 2:1–3:22) and disobedience (Deut. 1:19–46). Finally, Moses must make these people understand their place in history, and God’s unique relationship with them (Deut. 4:1–43). Footnote


At this point, I will identify the sort of topic that Moses is speaking about, whether it is an historic event or something else. For this chapter, Moses will start at Horeb, go to the edge of the land, and tell how the people shirked from God’s orders to take the land. Then, near the end of this chapter, he will bring them right back up to date.


Quotation formatting in Deuteronomy: Almost all of Deuteronomy is Moses speaking to the people. Within these speeches he will quote God, he will quote himself, and he will quote things which the people have said. Properly, I should begin each new paragraph with a fresh set of quotes. I won’t be doing that. I will use a set of quotation marks for all that Moses says in this first chapter and in the final chapter, with the proper quotes within quotes in these chapters. For the chapters in between, I will not use overall quotation marks for what Moses is saying, unless that chapter specifically mixes a bit of narrative with what Moses is saying.


Furthermore, a quote within what Moses is saying will be denoted with ‘single quotation marks’; and a quote within that will be denoted with italics. In subsequent chapters, where quotation marks are not applied to Moses, quotations of others will be denoted with normal quotation marks.


You need to get the picture of what is going on here. It is actually slightly confusing.

A Summary of What is Happening

1.      Moses is with the children of Israel and it is 38 years since Mount Sinai.

2.      Their parents were supposed to enter into Israel and take the land; they did not (Num. 13–14). So Moses spent 40 years total in the desert and God spent that time killing off the older Israelites.

3.      There are two generations of Israelites: Gen X are those who were 20 and older when they left Egypt; the generation of promise are those who are 20 and younger when they left Egypt. Included with this latter generation are those born in the desert-wilderness (comparing the population numbers given previously, we know that families did experience some growth, despite the killing off of Gen X).

4.      A portion of the generation of promise left Egypt as children, but they now stand before Moses as adults, 40 years later. Another portion of them were born in the desert and grew to adulthood in the desert. There is a third portion who were born in the desert and they are still under 20.

5.      Everyone in Gen X is now dead, except for Joshua and Caleb. Moses is actually from a generation before them.

6.      The people to whom Moses is speaking is the generation of promise.

7.      Moses will speak to them as if there is no different between the generations. Although, from time to time, he will make references to the two different generations, most of the time he will just speak to these people as the children of Israel. This is because of the overlapping quality of generations; and because they are all Israelites.

8.      Therefore, Moses will speak to his audience as if they are participants in actions 38 years ago, when, for the most part, they were not. Some may have been; but the bulk of his audience saw these things occur, but they were not active participants in these acts. This may get a little confusing.

9.      So Moses is going to address them as you all in the verbs and suffixes which he uses, speaking to them as sons of Israel as a group.

10.    However, what Moses is really doing is mostly talking to the younger generation about what their fathers did.

11.    At first, I thought that Moses moves back to the masculine singular verbs and masculine singular suffixes, he is actually speaking directly to the people before him; and that the masculine plural verbs refer to their fathers. However, that is a theory which did not pan out. This does happen on a few occasions, but I do not yet discern a pattern.

12.    Moses will continue in this manner throughout most of the book of Deuteronomy, as the younger generation, the generation of promise, those who stand before him, will become older and become participants, to some degree, in what occurs over these 38 years of wandering.

13.    However, when it all shakes out, all of their parents will die in the desert, dropping like flies; and the generation of promise, the generation to whom Moses is now speaking, will continue and go into the Land of Promise under the leadership of Joshua.

14.    Most of this narrative to which Moses refers is found in the book of Numbers.

15.    Moses realizes that he will die, that he will not go into the land with the people he is leading, and that he has a limited amount of time to impart Bible doctrine to the Israelites known as the generation of promise. Therefore, Moses, in the book of Deuteronomy, takes into consideration that his time on earth is limited, his time with his people is limited, and he needs to lay out a lot of important information before the cross over the Jordan with Joshua to take the land.

The topic of Num. 13–14 is mostly what Moses will talk about in this chapter.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


This begins Moses' first spoken discourse as recorded in Deuteronomy. This will continue until Deut. 4:40, wherein we will have perhaps a word of explanation or an addendum (vv. 41–49), followed by his second dissertation. Footnote


“Yehowah our Elohim spoke unto us in Horeb, to say, ‘Much to you [all] remaining at the mountain the this.

Deuteronomy

1:6

“Yehowah our Elohim spoke to us in Horeb, saying, ‘You have remained at this mountain [for too] long.

“Jehovah your God spoke to us in Horeb, saying, ‘You have remained at this mountain for too long.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                The Lord our God spake with us (and not I, of my own mind) in Horeb, saying: It is enough for you, and hath been profitable for you until this time (during) which you have received the law, and have made the tabernacle and its vessels, and appointed your princes over you; but now it would be evil for you to tarry longer at this mount.

Latin Vulgate                          The Lord our God spoke to us in Horeb, saying: You have stayed long enough in this mountain.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        “Yehowah our Elohim spoke unto us in Horeb, to say, ‘Much to you [all] remaining at the mountain the this.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    The LORD our God said to us in Horeb, You have dwelt long enough in this mountain.

Septuagint (Greek)                The Lord your God spoke to us in Horeb, saying, Let it suffice you to have dwelt so long in this mountain.

 

Significant differences:           There is all kinds of additional text in the targum.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Leaving Mount Horeb

At Horeb, the Lord our God told us: You've been at this mountain long enough.

Contemporary English V.       People of Israel, when we were in our camp at Mount Sinai, the LORD our God told us: You have stayed here long enough.

Easy English                          `The *Lord our God said to us at *Mount Horeb, "You have stayed for a long time at this mountain.

Good News Bible (TEV)         "When we were at Mount Sinai, the LORD our God said to us, 'You have stayed long enough at this mountain.

New Berkeley Version           “At Horeb [Most of the discourse, Deut. 1:6–3:29, is a review of Israel’s experiences from the time they left Horeb until the death of Moses. Deut. 4:1–10 constitutes the appeal to observe the Law, to beware of idols, and to cling to evidences of God’s love for His people.] the Lord our God told us, ‘You have now tarried at this mountain long enough;...

New Living Translation           The Command to Leave Sinai

"When we were at Mount Sinai, the Lord our God said to us, `You have stayed at this mountain long enough.

The Voice                               Moses: The Eternal, our True God, spoke to us back at Horeb. He told us, "You've stayed long enough at this mountain!.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          'It was while we were in the Dry Place (Horeb) that Jehovah our God spoke to us and said, You have stayed at this mountain long enough.

Beck’s American Translation Israel Should Take Canaan

“At Horeb the LORD our God told us: You have stayed at this mountain long enough.

Christian Community Bible     First discourse of Moses: the judges

Moses said, “Yahweh, our God, spoke to us at Mount Horeb: ‘You have stayed long enough at this mountain.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       We were still at Horeb when the Lord our God said to us, This mountain has been your home long enough;.

New American Bible (R.E.)    Departure from Horeb. Throughout this section Moses is reviewing the events following the departure from Horeb, as a basis for the exhortation beginning in 4:1. Most of these events are narrated with some variation in the Book of Numbers.

The LORD, our God, said to us at Horeb [Horeb: the name given to the mountain of revelation in the Elohist and Deuteronomic traditions; this mountain is called Sinai in the Yahwist and Priestly traditions.]: You have stayed long enough at this mountain. Ex 32:34-33:3.

Revised English Bible            The Lord our God speaking to us at Horeb said, “You have stayed at this mountain long enough; up, break camp, and make for the hill-country of the Amorites, and pass on to all their neighbors in the Arabah, in the hill-country, in the Shephelah, in the Negeb, and on the coast; in short, all Canaan and the Lebanon as far as the Great River, the Euphrates. V. 7 is included for context.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      Yahweh our God spoke to us in Horeb, saying, "Your legions will dwell in this mountain.

The Expanded Bible              The Lord our God spoke to us at ·Mount Sinai [LHoreb; Canother name for Sinai] and said, "You have stayed long enough at this mountain.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 SPEECH I

Our Ever-living God spoke to us in Horeb, saying; - You have remained long enough on this mountain.

NET Bible®                             Events at Horeb

The Lord our God spoke to us at Horeb and said, "You have stayed [Heb "lived"; "dwelled."] in the area of this mountain long enough.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           "ADONAI spoke to us in Horev. He said, 'You have lived long enough by this mountain.

exeGeses companion Bible   Yah Veh our Elohim worded to us in Horeb, saying,

You settle too much in this mount:...

Hebrew Names Version         The LORD our God spoke to us in Chorev, saying, You have lived long enough in this mountain:...

Kaplan Translation                 God our Lord spoke to us at Horeb, saying, 'You have remained near this mountain too long.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           Hashem Eloheinu spoke unto us in Chorev, saying, Ye have dwelt long enough at this mountain;...


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    Yahweh our Elohim, He spoke to us at Horeb saying, Many days have you dwelt at this mountain.

English Standard Version      "The LORD our God said to us in Horeb, 'You have stayed long enough at this mountain.

The Geneva Bible                  The LORD our God spake unto us in Horeb [In the second year and second month, (Numbers 10:11).], saying, Ye have dwelt long enough in this mount.

NASB                                     "The Lord our God spoke to us at Horeb [Num 10:11-13], saying, `You have stayed [Lit dwelt] long enough at this mountain.

New RSV                               The Lord our God spoke to us at Horeb, saying, `You have stayed long enough at this mountain.

Third Millennium Bible            "The LORD our God spoke unto us in Horeb, saying: 'Ye have dwelt long enough in this mount.

World English Bible                Yahweh our God spoke to us in Horeb, saying, You have lived long enough in this mountain:...

Young’s Updated LT             “Jehovah our God has spoken unto us in Horeb, saying, Enough to you—of dwelling in this mount.

 

The gist of this verse:          There was a point at which the Israelites needed to leave Mount Sinai.


You may have noticed from the translation above that there are two views of the first discourse: one view is, it ends in Deut. 3:29 and the other is that it ends in Deut. 4:40. The big difference is, Moses will speak of historical events in Deut. 1–3 and about the laws in Deut. 4. Because of this stark difference, some commentators separate these into different sermons.


In Deut. 5, Moses picks up with historical events that lead us into the giving of the Ten Commandments. So Deut. 5 will combine actual events with the Law of God. Furthermore, the fact that Moses is speaking, is alluded to again. So, Deut. 1–4 can be seen as Moses first sermon, which sermon is divided between the proper interpretation of history (Deut. 1–3) and some of the laws which Israel is subject to (Deut. 4). Then Deut. 5 picks up after a lunch break (or whatever).


Deuteronomy 1:6a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun with the 1st person plural suffix

Strong's #430 BDB #43

dâbar (דָּבַר) [pronounced dawb-VAHR]

to speak, to talk [and back with action], to give an opinion, to expound, to make a formal speech, to speak out, to promise, to propose, to speak kindly of, to declare, to proclaim, to announce

3rd person masculine singular, Piel perfect

Strong’s #1696 BDB #180

The Piel stem is intensive, making dâbar is stronger. It can carry with it the idea of providing guidance and direction, if not a set of mandates (and this would be determined by context). The kind of intensification is determined by context. The Piel may call for talk, backed with action; give your opinion; expound; make a formal speech; speak out; talk it around, to give a somber and tragic report.

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied) with the 1st person plural suffix

Strong's #413 BDB #39

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, upon, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

Chôrêb (חֹרֵב) [pronounced khoh-REBV]

waste, desolate, desert and is transliterated Horeb

proper noun

Strong’s #2722 BDB #352


Translation: “Yehowah our Elohim spoke to us in Horeb,... Moses is going to speak to this people, and he is going to give them a history lesson. He takes them back 38 years when they had been at Mount Sinai, also known as Mount Horeb. God had given the Law to Moses and Moses had taught the Law to his people.


Moses says that God spoke to them in Horeb, using the 1st person plural suffix. Nearly all of those people are dead, so why would he use the term us?

When Critics Ask: Isn’t this former generation dead?

DEUTERONOMY 1:6 ff—How could any from the former generation be present when they all died in the wilderness?

PROBLEM: According to Numbers 26:64–65 , all the unbelieving generation of Israelites died in the wilderness, with “not a man of those who were numbered by Moses” remaining to go into the Promised Land. However, when Moses spoke to the people at the end of the wanderings he referred repeatedly to their being witnesses to what happened before the wanderings (cf. Deut. 1:6 , 9 , 14 ; 5:2 , 5 ; 11:2 , 7 ).

SOLUTION: First of all, in Deuteronomy, Moses is addressing the nation as a nation and, therefore, may not be making a distinction between individuals in the earlier period as opposed to those in the later period. Second, there were a large number of women present who had personally remembered the things to which Moses referred. Third, both the Levites and those who were under 20 years of age before the 40 years were exempt from the general pronouncement that none of the men would enter the Promised Land ( Num. 26:64 ). So also were Joshua and Caleb, who had been faithful spies ( Num. 32:12 ). So there were plenty of people present who could witness to what Moses was saying, even though a whole generation of men (above the age of 20) had perished in the wilderness, as God had said.

From Norman Geisler and Thomas Howe, When Critics Ask; Victor Books; taken from e-Sword, Deut. 1:6.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


15 times, Moses will speak of Yehowah our Elohim (Deut.1:6, 19, 20, 25, 41 2:29, 33, 36, 37 3:3 4:40 5:27 6:4, 24, 25); and twice at the very end (Deut. 29:18, 29). However, even more surprising is, the designation Yehowah your Elohim is found 241 times in the book of Deuteronomy. Moses has not been short-shrifted by God; but much of what he will say to the Israelites will apply to them in the land, being led by God, after Moses is dead. Therefore, Yehowah your Elohim is more applicable. Obviously, after awhile, this will be the only way that Moses uses and he will lay the use of Yehowah our Elohim aside. Both of these expressions are found more often in the book of Deuteronomy than in any other book (the book of Joshua uses Yehowah our Elohim 5 times). Nowhere else is God’s relationship to His people more direct and intimate than in the book of Deuteronomy.

 

Jamieson, Fausset and Brown: Horeb was the general name of a mountainous district; literally, "the parched" or "burnt region," whereas Sinai was the name appropriated to a particular peak. Footnote I don’t know if that was the case then, but that general area is known as the Sinai desert. However, that may have come to pass simply because Mount Sinai has become so well-known. Jamieson, Fausset and Brown seem to contradict themselves here: The desert has its provinces, or divisions, distinguished by a variety of names; and the "desert of Sinai" is that wild and desolate region which occupies the very center of the peninsula, comprising the lofty range to which the mount of God belongs. It is a wilderness of shaggy rocks of porphyry and red granite, and of valleys for the most part bare of verdure. Footnote

 

Whedon: Horeb is supposed to indicate the mountain-range, Sinai the summit on which the law was given. Footnote


The phrase the desert of Sinai is found in Ex. 19:2, which suggests that the overall desert area is Sinai. Further, there may be a relationship between the word for mountain and Chôrêb (חֹרֵב) [pronounced khoh-REBV]. The word for mountain is har (הַר) [pronounced har]. Strong’s #2022 (and #2042) BDB #249. There is a close relationship between the letters ה hêʾ [pronounced hay] and ח cheth or heth. So it is possible that Chôrêb is based in part upon the word har.


What God says that Moses recalls here, is not going to be another set of precepts and laws.


At the first, God spoke directly to the people; then the people asked that Moses act as an intermediary; so that God would speak to him; and he would relay the law to them. It disturbed them greatly to hear God’s voice. This is actually a good thing. They recognized the absolute need of an intermediary.


Deuteronomy 1:6b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

rab (רַב) [pronounced rahbv]

many, much, great (in the sense of large or significant, not acclaimed)

masculine singular adjective

Strong's #7227 BDB #912

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

yâshab (יָשַב) [pronounced yaw-SHAHBV]

to remain, to stay; to dwell, to live, to inhabit; to sit

Qal infinitive construct

Strong's #3427 BDB #442

har (הַר) [pronounced har]

hill; mountain, mount; hill-country, a mountainous area, mountain region

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #2022 (and #2042) BDB #249

zeh (זֶה) [pronounced zeh]

here, this, this one; thus; possibly another

masculine singular demonstrative adjective with a definite article

Strong’s #2088, 2090 (& 2063) BDB #260


Translation: ...saying, ‘You have remained at this mountain [for too] long. A minor clarifying point on the punctuation. You will notice that all of this chapter will be wrapped inside a pair of quotes (between vv. 6–46). Quotations within that will be denoted by single quotes; and quotes within that will be denoted with italics. The overall pair of quotes will only be used where it is actually stated that Moses is speaking (as we see in v. 5).


Historically, the Jews spent a year at Mount Sinai (compare Ex. 19:1–2 Num. 10:11). Moses needed to spend a great deal of time getting the laws from God, then he had to relay this information to the Jews. Also, the Jews got involved in some evil behavior, so that Moses needed to straighten them out. However, after Moses received the entire law and the people heard the entire law, it was time for him to lead the Jews into the Land of Promise.

 

Whedon: The Israelites came to Mount Sinai in the third month of the first year of the wandering, (Exodus 19:1-2,) and stayed till the twentieth day of the second month of the second year. Numbers 10:11-12. Footnote

 

Jamieson, Fausset and Brown: About a year had been spent among the recesses of that wild solitude, in laying the foundation, under the immediate direction of God, of a new and peculiar community, as to its social, political, and, above all, religious character; and when this purpose had been accomplished, they were ordered to break up their encampment in Horeb. The command given them was to march straight to Canaan, and possess it. Footnote

 

Keil and Delitzsch: The words, “you have dwelt long enough at this mountain,” imply that the purpose for which Israel was taken to Horeb had been answered, i.e., that they had been furnished with the laws and ordinances requisite for the fulfilment of the covenant, and could now go to Canaan to take possession of the promised land. Footnote


God has a purpose for these Jews. They are not to remain at the foot of Mount Sinai for the rest of their natural lives. God has places for them to go to; God has a mission for them to accomplish.


Application: It is the same for us in our Christian lives. God did not just save us, and then say, “Hey, see you all in eternity. Have a good time on earth.” We are on this earth as believers for a purpose. This does not mean that God is going to wreck our cool lives with all of this Christian stuff. Jesus has come to give us life, and that more abundantly (John 10:10). God had a marvelous life planned for the people of Israel; all they had to do was go along with the program.


Application: As ought to be abundantly clear in your own life, God is not standing over your shoulder saying, “Do this, do that; don’t turn to the left, turn to the right! Walk faster. Stop dawdling.” God takes an hour from our lives daily for the study of the Word of God; and then our lives simply go, where divine viewpoint overcomes human viewpoint; and guidance from God comes from His Word implanted in our souls.


Application: What God has planned for our lives is the greatest and most abundant life we could have. God wants us to enjoy our lives here and God wants our lives to be full. If you grow, which is dependent upon taking in the Word of God, then your production will be a natural outgrowth of that. When you eat right and exercise, your body develops muscles—it is a natural outgrowth. Spiritual production functions much the same way.


V. 6 reads: “Jehovah your God spoke to us in Horeb, saying, ‘You have remained at this mountain for too long. Now, we do not have this exact quote previously recorded in the book of Numbers. We can put our finger on the time that this happened, which is pretty much right before the Israelites began to get organized to leave Mount Sinai; but this quote from God to Moses is recorded only here in Deuteronomy.


Here it makes sense for us to be speaking of Mount Sinai, which is the second longest place where the Jews stayed prior to entering the land (they remained there about a year). The method here is specific. God spoke directly to Moses and told Moses it was time to move out. This commandment was certainly not intended for Moses only, but for all the congregation of Israel. However, Moses, as commander and chief of two million people—was he to wander about from tent to tent saying, it's time to get going? That is impractical. Now it came about in the second year, in the second month on the twentieth of the month that the cloud was lifted from over the tabernacle of the testimony; and the sons of Israel set out on their journeys from the wilderness of Sinai. Then the cloud settle down in the wilderness of Paran. so they moved out for the first time according to the commandment of Yehowah through Moses (Num. 10:11–13). God had already commanded the children of Israel that when the cloud was lifted up from the tabernacle that it was time to move out. They moved to Mount Sinai under those directions and, having spent a year or so there, were moving out again.


——————————


Turn and pull up stakes [to move] and go into a mountain of the Amorite and unto all his neighbors in the Arabah, in the hill country and in the Shephelah and in the Negev and in the coast of the sea—the land of the Canaanite and the Lebanon as far as the river the great, a river of Euphrates.

Deuteronomy

1:7

Turn and pull up stakes [to move] and go to the hill country of the Amorite and to all of his neighbors in the Arabah, in the mountainous area, in the Shephelah, in the Negev and along the coastal region—to the land of the Canaanite and [to] Lebanon as far as the Great River, the River Euphrates.

Turn around from here and go toward the hill country of the Amorites as well as to all of his neighbors in the Arabah, the mountainous areas, the Shephelah, the Negev and along the costal regions—to the land of the Canaanite and to Lebanon, eventually going as far as the Great River, the River Euphrates.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                Turn you, and journey to Arad and Hormah, and go up to the mountain of the Amorites; and to the dwelling-places of Ammon, Moab, and Gebala, in the plains of the forests, in mountain and valley, and by the south on the shore of the sea, Ashkelon and Kiserin, the land of the Kenaanite unto Kaldohi, and Lebanon, the place of the mountain of the sanctuary, to the great river, the River Phrat.

Latin Vulgate                          Turn you, and come to the mountain of the Amorrhites, and to the other places that are next to it, the plains and the hills and the vales towards the south, and by the sea shore, the land of the Chanaanites, and of Libanus, as far as the great river Euphrates.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        Turn and pull up stakes [to move] and go into a mountain of the Amorite and unto all his neighbors in the Arabah, in the hill country and in the Shephelah and in the Negev and in the coast of the sea—the land of the Canaanite and the Lebanon as far as the river the great, a river of Euphrates.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    Turn and set out on your journey, and go to the mountain of the Amorites, and to all the places round about it, in the low desert plain, in the mountain, in the lowland and in the south and by the sea side, to the land of the Canaanites, and to Lebanon, as far as the great river, the river Euphrates.

Septuagint (Greek)                Turn and depart, and enter into the mountain of the Amorites, and go to all that dwell near about Arabah, to the mountain and the plain and to the south, and the land of the Canaanites near the sea, and to Lebanon, as far as the great river, the River Euphrates.

 

Significant differences:           The words Arabah and Shephelah are transliterations. There are translations of these words found in the English of the Syriac and Latin. The targum is filled with additional text, as usual.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Get going! Enter the hills of the Amorites and the surrounding areas in the desert, the highlands, the lowlands, the arid southern region, and the seacoast-the land of the Canaanites-and the Lebanon range, all the way to the great Euphrates River.

Contemporary English V.       Leave this place and go into the land that belongs to the Amorites and their neighbors the Canaanites. This land includes the Jordan River valley, the hill country, the western foothills, the Southern Desert, the Mediterranean seacoast, the Lebanon Mountains, and all the territory as far as the Euphrates River.

Easy English                          Pack up your *tents and begin to travel. Go to the hills of the *Amorites and to all the countries near to them. Go to the Jordan valley and to the hills and into the valleys. Go towards the south and to the Mediterranean coast. Go to the country called Canaan, to Lebanon and as far as the great river Euphrates.

Easy-to-Read Version            Go to the hill country where the Amorite people live. Go to all the places around there. Go to the Jordan Valley, the hill country, the western slopes, the Negev [The desert area south of Judah.], and the seacoast. Go through the land of Canaan and Lebanon as far as the great river, the Euphrates.

Good News Bible (TEV)         Break camp and move on. Go to the hill country of the Amorites and to all the surrounding regions---to the Jordan Valley, to the hill country and the lowlands, to the southern region, and to the Mediterranean coast. Go to the land of Canaan and on beyond the Lebanon Mountains as far as the great Euphrates River.

The Message                         On your way now. Get moving. Head for the Amorite hills, wherever people are living in the Arabah, the mountains, the foothills, the Negev, the seashore--the Canaanite country and the Lebanon all the way to the big river, the Euphrates.

New Berkeley Version           ...break camp, trek your way into the hill country of the Amorites and to all the land neighboring upon it; the Arabah, the highlands, the foothills, the southern plains, the seacoast—the land of the Canaanites—and Lebanon as far as the great river, the river Euphrates.

New Century Version             Get ready, and go to the mountain country of the Amorites, and to all the places around there-the Jordan Valley, the mountains, the western hills, the southern area, the seacoast, the land of Canaan, and Lebanon. Go as far as the great river, the Euphrates.

New Life Bible                        Get ready to travel now. Go to the hill country of the Amorites, and to all their neighbors in the Arabah, in the hill country and in the valley, in the Negev and by the sea, the land of the Canaanites, and Lebanon, as far as the big river, the river Euphrates.

New Living Translation           It is time to break camp and move on. Go to the hill country of the Amorites and to all the neighboring regions-the Jordan Valley, the hill country, the western foothills [Hebrew the Shephelah.], the Negev, and the coastal plain. Go to the land of the Canaanites and to Lebanon, and all the way to the great Euphrates River.

The Voice                               Break camp, and head up into the Amorite highlands, into the territories of all their neighbors-into the arid valley [Hebrew, Arabah], the hills, the lowlands, the southern desert [Hebrew, Negev], and the Mediterranean seacoast. Go into the land of the Canaanites, as far north as Lebanon and all the way east to the great Euphrates River.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Now, turn around and go! Enter the mountains of the Amorites and of those who live near next to the desert. from their mountains and valleys in the south, to the coast of the land of the CanaAnites, to [the borders] of Lebanon, and on to the great EuPhrates River.

God’s Word                         Break camp, and get ready! Go to the mountain region of the Amorites, and go to everyone living on the plains, in the mountains, in the foothills, in the Negev, on the whole Mediterranean coast (the land of the Canaanites), and into Lebanon as far as the Euphrates River.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       6 We were still at Horeb when the Lord our God said to us, This mountain has been your home long enough; 7 it is time for you to turn back, and make your way to the hill country of the Amorrhites and its neighbourhood. Low ground and high ground, southern plain and sea-coast, all Chanaan including mount Lebanon, right up to the great river Euphrates, 8 I have given it all (said he) into your hands; go in and take possession of it; it is the home the Lord promised to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and their posterity after them. Vv. 6 & 8 are included for context.

New American Bible              Leave here and go to the hill country of the Amorites and to all the surrounding regions, the land of the Canaanites in the Arabah, the mountains, the foothills, the Negeb and the seacoast; to Lebanon, and as far as the Great River (the Euphrates). The Amorites and the Canaanites formed the principal part of the pre-Israelite population of Palestine. The foothills: the hills on the western slope of the Judean mountain range. The Arabah: the valley of the Jordan and the depression south of the Dead Sea. The Negeb: the arid land in southern Palestine.

New American Bible (R.E.)    Leave here and go to the hill country of the Amorites and to all the surrounding regions, the Arabah, the mountains, the Shephelah, the Negeb and the seacoast-the land of the Canaanites and the Lebanon as far as the Great River, the Euphrates. The hill country of the Amorites: the central mountain range of Palestine. The Negeb: the arid land in southern Palestine. The Lebanon: the mountain range of Phoenicia, north of Palestine. This is an idealized presentation of the land the Israelites were to occupy; Israel never held power as far as the "Great River" (the Euphrates). The Amorites and the Canaanites were only two of several different peoples occupying the land (cf. 7:1).

NIRV                                      Take your tents down. Go into the hill country of the Amorites. Go to all of the people who are their neighbors. Go to the people who live in the Arabah Valley. Travel to the mountains and the western hills. Go to the people in the Negev Desert and along the coast. Travel to the land of Canaan and to Lebanon. Go as far as the great Euphrates River.

New Jerusalem Bible             Move on, continue your journey, go to the highlands of the Amorites, to all those who live in the Arabah, in the highlands, in the lowlands, in the Negeb and in the coastland; go into Canaan and to Lebanon as far as the great River Euphrates.

Today’s NIV                          Break camp and advance into the hill country of the Amorites; go to all the neighboring peoples in the Arabah, in the mountains, in the western foothills, in the Negev and along the coast, to the land of the Canaanites and to Lebanon, as far as the great river, the Euphrates.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      Journey into the mountain in North-Jordan. Face and come at all its residents in the plains, the mountains, and the lowlands from South-Canaan, from the sea shore, and the land of the Canaanites from Lebanon unto the great river, the river Euphrates.

Bible in Basic English             Make a move now, and go on your way into the hill-country of the Amorites and the places near it, in the Arabah and the hill-country and in the lowlands and in the South and by the seaside, all the land of the Canaanites, and Lebanon, as far as the great river, the river Euphrates.

The Expanded Bible              Get ready [LTurn face], and go to the mountain country of the Amorites, and to all the places around there-the ·Jordan Valley [LArabah], the mountains, the ·western hills [LShephelah], the ·southern area [LNegev], the seacoast, the land of Canaan, and Lebanon. Go as far as the great river, the Euphrates [Gen. 15:18-21].

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 Turn and march, and proceed with all your camps to the highlands of the Amorites, and all their neighbours in the dry lands of the hills, and thence to the plains and desert along the shore of the sea of the land of Canan, and from Lebanon, as far as the great river Frath [Euphrates. - F. F.].

HCSB                                     Resume your journey and go to the hill country of the Amorites and their neighbors in the Arabah, the hill country, the lowlands, the Negev and the sea coast--to the land of the Canaanites and to Lebanon as far as the Euphrates River.

NET Bible®                             Get up now [Heb "turn"; NAB "Leave here"; NIV, TEV "Break camp."], resume your journey, heading for [Heb "go (to)."] the Amorite hill country, to all its areas [Heb "its dwelling places."] including the arid country [Heb "the Arabah" (so ASV, NAB, NIV, NRSV).], the highlands, the Shephelah [Heb "lowlands" (so TEV) or "steppes"; NIV, CEV, NLT "the western foothills."] [The Shephelah is the geographical region between the Mediterranean coastal plain and the Judean hill country.], the Negev [The Hebrew term Negev means literally "desert" or "south" (so KJV, ASV). It refers to the area south of Beer Sheba and generally west of the Arabah Valley between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba.], and the coastal plain - all of Canaan and Lebanon as far as the Great River, that is, the Euphrates.

NIV, ©2011                             Break camp and advance into the hill country of the Amorites [ver 19; Dt 2:24; 7:1; Jos 10:5]; go to all the neighboring peoples in the Arabah [S ver 1], in the mountains, in the western foothills, in the Negev [Nu 21:1; Jos 11:16; 12:8; 2Sa 24:7] and along the coast, to the land of the Canaanites [Ge 10:18] and to Lebanon [Dt 11:24], as far as the great river, the Euphrates [Ge 2:14].


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           Turn, get moving and go to the hill-country of the Emori and all the places near there in the 'Aravah, the hill-country, the Sh'felah, the Negev and by the seashore - the land of the Kena'ani, and the L'vanon, as far as the great river, the Euphrates River.

exeGeses companion Bible   ...turn your face and pull stakes

and go to the mount of the Emoriy

and to all the tabernacles nearby

- in the plain, in the mountains and in the lowlands

and in the south and by the sea haven,

to the land of the Kenaaniy and to Lebanon,

to the great river, the river Euphrates.

Hebrew Names Version         ...turn, and take your journey, and go to the hill country of the Amori, and to all [the places] near there, in the `Aravah, in the hill country, and in the lowland, and in the South, and by the seashore, the land of the Kena`anim, and Levanon, as far as the great river, the river Perat.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               Start out and make your way to the hill country of the Amorites and to all their neighbors in the Arabah, the hill country, the Shephelah [Others “lowland”], the Negeb, the seacoast, the land of the Canaanites, and the Lebanon, as far as the Great River, the river Euphrates.

Judaica Press Complete T.    Turn and journey, and come to the mountain of the Amorites and to all its neighboring places, in the plain, on the mountain, and in the lowland, and in the south and by the seashore, the land of the Canaanites [Phonecia], and the Lebanon, until the great river, the Euphrates River.

Kaplan Translation                 Turn around and head toward the Amorite highlands and all its neighboring territories in the Aravah, the hill country, the lowlands, the Negev, the seashore, the Canaanite territory, and Lebanon, as far as the Euphrates River..

Orthodox Jewish Bible           Turn you, and take your journey, and go to the Har HaEmori (hill country of the Amorites), and unto all the places nigh thereunto, in the Aravah, in the hills, in the Shefelah, and in the Negev, and by the seacoast, to the Eretz HaKena'ani (Land of the Canaanites), and unto Lebanon, unto the great river, the river Euphrates.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    Turn around and take your journey and enter the hill-country of the Amorite; go to all his neighbors in the Aravah, in the hill-country, in the low foothills, in the Negev and on the sea shore, the country of the Canaanite and the Lebanon as far as the Great Stream, the stream Euphrates.

Context Group Version          ...turn { pl }, and take your { pl } journey, and go { pl } to the hill-country of the Amorites, and to all [ the places ] nearby, in the Arabah, in the hill-country, and in the lowland, and in the South, and by the sea-shore, the land of the Canaanites, and Lebanon, as far as the great river, the river Euphrates.

Darby Translation                  Turn and take your journey, and go to the hill-country of the Amorites, and unto all the neighbouring places in the plain, in the mountain, and in the lowland, and in the south, and by the seaside, the land of the Canaanites, and Lebanon, unto the great river, the river Euphrates.

Emphasized Bible                  Turn ye and set yourselves forward, and enter into the hill country of the Amorites, and into all the places near, in the plain, in the mountain, and in the lowland, and in the south, and in the coast of the sea,—the land of Canaan and the Lebanon, as far as the great river, the river Euphrates.

English Standard V. – UK       Turn and take your journey, and go to the hill country [[Num. 13:29]] of the Amorites and to all their neighbours in the Arabah [[See ver. 1 above]; ch. 3:17], in the hill country [Josh. 9:1] and in the lowland and in the Negeb and by the sea coast [Joshua 9:1], the land of the Canaanites, and Lebanon, as far as the great river, the river Euphrates.

Green’s Literal Translation    ...turn and pull up stakes and go into the hills of the Amorites, and to all its neighboring places in the Arabah, in the hills, and in the low country, and in the Negeb, and in the shore of the sea, the land of the Canaanites and of Lebanon, to the great river, the Euphrates River.

NASB                                     Turn and set your journey, and go to the hill country [Gen 15:18; Deut 11:24; Josh 10:40] of the Amorites, and to all their neighbors in the Arabah, in the hill country and in the lowland and in the Negev [I.e. South country] [Gen 12:9] and by the seacoast, the land of the Canaanites, and Lebanon, as far as the great river, the river Euphrates.

New RSV                               Resume your journey, and go into the hill country of the Amorites as well as into the neighbouring regions-the Arabah, the hill country, the Shephelah, the Negeb, and the sea coast-the land of the Canaanites and the Lebanon, as far as the great river, the river Euphrates.

Webster’s Bible Translation  Turn you, and take your journey, and go to the mount of the Amorites, and to all [the places] nigh to it, in the plain, on the hills, and in the vale, and in the south, and by the sea-side, to the land of the Canaanites, and to Lebanon, to the great river, the river Euphrates.

Young’s Updated LT             Turn and journey for you, and enter the mount of the Amorite, and unto all its neighbouring places, in the plain, in the hill-country, and in the low country, and in the south, and in the haven of the sea, the land of the Canaanite, and of Lebanon, unto the great river, the river Phrat.

 

The gist of this verse:          The Jews were to proceed northward into the Land of Promise, and to travel through and take all of it.


Deuteronomy 1:7a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

pânâh (פָּנָה) [pronounced paw-NAWH]

to turn, to turn away from, to turn toward, to turn one’s face away from, to turn one’s face to

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperative

Strong's #6437 BDB #815

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

nâçaʿ (נָסַע) [pronounced naw-SAHĢ]

to pull up [stakes], to pull out, to break camp and move out, to set out, to journey, to march, to depart; to bend a bow

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperative

Strong’s #5265 BDB #652


Translation: Turn and pull up stakes [to move]... We are continuing with God’s orders to the children of Israel. God had orders for the sons of Israel. They had been in the Mount Horeb area for long enough, and had received the Law of God; now it was time for them to move north and to take the land.


Deuteronomy 1:7b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

bôwʾ (בּוֹא) [pronounced boh]

come [in], go [in], enter, advance

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperative

Strong’s #935 BDB #97

har (הַר) [pronounced har]

hill; mountain, mount; hill-country, a mountainous area, mountain region

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #2022 (and #2042) BDB #249

ʾĔmôrîy (אֱמֹרִי) [pronounced eh-moh-REE]

mountaineer (possibly); and is transliterated Amorite

gentilic adjective; with the definite article

Strong’s #567 BDB #57


Translation: ...and go to the hill country of the Amorite... The third order is what God said to the people, that they were to go up into the hill country where the Amorites lives.


Amorite is a masculine singular gentilic adjective which stands for the tribe of Amorites. Many translations use a plural noun instead, and Moses, in subsequent verses, will speak of them in the plural.


This hill country spoken of here is the central mountain range of Palestine. Footnote However, most sources seem to agree that these are the southern and central mountains of Canaan. Footnote There is a slight possibility that this is the mountainous area south of the Dead Sea.


Deuteronomy 1:7c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

with a plural noun, it is rendered all of, all; any of

masculine singular construct with a masculine plural noun

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

shâkên (שָכֵן) [pronounced shaw-KAYN]

inhabitants, neighbors, those living nearby; dwellers

masculine plural adjective used here as a substantive with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #7934 BDB #1015

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, upon, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʿĂrâbâh (or, ʿărâbâh) (עֲרָבָה) [pronounced guh-rawb-VAW]

plain; arid, sterile region; a desert; transliterated Arabah with the definite article

sometimes a proper noun; feminine singular noun; with the definite article

Strong’s #6160 BDB #787


Translation: ...and to all of his neighbors in the Arabah,... The Arabah was the valley surrounding the Dead Sea and going north and south from there. His refers back to the Amorite, which is spoken of here in the singular. This is not unusual to speak of a people in the singular (for instance, the Apache, the Iroquois).


Deuteronomy 1:7d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, upon, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

har (הַר) [pronounced har]

hill; mountain, mount; hill-country, a mountainous area, mountain region

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #2022 (and #2042) BDB #249

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, upon, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

shephêlâh (שְפֵלָה) [pronounced she-fay-LAW]

lowland, valley, plain; a strip of land west of the Judæan mountains; a strip of land near the coast of Carmel; transliterated Shephelah

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #8219 BDB #1050


Translation: ...in the mountainous area, in the Shephelah,... We have two different regions spoken of as mountainous area, using the same Hebrew noun. One refers to the hill country of Judah and another refers to another mountainous region above not too far north from where the Jews are.


Israel has several mountainous regions within it. There are mountains on both sides of the Dead Sea and the Jordan. Then, going further north, there are another set of mountains around the Sea of Chinnereth. The hill country could be that region above the Israelites which is west of the Dead Sea and continues up along the west side of the Jordan River. This would be later known as the hill country of Judah, which stretched further into Benjamin and into Ephraim. My guess would be that God is referring to the mountainous region known as the hill country of Judah; and the other mountainous area is probably the hill country of the Edom. Although I am not sure which refers to which, my guess is, God knows this land and so does Moses.


The Shephelah was west of the hill country; these are the flat lands between the hill country and the coast of Israel along the Mediterranean Sea (a map will be provided for all of this at the end of this verse).


Deuteronomy 1:7e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, upon, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

negeb (נֶגֶב) [pronounced ne-GHEBV]

south, south-country; southern portion of Judah, southern district of Palestine; often transliterated Negev or Negeb

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #5045 BDB #616

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, upon, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

chôwph (חוֹף) [pronounced khohf]

sea shore, shore, coast; [sheltered] cove

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #2348 BDB #342

yâm (יָם) [pronounced yawm]

sea, lake, river, seaward, west, westward

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3220 BDB #410


Translation: ...in the Negev and along the coastal region... The Negev would be almost all of southern Judah and the costal region would be that area along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea.


Deuteronomy 1:7f

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular construct

Strong's #776 BDB #75

Kenaʿănîy (כְּנַעֲנִי) [pronounced ke-nah-ģuh-NEE]

merchant, trader; and is transliterated Canaanite, Canaanites

adjective/nominative gentilic; with the definite article

Strong’s #3669 BDB #489

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Lebânôwn (לְבָנוֹן) [pronounced leb-vaw-NOHN]

white; and is transliterated Lebanon

proper noun/location with the definite article

Strong’s #3844 BDB #526


Translation:...—to the land of the Canaanite and [to] Lebanon... All of the area to the north of where the Israelites were camped is known as the land of the Canaanite. Further north would be Lebanon.


Deuteronomy 1:7g

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʿad (עַד) [pronounced ģahd]

as far as, even to, up to, until

preposition of duration or of limits

Strong’s #5704 BDB #723

nâhâr (נָהָר) [pronounced naw-HAWR]

stream, river

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #5104 BDB #625

gâdôwl (גָּדוֹל) [pronounced gaw-DOHL]

large, great or mighty [in power, nobility, wealth; in number, or magnitude and extent], loud, older, important, distinguished; vast, unyielding, immutable, significant, astonishing

masculine singular adjective with a definite article

Strong’s #1419 BDB #152

nâhâr (נָהָר) [pronounced naw-HAWR]

stream, river

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #5104 BDB #625

Pherât (פְּרָת) [pronounced fe-RAWT]

to break forth, rushing; transliterated Euphrates

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #6578 BDB #832


Translation: ...as far as the Great River, the River Euphrates. It is quite apparent that the land described here by Moses is the most of the land given to Israel by God. It is not a puny slice of land, as Israel controls today. Going up to the Euphrates River suggests that the boundaries of the land which God give to Israel is quite huge.


Here is what we have so far: Turn around from here and go toward the hill country of the Amorites as well as to all of his neighbors in the Arabah, the mountainous areas, the Shephelah, the Negev and along the costal regions—to the land of the Canaanite and to Lebanon, eventually going as far as the Great River, the River Euphrates.

Whedon Summarizes the Areas Named

Scripture

Text/Commentary

Mount of the Amorites

Denoting all the mountainous region inhabited by the Amorites, extending into the Negeb, or south country. This nation, as the most powerful, often stands for all the people of Canaan.

All the places nigh

Literally, all its neighbours. The whole land is more specifically mentioned according to its natural divisions.

The plain (the Arabah); the hills

The modern Ghor, or Jordan valley. The mountain or highlands, afterward called the mountains of Judah and Ephraim.

The vale (the Shephelah)

The lowlands, the low, level country lying between the mountains of Judah and the Mediterranean Sea, extending from Carmel to Gaza.

The south

The Negeb, or south country.

The sea side

The narrow strip of coast from Joppa almost to Tyre, here denominated the land of the Canaanites.

Lebanon

The [northern] boundary, as laid down in Numbers 34:7-9.

The great river

The Euphrates is mentioned as the extreme eastern boundary in the covenant Jehovah made with Abraham when he said, "Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates." Genesis 15:18.

From http://www.studylight.org/com/whe/view.cgi?bk=4&ch=1 accessed November 6, 2013.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


V. 7 reads: Turn around from here and go toward the hill country of the Amorites as well as to all of his neighbors in the Arabah, the mountainous areas, the Shephelah, the Negev and along the costal regions—to the land of the Canaanite and to Lebanon, eventually going as far as the Great River, the River Euphrates. This are the places where God has told Israel to go. This is not a travelogue, like Num. 33, but it is a list of that which God would give to Israel. The mount of the Amorite is the area east of the Jordan, around the two seas; the Arabah is the area south, south east of Israel—north, northwest of the Gulf of Aqaba. The Negev is the area directly south and southwest of Israel. The land of the Canaanites is Israel, with Lebanon being slightly north of that on the coast of the Mediterranean. The last phrase is the surprise—this is the common designation for the River Euphrates. Suddenly we are thrown into the middle of the cradle of modern civilization, to the far east of Israel, in the land of Babylon. Even as a border, it is some distance from where we consider to be Israel proper. However, this is the land promised originally by God to Abram. On that day, Yehowah made a covenant with Abram, saying, "To your descendants I have given this land, from the river of Egypt as far as the great river, the river Euphrates." (Gen. 15:18). "Every place on which the sole of your foot will tread will be yours; your border will be from the wilderness to Lebanon from the river, the river Euphrates, as far as the Western Sea [i.e., the Mediterranean]." (Deut. 11:24).

 

This designation is in line with the boundaries of land controlled by Solomon during his reign. Clarke writes: Their South border might extend to the mount of the Amorites; their West to the borders of the Mediterranean Sea; their North to Lebanon; and their East border to the river Euphrates: and to this extent Solomon reigned; see 1Kings 4:21 (And Solomon reigned over all kingdoms from the River to the land of the Philistines, and to the border of Egypt. They brought presents and served Solomon all

canaanmap_1.jpg

the days of his life.—MKJV). Footnote Bringing presents refers to tribute that the people of that area paid to Solomon.


Map of Canaan taken from the Berean Bible study group website, accessed October 5, 2013. All of v. 7 reads: Turn and pull up stakes [to move] and go to the hill country of the Amorite and to all of his neighbors in the Arabah, in the mountainous area, in the Shephelah, in the Negev and along the coastal region—to the land of the Canaanite and [to] Lebanon as far as the Great River, the River Euphrates. Near the bottom of this map, we can see the Negev. Above that is the Shephelah and the hill country of Judah. To the left is obviously the coastal region.


The Arabah is immediately below Edom on this map; and continues due north as the valley surrounding the water which runs through Israel. Lebanon is to the immediate north of this map. The Euphrates River is a distance northeast of this map.


God obviously knew what land was given to the Jews and I also believe that Moses knew what God had promised the Jews. I believe that he may have had access to the book of Genesis, possibly in the library of the Pharaoh, as Moses was growing up and in training to become the next pharaoh. He knew that he was a Jew and he knew that his people were enslaved to the Egyptians, the adopted people of Moses. Moses both knew the geography of the land of Canaan through his training and study; and he also knew the promises which God had made to Abraham, concerning this land.


However, there are mixed opinions concerning exactly who was where. Barnes speaks Footnote of the Amorites as being in the hills of Judah; this map shows them as being east of the Dead Sea.


Deut. 1:7 reads: Turn around from here and go toward the hill country of the Amorites as well as to all of his neighbors in the Arabah, the mountainous areas, the Shephelah, the Negev and along the costal regions—to the land of the Canaanite and to Lebanon, eventually going as far as the Great River, the River Euphrates.

Descriptions of the Areas in Deuteronomy 1:7

Keil and Delitzsch describe all of these areas: The mount of the Amorites is the mountainous country inhabited by this tribe, the leading feature in the land of Canaan, and is synonymous with the “land of the Canaanites” which follows; the Amorites being mentioned instar omnium as being the most powerful of all the tribes in Canaan, just as in Gen. 15:16 (see at Gen. 10:16). שכניו, “those who dwell by it,” are the inhabitants of the whole of Canaan, as is shown by the enumeration of the different parts of the land, which follows immediately afterwards. Canaan was naturally divided, according to the character of the ground, into the Arabah, the modern Ghor (see at Deut. 1:1); the mountain, the subsequent mountains of Judah and Ephraim (see at Num. 13:17); the lowland (shephelah), i.e., the low flat country lying between the mountains of Judah and the Mediterranean Sea, and stretching from the promontory of Carmel down to Gaza, which is intersected by only small undulations and ranges of hills, and generally includes the hill country which formed the transition from the mountains to the plain, though the two are distinguished in Joshua 10:40 and Joshua 12:8 (see at Joshua 15:33.); the south land (negeb: see at Num. 13:17); and the sea–shore, i.e., the generally narrow strip of coast running along by the Mediterranean Sea from Joppa to the Tyrian ladders, or Râs el Abiad, just below Tyre (vid., v. Raumer, Pal. p. 49). – The special mention of Lebanon in connection with the land of the Canaanites, and the enumeration of the separate parts of the land, as well as the extension of the eastern frontier as far as the Euphrates (see at Gen. 15:18), are to be attributed to the rhetorical fulness of the style. The reference, however, is not to Antilibanus, but to Lebanon proper, which was within the northern border of the land of Israel, as fixed in Num. 34:7–9.1

The Pulpit Commentary: Those "that dwell thereon" are the inhabitants of the whole of Canaan. The Amorites (Hebrew Emori, so called from Amor, or Emor) oftener than once appear as standing for the Canaanites generally (Gen. 15:16; Deut. 1:20, Deut. 1:21, etc.) That all the inhabitants of Canaan are intended here is evident from the specification of the different districts of the land of Canaan which immediately follows. In the plain: the Arabah (see ver. 1). In the hills: the hill country of Judah. (Num. 13:17) In the vale: the shephelah, or lowland, the country lying between the mountain range of Judah and the Mediterranean Sea, and stretching northwards from the parallel of Gaza to that of Carmel. In the south: the negeb, or southland (literally, dryness), the district which formed the transition from the desert to the cultivated land, extending from the south of the Dead Sea westwards to Gaza, a vast steppe or prairie, for the most part pasture land. The seashore: the narrow strip of land on the coast of the Mediterranean from Joppa to Tyre. (in the New Testament, "the coast of Tyre and Sidon," Luke 6:17) The land of the Canaanites: the whole country of which these were the separate parts. And unto Lebanon: the Whale Mountain, so called, probably, from the snow which rests on its summit. The great river, the river Euphrates. The Phrath, or Euphrates, which has its sources in the mountains of Armenia, and in its course divides Armenia from Cappadocia, formed the eastern limit of the territory promised by God to Abraham.2

The Pulpit Commentary adds: Lebanon and the Euphrates [are]...included in what God promised to Abraham and his seed (Gen. 15:18 Ex. 23:31 Deut. 11:24 Joshua 1:4).2 Deut. 11:24 Every place on which the soles of your feet shall tread shall be yours, from the wilderness and Lebanon, from the river, the river Euphrates, even to the furthest sea shall your border be. Joshua 1:4 From the wilderness and this Lebanon even to the great river, the river Euphrates, all the land of the Hittites, and to the Great Sea toward the going down of the sun, shall be your border.

From the New American Bible, Revised Edition: The hill country of the Amorites: the central mountain range of Palestine. The Negeb: the arid land in southern Palestine. The Lebanon: the mountain range of Phoenicia, north of Palestine. This is an idealized presentation of the land the Israelites were to occupy; Israel never held power as far as the "Great River" (the Euphrates). The Amorites and the Canaanites were only two of several different peoples occupying the land (cf. 7:1).3

1 Keil and Delitzsch, Commentary on the Old Testament; from e-Sword; Deut. 1:7.

2 The Pulpit Commentary; 1880-1919; by Joseph S. Exell, Henry Donald Maurice Spence-Jones, courtesy of e-sword, Deut. 1:7.

3 From http://www.usccb.org/bible/deuteronomy/1 accessed October 7, 2013.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


The coastal region refers to that area along the Mediterranean Sea, which area was occupied by Phœnicians. Sometimes, in the Bible, these are called Canaanites. Footnote


When God told Moses, this is where you Jews are going to go and settle, Moses knew Footnote this general area already. He had studied it as a young man and he knew it from the study of the book of Genesis. We don’t know when he encountered the book of Genesis. I would suggest that it was in the library of the pharaoh, and Moses picked it up to read; and he was probably also exposed to it during the 40 years when Moses was not in Egypt. His mother or sister may have exposed him to this book and to his background as a son of Abraham.


There are a number of theories concerning the authorship of Genesis, most of them centering upon Moses being the author. I do not believe that the personal nature of those passages would suggest a Mosaic authorship; or an authorship of anyone other than the people of the book of Genesis. Furthermore, there are dramatic changes of style in the book of Genesis—Gen. 24 (HTML) (PDF) (WPD) stands out in particular to me—which would preclude the idea that God dictated the book of Genesis to Moses (or that Moses took some materials, gathered them together, and edited it into the book of Genesis). The difference of styles is just far too stark to suggest any sort of common authorship. However, it is certainly possible that Moses eventually edited the book of Genesis, allowing previous historians the bulk of their contributions to remain intact.


Interestingly enough, at best, there are vague clues to the book of Genesis existing during the time of Moses, based only upon the kind of knowledge the people descended from Jacob knew. They knew enough that they had a relationship with Yehowah Elohim; they apparently knew Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; and the promises which God made to them (as belied by this passage). Other clues would be that Moses knew something about his heritage—which certainly could be revealed to him by his older sister and mother; but this knowledge seemed to increase when he left Egypt (there seemed to be a very strong connection between Moses and his father-in-law Jethro; and it is possible that Jethro knew or had the book of Genesis). So, these people either knew the book of Genesis or knew its contents. It is possible that this book was transmitted verbally, even to the time of Moses’ youth. In any case, although we cannot say for certain in what form the book of Genesis is in during Moses’ life; we may reasonably deduce that its contents are known to the people of Israel and to Moses.


——————————


Look, I have given to your faces the land. Go in and take possession of the land which swore Yehowah to your fathers—to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob—to give to them and to their seed after them.’

Deuteronomy

1:8

Look, I have given the land before you—go into [it] and take possession of the land which Yehowah swore to your fathers—to Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob—to give [this very land] to them and to their descendants after them.’

Look, I have put you face to face with this land which is before you—this is your land. Go into this land and take it—the very land which Jehovah swore to give to your fathers, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. This is the very land which He promised to give to them and to give to you, their descendants.’


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                See, I have given up the inhabitants of the land before you; nor shall it be needful to carry arms; go in and possess the land, and appoint the allotters, and divide it, even as the Lord sware to your fathers, to Abraham, Izhak, and Jakob, that He would give it unto them and their sons after them.

Latin Vulgate                          Behold, said he, I have delivered it to you: go in and possess it, concerning which the Lord swore to your fathers Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, that he would give it to them, and to their seed after them.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        Look, I have given to your faces the land. Go in and take possession of the land which swore Yehowah to your fathers—to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob—to give to them and to their seed after them.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    Behold, I have given you the land before you; go in and possess the land which the LORD swore to your fathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, to give to them and to their descendants after them.

Septuagint (Greek)                Behold, God has delivered the land before you; go in and inherit the land, which I swore to your fathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; to give it to them and to their seed after them.

 

Significant differences:           Excess wordage in the targum.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Look, I have laid the land before you. Go and possess the land that I [Sam, LXX; MT the Lord] promised to give to your ancestors Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, as well as to their descendants after them.

Contemporary English V.       I give you this land, just as I promised your ancestors Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Now you must go and take the land.

Easy English                          Look! I have given you all this country. Go in and take it. The *Lord promised to give this country to your fathers. He promised to give it to Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and their children."

Good News Bible (TEV)         All of this is the land which I, the LORD, promised to give to your ancestors, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and to their descendants. Go and occupy it.' "

New Berkeley Version           See, I have put the land at your disposal; enter it and take possession of the land which the Lord swore to your fathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, to give them and their descendants after them.’

New Life Bible                        See, I have set the land in front of you. Go in and take for your own the land which the Lord promised to give to your fathers, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and to their children after them.'

New Living Translation           Look, I am giving all this land to you! Go in and occupy it, for it is the land the Lord swore to give to your ancestors Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and to all their descendants.'"

The Voice                               Look! I've brought you right to the edge of the land that I, the Eternal, swore I'd give to your ancestors Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and to their descendants after them. Go in, and take possession of it!"


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Look! God has given you all the land that is before you! So, go there and inherit the land that I swore to your ancestors (AbraHam, IsaAc, and Jacob) that I would give to them and to their seed.

Christian Community Bible     Look: I offer you this land; you will take possession of it and live in the land which Yahweh swore to give to your fathers, to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and to all their descendants.’

God’s Word                         I'm giving you this land. Enter, and take possession of the land the LORD swore to give to your ancestors Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and to you, their descendants."

New American Bible              I have given that land over to you. Go now and occupy the land I swore to your fathers, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, I would give to them and to their descendants.'

New American Bible (R.E.)    See, I have given that land over to you [Dt 6:10, 23; 9:5, 27; 29:13; 30:20; 34:4; Gen. 12:7; 13:14-15; 15:18-21; 17:8; 26:3-5; 28:13-14.]. Go now and possess the land that the LORD swore to your ancestors, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, to give to them and to their descendants after them.

NIRV                                      "I have given you all of that land. Go in and take it as your own. I took an oath. I promised I would give the land to your fathers. I promised it to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. I also said I would give it to their children after them."

New Jerusalem Bible             Look, that is the country I have given you; go and take possession of the country that Yahweh promised on oath to give to your ancestors, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and to their descendants after them."

New Simplified Bible              »I have given you this land. Go in and possess the land Jehovah pledged to give to your fathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and to their descendants (offspring) after them.’

Revised English Bible            I have laid the land open before you; go in and occupy it, the land which the Lord swore to give to your forefathers aic, and to their descendants after them.’


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      Behold, I will give you the land in front of you. Come and possess the land which Yahweh swore to your fathers, to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, to give to them and to their seed after them."

Bible in Basic English             See, all the land is before you: go in and take for yourselves the land which the Lord gave by an oath to your fathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and to their seed after them.

The Expanded Bible              See, I have given you this land, so go in and take it for yourselves. The Lord ·promised it [swore] to your ancestors-Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and their descendants [Gen. 12:1-3; 15:17-20]."

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 Attend ! I have opened the country to you ! Go and seize the land which the Ever-living promised to give to your fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, - to give it to them and to their posterity after them.

NET Bible®                             Look! I have already given the land to you [Heb "I have placed before you the land."]. Go, occupy the territory that I [Heb "the Lord." Since the Lord is speaking, it is preferable for clarity to supply the first person pronoun in the translation.], the Lord, promised [Heb "swore" (so NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT). This refers to God's promise, made by solemn oath, to give the patriarchs the land.] to give to your ancestors [Heb "fathers" (also in vv. 11, 21, 35).] Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and to their descendants [Heb "their seed after them."]."


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           I have set the land before you! Go in, and take possession of the land ADONAI swore to give to your ancestors Avraham, Yitz'chak and Ya'akov, and their descendants after them.'

exeGeses companion Bible   See, I give the land at your face:

go in and possess the land

Yah Veh oathed to give your fathers,

Abraham, Yischaq and Yaaqov

and their seed after them.

Judaica Press Complete T.    See, I have set the land before you; come and possess the land which the Lord swore to your forefathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give them and their descendants after them.

Kaplan Translation                 See! I have placed the land before you. Come, occupy the land that God swore He would give to your fathers, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and to their descendants after them.'

Orthodox Jewish Bible           See, I have set ha'aretz (the land) before you; go in and possess ha'aretz which Hashem swore unto Avoteichem, Avraham, Yitzchak, and Ya'akov, to give unto them and to their zera after them.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    See! I have set the land before you. Enter and tenant the land about which Yahweh had sworn to your fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob, to give to them and to their seed after them.

Context Group Version          Look, I have set the land { or earth } before you { pl }: go in and possess the land { or earth } which YHWH swore to your { pl } fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give to them and to their seed after them.

English Standard Version      See, I have set the land before you. Go in and take possession of the land that the LORD swore to your fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give to them and to their offspring after them.'

Green’s Literal Translation    Behold! I have given before you the land; go in and possess the land which Jehovah has sworn to your fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give to them, and to their seed after them.

NASB                                     See, I have placed the land before you; go in and possess the land which the Lord swore to give to your fathers [Gen 12:7; 26:3; 28:13; Ex 33:1; Num 14:23; 32:11; Heb 6:13, 14], to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to them and their descendants [Lit seed] after them.'

New RSV                               See, I have set the land before you; go in and take possession of the land that I* swore to your ancestors, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give to them and to their descendants after them.'

Young’s Updated LT             See, I have set before you the land; go in and possess the land which Jehovah has sworn to your fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give to them, and to their seed after them.

 

The gist of this verse:          God tells them that this is the land which He promise to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; and that they are to go into this land and take it.


Deuteronomy 1:8a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

râʾâh (רָאָה) [pronounced raw-AWH]

look, see, behold, view, see here, listen up

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperative

Strong's #7200 BDB #906

nâthan (נָתַן) [pronounced naw-THAHN]

to give, to grant, to place, to put, to set; to make

1st person singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #5414 BDB #678

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

pânîym (פָּנִים) [pronounced paw-NEEM]

face, faces countenance; presence

masculine plural noun (plural acts like English singular); with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

Strong’s #6440 BDB #815

Together, they mean before you, before your face, in your presence, in your sight, in front of you. When used with God, it can take on the more figurative meaning in Your judgment.

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: Look, I have given the land before you... God continues to speak through Moses (Moses would have been the one to speak these words to the people, but he would have been given these instructions by God). The land is before them, the land which He has given to the Jews. This verbiage, that the land is put before them, indicates that there is no impediment to taking the land. They can go right into the land and take it, because God has placed it before them.


So, they have gone north from Mount Sinai, and are now camped south (= the Negev) of the inhabited area that would someday be called Judah.


Deuteronomy 1:8b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

bôwʾ (בּוֹא) [pronounced boh]

come [in], go [in], enter, advance

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperative

Strong’s #935 BDB #97

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

yârash (שיָרַ) [pronounced yaw-RASH]

possess, take possession of, occupy a geographical area [by driving out the previous occupants], take possession of anyone [or their goods]; possess; expel, drive out

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperative

Strong’s #3423 BDB #439

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced ash-ER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

shâbaʿ (שָבַע) [pronounced shawb-VAHĢ]

to swear, to imprecate, to curse, to swear an oath, to take a solemn oath, to swear allegiance

3rd person masculine singular, Niphal perfect

Strong's #7650 BDB #989

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾâb (אָב)[pronounced awbv]

father, both as the head of a household, clan or tribe; founder, civil leader, military leader

masculine plural noun with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

Strong’s #1 BDB #3


Translation: ...—go into [it] and take possession of the land which Yehowah swore to your fathers... Now it appears that Moses is speaking, to tell them to go into the land, to take the land that Yehowah swore to their fathers. However, there are many times in Scripture where God speaks of God in the third person.


Vv. 6–8, so that you can see the quotation marks: “Jehovah your God spoke to us in Horeb, saying, ‘You have remained at this mountain for too long. Turn around from here and go toward the hill country of the Amorites as well as to all of his neighbors in the Arabah, the mountainous areas, the Shephelah, the Negev and along the costal regions—to the land of the Canaanite and to Lebanon, eventually going as far as the Great River, the River Euphrates. Look, I have put you face to face with this land which is before you—this is your land. Go into this land and take it—the very land which Jehovah swore to give to your fathers, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. This is the very land which He promised to give to them and to give to you, their descendants.’ My point here is, it is very difficult to figure out where to end the words of God, which Moses is quoting. Either Moses stops in mid-sentence and begins speaking instead of quoting God; or God speaks of Himself in the 3rd person. The latter seems to be the case, but this is much more difficult to determine than might seem from a simple reading of this passage in whatever translation you may have. Now, although I struggled with placing the quotation marks, I did not see an example of any translation which placed them differently. A few translations simply changed the 3rd person to the 1st person. Let me complete this verse, and then we will come back to this.


What Moses is speaking of here parallels what took place in Num. 10:11–13 And it happened in the second year, in the second month, in the twentieth of the month, the cloud went up from off the tabernacle of the testimony. And the sons of Israel pulled up stakes in their journeyings from the wilderness of Sinai. And the cloud stayed on it in the wilderness of Paran. And they pulled up stakes first at the mouth of Jehovah, by the hand of Moses. A few things happen to them on the way to the southern region of the land, but that is the direction in which they will all proceed.


The land that is right in front of them? God had given that land to them. God had promised that land to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; and now it was the right time for their descendants to go into that land and to take it. All they have to do is take it.


Salvation is provided for the unbeliever in the same way. It is right in front of any unbeliever; all they have to do is take it by faith. The life of promise for all believers is right in front of any believer. All he has to do is reach out and take it. The methodology of “reaching out and taking it” varies quite a bit. For the Israelites to whom Moses first said these words—they had to go into the land and take it by military force. For the unbeliever, he takes eternal life by faith—an act which takes only seconds to procure. And the believer looking to live the life of promise—that is a day-by-day choice; get back into fellowship as many times as it takes throughout the day and learn a little more doctrine today. One day at a time.


In these 3 scenarios, there is the constant—they require positive volition toward the plan of God; and God has made everything possible to take advantage of what He has placed before us. In all 3 scenarios, there is the discontinuity of what we are required to do.


Deuteronomy 1:8c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾAberâhâm (אַבְרָהָם) [pronounced ahbve-raw-HAWM]

father of a multitude, chief of a multitude; transliterated Abraham

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #85 BDB #4

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

Yisechâq (יִשְׂחָק) [pronounced yihse-KHAWK]

he laughs; laughing; transliterated Isaac

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #3327 & #3446 BDB #850

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

Yaʿăqôb (יַעֲקֹב) [pronounced yah-ģuh-KOHBV]

supplanter; insidious, deceitful; to circumvent and is transliterated Jacob

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3290 BDB #784


Translation: ...—to Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob—... Yehowah swore to give this land to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. We have studied these promises in the book of Genesis.


God in the past has promised this land to the Jews—to the descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. This generation who stood at the southern border has been given, by God, this land. All they need to do is to go in and take it.


God made these promises continually to Abraham. I may have missed a passage below.

God’s Promises to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob

Patriarch

Promises

Abraham

Gen. 12:1–3, 7 13:14–16 15:18–21 17:7–8 22:16–18

Isaac

And Jehovah appeared to him [Isaac] and said, Do not go down into Egypt; stay in the land which I shall say to you. Reside in this land, and I will be with you and bless you, for to you and to your seed I will give all these lands. And I will cause to rise My oath which I swore to your father Abraham. And I will increase your seed like the stars of the heavens, and I will give to your seed all these lands. And all the nations of the earth shall bless themselves in your Seed, because Abraham listened to My voice and heeded My charge, My commands, My statutes, and My laws. (Gen. 26:3–5; Green’s Literal translation)

Jacob

And he came on a place and stayed the night there, for the sun had gone. And he took stones of the place and placed them at his head; and he lay down in that place. And he dreamed. And, behold, a ladder was placed on the earth, its top reaching to the heavens. And, behold, the angels of God were going up and going down on it! And, behold, Jehovah stood above it and said, I am Jehovah the God of your father Abraham, and the God of Isaac; the land on which you are lying, I will give it to you and to your seed. And your seed shall be as the dust of the earth, and you shall spread to the west and to the east and to the north and to the south; and all the families of the earth shall be blessed in you and in your Seed. And, behold, I will be with you and will guard you in every place in which you may go, and will bring you back to this land; for I will not forsake you until I have surely done that which I have spoken to you. (Gen. 28:11–15; Green’s Literal translation)

The reason why God did not come to Isaac or Jacob on multiple occasions is, these promises by God to Abraham had already been established. Both Isaac and Jacob would have known these promises already. This is the inheritance that Jacob wanted instead of Esau.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


This is one of the passages which tells us that the people of Israel were aware of their heritage, suggesting further that they knew the contents of the book of Genesis. Moses would only mention Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob because these names are familiar to his audience; they knew who they have been descended from, and they know the promises which God made to their fathers as well.


This verse ought to act as evidence as well that this land is theirs for the taking. Most children and teens are absolutely self-centered, and they are easily drawn this way or that because of their own self-centeredness. But Moses is speaking to adults, adults who at least know their origins and the promises made by God to their fathers; therefore, what is being said is, “This is bigger than just you. This is bigger than just your generation. There is a history here. There is a covenant here that dates back 400 years.” Charismatic leaders often lead people into all kinds of wrong directions, simply because some people are leaders and others are followers. Moses was a charismatic leader; but with these words, he explains that this is God’s long-standing promise to the Jewish people; this is not just some crazy idea that Moses suddenly has come up with. Quite obviously, this has to be a set of promises that these Israelites are familiar with.


Deuteronomy 1:8d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

nâthan (נָתַן) [pronounced naw-THAHN]

to give, to grant, to place, to put, to set; to make

Qal infinitive construct

Strong's #5414 BDB #678

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

zeraʿ (זֶרַע) [pronounced ZEH-rahģ]

a seed, a sowing; an offspring, progeny, descendant; posterity

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong’s #2233 BDB #282

ʾachărêy (אַחֲרֵי) [pronounced ah-kuh-RAY]

behind, after; following; after that, afterwards; hinder parts

preposition; plural form with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong’s #310 BDB #29


Translation: ...to give [this very land] to them and to their descendants after them. The land which is before them is the land given to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob as well as to their descendants, who are the people standing at the edge of the land, ready to go in.


It cannot be emphasized enough that the faith of the Hebrews is based upon an historic relationship with God. There was a covenantal relationship with God that dated back centuries. So Moses is not just coming up with a set of crazy ideas and getting the people to follow him. God led Moses, and this is all the culmination of recorded promises that God made to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob 400 years previously.


deu-1-8-web-watermarked.jpg

Deuteronomy 1:8 (graphic) from Christian Bible Study in WordPress, accessed November 7, 2013.


V. 8 reads: Look, I have put you face to face with this land which is before you—this is your land. Go into this land and take it—the very land which Jehovah swore to give to your fathers, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. This is the very land which He promised to give to them and to give to you, their descendants.’ This has been God's command to Israel since they left Mount Sinai—they were to go into the land and take it. God gave the land to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and to their descendants. Notice that this promise was not fulfilled until after their deaths. God has promises open to us concerning our salvation and our eternal future, the complete fulfillment of which does not come to pass until after our death.


I am a big fan of the chiasmos; but I am not sure if I am completely seeing it here.

Peter Pett’s Chiasmos of Deuteronomy 1:6–8

A        "You have dwelt long enough in this mountain (Mount Sinai)" (Deuteronomy 1:6).

         B       "Turn you, and take your journey" (Deuteronomy 1:7a).

                  C      "Go to the hill-country of the Amorites, and to all the places near to it, in the Arabah, in the hill-country, and in the lowland, and in the South, and by the seashore, the land of the Canaanites, and Lebanon, as far as the great river, the river Euphrates" (Deuteronomy 1:7b).

         B       "Look, I have set the land before you" (Deuteronomy 1:8a).

A       "Go in and possess the land which Yahweh swore to your fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give to them and to their seed after them" (Deuteronomy 1:8b).

Here we have both progression and chiasmus. We have the command to leave the Mount where they have been encamped for so long, to enter the whole of the land, and to go in and possess it, because He had sworn to give it to their forefathers. The chiasmus lies in `A' in the parallel between `You have dwelt long enough in this mountain' and `Go in and possess the land', with the description of the whole land central. In `B' "Turn you, and take your journey" parallels "Look, I have set the land before you." And `C' describes the perimeters of the land which they are going to possess.

From http://www.studylight.org/com/pet/view.cgi?bk=4&ch=1 accessed November 5, 2013.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


It was now the right time to claim this land. This is not something suddenly cooked up by Moses and Joshua. This is not suddenly coming to the Israelites as if God just thought about this. God already made all of these promises to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. This is straight out of the book of Genesis; but we have come to the point in time when these sons of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are supposed to go in and take that land.


It is very important to realize that Christianity is based upon historical facts. This is not just some philosophy that got put forth by a few smart guys and this philosophy has eventually come down to us. This is God working with the people in real historical situations, where there are real choices to be made and real consequences. Here we are, many, many generations removed from them, but in the midst of the same angelic struggle. On one side is truth, righteousness and love; and on the other side is an array of distortions, sin and hatred. God gives us the chance to step into our own historic participation. This is real life; it is real history and today, it is real current events. The more doctrine you know, the easier it is to recognize God interacting with mankind today, both individually and in groups.


And if Jesus is not a true historical Person—and if Christ is not raised—then our faith is completely in vain (1Cor. 15:17). Our faith stands upon established history; it stands upon truth. And we should expect, at the same time, for Satan to use every means possible to make us doubt the historic truth of Scripture.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Moses, when he first spoke to the people of Israel about taking the land, stood upon an abundance of evidence that this is God’s will.

Evidence of the Land Grant to Generation X

1.      The promise of this land had been made to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the fathers of the Jews standing on the southern border of the land given them by God. Deut. 1:8 Gen. 12:1–3, 7 13:14–16 26:3–5 28:11–15

2.      While in Egypt, these people saw many great signs and wonders—which were designed to be seen by many people—so that the power of their God could not be questioned. Ex. 7–12

3.      They were led by the fire at night and the cloud by day. Ex. 13:21 Psalm 78:14

4.      These same people saw the destruction of the Egyptian army before their very eyes—one of the greatest military organizations of that day. Ex. 13:17–14:31

5.      They had been provided living waters from the Rock; they had been given manna and quail; and they had drunk from the sweetened waters of Meribah—all great acts of God which each and every person observed. Ex. 15:22–17:7

6.      They learned that military victory depended upon God in their war with the Amalekites. Recall that the battle would go their way, as long as Moses had his arms raised up. Ex. 17:8–16

7.      They heard the very voice of God giving them the Law. This was so difficult that the people requested that there be an intermediary. Ex. 20:1–21

8.      God promised to increase their population, and Moses tells them to just look around at one another and see how God fulfilled that promise. God promised both to give Abraham’s seed the land and to also increase Abraham’s seed so that they became like the stars in the skies. These promises go together. Gen. 13:14–16 15:5–6 22:7 Deut. 1:10–11

9.      Also, the minority report of the spies who went into the land. They saw the land and reported back that it was everything that God had promised them. Num. 13:26–30

10.    Furthermore, think about this logically: how is God glorified if the Jews all die in the desert or at the entrance to the Land of Promise? God is not going to spectacularly rescue the Jews from slavery to the Egyptians just to kill them at the border of Canaan. That is completely illogical.

My point here is, the Jews will go in and take the land, not based upon the charismatic leadership of Moses (and then Joshua), but based upon a number of evidences that God is with them.

Application: God does not give us, as believers, threadbare evidence, and then ask us to do our best. The more that you study the Word of God, the greater will be the evidence for your faith. When you combine fulfilled prophecy, the concept of types, the evidence of the existing manuscripts, the change of attitude of the disciples after the resurrection, along with many other things, it becomes far too difficult to deny the truth of our faith.


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Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Historic event: Moses Delegates His Authority

Ex. 18:13–27 Num. 11:11–17


At this point, Moses goes on an odd tangent. Vv. 9–18 seem to be an odd direction. We would expect that they would advance toward the land, and the next section would be them spying out the land, but that is not the case. Moses then delegates authority, which suggests that this is the chronological order which is being given here.


And so I said unto you [all] in the time the that to say ‘I am not able to me alone to bear you [all].

Deuteronomy

1:9

So I spoke to you at that time, saying, ‘I am unable to carry you.

And I said to you at that time, ‘I am unable to carry you.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts: