Genesis 8

 

Genesis 8:1–22

The Deluge Begins to Subside


These studies are designed for believers in Jesus Christ only. If you have exercised faith in Christ, then you are in the right place. If you have not, then you need to heed the words of our Lord, Who said, “For God so loved the world that He gave His only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son, so that every [one] believing [or, trusting] in Him shall not perish, but shall be have eternal life! For God did not send His Son into the world so that He should judge the world, but so that the world shall be saved through Him. The one believing [or, trusting] in Him is not judged, but the one not believing has already been judged, because he has not believed in the Name of the only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son of God.” (John 3:16–18). “I am the Way and the Truth and the Life! No one comes to the Father except through [or, by means of] Me!” (John 14:6).


Every study of the Word of God ought to be preceded by a naming of your sins to God. This restores you to fellowship with God (1John 1:8–10). If there are people around, you would name these sins silently. If there is no one around, then it does not matter if you name them silently or whether you speak aloud.


This is a collection of the weekly lessons of Genesis (HTML) (PDF) interspersed with the complete word-by-word exegesis of this chapter from the Hebrew with some information from Genesis (HTML) (PDF) thrown in. Furthermore, the examination of this chapter has been expanded with additional commentary as well. However, much of this material was thrown together without careful editing. Therefore, from time to time, there will be concepts and exegetical material which will be repeated, because there was no overall editing done once all of this material was combined. At some point in the future, I need to go back and edit this material and consider other source material as well. Links to the word-by-word, verse-by-verse studies of Genesis (HTML) (PDF).

 

One more thing: it is not necessary that you read the grey Hebrew exegesis tables. They are set apart from the rest of the study so that you can easily skip over them. However, if you ever doubt a translation of a phrase or a verse, these translation tables will tell you exactly where that translation came from.


This should be the most extensive examination of Gen. 8 available, where you will be able to examine in depth every word of the original text.


Outline of Chapter 8:

 

Introduction

 

         vv.     1–5           The Rain and Water Stop and then Begin to Decrease on the Earth

         vv.     6–12         Noah Sends Out Birds to Check for a Drying Earth

         vv.    13–19         God Tells Noah to Exit the Ark with His Family and Animals and They Do

         vv.    20–22         Burnt Offerings to God/A Promise from God

 

Addendum


Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines:

 

         v.       1              The Omniscience of God

         v.       4              Map of Armenia

         v.      14              The Deluge Time Frame

         v.      17              A Photo of Gilchrist after Hurricane Ike

         v.      20              The Priesthoods

         v.      22              Associating Continental Drift, the Tilting of the Earth’s Axis and the Great Flood

         v.      22              Axis-Shift Addendum

 

         Addendum          The Organization of Genesis 6–8 (from Robert Dean)

         Addendum          Noah—The True Story (a graphic)

         Addendum          Galatians 2:15–17a as a Chiasmos

         Addendum          The Flood Timetable

         Addendum          Flood Timetable (A Chart)

         Addendum          Other Charts and Timetables of the Flood

         Addendum          Josephus’ History of this Time Period

         Addendum          Edersheim Summarizes Genesis 8

         Addendum          Edersheim on The Chaldean Narrative of the Deluge

         Addendum          A Complete Translation of Genesis 8


Chapter Outline

 

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines

Forward

Doctrines Covered and Alluded to

Chapters of the Bible Alluded To

Psalms Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Other Chapters of the Bible Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Definition of Terms

Introduction

Text

Addendum

www.kukis.org

 

Exegetical Studies in Genesis


Doctrines Covered

Doctrines Alluded To

Omniscience of God

 

The Basic Mechanics of the Christian Life

 

The Priesthoods

 

 

 


Chapters of the Bible Alluded To

Genesis 7

 

 

 


Psalms Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Psalm 29

Psalm 104

 

 


Other Chapters of the Bible Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

 

 

 

 


Many who read and study this chapter are 1st or 2nd generation students of R. B. Thieme, Jr., so that much of this vocabulary is second nature. One of Bob’s contributions to theology is a fresh vocabulary along with a number of concepts which are theologically new or reworked, yet still orthodox. Therefore, if you are unfamiliar with his work, the definitions below will help you to fully understand all that is being said. Also, I have developed a few new terms and concepts which require definition as well.

In addition, there are other more traditional yet technical theological terms which will be used and therefore defined as well.

Sometimes the terms in the exegesis of this chapter are simply alluded to, without any in-depth explanation of them. Sometimes, these terms are explained in detail and illustrated. A collection of all these terms is found here: (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Definition of Terms

Chiasmos

A chiasmos (also spelled chiasmus) is the way that some portions of the Bible are organized. It takes its name from the Greek letter chi (χ). The first section matches with the last, the second with the second-to-the-last, etc. It is called a chiasmss, because the inverted parallelism looks like a chi (actually, half a chi) when one sees it from its organizational standpoint.

Rebound (Restoration to fellowship with God)

In the New Testament, this is naming your sins to God, so that you are both restored to temporal fellowship with God and are then filled with the Spirit of God. In the Old Testament, naming your sins to God would result in a restoration of fellowship and, in some cases, the empowerment of the Holy Spirit once again (the Holy Spirit was not given to all Old Testament believers). See the Doctrine of Rebound (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Some of these definitions are taken from

http://gracebiblechurchwichita.org/?page_id=1556

http://www.bibledoctrinechurch.org/?subpages/GLOSSARY.shtml

http://rickhughesministries.org/content/Biblical-Terms.pdf

http://www.gbible.org/index.php?proc=d4d

http://www.wordoftruthministries.org/termsanddefs.htm

http://www.realtime.net/~wdoud/topics.html

http://www.theopedia.com/


——————————


An Introduction to Genesis 8


I ntroduction: Gen. 8 is about the second half of the flood, where the waters begin to subside to a point where Noah and his family and the animals are able to exit the ark. The person who recorded this information in the first place continues to keep us abreast of the days and the time of the month that these various events take place.


In the previous chapter [Genesis 7 (HTML) (PDF) (WPD)], we briefly examined some of the flood myths which have come down to us from dozens of cultures and peoples, and we saw some of the similarities and differences between the Noahic flood and the other flood traditions. However, what we also observed is, in those myths, there was also some oddball information, such as one boat which was a perfect cube (not really ideal for flood conditions); and worldwide floods where it only rained for 7 days. So, we would expect for many different cultures and traditions to have a recollection of a flood; we would also expect for these traditions to have been corrupted, which appears to be the case.


In the lessons previous to that, we examined the record of the Genesis flood in fairly great detail. Gen. 7 was about Noah and his family entering into the ark; Gen. 8 will have them exiting the ark. Gen. 7 was about the great war between the earth and the sea, where the sea continued to prevail; Gen. 8 is about the subsidence of the flood waters, where, finally, land will dominate the seas.


One of the fascinating aspects of the flood narrative is how it is organized. Gen. 7–8 can be combined into a chiasmos format, which is quite amazing (and something which often occurs in the Bible). More than likely, you will have to see this and read it in order to fully appreciate it.


——————————


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


The Rain and Water Stop and then Begin to Decrease on the Earth


Slavishly literal:

 

Moderately literal:

And so prevail the waters over the earth fifty and one hundred a day. And so remembers Elohim Noah, and all the life and all the livestock that [are] with him in the ark. And so causes to pass over Elohim a wind over the earth; and so subside the waters.

Genesis

7:24–8:1

After the water had prevailed over the earth [for] 150 days, Elohim remembered Noah and all of the living creatures and all the animals that [were] with him in the ark. Consequently, Elohim caused a wind to pass over the earth and the waters subsided.

After the waters prevailed over the earth for another 150 days, God remembered Noah in the ark with all of the animals aboard. Consequently, God caused a great wind to pass over the earth.


Here is how others have translated this verse:

 

Ancient texts:                       Note: I compare the Hebrew text to English translations of the Latin, Syriac and Greek texts, using the Douay-Rheims translation; George Lamsa’s translation, and Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton’s translation as revised and edited by Paul W. Esposito, respectively. I often update these texts with non-substantive changes (e.g., you for thou, etc.). I often use the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible instead of Brenton’s translation, because it updates the English text.

 

The Septuagint was the earliest known translation of a book (circa 200 b.c.). Since this translation was made before the textual criticism had been developed into a science and because different books appear to be translated by different men, the Greek translation can sometimes be very uneven.

 

When there are serious disparities between my translation and Brenton’s (or the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible), I look at the Greek text of the Septuagint (the LXX) to see if a substantive difference actually exists (and I reflect these changes in the English rendering of the Greek text). I use the Greek LXX with Strong’s numbers and morphology available for e-sword. The only problem with this resource (which is a problem for similar resources) is, there is no way to further explore Greek verbs which are not found in the New Testament. Although I usually quote the Complete Apostles’ Bible here, I have begun to make changes in the translation when their translation conflicts with the Greek and note what those changes are.

 

The Masoretic text is the Hebrew text with all of the vowels (vowel points) inserted (the original Hebrew text lacked vowels). We take the Masoretic text to be the text closest to the original. However, differences between the Masoretic text and the Greek, Latin and Syriac are worth noting and, once in a great while, represent a more accurate text possessed by those other ancient translators.

 

In general, the Latin text is an outstanding translation from the Hebrew text into Latin and very trustworthy (I say this as a non-Catholic). Unfortunately, I do not read Latin—apart from some very obvious words—so I am dependent upon the English translation of the Latin (principally, the Douay-Rheims translation).

 

Underlined words indicate differences in the text.

 

Bracketed portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls are words, letters and phrases lost in the scroll due to various types of damage. Underlined words or phrases are those in the Dead Sea Scrolls but not in the Masoretic text.

 

The Targum of Onkelos is actually the Pentateuchal Targumim, which are The Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan Ben Uzziel. On the Pentateuch With The Fragments of the Jerusalem Targum From the Chaldee by J. W. Etheridge, M.A. Take from http://targum.info/targumic-texts/pentateuchal-targumim/ and first published in 1862.

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the Lord in His Word remembered Noah, and all the animals and the cattle which were with him in the ark; and the Lord caused the wind of mercies to pass over the earth, and the waters were dried.

Jerusalem targum                  And He remembered in His mercies the good which was with Noah. And the Lord caused the wind of mercies.

Latin Vulgate                          And God remembered Noe, and all the living creatures, and all the cattle which were with him in the ark, and brought a wind upon the earth, and the waters were abated.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so remembers Elohim Noah, and all the life and all the livestock that [are] with him in the ark. And so causes to pass over Elohim a wind over the earth; and so subside the waters.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    AND God remembered Noah and every living thing and all the animals and all the fowls that were with him in the ark; and God made a wind to blow over the earth, and the waters became calm.

Septuagint (Greek)                And God remembered Noah, and all the wild beasts, and all the cattle, and all the birds, and all the reptiles that creep, as many as were with him in the ark, and God brought a wind upon the earth, and the water subsided.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           God remembered Noah, all those alive, and all the animals with him in the ark. God sent a wind over the earth so that the waters receded.

Contemporary English V.       God did not forget about Noah and the animals with him in the boat. So God made a wind blow, and the water started going down.

Easy English                          People begin to live on the earth again, 8:1-22

But God remembered Noah. And God remembered all the wild animals and *cattle that were with Noah. They were with Noah in the *ark. And God made a wind blow over the earth. And the waters went down.

Easy-to-Read Version            But God did not forget about Noah. God remembered Noah and all the animals that were with him in the boat. God made a wind blow over the earth. And all the water began to disappear.

Good News Bible (TEV)         God had not forgotten Noah and all the animals with him in the boat; he caused a wind to blow, and the water started going down.

The Message                         Then God turned his attention to Noah and all the wild animals and farm animals with him on the ship. God caused the wind to blow and the floodwaters began to go down.

New Berkeley Version           But God kept Noah in mind with all the animals and all the livestock with him in the ark; God caused a wind to blow over the erath until the waters subsided.

New Life Bible                                                    The Flood Ends

But God remembered Noah and all the wild animals and all the cattle that were with him in the large boat. Then God made a wind blow over the earth until the water went down.

New Living Translation           The Flood Recedes

But God remembered Noah and all the wild animals and livestock with him in the boat. He sent a wind to blow across the earth, and the floodwaters began to recede.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          But God didn't forget Noah or any of the wild animals, cattle, winged creatures, or crawling, slithering animals that were inside the chest. So God sent a wind to the earth that stopped the water...

Beck’s American Translation The Flood Ends

24 When the waters had risen on the earth for 150 days, 1 God thought of Noah and every wild and tame animal with im in the ark, and so God made a wind blow over the earth, and the water went down. The final verse of the previous chapter is added for context.

Christian Community Bible     24 The waters flooded the earth for one hundred and fifty days. 1 Then God remembered Noah and all the animals and cattle that were with him in the ark. God made a wind blow over the earth and the waters subsided. The verse from the previous chapter is included in Gen. 8 by the CCB.

God’s Word                         God remembered Noah and all the wild and domestic animals with him in the ship. So God made a wind blow over the earth, and the water started to go down.

New American Bible              God remembered Noah and all the animals, wild and tame, that were with him in the ark. So God made a wind sweep over the earth, and the waters began to subside.

NIRV                                      But God showed concern for Noah. He also showed concern for all of the wild animals and livestock that were with Noah in the ark.

So God sent a wind over the earth. And the waters began to go down.

New Jerusalem Bible             But God had Noah in mind, and all the wild animals and all the cattle that were with him in the ark. God sent a wind across the earth and the waters began to subside.

New Simplified Bible              God remembered Noah and all the wild animals and the livestock that were with him in the ark. He sent a wind over the earth, and the waters receded.

Revised English Bible            24 When the water had increased over the earth for a hundred and fifty days, 1 God took thought for Noah and all the beasts and cattle with him in the ark, and he caused a wind to blow over the earth, so that the water began to subside. The last verse from the previous chapter is added for context.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      God remembered Noah, and all the life, and all the animals with him in the box. God passed the spirit-wind over the land and the waters abated.

Bible in Basic English             And God kept Noah in mind, and all the living things and the cattle which were with him in the ark: and God sent a wind over the earth, and the waters went down.

Complete Jewish Bible           God remembered Noach, every living thing and all the livestock with him in the ark; so God caused a wind to pass over the earth, and the water began to go down.

HCSB                                     God remembered Noah, as well as all the wildlife and all the livestock that were with him in the ark. God caused a wind to pass over the earth, and the water began to subside.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               24 And when the waters had swelled on the earth one hundred and fifty days, 1 God remembered Noah and all the beasts and all the cattle that were with him in the ark, and God caused a wind to blow across the earth, and the waters subsided. The last verse of the previous chapter is added for context.

Judaica Press Complete T.    And God remembered Noah and all the beasts and all the cattle that were with him in the ark, and God caused a spirit to pass over the earth, and the waters subsided.

NET Bible®                             But God remembered [The Hebrew word translated "remembered" often carries the sense of acting in accordance with what is remembered, i.e., fulfilling covenant promises (see B. S. Childs, Memory and Tradition in Israel [SBT], especially p. 34)] Noah and all the wild animals and domestic animals that were with him in the ark. God caused a wind to blow over [Heb "to pass over."]the earth and the waters receded. When it comes to making an actual material change to the text, the NET Bible® is pretty good about indicating this. Since most of these corrections will be clear in the more literal translations below and within the Hebrew exegesis itself, I will not continue to list every NET Bible® footnote.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                And God [earnestly] remembered Noah and every living thing and all the animals that were with him in the ark; and God made a wind blow over the land, and the waters sank down and abated.

Concordant Literal Version    Now mindful is the Elohim of Noah and every living animal and every beast and every flyer and every moving animal which is with him in the ark. And the Elohim is causing a wind to pass over the earth, and subsiding are the waters.

English Standard Version      But God remembered Noah and all the beasts and all the livestock that were with him in the ark. And God made a wind blow over the earth, and the waters subsided.

The Geneva Bible                  And God remembered [Not that God forgets his at any time, but when he sends comfort then he shows that he remembers them. ] Noah, and every living thing [If God remembered every brute beast, that ought also to assure his children. ], and all the cattle that [was] with him in the ark: and God made a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters asswaged.

LTHB                                     And God remembered Noah and every living thing, and all the cattle which were with him in the ark. And God made a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters subsided.

Syndein/Thieme                     {And when the waters swelled on the earth one hundred and fifty days . . .} the Elohiym/Godhead remembered Noah, and every living creature {chay} and all the cattle that were with him in the ark, and the Elohiym/Godhead caused a wind {ruwach} to blow across the earth, and the waters subsided. {Note: Chapter 7 Verse 24 is continued in Chapter 8 Verse 1 so the complete sentence is presented here. In Chapter 7, we saw the 'breath of life' was 'ruwach chay'. Here we have both Hebrew words again where this time ruwach means wind. }.

Third Millennium Bible            And God remembered Noah, and every living thing, and all the cattle that were with him in the ark; and God made a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters were assuaged.

Webster Bible                        And God remembered Noah, and every living animal, and all the cattle that [were] with him in the ark: and God made a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters were checked..

World English Bible                God remembered Noah, all the animals, and all the cattle that were with him in the ark; and God made a wind to pass over the earth. The waters subsided.

Young’s Updated LT             And God remembers Noah, and every living thing, and all the cattle which are with him in the ark, and God causes a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters subside.

 

The gist of this verse:          God remembers Noah and the animals in the ark with him. He causes the water to stop rising an blows over it with a wind.


The exegesis of Gen. 7:24 and the explanation its inclusion with this verse is found in the complete examination of Gen. 7:24 in Genesis 7 (HTML) (PDF) (WPD). However, the short explanation is, we simply have 3 wâw consecutives followed by 3 imperfect verbs, setting up a simple chronological and/or logical narrative. It is reasonable to take the time frame in Gen. 7:24 and tied it to what happened next.


Genesis 7:24–8:1a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

gâbar (גָּבַר) [pronounced gawb-VAHR]

to be strong, to be mighty, to exhibit greater strength than, to be stronger than, to prevail over

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #1396 BDB #149

mayim (מַיִם) [pronounced mah-YIHM]

water (s)

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4325 BDB #565

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75

chămishîym (חָמִשִים) [pronounced khuh-mih-SHEEM]

fifty

plural numeral

Strong’s #2572 BDB #332

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

mêʾâh (מֵאָה) [pronounced may-AW]

one hundred, a hundred, hundred

feminine singular numeral

Strong’s #3967 BDB #547

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article); possibly immediately

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

Although nearly every Hebrew sentence begins with a wâw conjunction or a wâw consecutive, it is not necessary to do so in the English translation.

zâkar (זָכַר) [pronounced zaw-KAHR]

to remember, to recall, to call to mind

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #2142 BDB #269

This is the first time that this word is used in the Bible.

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun

Strong's #430 BDB #43

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Nôach (נֹחַ) [pronounced NOH-ahkh]

rest, repose; consolation; transliterated Noah

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #5146 BDB #629


Translation: After the water had prevailed over the earth [for] 150 days, Elohim remembered Noah... As was done in several of the translations given above, it appears as though this verse may actually be a continuation of the final verse of the previous chapter. There were no verse or chapter divisions in the original Hebrew; so the addition of such is not inspired. When we complete this verse, we will go back and add in v. 24 from Gen. 7 to show how they fit together.


God did not forget that Noah was in the ark and that it had rained on the earth for 40 days and nights. God did not get involved in bookkeeping or racket ball, and then suddenly recall that He has this whole Noah/flood thing going on, on earth. This is an anthropopathism where a characteristic of man is applied to God in order for us to understand God. It may have seemed as if God had completely forgotten about Noah, because it did rain for a very long time.


Gen. 8:1 is the center of this narrative—a narrative which we will later see is very carefully structured to make v. 1 its center.


Gen. 8:1 indicates that during this storm; during this 150 days, there was no direct contact between God and Noah. The anthropopathism God remembered Noah indicates the lack of contact during that time.


Genesis 8:1b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Although nearly every Hebrew phrase begins with a wâw conjunction or a wâw consecutive, it is not necessary to do so in the English translation.

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

the whole, all of, the entirety of, all; can also be rendered any of

masculine singular construct followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

chayyâh (חַיָּה) [pronounced khay-YAWH]

living thing, animal, life, organisms, lifeform; appetite, revival, renewal; community, family, assembled group, allied families, bands

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #2416 BDB #312

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

the whole, all of, the entirety of, all; can also be rendered any of

masculine singular construct followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

behêmâh (בְּהֵמָה) [pronounced behay-MAW]

beasts [a collective of all animals]; mammal (s), beast, animal, cattle, livestock [domesticated animals]; wild beasts

feminine singular noun often used in the collective sense; with the definite article

Strong’s #929 BDB #96

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

with, at, near, by, among, directly from

preposition (which is identical to the sign of the direct object); with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #854 BDB #85

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

têbâh (תֵּבָה) [pronounced tayb-VAW]

an ark, a chest

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #8392 BDB #1061


Translation: ...and all of the living creatures and all the animals that [were] with him in the ark. All that would populate the earth was with Noah in the ark. God is said to remember these creatures as well.


Now let’s add in v. 24 from the previous chapter: 24 When the waters prevailed over the earth 150 days, 1 Elohim remembered Noah, and all of the living creatures and all the animals that [were] with him in the ark.


We have discussed anthropopathisms before, which is the assignment of human feelings or passions or human limitations to God. The Bible reads: And God remembered Noah. God was not busy making a sandwich one day, and then suddenly said to Himself, “Oh, crap, I forgot all about Noah. I had better go check up on him. Hope he is okay” However, we have the verb to remember here used, ascribing to God a characteristic which He does not actually possess; God does not need to remember something. God knows all that is going on.


A fair question would be, how do we know that this is a anthropopathism? How do we know to take one part of the Bible literally, and then, when we come to this verse, we determine, its an anthropopathism?


Let’s look at what the Bible says about the Omniscience of God.

The Omniscience of God

1.      The definition of God’s omniscience: God knows all things, past, present and future, real and potential, and He understands all these things simultaneously. He not only knows what was, and what is, he also knows what will be. Time was invented by God, so God is not subject to time. So, knowing all events—past, present and future—is a part of God’s knowledge, because God is not confined to time as we are. More than that, God knows all that is and all that could be.

2.      Omniscience is derived from two Latin words: omnis means all; and sciens means knowing.

3.      Scriptural documentation for God’s omniscience:

         1)      Whenever our heart condemns us, God is greater than our heart; He knows everything (1John 3:20).

         2)      Great is our LORD, and of great power; There is no limit to His understanding (Psalm 147:5).

         3)      Neither is there any creature that is not manifest in His sight, but all things are naked and opened to the eyes of Him with whom we have to do (Heb. 4:13).

         4)      There is none holy as Jehovah, for there is none beside You. Neither is there any rock like our God. Talk no more so very proudly. Remove arrogance out of your mouth, for Jehovah is a God of knowledge, and by Him actions are weighed (1Sam. 2:2–3).

         5)      No thought or purpose is withheld from God. Job 42:2b

         6)      Psalm 139:1–6 is all about God’s omniscience: O Jehovah, You have searched me and have known me. You know my sitting down and my rising up; You understand my thought afar off. You search my path and my lying down, and are acquainted with all my ways. For there is not a word in my tongue, but, lo, O Jehovah, You know it altogether. You have closed me in behind and in front, and laid Your hand on me. Such knowledge is too wonderful for me; it is high, I cannot go up to it.

4.      Other Biblical statements which indicate that God is omniscient:

         1)      God numbers the hairs on your head. Luke 12:7

         2)      He knows your words before you speak them. Psalm 139:4

         3)      He knows your thoughts before you think them. Psalm 139:2

         4)      He knows your prayers before you pray them. Matt. 6:8

         5)      He knows everything you are going to do tomorrow, next week, next month, next year, and every moment of every day until the moment of your death. Psalm 139:16

         6)      He sees everything you do in secret—both the good and the bad. Matt. 6:4

5.      God’s knowledge is complete. Job 37:16

6.      God knows the end from the beginning, which explains why there is so much prophecy in the Bible (some estimate that 20% of the Bible’s content is prophetical). Isa. 41:26 42:9 46:10

7.      God knows everything there is to know about us (and everyone else, good and evil). Job 31:4 34:21 Jer. 16:17

8.      Jesus Christ, as the Son of God, is omniscient (Matt. 9:4 11:27 John 2:25 11:11–14 18:4).

9.      The Holy Spirit is omniscient, for no one knows the thinking of God except the Spirit of God (1Cor. 2:10–11).

10.    Because God foreknew us, He predestined us to be conformed to the image of His Son. Rom. 8:29

11.    God is outside of time. Therefore, God’s knowledge is not dependent upon time Consequently, God does not have to learn things, and, furthermore, His knowledge is not subject to forgetfulness.

12.    See also Psalm 139:12 147:4 Isa. 43:9 Nahum 1:7 Acts 2:23 15:18

Some of these points came from:

http://www.keepbelieving.com/sermon/1997-02-16-His-Eye-Is-On-the-Sparrow-The-Doctrine-of-Gods-Omniscience/ (which sermon appears to be quite accurate and worth reading, if this subject interests you).

See also R. B. Thieme, Jr., Divine Essence; ©1973 by R. B. Thieme, Jr.; pp. 11–12.

Based upon this doctrine, of which doctrine I have only scratched the surface, we know that God did not forget about Noah.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


However, the idea is, Noah is in this ark for a year with his family and all of those animals, and I am sure that even he begins to wonder when he will see land again, and if God remembers that he and his family are floating around in the ark.


This word remember is often used when God delivers someone from judgment or answers a petition made to Him (Gen. 19:29 30:22 Ex. 2:24). God has perfect timing. Often when we pray for something, we want it right then or awhile ago. However, if God answers yes to that prayer, that does not mean that He gives this to us right then and there. When God grants us a petition, He gives it to us on His Own time, which is perfect timing.


Essentially, God is remembering His covenant with Noah, which is Gen. 6:13–21. He told Noah exactly what to do, and now God must fulfill His part of the covenant, to ultimately deliver Noah, his family and the animals to a land which has been both cleansed and devastated (not unlike the implied devastation between Gen. 1:1 and 1:2). We know that, by this time, everything that lived on dry land and breathes air has died (Gen. 7:22–23). Now God has to prepare the world for Noah and all that is in his ark.


Genesis 8:1c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʿâbar (עָבַר) [pronounced ģawb-VAHR]

to cause [make] to pass over, to cause [allow] to pass through, to bring [over, to]; to transmit, to send over; to pass by sin, to cause to pass away, to cause to take away; to remit, to forgive

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect

Strong’s #5674 BDB #716

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun

Strong's #430 BDB #43

rûwach (רוּחַ) [pronounced ROO-ahkh]

wind, breath, spirit, apparition

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #7307 BDB #924

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: Consequently, Elohim caused a wind to pass over the earth. Just as water can be powerful beyond belief, so can a great wind from God. God was using this wind to distribute the water where He wanted, which would be above, on and below the earth.


The first verb is the Hiphil imperfect (causative extended or future action) of ʿâbar (עָבַר) [pronounced ģawb-VAHR], which means to pass over, to pass through, to pass on, to pass, to go over. In the causative stem, it means to cause [make] to pass over, to cause [allow] to pass through, to bring [over, to]; to transmit, to send over. Strong’s #5674 BDB #716. What God causes to pass over is rûwach (רוּחַ) [pronounced ROO-ahkh], which means wind, breath, spirit, apparition. This is the word used to refer both to the Holy Spirit and to the spirit of man, as well as to wind and breath. Strong’s #7307 BDB #924. You cannot see the wind (or the spirit), but its affects are clearly seen.


Genesis 8:1d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

shâkak (שָכַ) [pronounced shaw-KAHK]

to subside, to decrease, to abate, to recede

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #7918 BDB #1013

mayim (מַיִם) [pronounced mah-YIHM]

water (s)

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4325 BDB #565


Translation: ...and the waters subsided. Just as God has a place for everything, He has determined where the water would go. Some would find its way deep into the ground; most would remain on the surface; and much would be held in the atmosphere.


Gen 8:1c–d And God made a wind [or, a Spirit] to pass over the earth, and the waters subsided.


Having lived in Texas for the past 30 or so years, I have experienced the wind. If memory serves, I have been in at least 4 hurricanes, some of which were at full force (for this far inland) and some of which were petering out by the time they got to my house. I have never seen the wind, but I sincerely and adamantly believe in it. One of the most amazing sights I have seen, and I am sorry I did not take a photo of this, is a 70–80 ft. pine tree which had been picked up and laid end-to-end length-wise along the very top of a house, with the roots hanging over one end of the house and the crown of the tree hanging over the other end of the house, perfectly balanced across the roof. I became a firm believer in the wind after seeing that with my own eyes (I did not see the process, but only the end result). Even if I had been there at the time, I would not have been able to see the wind which caused this event—which uprooted a huge pine tree, lifted it up 25' or more in the air, and then laid it gently upon this house, all along the very crest of the roof. But I believe in that wind; I know it was real, even though I did not see that wind and have never seen wind before. At best, I can see the effects of the wind, but the wind itself is invisible (which explains why the Hebrews used the same word to describe both the wind and the Holy Spirit).

 

John Morris suggests that one effect of the wind would be to dry out the saturated earth. There would have been considerable water run off, as well as evaporation which would be taking place after 150 days (the length of time that the waters prevailed over the earth). Morris also suggests that this would have triggered a mini-ice age, which would not have seriously affected Noah and his family, who are near the equator. He writes A hot ocean (more evaporation)--coupled with cold continents (greater temperature differential, sending the moisture inland) and an atmosphere filled with volcanic debris (less snowmelt due to decreased sunlight)--would have triggered staggering storms and immense snow buildup.


The subsidence (abating or decreasing) of the waters was a process which took time. Whether it is the Holy Spirit or the wind being involved in this abatement is open for debate. However, given the parallels between this passage and Gen. 1, I would maintain that this is God the Holy Spirit.


Now let’s add in v. 24 from the previous chapter: 24 When the waters prevailed over the earth 150 days, 1 Elohim remembered Noah, and all of the living creatures and all the animals that [were] with him in the ark. Consequently, Elohim caused a wind to pass over the earth and the waters subsided.


God apparently caused these waters to dissipate with a tremendous wind and scattered the water about the world. It is during this time that the mountains and valleys became more pronounced. Psalm 104:8 reads: The mountains rose; the valleys sank down to the place which you appointed for them. Obviously, does not correspond with geology which holds that these things were done billions of years ago.


——————————


And so are shut up springs of the ocean depth and windows of heaven. And so is restrained the rain from the [two] heavens.

Genesis

8:2

Therefore, the fountains of the ocean depths and the windows of heaven are closed down and the rain from the heavens is restrained [as well].

Therefore, God shut down the fountains of the ocean depths and He closed down the windows of heaven, so that the rain is restrained from falling.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the fountains of the deep were shut up, and the windows of heaven, and the rain was forbidden to descend from heaven. And the waters returned from being on the earth, going and returning.

Latin Vulgate                          The fountains also of the deep, and the floodgates of heaven, were shut up, and the rain from heaven was restrained.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so are shut up springs of the ocean depth and windows of heaven. And so is restrained the rain from the [two] heavens.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    The fountains of the deep and the windows of heaven were closed, and the rain from the sky was restrained.

Septuagint (Greek)                And the fountains of the deep were closed up, and the flood gates of heaven, and the rain from heaven was withheld.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           The springs of the deep sea and the skies[a] closed up. The skies held back the rain.

Contemporary English V.       God stopped up the places where the water had been gushing out from under the earth. He also closed up the sky, and the rain stopped.

Easy English                          God stopped the waters that were rushing up from the seas. He stopped the waters that were pouring down from the sky. He stopped the rain.

Easy-to-Read Version            Rain stopped falling from the sky. And water stopped flowing from under the earth.

Good News Bible (TEV)         The outlets of the water beneath the earth and the floodgates of the sky were closed. The rain stopped,....

The Message                         The underground springs were shut off, the windows of Heaven closed and the rain quit.

New Berkeley Version           Besides, the fountains of the deep and the sluices of heaven were closed and the gushing rains from heaven were checked.

New Century Version             The underground springs stopped flowing, and the clouds in the sky stopped pouring down rain.

New Living Translation           The underground waters stopped flowing, and the torrential rains from the sky were stopped.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          ...the springs that were under the ground closed and the floodgates of the skies and the rain from the skies were held back.

Christian Community Bible     Then the fountains of the deep and the floodgates of the heavens were closed and the downpour from the heavens held back.

God’s Word                         The deep springs and the sky had been shut, and the rain had stopped pouring.

New American Bible              The fountains of the abyss and the floodgates of the sky were closed, and the downpour from the sky was held back.

New Jerusalem Bible             The springs of the deep and the sluices of heaven were stopped up and the heavy rain from heaven was held back.

New Simplified Bible              The springs of the deep and the floodgates of the skies were closed. So the rain stopped falling from the sky.

Revised English Bible            The springs of the deep and the windows of the heavens were stopped up, the downpour from the skies was checked.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      The fountains of the abyss and the vents of heaven locked and contained the showers from heaven.

Bible in Basic English             And the fountains of the deep and the windows of heaven were shut, and the rain from heaven was stopped.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 ...and He restrained the outpourings from the Deep, and the belts of the skies, and stopped the torrents from the skies,...

HCSB                                     The sources of the watery depths and the floodgates of the sky were closed, and the rain from the sky stopped.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               The fountains of the deep and the floodgates of there sky were stopped up, and the rain from the sky was held back;...

Judaica Press Complete T.    And the springs of the deep were closed, and the windows of the heavens, and the rain from the heavens was withheld.

NET Bible®                             The fountains of the deep and the floodgates of heaven were closed [Some (e.g., NIV) translate the preterite verb forms in this verse as past perfects (e.g., "had been closed"), for it seems likely that the sources of the water would have stopped before the waters receded], and the rain stopped falling from the sky.

NIV – UK                                Now the springs of the deep and the floodgates of the heavens had been closed, and the rain had stopped falling from the sky.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

American KJV                        The fountains also of the deep and the windows of heaven were stopped, and the rain from heaven was restrained.

The Amplified Bible                Also the fountains of the deep and the windows of the heavens were closed, the gushing rain from the sky was checked,.

Concordant Literal Version    And being held in check are the springs of the submerged chaos and the crevices of the heavens, and being shut up is the downpour from the heavens.

Context Group Version          ...the fountains also of the deep and the windows of the skies { or heavens } were stopped, and the rain from the skies { or heavens } was restrained;...

Darby Translation                  And the fountains of the deep and the windows of heaven were closed, and the pour of rain from heaven was stopped.

Emphasized Bible                  ...and the fountains of the roaring-deep were shut, and the windows of the heavens,—and the heavy rain was restrained from the heavens;...

LTHB                                     And the fountains of the deep and the windows of the heavens were stopped, and the rain from the heavens was restrained.

NASB                                     Also the fountains of the deep and the floodgates [Or windows of the heavens] of the sky were closed, and the rain from the sky was restrained;...

World English Bible                The deep's fountains and the sky's windows were also stopped, and the rain from the sky was restrained.

Young's Updated LT              And He closed are the fountains of the deep and the net-work of the heavens, and restrained is the shower from the heavens.

 

The gist of this verse:          There was a stop to water coming from below the ground, and an end to the rain from above.


Genesis 8:2a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

çâkar (סָכַר) [pronounced saw-KAHR]

to shut up, to stop up

3rd person masculine plural, Niphal imperfect

Strong’s #5534 BDB #698

maʿeyân (מַעְיָן) [pronounced mahģ-YAWN]

spring, fountain; a place irrigated with fountains

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #4599 BDB #745

tehôwm (תְּהוֹם) [pronounced te-HOHM]

ocean depths, a surging mass of water, deep waters, a sea, a subterranean water-supply, abyss, primeval oceans, the vast depths

feminine singular noun

Strong's #8415 BDB #1062

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾărubbâh (אֲרֻבָּה) [pronounced ur-oob-BAW]

lattice, window, sluice; chimney; a dove house; an area enclosed with lattice

feminine plural construct

Strong’s #699 BDB #70

shâmayîm (שָמַיִם) [pronounced shaw-MAH-yim]

heaven, heavens, skies; the visible heavens, as in as abode of the stars or as the visible universe, the sky, atmosphere, etc.; Heaven (as the abode of God)

masculine dual noun with the definite article

Strong’s #8064 BDB #1029


Translation: Therefore, the fountains of the oceand epths and the windows of heaven are closed down... There were two great sources of water: water came from underground and it came from the skies. God shut down both of these sources of water.



Genesis 8:2b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

kâlâʾ (כָּלָא) [pronounced kaw-LAW]

to be shut up, to be restrained

3rd person masculine singular, Niphal imperfect

Strong's #3607 BDB #476

geshem (גֶּשֶם) [pronounced GHEH-Shem]

rain, showers; violent rain, heavy shower

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #1653 BDB #177

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

shâmayîm (שָמַיִם) [pronounced shaw-MAH-yim]

heaven, heavens, skies; the visible heavens, as in as abode of the stars or as the visible universe, the sky, atmosphere, etc.; Heaven (as the abode of God)

masculine dual noun with the definite article

Strong’s #8064 BDB #1029


Translation: ...and the rain from the heavens is restrained [as well]. God stopped the rain from falling.


Gen 8:2 Also the fountains of the deep and the windows of heaven were stopped, and rain from heaven was restrained.


What we have here is a parallel to Gen. 1:1–2 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. Now the earth was chaotic and desolate. Darkness was on the surface of the deep. God's Spirit was hovering over the surface of the waters. The earth cannot be inhabited because it is chaotic and desolate (tohu waw bohu), so that God sends the Holy Spirit to restore the earth so that it can be inhabited once again. You will recall that we theorized then that the earth was encased in ice, and here, it is covered with water. In both cases, the earth is uninhabitable. We know the evil which preceded the flood; we have theorized the evil which preceded the earth being incased in ice. In both cases, there was a temporary cleansing of the earth.


What events are associated with the stopping of the waters from below and above are not explained in any detail. God made a wind [or, a Spirit] to pass over the earth, and the waters subsided. Also the fountains of the deep and the windows of heaven were stopped, and rain from heaven was restrained. Being stopped means, the water from above and below stopped coming; and restrained means that it did not start up again. As we have studied before, the Holy Spirit functions as the power or the energy of God


V. 2 marks the end of day 40. In vv. 3–5, the author will talk about what has happened to the waters.


——————————


And so return the waters from upon the earth, departing and returning. And so are decreasing the waters from an end of fifty and one hundred a day.

Genesis

8:3

As a result [lit., and so], the waters returned from [being] upon the earth, departing and returning. Therefore, the waters began to decrease at the end of 150 days.

As a result, the waters began to steadily recede from being upon the earth, starting to decrease at the end of this 150 days.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the waters were minished at the end of a hundred and fifty days.

Latin Vulgate                          And the waters returned from off the earth going and coming: and they began to be abated after a hundred and fifty days.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so return the waters from upon the earth, departing and returning. And so are decreasing the waters from an end of fifty and one hundred a day.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And the waters receded from the earth gradually; and after the end of a hundred and fifty clays the waters abated.

Septuagint (Greek)                And the water subsided, and went off the earth, and after one hundred and fifty days the water was diminished, and the ark rested in the seventh month, on the twenty-seventh day of the month, on the mountains of Ararat. This appears to be vv. 3–4.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           The waters receded gradually from the earth. After one hundred fifty days, the waters decreased;...

Contemporary English V.       For one hundred fifty days the water slowly went down.

Easy English                          All the time, the waters were going down. After 150 days, the waters had gone down.

Good News Bible (TEV)         ...and the water gradually went down for 150 days.

The Message                          Inch by inch the water lowered. After 150 days the worst was over.

New Berkeley Version           Steadily the waters moved back from the earth, going down at the end of the 150 days.

New Century Version             The water that covered the earth began to go down. After one hundred fifty days it had gone down so much that the boat touched land again. It came to rest on one of the mountains of Ararat[a] on the seventeenth day of the seventh month. The NCV combines vv. 3–4.

New Life Bible                        The water kept moving away from the earth. At the end of 150 days the water was less.

New Living Translation           So the floodwaters gradually receded from the earth. After 150 days,...


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Then the water level started to drop, flowing off the ground. And after a hundred and fifty days, the flood was pretty well over, and the chest came to rest on Mount Ararat on the twenty-seventh day of the seventh month. Since the AEB is taken from the Septuagint, it also has an extended verse here.

Beck’s American Translation Little by little the waters continued to leave the earth, so that at the end of the 150 days...

God’s Word                         The water began to recede from the land. At the end of 150 days the water had decreased.

New American Bible              Gradually the waters receded from the earth. At the end of one hundred and fifty days, the waters had so diminished...

NIRV                                      The water continued to go down from the earth. At the end of the 150 days the water had gone down.

New Jerusalem Bible             Little by little, the waters ebbed from the earth. After a hundred and fifty days the waters fell...

Revised English Bible            Gradually the water receded from the earth, and by the end of a hundred and fifty days it had abated.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      The waters ||returned|| from going over the land. At the end of the hundred and fifty days, the waters decreased.

Bible in Basic English             And the waters went slowly back from the earth, and at the end of a hundred and fifty days the waters were lower.

Complete Jewish Bible           ...and the water came back from completely covering the earth. It was after 150 days that the water went down.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 ...and stayed the waters from going on to the earth; and so the waters retired and diminished from the period of one hundred and fifty days.

HCSB                                     The water steadily receded from the earth, and by the end of 150 days the waters had decreased significantly.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               2 The fountains of the deep and the floodgates of the sky were stopped up, and the rain from the sky was held back; 3 the waters then receded steadily from the earth. At the end of one hundred and fifty days the waters diminished, 4 so that in the seventeenth month, on the seventeenth day of the month, the ark came to rest on the mountains of Ararat. Vv. 2–4 are included here for context.

New Advent Bible                  And the waters returned from off the earth going and coming: and they began to be abated after a hundred and fifty days.

NET Bible®                             The waters kept receding steadily [The construction combines a Qal preterite from שוּב (shuv) with its infinitive absolute to indicate continuous action. The infinitive absolute from הָלָךְ (halakh) is included for emphasis: "the waters returned...going and returning."] from the earth, so that they [Heb "the waters." The pronoun ("they") has been employed in the translation for stylistic reasons.] had gone down [The vav (ו) consecutive with the preterite here describes the consequence of the preceding action] by the end of the 150 days.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    ...and returning are the waters off the earth, going and returning. And abating are the waters at the end of one hundred and fifty days.

A Conservative Version         And the waters returned from off the earth continually. And after the end of a hundred and fifty days the waters decreased.

Darby Translation                  And the waters retired from the earth, continually retiring; and in the course of a hundred and fifty days the waters abated.

Emphasized Bible                  ...and the waters returned from off the earth they went on returning,—and so the waters decreased at the end of a hundred and fifty days.

English Standard Version      ...and the waters receded from the earth continually. At the end of 150 days the waters had abated.

LTHB                                     And the waters retreated from the earth, going and retreating. And the waters diminished at the end of a hundred and fifty days.

New RSV                               ...and the waters gradually receded from the earth. At the end of one hundred and fifty days the waters had abated;...

A Voice in the Wilderness      And the waters receded from the earth, going out and coming back. At the end of the hundred and fifty days the waters were decreased.

World English Bible                The waters receded from off the earth continually. After the end of one hundred fifty days the waters decreased.

Young's Literal Translation     And turn back do the waters from off the earth, going on and returning; and the waters are lacking at the end of a hundred and fifty days.

 

The gist of this verse:          After 150 days there was a noticeable decrease of the waters over the land.


Genesis 8:3a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

shûwb (שוּב) [pronounced shoobv]

to return, to turn, to turn back, to reminisce, to restore something, to bring back something, to revive, to recover something, to make restitution

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong's #7725 BDB #996

mayim (מַיִם) [pronounced mah-YIHM]

water (s)

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4325 BDB #565

min (מִן) [pronounced mihn]

from, away from, out from, out of from, off, on account of, since, above, than, so that not, beyond, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl ]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5920, #5921 BDB #752

Together, they mean from upon, from over, from by, from beside, from attachment to, from companionship with, from accompanying [in a protective manner], from adhesion to, from. Some translators rendered this away from.

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: As a result [lit., and so], the waters returned from [being] upon the earth,... The waters came from under the ground and from the rain, and covered the earth. However, they eventually returned to their origins.


Genesis 8:3b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

hâlake (הָלַךְ) [pronounced haw-LAHKe]

to go, to come, to depart, to walk; to advance

Qal infinitive absolute

Strong’s #1980 (and #3212) BDB #229

When water is the subject, this can mean to flow, to pour out. When spoken of a lifestyle or a manner of life, to walk can be understood to live, to follow a particular lifestyle or manner of life; to follow [in one’s footsteps]. This verb can also mean to go away, to vanish; to go on, to go forward; to add to something [making it go forward, so to speak]; to grow.

The infinitive absolute has four uses: ➊ when found alone, it sometimes acts as an English gerund, so that we may add ing to the end of the verb; ➋ When found directly before its verbal cognate, it serves to intensify or strengthen the action or the meaning of the verb which follows; ➌ When it follows its cognate verb, it emphasizes the duration or the continuation of the verbal idea; and, ➍ it is sometimes used as a substitute for a finite verb form.

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

shûwb (שוּב) [pronounced shoobv]

to return, to turn, to turn back, to reminisce, to restore something, to bring back something, to revive, to recover something, to make restitution

Qal infinitive absolute

Strong's #7725 BDB #996


Translation: ...departing and returning. This was a gradual process, and the return of the waters into the ground went back and forth. That is, waters would seep into the ground, but then waters would come back out from under the ground. So this wasn’t as if the earth was a huge mouth that suddenly opened up and swallowed everything.


Genesis 8:3c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

châçêr (חָסֵר) [pronounced khaw-SEHR]

to lack, to need, to be lacking, to be devoice [of anything], to be without; to decrease, to be lessened; to be wanting; to fail

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #2637 BDB #341

mayim (מַיִם) [pronounced mah-YIHM]

water (s)

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4325 BDB #565

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

qâtseh (קָצֶה) [pronounced kaw-TSEH]

end, extremity, outskirts; the whole, the sum

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #7097 BDB #892

With the min preposition, it means from the end of; at the end of; after.

chămishîym (חָמִשִים) [pronounced khuh-mih-SHEEM]

fifty

plural numeral

Strong’s #2572 BDB #332

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

mêʾâh (מֵאָה) [pronounced may-AW]

one hundred, a hundred, hundred

feminine singular numeral

Strong’s #3967 BDB #547

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article); possibly immediately

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398


Translation: Therefore, the waters began to decrease at the end of 150 days. After a period of 150 days, the water over the earth began to subside. This is not an additional 150 days being added on top of the days mentioned in Gen. 7:24, but it indicates that once 150 days were reached, then the waters began to recede.


A note on the translation: we have a series of wâw consecutives followed by imperfect verbs, which is the common way chronological narrative is presented in the Hebrew. What we have here is a logical order of events: the waters are returning to under the earth, so, logically, they would begin to decrease upon the earth. Since this does not occur all at once—it is a process, as is indicated by v. 3b—I have translated decreased as began to decrease.


Noah apparently recorded this information (or one of his sons did). It did not necessarily get recorded on paper, but was added to what was already known from the creation of the earth. This information was very likely memorized and known throughout much of the ancient world.


Gen 8:3 And the waters returned from off the earth continually. And after the end of 150 days the waters had gone down.


I live in a place where we occasionally get a lot of rain, and the results of a heavy rain continue for days after the rain itself. After a heavy rain, this rain moves toward the streams and rivers, and that water starts moving downstream; the end result is, we can have flooding days after torrential rains have stopped.


At this juncture in Genesis, we are looking at the aftermath of the great worldwide flood. Many of the waters are returning into the earth, back to the underground streams and rivers which are there.


My semi-educated guess would be, there are earthquakes and volcanos, both of which open up caverns underground, into which these waters are pulled. The force of the moving waters underground would have carved out underground rivers as well as moved debris for great distances.


The cold water entering into a very warm earth must have also caused more unsettling in the earth, all of this occurring beneath the surface of the waters.


Gen. 8:2–3 Therefore, the fountains of the ocean depths and the windows of heaven are closed down and the rain from the heavens is restrained [as well]. As a result [lit., and so], the waters returned from [being] upon the earth, departing and returning. Therefore, the waters began to decrease at the end of 150 days.


Shûwb (שוּב) [pronounced shoobv] is in the Qal imperfect and it means to retreat, to return, to turn back. It is a very common word in the Hebrew, given several pages in Brown Driver Briggs. The waters from under the ground returned to beneath the surface of the earth. kâlâʾ (כָּלָא) [pronounced kaw-LAW] means to shut up, to restrain, to withhold. It is in the Niphal imperfect, which is the simple passive stem in the Hebrew. God caused the rain to stop and caused the waters from below to stop. châçêr (חָסֵר) [pronounced khaw-SEHR] means to lack, lacking, to need as well as to decrease. With respect to water, it means to disappear. This refers to the evaporation of the water as well as to the water flowing back into underground streams and river. Since the water does not decrease or dissipate all in one day, began to has been inserted into the translation.


——————————


And so rests the ark in the month the seventh in a seven-ten day to the month, upon mountains of Ararat .

Genesis

8:4

The ark came to rest, in the seventh month on the 17th day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat.

The ark came to rest on the mountains of Ararat on the 17th day of the 7th month.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the ark rested in the seventh month, which is the month of Nisan, in the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Qadron; the name of the one mountain is Qardania, and the name of the other mountain Irmenia; and there was builded the city of Armenia in the land of the east.

Latin Vulgate                          And the ark rested in the seventh month, the seven and twentieth day of the month, upon the mountains of Armenia.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so rests the ark in the month the seventh in a seven-ten day to the month, upon mountains of Ararat .

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, the ark rested upon the mountains of Kardo.

Septuagint (Greek)                And the water continued to decrease until the tenth month. The rest of this verse is combined with v. 3.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       Then on the seventeenth day of the seventh month of the year, the boat came to rest somewhere in the Ararat mountains.

Easy English                          On the 17th day in the 7th month, the *ark rested.

Good News Bible (TEV)         On the seventeenth day of the seventh month the boat came to rest on a mountain in the Ararat range.

The Message                         On the seventeenth day of the seventh month, the ship landed on the Ararat mountain range.

New Century Version             The water that covered the earth began to go down. After one hundred fifty days it had gone down so much that the boat touched land again. It came to rest on one of the mountains of Ararat[ [The ancient land of Urartu, an area in Eastern Turkey.]on the seventeenth day of the seventh month. The NCV combines vv. 3–4.

New Life Bible                        And in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, the large boat came to rest on Mount Ararat.

New Living Translation           ...exactly five months from the time the flood began,[a] the boat came to rest on the mountains of Ararat.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          ...and the chest came to rest on Mount Ararat on the twenty-seventh day of the seventh month. 4 Well, the water levels kept dropping through the tenth month,... Because the AEB follows the Septuagint, v. 4 is actually a part of v. 3.

 

God’s Word                         On the seventeenth day of the seventh month, the ship came to rest in the mountains of Ararat.

New American Bible              ...that, in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, the ark came to rest on the mountains of Ararat. The mountains of Ararat: the mountain country of ancient Arartu in northwest Iraq, which was the highest part of the world to the biblical writer. There is no Mount Ararat in the Bible.

Revised English Bible            On the seventeenth day of the seventh month the ark grounded on the mountains of Ararat.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      The box settled in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, over Mount Ararat.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 The Ark then rested on the seventeen day of the seventh month upon the Peaks of the High Hills;...

New Advent Bible                  And the ark rested in the seventh month, the seven and twentieth day of the month, upon the mountains of Armenia.

NET Bible®                             On the seventeenth day of the seventh month, the ark came to rest on one of the mountains of Ararat. Heb "on the mountains of Ararat." Obviously a boat (even one as large as the ark) cannot rest on multiple mountains. Perhaps (1) the preposition should be translated "among," or (2) the plural "mountains" should be understood in the sense of "mountain range" (see E. A. Speiser, Genesis [AB], 53). A more probable option (3) is that the plural indicates an indefinite singular, translated "one of the mountains" (see GKC 400 §124.o). Ararat is the Hebrew name for Urartu, the name of a mountainous region located north of Mesopotamia in modern day eastern Turkey. See E. M. Yamauchi, Foes from the Northern Frontier (SBA), 29-32; G. J. Wenham, Genesis (WBC), 1:184-85; C. Westermann, Genesis, 1:443-44.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                On the seventeenth day of the seventh month the ark came to rest on the mountains of Ararat [in Armenia].

English Standard Version      ...and in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, the ark came to rest on the mountains of Ararat.

The Geneva Bible                  And the ark rested in the seventh month [Part of September and part of October], on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat.

Syndein                                  So that in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, the ark came to rest on the mountains of Ararat {a range on edge of Armenia - highest peak roughly 16,000 feet}.

Third Millennium Bible            And the ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat.

World English Bible                The ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on Ararat's mountains.

Young’s Updated LT             And the ark rests in the seventh month, in the seventeenth day of the month, on mountains of Ararat.

 

The gist of this verse:          The ark is grounded on the mountain range of Ararat on the 17th day of the 7th month.


Genesis 8:4a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

Although the Hebrew begins nearly every phrase with a wâw consecutive or a wâw conjunction, it is not necessary that we do so in the English translation.

nûwach (נוּחַ) [pronounced NOO-ahkh]

rest, cause to rest, to be at rest, set down, lay down, deposit, leave

3rd person feminine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #5117 (and #3240) BDB #628

têbâh (תֵּבָה) [pronounced tayb-VAW]

an ark, a chest

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #8392 BDB #1061

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

chôdesh (חֹדֶש) [pronounced KHOH-desh]

new moon, month; monthly; first day of the month

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #2320 BDB #294

shebîyʿîy (שְבִיעִי) [pronounced she-bee-EE]

seventh

masculine singular adjective; numeral ordinate with the definite article

Strong’s #7637 BDB #988

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

shibeʿâh (שִבְָה) [pronounced shibve-ĢAW]

seven

numeral feminine noun

Strong's #7651 BDB #987

ʿâsâr (עָשָׂה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWR]

ten; –teen [resulting in numbers 11–19]

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #6240 BDB #797

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article); possibly immediately

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

chôdesh (חֹדֶש) [pronounced KHOH-desh]

new moon, month; monthly; first day of the month

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #2320 BDB #294


Translation: The ark came to rest, in the seventh month on the 17th day of the month,... What apparently told the occupants of the ark that the water had gone down is, the ark comes to a rest. Throughout the entire time, the ark has been tossed about in these great waves. Well, not only is this tossing about abated, but it is apparent that the ark is now caught upon something.


There is careful attention given to the time. For people caught inside an ark during such a great storm, we would expect this. The exact days are given to us.


Genesis 8:4b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl ]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5920, #5921 BDB #752

har (הַר) [pronounced har]

mountains, hills

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #2022 (and #2042) BDB #249

ʾărâraţ (אֲרָרַט) [pronounced uhr-aw-RAHT]

the cursed reversed; precipitation of a curse; and is transliterated Ararat

proper singular noun location

Strong’s #780 BDB #76


Translation: ...upon the mountains of Ararat. Personally, I think that the entire landscape changed dramatically because of the flood, and that the names of places from hereon in, are names given after the flood to topology which did not necessarily exist before.


So, the occupants of the ark are not in there, and they hear their ark being caught upon something, and decide that they are in the mountains of Ararat. They kept track of where they came from (we will see their journey in the next couple chapters), and someone named the mountains where the ark had been caught, Ararat, which means the curse is reversed. When these mountains were named, we don’t know. However, the name given these mountains suggest that the occupants of the ark named them (or, someone familiar with the narrative of the flood and the ark and the geography).


Gen 8:4 And in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, the ark rested upon the mountains of Ararat.


The ark, like all ships, is mostly under the water; so it is possible for this to come to rest on a mountain, and yet for no other mountains to be yet visible. The mountains upon which the ark is caught do not need to be the highest mountains in the region. This can occur, and yet other mountains can still not be seen. Furthermore, this seeing a far distance could have been prevented by the heavy evaporation and the tremendous fog and water vapor which would have been in the air at this time. However, they would have to be nearly the highest mountains in that immediate region.


It is likely that this referred to an area later known as Urarţu, which flourished during the Assyrian empire near Lake Van in Armenia. It is rendered both Armenia and Ararat in various translations and occurs but four times in the Old Testament.


This is occurring exactly 150 days after the rains began. The ark comes to rest on the mountain tops of Ararat. There are a number of theories as to where exactly this is; some place it between Kurdistan and Armenia. The proper noun translated Ararat here is translated Armenia elsewhere (2Kings 19:37 Isa. 37:38).


Map of Armenia

The area where Armenia is, is also the location of ancient kingdom of Urartu in which is Mount Ararat. Many of the Semitic peoples (those descended from Shem, one of Noah’s sons) would have moved southward into Iraq, into what is known as the fertile crescent, which is one of the centers of ancient civilization.

genesis08.gif

 

There are disagreements as to the final resting place of the ark. Josephus claimed that pieces of the ark could be seen during his time (from what I have read, he did not personally see the ark).

There are people who believe that they have found the ark today, and in reading through their websites, they do not sound completely crazy (it is not the entire ark, but small pieces of the ark—petrified wood, if I recall correctly, including some metal). I have never put in enough study to form my own opinion on this matter.

One site which seems reasonable: http://www.arkdiscovery.com/noah%27s_ark.htm

Map from: http://mapsof.net/uploads/static-maps/the_caucasus_and_central_asia__political_map.jpg


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


——————————


And so the waters are going and returning until the month the tenth. In the tenth in a first to the month is seen heads of mountains.

Genesis

8:5

The waters are going and returning until the tenth month. On the first day of the tenth month, the tops of mountains are seen.

The waters continued to ebb and flow until the tenth month. On the first day of the tenth month, the tops of mountains could be seen. .


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the waters went and diminished until the tenth month, the month Tammuz. In Tammuz, in the first of the month, the heads of the mountains were seen.

Latin Vulgate                          And the waters were going and decreasing until the tenth month: for in the tenth month, the first day of the month, the tops of the mountains appeared.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so the waters are going and returning until the month the tenth. In the tenth in a first to the month is seen heads of mountains.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And the waters decreased gradually until the tenth month; on the first day of the tenth month, the tops of the mountains were seen.

Septuagint (Greek)                And in the tenth month, on the first day of the month, the heads of the mountains were seen.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           The waters decreased gradually until the tenth month, and on the first day of the tenth month the mountain peaks appeared.

Contemporary English V.       The water kept going down, and the mountain tops could be seen on the first day of the tenth month.

Easy English                          The waters were still going down until the 10th month. Then Noah could see the tops of the mountains. That was on the 1st day in the 10th month.

Easy-to-Read Version            The water continued to go down, and by the first day of the tenth month the tops of the mountains were above the water.

Good News Bible (TEV)         The water kept going down, and on the first day of the tenth month the tops of the mountains appeared.

The Message                         The water kept going down until the tenth month. On the first day of the tenth month the tops of the mountains came into view.

New Berkeley Version           ...and gradually the waters kept lowering until on the first of the tenth month the mountain-tops were seen.

New Century Version             The water continued to go down so that by the first day of the tenth month the tops of the mountains could be seen.

New Living Translation           Two and a half months later [Hebrew On the first day of the tenth month; see 7:11 and note on 8:4.], as the waters continued to go down, other mountain peaks became visible.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          4 Well, the water levels kept dropping through the tenth month, 5 and on the first day of the tenth month, they could see the mountaintops. In order to make these passages match up, this is vv. 4 & 5 from the AEB.

Beck’s American Translation The waters got less and less till the 10th month; on the first day of the 10th month the tops of the mountains could be seen.

Christian Community Bible     The waters continued to recede until the tenth month. On the first day of the tenth month the mountaintops could be seen.

New American Bible              The waters continued to diminish until the tenth month, and on the first day of the tenth month the tops of the mountains appeared.

New Jerusalem Bible             The waters gradually fell until the tenth month when, on the first day of the tenth month, the mountain tops appeared.

Revised English Bible            The water continued to abate until the tenth month, and on the first day of the tenth month the tops of the mountains could be seen.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And still the waters went on falling, till on the first day of the tenth month the tops of the mountains were seen.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 ...and the waters were retreating and subsiding until the tenth month. In the eleventh month, the tops of the hills appeared.

HCSB                                     The waters continued to recede until the tenth month; in the tenth month, on the first day of the month, the tops of the mountains were visible.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               The waters went on diminishing until the length month; in the tenth month, on the first of the month, the tops of the mountains became visible.

Judaica Press Complete T.    And the waters constantly diminished until the tenth month; in the tenth month, on the first of the month, the mountain peaks appeared.

New Advent Bible                  And the waters were going and decreasing until the tenth month: for in the tenth month, the first day of the month, the tops of the mountains appeared.

NET Bible®                             The waters kept on receding [Heb “the waters were going and lessening.” The perfect verb form הָיָה (hayah) is used as an auxiliary verb with the infinitive absolute חָסוֹר (khasor, “lessening”), while the infinitive absolute הָלוֹךְ (halokh) indicates continuous action.] until the tenth month. On the first day of the tenth month, the tops of the mountains became visible [Or "could be seen."].

The Scriptures 1998              And the waters decreased steadily until the tenth month. In the tenth month, on the first day of the month, the tops of the mountains became visible.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And the waters came to go and abate until the tenth month. In the eleventh month, on day one of the month, appear the heads of the mountains.

A Conservative Version         And the waters decreased continually until the tenth month. In the tenth month, on the first day of the month, the tops of the mountains were seen.

English Standard Version      And the waters continued to abate until the tenth month; in the tenth month, on the first day of the month, the tops of the mountains were seen.

The Geneva Bible                  And the waters decreased continually until the tenth month [Which was the month of December. ]: in the tenth [month], on the first [day] of the month, were the tops of the mountains seen.

LTHB                                     And the waters were going and falling until the tenth month. In the tenth month, on the first of the month, the tops of the mountains were see.

Modern KJV                           And the waters decreased continually until the tenth month. And the tops of the mountains were seen in the tenth month on the first day of the month.

World English Bible                The waters receded continually until the tenth month. In the tenth month, on the first day of the month, the tops of the mountains were seen.

Young's Updated LT              And the waters have been going and becoming lacking till the tenth month; in the tenth [month], on the first of the month, appeared the heads of the mountains.

 

The gist of this verse: 


Genesis 8:5a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

Although the Hebrew begins nearly every phrase with a wâw consecutive or a wâw conjunction, it is not necessary that we do so in the English translation.

mayim (מַיִם) [pronounced mah-YIHM]

water (s)

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4325 BDB #565

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person plural, Qal perfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

hâlake (הָלַךְ) [pronounced haw-LAHKe]

to go, to come, to depart, to walk; to advance

Qal infinitive absolute

Strong’s #1980 (and #3212) BDB #229

When water is the subject, this can mean to flow, to pour out. When spoken of a lifestyle or a manner of life, to walk can be understood to live, to follow a particular lifestyle or manner of life; to follow [in one’s footsteps]. This verb can also mean to go away, to vanish; to go on, to go forward; to add to something [making it go forward, so to speak]; to grow.

The infinitive absolute has four uses: ➊ when found alone, it sometimes acts as an English gerund, so that we may add ing to the end of the verb; ➋ When found directly before its verbal cognate, it serves to intensify or strengthen the action or the meaning of the verb which follows; ➌ When it follows its cognate verb, it emphasizes the duration or the continuation of the verbal idea; and, ➍ it is sometimes used as a substitute for a finite verb form.

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

châçêr (חָסֵר) [pronounced khaw-SEHR]

to lack, to need, to be lacking, to be devoice [of anything], to be without; to decrease, to be lessened; to be wanting; to fail

Qal infinitive absolute

Strong’s #2637 BDB #341

ʿad (עַד) [pronounced ģahd]

as far as, even to, up to, until

preposition

Strong’s #5704 BDB #723

chôdesh (חֹדֶש) [pronounced KHOH-desh]

new moon, month; monthly; first day of the month

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #2320 BDB #294

ʿăshîyrîy (עֲשִירִי) [pronounced ģuh-shee-REE]

tenth

masculine singular, numeral ordinal; with the definite article

Strong’s #6224 BDB #798


Translation: The waters are going and returning until the tenth month. There seems to be this constant ebb and flow of the waters, as they continue going down, most of them disappearing into the earth. Although the wording here can suggest that the waters have stopped receding; this can simply be a marker of time. So, in the tenth month, the waters continue to ebb and flow, always going down.


Genesis 8:5b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʿăshîyrîy (עֲשִירִי) [pronounced ģuh-shee-REE]

tenth

masculine singular, numeral ordinal; with the definite article

Strong’s #6224 BDB #798

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʾechâd (אֶחָד) [pronounced eh-KHAWD]

one, first, certain, only; each, every; but it can also mean a composite unity; possibly particular; anyone

numeral adjective

Strong's #259 BDB #25

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

chôdesh (חֹדֶש) [pronounced KHOH-desh]

new moon, month; monthly; first day of the month

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #2320 BDB #294

râʾâh (רָאָה) [pronounced raw-AWH]

to be seen, to be visible; to let oneself be seen, to appear; to present oneself; to be provided [cared] for (i.e., looked after)

3rd person plural, Niphal perfect

Strong's #7200 BDB #906

râʾshîym (רָאשִים) [pronounced raw-SHEEM]

heads, princes, officers, captains, chiefs; company, band, division

masculine plural construct

Strong's #7218 BDB #910

har (הַר) [pronounced har]

mountains, hills

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #2022 (and #2042) BDB #249


Translation: On the first day of the tenth month, the tops of mountains are seen. This is an interesting statement, as the people are all inside the ark and Noah will open up a window 40 days hence. What is possibly the case is, Jesus, the revealed member of the Trinity, was able to see mountains at this point, and it became a part of the narrative. In the alternative, there were ways to see outside—just barely—and those inside were able to see mountains off in the distance.


Or, even a simpler solution. In the next verse, Noah opens a window which he made. Noah may have designed this window so that he could remove it at will. So he removes it when the ark suddenly stops moving, and mountains can be seen.


Became visible is the Hebrew word for to see, but it is in the Niphal perfect, which is the passive voice, completed action. They looked out of the ark and suddenly, there they were; some other mountains. Where they were, there was still no area of land to walk upon, since it was only the tops of these mountains which had become visible to them. Due to the receding water and to the decrease of some of the fog, these mountains had become visible to the inhabitants of the ark. In reading this, this makes me think that this was a diary kept by Noah (I should say a record or a ships's log) in which Noah recorded the events. It reads as though he would write one or two lines, tend to the animals on board, and then, a few days later (or even months later) add a few lines. This might account for many of the things being said twice. Noah was very impressed by the behavior of the animals and how they wandered up the ark ramp in twos, so he mentions this twice and alludes to it a third time. The tremendous rain is also mentioned twice and alluded to a couple of times.


It is not necessary for the ark to be caught on the highest peaks of the mountains of Ararat. So, it is possible that the mountains which could be seen are those of Ararat (although the mountains that can be seen are not named in this narrative).


Gen 8:5 And the waters decreased continually until the tenth month. And the tops of the mountains were seen in the tenth month on the first day of the month.


Dry land could be observed in several places 240 days after the rain began. Since Noah’s ark is now caught on a mountain, he then has a place of reference. He can tell that he has stopped moving; they can look outside—something which I am sure that they did every single morning—to see anything off in the distance. At day 240, they get up, look out, and they can see mountain tops off in the distance.


Because the ark has stopped upon a mountain, and now, Noah can look out and see other mountains, this tells us that Noah is in a mountain range.


In the next verse, Noah is going to open a window, so how does he see mountains in this verse? What appears to be the case is, Noah built a roof for the ark and it came down to being within 18 inches from the top of the ark (Gen. 6:16). This would have been an opening around the ark, which would have provided ventilation. They certainly could have affixed a ladder to the side of the ark so that they could climb up and look out through this opening.


——————————


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Noah Sends Out Birds to Check for a Drying Earth


And so he is from an end of forty a day and so opens Noah a window of the ark which he had made.

Genesis

8:6

And it is at the end of forty days that Noah opens a window of the ark which he had made.

And it comes to pass 40 days later that Noah opened the window of the ark, the window which he had constructed.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And it was at the end of forty days, and Noah opened the aperture of the ark which he had made.

Latin Vulgate                          And after that forty days were passed, Noe opening the window of the ark, which he had made, sent forth a raven.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so he is from an end of forty a day and so opens Noah a window of the ark which he had made.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And it came to pass at the end of forty days that Noah opened the window of the ark which he had made.

Septuagint (Greek)                And it came to pass after forty days, that Noah opened the window of the ark which he had made.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       Forty days later Noah opened a window to send out a raven, but it kept flying around until the water had dried up. This appears to have compiled vv.6–7.

Easy English                          After 40 days, Noah opened the window. That is, the window of the *ark that he had made.

Easy-to-Read Version            Forty days later, Noah opened the window he had made in the boat.

Good News Bible (TEV)         After forty days Noah opened a window 7 and sent out a raven.

The Message                         After forty days Noah opened the window that he had built into the ship.

New Berkeley Version           After another forty days Noah opened the window he had made in the ark 7 and released a raven... A portion of v. 7 is included for context.

New Life Bible                        At the end of forty days, Noah opened the window of the large boat which he had made.

New Living Translation           After another forty days, Noah opened the window he had made in the boat...


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Then after forty days, Noah opened the window that he had made in the chest,..

Beck’s American Translation After 40 days Noah opened the window he made in the ark, and he let a crow fly out. A portion of v. 7 was added for context.

Christian Community Bible     At the end of the forty days Noah opened the window of the ark that he had built and let the raven out. A portion of v. 7 was added for context.

God’s Word                         After 40 more days Noah opened the window he had made in the ship...

New American Bible              At the end of forty days Noah opened the hatch of the ark that he had made, ...

New Simplified Bible              After forty days Noah opened the window he constructed in the ark.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      In the end of forty days, Noah had opened the window of the box which he made..

Bible in Basic English             Then, after forty days, through the open window of the ark which he had made, Noah sent out a raven, which went this way and that till the waters were gone from the earth. V. 7 was included for context.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               At the end of forty days, Noah opened the window of the ark that he had made and sent out the raven; it went to and fro until the waters had dried up from the earth. V. 7 was included for context.

New Advent Bible                  And after that forty days were passed, Noe opening the window of the ark, which he had made, sent forth a raven. The NAB places a portion of v. 7 with v. 6.

NET Bible®                             At the end of forty days [The introductory verbal form וַיְהִי (vayÿhi), traditionally rendered “and it came to pass,” serves as a temporal indicator and has not been translated here.], Noah opened the window he had made in the ark [Heb "opened the window in the ark which he had made." The perfect tense ("had made") refers to action preceding the opening of the window, and is therefore rendered as a past perfect. Since in English "had made" could refer to either the ark or the window, the order of the phrases was reversed in the translation to clarify that the window is the referent.]...

New Heart English Bible        It happened at the end of forty days, that Noah opened the window of the ship which he had made, ...


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                At the end of [another] forty days Noah opened a window of the ark which he had made... The Amplified Bible rarely continues one verse into another.

Concordant Literal Version    And it is coming, at the end of forty days, that opening is Noah a porthole of the ark which he had made...

NASB                                     Then it came about at the end of forty days, that Noah opened the window of the ark which he had made; 7 and he sent out a raven,...

World English Bible                It happened at the end of forty days, that Noah opened the window of the ark which he had made,...

Young's Updated LT              And it comes to pass, at the end of forty days, that Noah opens the window of the ark which he made.

 

The gist of this verse: 


Genesis 8:6a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

Without a specific subject and object, the verb hâyâh often means and it will come to be, and it will come to pass, then it came to pass (with the wâw consecutive). It may be more idiomatically rendered subsequently, afterwards, later on, in the course of time, after which. Generally, the verb does not match the gender whatever nearby noun could be the subject (and, as often, there is no noun nearby which would fulfill the conditions of being a subject).

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

qêts (ץ̤ק) [pronounced kayts]

end [usually of time]; end [of space]

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #7093 BDB #893

ʾarebâʿîym (אַרְבָעִים) [pronounced are-BAW-ĢEEM]

forty

undeclinable plural noun

Strong’s #705 BDB #917

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article); possibly immediately

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398


Translation: And it is at the end of forty days... Noah, or one of his sons, are recording the important incidents which take place while they are in the ark. So, 40 days pass since the ark has come to a halt in the mountains of Ararat.


Genesis 8:6b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

pâthach (פָּתַח) [pronounced paw-THAHKH]

to open, to open up; to let loose [as in, to draw (a sword]; to begin, to lead in

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #6605 BDB #834 (& #836)

Nôach (נֹחַ) [pronounced NOH-ahkh]

rest, repose; consolation; transliterated Noah

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #5146 BDB #629

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

challôwn (חַלּוֹן) [pronounced khal-LOWN]

window

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #2474 BDB #319

This is the first occurrence of this word in the Bible.

têbâh (תֵּבָה) [pronounced tayb-VAW]

an ark, a chest

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #8392 BDB #1061

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

ʿâsâh (עָשָֹה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWH]

to do, to make, to construct, to fashion, to form, to prepare, to manufacture

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #6213 BDB #793


Translation: ...that Noah opens a window of the ark which he had made. This window that Noah constructed could have been made when he made the ark itself. It could have been added after the rain stopped.


There is not a window as we envision one in the Ark. This would have been an opening, and this tells us two things: (1) there were no alternative ways for Noah and company to look out into the world; and (2) if this is a specific opening which is made, then that is going to limit Noah’s vision. That is, he cannot look 360° out about the ark. This is going to help to explain why he is sending birds out.


It is likely that this “window” is an opening of, say 3'x3', where boards can be removed and then put back. Given that Noah puts out his hand to bring in the dove and raven, and it possible that this opening is even smaller—say 1'x1'.


Gen 8:6 And it happened, at the end of forty days Noah opens the window of the ark which he had made.


Whereas, the word sometimes translated window back in Gen. 6:16 has a meaning which is uncertain, here, the phrase Noah opens the window of the ark is not in dispute as to the meanings of those words. Noah opens the window. Or, probably more accurately, he probably cut out a window (he probably had a window which was “boarded up” and sealed with pitch which he just needed to knock out).


This is 40 days after Noah was able to observe mountain tops from the ark, rather than 40 days after the flood began. This would take us to day 264. I will make a chart of the timeline in this lesson.


——————————


And so he sends a raven. And so he goes out, going and returning until dried up the waters from upon the earth.

Genesis

8:7

Then he sent out a raven, and the raven went out, going and returning while the waters dry from upon the earth.

Then Noah sent out a raven, and the raven went out, flying out and flying back, as the waters continued to dry from on the earth.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And he sent out a raven; and it went forth, going forth and returning, until the waters had dried from the earth.

Latin Vulgate                          Which went forth and did not return, till the waters were dried up upon the earth.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so he sends a raven. And so he goes out, going and returning until dried up the waters from upon the earth.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And he sent forth a raven which went to and fro, but did not return until the waters were dried up from the face of the earth.

Septuagint (Greek)                And he sent forth a raven; and it went out, and did not return until the water was dried from off the earth.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Easy English                          He sent out a raven (a fairly large black bird). The raven continued to fly about until later, when the waters had gone. It flew about until the earth was dry.

Easy-to-Read Version            Then Noah sent out a raven. The raven flew from place to place until the ground was dry and the water was gone.

Good News Bible (TEV)         ...and sent out a raven. It did not come back, but kept flying around until the water was completely gone.

The Message                         He sent out a raven; it flew back and forth waiting for the floodwaters to dry up.

New Living Translation           ...and released a raven. The bird flew back and forth until the floodwaters on the earth had dried up.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

Christian Community Bible     ...and let the raven out. This went off and kept flying to and fro until the waters had dried up from the earth.

God’s Word                         ...and sent out a raven. It kept flying back and forth until the water on the land had dried up.

New American Bible              ...and he released a raven. It flew back and forth until the waters dried off from the earth. [8:7-12] In the eleventh tablet of the Gilgamesh Epic, Utnapishtim (the equivalent of Noah) released in succession a dove, a swallow, and a raven. When the raven did not return, Utnapishtim knew it was safe to leave the ark. The first century A.D. Roman author Pliny tells of Indian sailors who release birds in order to follow them toward land.

New Jerusalem Bible             ...and released a raven, which flew back and forth as it waited for the waters to dry up on earth.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      He sent a raven proceeding and returning until the waters dried from over the land.

Bible in Basic English             Noah sent out a raven, which went this way and that till the waters were gone from the earth.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 ...and sent out a raven and it went, wandered and turned about until the waters dried away from off the earth.

NET Bible®                             ...and sent out a raven; it kept flying [Heb “and it went out, going out and returning.” The Hebrew verb יָצָא (yatsa’), translated here “flying,” is modified by two infinitives absolute indicating that the raven went back and forth. Heb “and it went out, going out and returning.”] back and forth until the waters had dried up on the earth.

NIV – UK                                ...and sent out a raven, and it kept flying back and forth until the water had dried up from the earth.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    ...and sending out is he a raven to see if the waters are slight. And forth is it faring, to fare forth and not to return till the drying of the water off the land.

English Standard Version      ...and sent forth a raven. It went to and fro until the waters were dried up from the earth.

LTHB                                     And he sent out a raven, and it went out, going out and returning until the waters were dried up from off the earth.

NASB                                     ...and he sent out a raven, and it flew here and there [Lit went out, going and returning] until the water was dried up from the earth [Lit from upon].

Syndein/Thieme                     And he sent out the raven. It went to and fro until the waters were dried up from off the earth. {Note: A raven is an unclean bird and it never returned. First warning to Noah the bodies of the dead are still floating on which the raven could feast. A picture of the ruler of the earth - Satan - feeding on the spiritually dead.}.

A Voice in the Wilderness      And he sent out a raven, which kept going to and fro until the waters had dried up from off the earth.

World English Bible                ...and he sent forth a raven. It went back and forth, until the waters were dried up from off the earth.

Young’s Updated LT             And he sends forth the raven, and it goes out, going out and turning back till the drying of the waters from off the earth.

 

The gist of this verse: 


Genesis 8:7a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

shâlach (שָלַח) [pronounced shaw-LAKH]

to send, to send off, to send away, to dismiss, to give over, to cast out, to let go, to set free, to shoot forth [branches], to shoot [an arrow]

3rd person masculine singular, Piel imperfect

Strong’s #7971 BDB #1018

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʿôwrêb (עוֹרֵב) [pronounced ģoh-RAYBV]

raven

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #6158 (= #6159) BDB #788


Translation: Then he sent out a raven,... The first scout that Noah sends out is a raven.


Although it may seem, in the next few verses, as if Noah is releasing miscellaneous birds from his ship, what he is doing has a specified purpose in his own mind.


Genesis 8:7b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

yâtsâʾ (יָצָא) [pronounced yaw-TZAWH]

to go out, to come out, to come [go] forth; to rise; to flow, to gush up [out]; [of money:] to be expended, laid out, spent; promulgated; outgoing [end of a time period]

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #3318 BDB #422

yâtsâʾ (יָצָא) [pronounced yaw-TZAWH]

to go out, to come out, to come [go] forth; to rise; to flow, to gush up [out]; [of money:] to be expended, laid out, spent; promulgated; outgoing [end of a time period]

Qal infinitive absolute

Strong's #3318 BDB #422

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

shûwb (שוּב) [pronounced shoobv]

to return, to turn, to turn back, to reminisce, to restore something, to bring back something, to revive, to recover something, to make restitution

Qal infinitive absolute

Strong's #7725 BDB #996


Translation: ...and the raven went out, going and returning... The raven goes out, but it keeps on flying out and then returning. No doubt, the bird enjoys the chance to fly again, but birds do have to land somewhere, and, at this point in time, the only place close enough to land on is either carrion in the waters or the ark itself. So the raven is flying away from and then returning to the ark.


Genesis 8:7c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʿad (עַד) [pronounced ģahd]

while; until, so long as; even to; even that, so that

conjunction

Strong’s #5704 BDB #723

You may notice that this is a different set of meanings for ʿad (עַד) [pronounced ģahd]. Here, it is being used as a conjunction, rather than as a preposition.

yâbêsh (יָבֵש) [pronounced yawB-VEYSH]

to be dry, to dry up, to wither

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #3001 BDB #386

mayim (מַיִם) [pronounced mah-YIHM]

water (s)

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4325 BDB #565

min (מִן) [pronounced mihn]

from, away from, out from, out of from, off, on account of, since, above, than, so that not, beyond, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl ]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5920, #5921 BDB #752

Together, they mean from upon, from over, from by, from beside, from attachment to, from companionship with, from accompanying [in a protective manner], from adhesion to, from. Some translators rendered this away from.

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: ...while the waters dry from upon the earth. A similar phrase will be repeated 2 more times in this chapter. I do not know the reason for this to be repeated (there are slight changes in the words used).


Noah was aware that ravens eat carrion (after the fall, animals changed their behavior, and some became carnivorous). Noah was aware of this and knew that ravens likes dead and decaying meat (it would have been preserved to some degree, being in salt water). So he sends the raven out there to eat its fill, and the raven flies about going from body to body eating it and then flying off. Probably, the raven returned to the ship from time to time as well, landing on top of it. It would be against the animal’s nature to necessarily go back into the ark where it could not fly.


So, you may be thinking, how did Noah know this? Did he watch Animal Planet? Did he google raven food? Recall that, for 120 years, Noah did 3 things: (1) he proclaimed the gospel of God, which included the impending judgment of man; (2) he built an ark; and (3) Noah (or some combination of his sons) gathered animals and had to learn their disposition and their eating habits, as they were going to keep these animals alive on the ark during the time of the flood. Therefore, they had to know what animals ate. They had to find food that particularly was pleasant to their animals as, under these circumstances, the animals would have been quite disturbed, first at being cooped up and secondly at the sound of the waters and movement of the ark in the raging waters.


However, as we know in retrospect, there was nothing which has died recently. So we don’t have bodies floating all over. All of the carrion would have died 150 days ago, although not rotting away completely yet because of the salt water.


Gen 8:7 And he sent forth a raven, and it went out, going out and returning until the waters were dried up from off the earth.


The raven appears to have been sent out on several occasions (the verb to send forth is in the imperfect tense), to locate any dry ground. If the raven returns to the ark, then it was unable to find any ground to land upon. If he does not return, Noah would assume that somewhere, out there, is ground.


We have black ravens here in Texas, and they will eat just about anything, and if there is a dead animal carcass on the road, ravens will pick away at it, moving aside on occasion for cars which speed by.


This particular raven seems to be fairly domesticated, probably flying out to feast on floating carrion and then returning to the ark.


Vv. 6–7 appear to be one verse, and together, are translated: At the end of forty days Noah opened the window of the ark that he had made and sent forth a raven. It went to and fro until the waters were dried up from the earth (ESV). Or: After 40 more days Noah opened the window he had made in the ship and sent out a raven. It kept flying back and forth until the water on the land had dried up (God’s Word™).


——————————


And so he sends a dove from with him to see whether diminished the waters from upon faces of the ground.

Genesis

8:8

Noah [lit., he] then sent a dove from with him to see whether the waters had diminished from upon the surface of the ground.

Noah then sent a dove out to see if the waters had begun to to down from the surface of the ground.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And he sent forth a house-dove from being with him, to see whether the waters were lightened from off the faces of the earth.

Latin Vulgate                          He sent forth also a dove after him, to see if the waters had now ceased upon the face of the earth.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so he sends a dove from with him to see whether diminished the waters from upon faces of the ground.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    Then he sent forth a dove from the ark, to see if the waters had abated from the face of the ground;.

Septuagint (Greek)                And he sent a dove after it, to see if the water had ceased from off the earth.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Then he sent out a dove to see if the waters on all of the fertile land had subsided,...

Contemporary English V.       Noah wanted to find out if the water had gone down, and he sent out a dove.

Easy English                          Then Noah sent out a *dove. Noah needed to know whether the waters had gone down. He needed to know whether the earth was dry.

Easy-to-Read Version            Noah also sent out a dove. Noah wanted the dove to find dry ground. He wanted to know if water still covered the earth.

Good News Bible (TEV)         Meanwhile, Noah sent out a dove to see if the water had gone down,...

The Message                         Then he sent a dove to check on the flood conditions,...

New Berkeley Version           He also released a dove to find out how well the waters had drained from the ground-surface; but as the dove found no roost to put her foot-sole [The raven, of the crow family, preferred to be alone; the dove, of a more social nature, preferred shelter and company.] on, she came back to him into the ark; for there was water all over the earth; so he put out his hand, caught her and draw her back to him into the ark. Vv. 8–9 are given together for context.

New Living Translation           He also released a dove to see if the water had receded and it could find dry ground.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          And after that, he sent out a dove, to see if the earth was still flooded.

Beck’s American Translation Meanwhile he let a pigeon fly away to find out if the waters on the ground had gone down.

God’s Word                         Next, he sent out a dove to see if the water was gone from the surface of the ground.

New American Bible              Then he released a dove, to see if the waters had lessened on the earth.

Revised English Bible            Then Noah sent out a dove to see whether the water or the earth had subsided.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      He sent a dove from him to see the curse of the waters over the face of the earth.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 Afterwards, he sent out a dove from him, to see if the waters had lessened from the surface of the field;...

HCSB                                     Then he sent out a dove to see whether the water on the earth's surface had gone down,...

NET Bible®                             Then Noah [Heb "he"; the referent (Noah) has been specified in the translation for clarity.] sent out a dove [The Hebrew text adds "from him." This has not been translated for stylistic reasons, because it is redundant in English.]to see if the waters had receded [The Hebrew verb קָלָל (qalal) normally means “to be light, to be slight”; it refers here to the waters receding.] from the surface of the ground.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                Then he sent forth a dove to see if the waters had decreased from the surface of the ground.

Concordant Literal Version    And sending out is he a dove from him after it, to see if the waters are slight over the surface of the ground.

Darby Translation                  And he sent out the dove from him, to see if the waters had become low on the ground.

English Standard Version      Then he sent forth a dove from him, to see if the waters had subsided from the face of the ground.

LTHB                                     He also sent out from him the dove, to see if the waters had gone down from off the face of the earth.

A Voice in the Wilderness      He also sent out from himself a dove, to see if the waters had receded from off the face of the ground.

World English Bible                He sent forth a dove from him, to see if the waters were abated from off the surface of the ground,...

Young’s Updated LT             And he sends forth the dove from him to see whether the waters have been lightened from off the face of the ground.

 

The gist of this verse:          A dove is sent out to see if the waters have gone down.


Genesis 8:8a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

shâlach (שָלַח) [pronounced shaw-LAKH]

to send, to send off, to send away, to dismiss, to give over, to cast out, to let go, to set free, to shoot forth [branches], to shoot [an arrow]

3rd person masculine singular, Piel imperfect

Strong’s #7971 BDB #1018

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

yônâh (יוֹנָה) [pronounced yoh-NAW]

dove, pigeon

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3123 BDB #401

min (מִן) [pronounced mihn]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

with, at, near, by, among, directly from

preposition (which is identical to the sign of the direct object) with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #854 BDB #85

Together, min ʾêth mean from proximity with, from with, from close proximity to, to proceed from someone. A good up-to-date rendering might be directly from. The idea is, the person that these prepositions refer to is supposed to directly be involved in the action or in whatever is being requested.


Translation: Noah [lit., he] then sent a dove from with him... The dove is sent out, as its behavior is going to be different from that of the raven. That bird would land on carrion in the midst of an ocean. However, the dove is going to be far more comfortable in a tree or on dry land. It will not land on a rotting body floating in the ocean.


There is an opening around the ark so that Noah and his family can see out. However, the animals are kept in their various rooms. In the bird room, or in a room adjacent to them, Noah had built a window, which he did under God's direction or due to foresight. When Noah opened the window and sent out the bird, these verbs were both in the imperfect tense, indicating that these are successive actions. However, when he built the window, this is in the perfect tense, meaning it was a completed action, like from the past.


Genesis 8:8b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

râʾâh (רָאָה) [pronounced raw-AWH]

to see, to look, to look at, to view, to behold; to observe; to perceive, to understand, to learn, to know

Qal infinitive construct

Strong's #7200 BDB #906

hă (הֲ) [pronounced heh]

interrogative particle which acts almost like a piece of punctuation, like the upside-down question mark which begins a Spanish sentence. The verb to be may be implied. This can be used in an indirect interrogation and translated whether.

Strong’s #none BDB #209

qâlal (קָלַל) [pronounced kaw-LAL]

➊ to be diminished (note the passive meaning); ➋ to be despised, to be contemned (again, a passive meaning); ➌ to be light, to be trifling, to be of little account;to be swift, to be fleet;to be lightly esteemed

3rd person plural, Qal perfect

Strong's #7043 BDB #886

mayim (מַיִם) [pronounced mah-YIHM]

water (s)

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4325 BDB #565

min (מִן) [pronounced mihn]

from, away from, out from, out of from, off, on account of, since, above, than, so that not, beyond, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl ]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5920, #5921 BDB #752

Together, they mean from upon, from over, from by, from beside, from attachment to, from companionship with, from accompanying [in a protective manner], from adhesion to, from. Some translators rendered this away from.

pânîym (פָּנִים) [pronounced paw-NEEM]

face, faces, countenance; presence

masculine plural construct (plural acts like English singular)

Strong’s #6440 BDB #815

Gesenius suggests that this means in front of a thing; before a thing. However, various translators rendered this as from upon the face [surface] of, from the face [surface] of, on, from over.

ʾădâmâh (אֲדָמָה) [pronounced uh-daw-MAWH]

ground, soil, dirt, earth, tillable earth, land, surface of the earth

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #127 BDB #9


Translation: ...to see whether the waters had diminished from upon the surface of the ground. If the dove stays gone, that means that there is dry ground for the dove to land upon.


——————————


And has not found the dove rest for a sole of her foot and so she returns unto him unto the ark,, for the waters [are] upon faces of all of the earth. And he sends forth his hand and so he takes her. And so he brings her unto him unto the ark.

Genesis

8:9

However [literally, and], the dove has not found rest for the sole of her foot so she returned to him to the ark, for the waters [are still] upon the surface of all the earth. So Noah [lit, he] reaches out his hand and he takes her, and brings her to him into the ark.

But the dove did not find any rest for the sole of her foot, so she returned to Noah in the ark, for the waters were still on the surface of the earth. Therefore, Noah reached out his hand and took the dove into the ark with him.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the dove found no rest for the sole of the foot, and returned unto him to the ark; and he knew that the waters were (yet) upon the face of all the earth. And he reached out his hand, and took and brought her unto him into the ark.

Latin Vulgate                          But she not finding where her foot might rest, returned to him into the ark: for the waters were upon the whole earth: and he put forth his hand, and caught her, and brought her into the ark.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And has not found the dove rest for a sole of her foot and so she returns unto him unto the ark,, for the waters [are] upon faces of all of the earth. And he sends forth his hand and so he takes her. And so he brings her unto him unto the ark.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    But the dove found no resting place for her foot, and she returned to him in the ark, for the waters were still on the face of the whole earth. Then he put forth his hand, and took her, and brought her into the ark with him.

Septuagint (Greek)                And the dove, not having found rest for her feet, returned to him into the ark, because the water was upon all the face of the earth, and he stretched out his hand and took her in, and brought her to himself into the ark.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       Deep water was still everywhere, and the dove could not find a place to land. So it flew back to the boat. Noah held out his hand and helped it back in.

Easy English                          However, the *dove did not find any dry place to settle on. It came back to the *ark because the waters still covered all the earth. Noah put out his hand and he brought the *dove back into the *ark.

Easy-to-Read Version            The dove could not find a place to rest because water still covered the earth, so the dove came back to the boat. Noah reached out his hand and caught the dove and brought it back into the boat.

Good News Bible (TEV)         ...but since the water still covered all the land, the dove did not find a place to light. It flew back to the boat, and Noah reached out and took it in.

The Message                         ...but it couldn't even find a place to perch--water still covered the Earth. Noah reached out and caught it, brought it back into the ship.

New Century Version             The dove could not find a place to land because water still covered the earth, so it came back to the boat. Noah reached out his hand and took the bird and brought it back into the boat.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          But the dove couldn't find a place to rest its feet, because the water was still covering all the ground, and it returned to the chest. So [Noah] stuck out his hand and took [the dove], and brought it to him, back into the chest.

Beck’s American Translation But when the pigeon couldn’t find a place to set her foot because there was water all over the earth, she came back to him to the ark, and he put out his hand and took her back into the ark with him.

God’s Word                         The dove couldn't find a place to land because the water was still all over the earth. So it came back to Noah in the ship. He reached out and brought the dove back into the ship.

New American Bible              But the dove could find no place to perch, and it returned to him in the ark, for there was water over all the earth. Putting out his hand, he caught the dove and drew it back to him inside the ark.

NIRV                                      But the dove couldn't find any place to put its feet down. There was still water over the whole surface of the earth. So the dove returned to Noah in the ark. Noah reached out his hand and took the dove in. He brought it back to himself in the ark.

New Simplified Bible              The dove, however, could find no place to set its feet because there was water over all the surface of the earth. It returned to Noah in the ark. He reached out his hand and held the dove and brought it back to himself in the ark.

Revised English Bible            But the dove found no place when she could settle because all the earth was under water, and so she came back to him in the ark. Noah reached out and caught her, and brought her into the ark.

Today’s NIV                          But the dove could find nowhere to perch because there was water over all the surface of the earth; so it returned to Noah in the ark. He reached out his hand and took the dove and brought it back to himself in the ark.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      But the dove found no oasis for the sole of its foot, and returned to him into the box when the waters were over the face of all the land. He sent his hand, and took it and brought it to him into the box.

Bible in Basic English             But the dove saw no resting-place for her foot, and came back to the ark, for the waters were still over all the earth; and he put out his hand, and took her into the ark.

Complete Jewish Bible           But the dove found no place for her feet to rest, so she returned to him in the ark, because the water still covered the whole earth. He put out his hand, took her and brought her in to him in the ark.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               But the dove could not find a resting place for its foot, and returned to him to the ark, for there was water over all the earth. So putting out his hand, he took it into the ark with him.

NET Bible®                             The dove could not find a resting place for its feet because water still covered [The words "still covered" is supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.] the surface of the entire earth, and so it returned to Noah [Heb "him"; the referent (Noah) has been specified in the translation for clarity.] in the ark. He stretched out his hand, took the dove [Heb "it"; the referent (the dove) has been specified in the translation for clarity.], and brought it back into the ark [Heb "and he brought it to himself to the ark."].


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                But the dove found no resting-place on which to roost, and she returned to him to the ark, for the waters were [yet] on the face of the whole land. So he put forth his hand and drew her to him into the ark.

Concordant Literal Version    Yet not find does the dove a resting place for the sole of her foot, and she is returning to him to the ark, for the water is on the surface of the entire earth. And stretching forth is he his hand and taking her, and is bringing her to him into the ark.

Context Group Version          ...but the dove found no rest for the sole of her foot, and she returned to him to the ark; for the waters were on the face of the entire land { or earth }: and he stretched out his hand, and took her, and brought her in to him into the ark.

The Geneva Bible                  But the dove found no rest for the sole of her foot, and she returned unto him into the ark, for the waters [were] on the face of the whole earth: then he put forth his hand, and took her, and pulled her in unto him into the ark. The raven flew to and fro, resting on the ark, but did not come into it, unlike the dove that was taken in.

Syndein/Thieme                     But the dove could not find a resting place for its foot, and returned to him to the ark, for there was water over all the earth. So putting out his hand, he took it into the ark with him. {Note: The dove will not eat or even light on the dead so it returned to the ark not having found dry land. The dove is a picture of the Old Testament ministry of God the Holy Spirit - looking for people 'dry and clean'.}.

World English Bible                ...but the dove found no place to rest her foot, and she returned to him into the ark; for the waters were on the surface of the whole earth. He put forth his hand, and took her, and brought her to him into the ark.

Young’s Updated LT             And the dove has not found rest for the sole of her foot, and she turns back unto him, unto the ark, for waters are on the face of all the earth, and he puts out his hand, and takes her, and brings her in unto him, unto the ark.

 

The gist of this verse:          There was no land for the dove to light upon, so it returns to Noah in the ark.


Genesis 8:9a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

mâtsâʾ (מָצָא) [pronounced maw-TSAW]

to attain to, to find, to detect, to happen upon, to come upon, to find unexpectedly, to discover; to meet (encounter)

3rd person feminine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #4672 BDB #592

yônâh (יוֹנָה) [pronounced yoh-NAW]

dove, pigeon

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3123 BDB #401

mânôwach (מָנוֹחַ) [pronounced maw-NOH-wahkh]

rest, a condition or state of rest, a place of rest

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #4494 BDB #629

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

kaph (כַּף) [pronounced kaf]

palm, hollow or flat of the hand, sole of the foot; bowl, spoon

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #3709 BDB #496

These nouns are tied together because of the fact that they are concave.

regel (רֶגֶל) [pronounced REH-gel]

foot, feet

feminine dual noun with the 3rd person feminine singular suffix

Strong’s #7272 BDB #919


Translation: However [literally, and], the dove has not found rest for the sole of her foot... Doves want something to land upon: the ground or a bush. About the only thing there was out there would be bodies of animals and half humans floating and these would have been almost thoroughly rotted, as they would have actually died almost a full year ago.


Genesis 8:9b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

shûwb (שוּב) [pronounced shoobv]

to return, to turn, to turn back, to reminisce, to restore something, to bring back something, to revive, to recover something, to make restitution

3rd person feminine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #7725 BDB #996

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied); with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #413 BDB #39

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

têbâh (תֵּבָה) [pronounced tayb-VAW]

an ark, a chest

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #8392 BDB #1061


Translation: ...so she returned to him to the ark,... Without any land out there, the dove has to return to the ark.


Genesis 8:9c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

mayim (מַיִם) [pronounced mah-YIHM]

water (s)

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4325 BDB #565

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

pânîym (פָּנִים) [pronounced paw-NEEM]

face, faces, countenance; presence

masculine plural construct (plural acts like English singular)

Strong’s #6440 BDB #815

Together, ʿâl and pânîym mean upon the face of, facing, in front of, before (as in preference to), in addition to, overlooking.

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

the whole, all of, the entirety of, all; can also be rendered any of

masculine singular construct followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: ...for the waters [are still] upon the surface of all the earth. Nowhere around the ark was there any dry land. The ark was caught up on the mountains of Ararat, but recall that it is 3 stories high. Therefore, it can be caught and for there still to be a great deal of water all around.


Genesis 8:9d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

shâlach (שָלַח) [pronounced shaw-LAKH]

to send, to send for [forth, away], to dismiss, to deploy, to put forth, to stretch out, to reach out

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #7971 BDB #1018

yâd (יָד) [pronounced yawd]

hand; figuratively for strength, power, control

feminine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #3027 BDB #388


Translation: So Noah [lit, he] reaches out his hand... These birds have been domesticated and they were quite use to Noah and his family. Therefore, landing on his hand would have been a normal thing for them.


Genesis 8:9e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

lâqach (לָקַח) [pronounced law-KAHKH]

to take, to take away, to take in marriage; to seize

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect with the 3rd person feminine singular suffix

Strong’s #3947 BDB #542


Translation: ...and he takes her,... Then Noah puts both hands on the bird to hold onto her.


Genesis 8:9f

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

bôwʾ (בּוֹא) [pronounced boh]

to take in, to bring [near, against, upon], to come in with, to carry, to cause to come [in], to gather, to bring to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect

Strong’s #935 BDB #97

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

him; untranslated mark of a direct object; occasionally to, toward

affixed to a 3rd person feminine singular suffix

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied); with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #413 BDB #39

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

têbâh (תֵּבָה) [pronounced tayb-VAW]

an ark, a chest

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #8392 BDB #1061


Translation: ...and brings her to him into the ark. Then Noah pulls the bird into the ark with him. It is this verse which makes it appear that the “window” is not very large.


Gen 8:8–9 He also sent forth a dove from him, to see if the waters had gone down from off the face of the earth. But the dove found no rest for the sole of her foot. And she returned to him into the ark, for the waters were on the face of the whole earth. Then he put out his hand and took her, and pulled her in to him into the ark.


This is apparently day 264, over 200 days after the rain had stopped and the water had been subsiding for months. From the ventilation opening, Noah was able to see mountain tops, but these birds—particularly the doves—needed some kind of tree or bush upon which to perch. A raven is more comfortable with being on the ground whereas a dove prefers to have something above the ground upon which to perch.


Noah, having probably raised and kept these animals in an animal preserve, was quite familiar with the peculiarities of these birds, and he had a reasonable idea as to how they would react to the world out there.


——————————


And so he waited [confidently] [see the Hebrew exegesis] again seven day another and so he adds to send out the dove from the ark.

Genesis

8:10

He then waited [confidently] again another seven days, and he again sent out the dove from the ark.

Noah then waited another seven dayd and sent out the dove again from the ark.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And he prolonged (waited) yet seven days, and again he sent the dove from the ark.

Jerusalem targum                  And he began to number, and again he sent the dove from the ark.

Latin Vulgate                          And having waited yet seven other days, he again sent forth the dove out of the ark.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so he waited [confidently] [see the Hebrew exegesis] again seven day another and so he adds to send out the dove from the ark.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And he waited yet another seven days; and again he sent forth the dove out of the ark.

Septuagint (Greek)                And waiting yet another seven days, he again sent forth the dove from the ark.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       Seven days later Noah sent the dove out again.

Easy English                          Noah waited for 7 more days and then again he sent out the *dove from the *ark.

Easy-to-Read Version            After seven days, Noah again sent out the dove.

Good News Bible (TEV)         He waited another seven days and sent out the dove again.

New Berkeley Version           After waiting seven days more, he again sent the dove from the ark 11 and about twilight she dove returned, and look, there was a freshly plucked olive-leaf in her beak. Then Noah knew that the waters were draining off the earth. Vv. 10–11 are provided for context.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          After that, he waited another week, and then he sent the dove out from the chest once again.

Beck’s American Translation After waiting another 7 days, he again let the pigeon fly out of the ark.

God’s Word                         He waited seven more days and again sent the dove out of the ship.

New Jerusalem Bible             After waiting seven more days, he again released the dove from the ark.

Revised English Bible            He waited seven days more and again sent out the dove from the ark.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      In seven more days and he sent yet another dove he relied on from the box.

Bible in Basic English             And after waiting another seven days, he sent the dove out again;...

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 He then waited seven days longer, and again sent out the dove from the Ark.

New Advent Bible                  And having waited yet seven other days, he again sent forth the dove out of the ark.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And waiting is he further another seven days. And proceeding is he to send out the dove from the ark.

English Standard Version      He waited another seven days, and again he sent forth the dove out of the ark.

Hebrew Names Version         He stayed yet another seven days; and again he sent forth the dove out of the teivah.

World English Bible                He stayed yet another seven days; and again he sent forth the dove out of the ark.

Young’s Updated LT             And he stays yet other seven days, and adds to send forth the dove from the ark.

 

The gist of this verse:          Noah waits 7 more days and the dove is sent out from the ark once again


Genesis 8:10a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

chûwl (חוּל) [pronounced khool]

to turn, to turn around, to be twisted

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #2342 BDB #296

It is believed that this verb is actually some form of...

yâchal (יָחַל) [pronounced yaw-KHAHL]

to cause to hope; to expect, to wait for, to have trust and confidence in, to hope in, to trust in, to place confidence in

3rd person masculine singular, Piel imperfect

Strong’s #3176 BDB #403

ʿôwd (עוֹד) [pronounced ģohd]

still, yet, again, again and again, repeatedly, in addition to; more, farther, besides; as yet, yet, still, even yet

adverb

Strong’s #5750 BDB #728

shibeʿâh (שִבְָה) [pronounced shibve-ĢAW]

seven

numeral feminine construct

Strong's #7651 BDB #987

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article); possibly immediately

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

ʾachêr (אַחֵר) [pronounced ah-KHEHR]

another, following, next; other as well as foreign, alien, strange

masculine plural adjective/substantive

Strong’s #312 BDB #29


Translation: He then waited [confidently] again another seven days,... There is some problem with the text above. Noah is certain that he will soon see land.


Genesis 8:10b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

yâçaph (יָסַף) [pronounced yaw-SAHPH]

to add, to augment, to increase, to multiply; to add to do = to do again; to continue to

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect

Strong's #3254 BDB #414

shâlach (שָלַח) [pronounced shaw-LAKH]

to send, to send off, to send away, to dismiss, to give over, to cast out, to let go, to set free, to shoot forth [branches], to shoot [an arrow]

Piel infinitive construct

Strong’s #7971 BDB #1018

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

yônâh (יוֹנָה) [pronounced yoh-NAW]

dove, pigeon

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3123 BDB #401

min (מִן) [pronounced mihn]

from, away from, out from, out of from, off, on account of, since, above, than, so that not, beyond, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

têbâh (תֵּבָה) [pronounced tayb-VAW]

an ark, a chest

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #8392 BDB #1061


Translation: ...and he again sent out the dove from the ark. Noah again sends the dove out from the ark.


——————————


And so comes in unto him the dove in a time of evening, and, behold, a leaf of the olive [tree] freshly plucked in her mouth. And so knows Noah that had been diminished the waters from upon the earth.

Genesis

8:11

The dove came in to him at the evening time and, observe, [there was] a freshly-plucked olive leaf in her beak. Therefore, Noah knew that the waters diminished from off the earth.

Then the dove came back to him in the evening, and Noah saw that there was a freshly-plucked olive leaf in her beak. Therefore, Noah concluded that the waters were being diminished from over the earth.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the dove came to him at the evening time, and, behold, a leaf of olive gathered, broken off, she brought in her mouth, and which she had taken from the Mount of the Meshiha. And Noah understood that the waters had lightened from being on the earth.

Latin Vulgate                          And she came to him in the evening carrying a bough of an olive tree, with green leaves, in her mouth. Noe therefore understood that the waters were ceased upon the earth.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so comes in unto him the dove in a time of evening, and, behold, a leaf of the olive [tree] freshly plucked in her mouth. And so knows Noah that had been diminished the waters from upon the earth.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And the dove came back to him in the evening; and, lo, in her mouth was an olive leaf plucked off; so Noah knew that the waters had subsided from off the earth.

Septuagint (Greek)                And the dove returned to him in the evening, and had a leaf of olive, a sprig in her mouth; and Noah knew that the water had ceased from off the earth.

 

Significant differences:           The dove is not named in the Latin in the first phrase. The word gathered in the targum does not make sense to me. A bough is in the English translation from the Latin (and sprig in the Greek), but not in the Hebrew.

 

The final phrase does not have the word for ceased in the Hebrew, as the English translation from the Greek and Latin suggest.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           The dove came back to him in the evening, grasping a torn olive leaf in its beak. Then Noah knew that the waters were subsiding from the earth.

Contemporary English V.       It returned in the evening, holding in its beak a green leaf from an olive tree. Noah knew that the water was finally going down.

Easy English                          The *dove came back to Noah in the evening. It had a fresh leaf in its mouth. It had picked the leaf from an *olive tree. Then Noah knew that the waters had gone down from the earth.

Easy-to-Read Version            And that afternoon the dove came back to Noah. The dove had a fresh olive leaf in its mouth. This was a sign to show Noah that there was dry ground on the earth.

New Century Version             ....and that evening it came back to him with a fresh olive leaf in its mouth. Then Noah knew that the ground was almost dry.

New Life Bible                        The dove returned to him in the evening. In her mouth was an olive leaf that had just been picked. So Noah knew that the water had gone from the earth.

New Living Translation           This time the dove returned to him in the evening with a fresh olive leaf in its beak. Then Noah knew that the floodwaters were almost gone.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Then that evening, the dove returned to him with a stem and leaf from an olive tree in its beak. That's when Noah knew [for sure] that the water had left the ground.

Beck’s American Translation The pigeon came to him toward evening, and there in her beak was the fresh-plucked leaf of an olive tree! Then Noah knew the waters had gone down on the earth.

God’s Word                         The dove came to him in the evening, and in its beak was a freshly plucked olive leaf. Then Noah knew that the water was gone from the earth.

New American Bible              In the evening the dove came back to him, and there in its bill was a plucked-off olive leaf! So Noah knew that the waters had diminished on the earth.

New Jerusalem Bible             In the evening, the dove came back to him and there in its beak was a freshly-picked olive leaf! So Noah realised that the waters were receding from the earth.

Revised English Bible            She came back to him towards evening with a freshly plucked olive leaf in her beak. Noah knew then that the water had subsided from the earth’s surface.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      The dove came to him in the evening period. Behold, in its mouth--mangled olive foliage! Noah knew that the waters from above cursed the land..

Bible in Basic English             And the dove came back at evening, and in her mouth was an olive-leaf broken off: so Noah was certain that the waters had gone down on the earth.

Complete Jewish Bible           The dove came in to him in the evening, and there in her mouth was a freshly plucked olive leaf, so Noach knew that the water had cleared from the earth.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 And the dove returning at dusk, carried in her mouth an olive-leaf which had been broken off. So Noah then knew that the waters were off the earth.

HCSB                                     When the dove came to him at evening, there was a plucked olive leaf in her beak. So Noah knew that the water on the earth's surface had gone down.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               The dove came back to him toward evening, and there in its bill was a plucked-off olive leaf! Then Noah knew that the waters had decreased on the earth.

Judaica Press Complete T.    And the dove returned to him at eventide, and behold it had plucked an olive leaf in its mouth; so Noah knew that the water had abated from upon the earth.

New Advent Bible                  And she came to him in the evening carrying a bough of an olive tree, with green leaves, in her mouth. Noe therefore understood that the waters were ceased upon the earth.

NET Bible®                             When [The clause introduced by vav (ו) consecutive is translated as a temporal clause subordinated to the following clause.] the dove returned to him in the evening, there was [The deictic particle הִנֵּה (hinneh) draws attention to the olive leaf. It invites readers to enter into the story, as it were, and look at the olive leaf with their own eyes.] a freshly plucked olive leaf in its beak! Noah knew that the waters had receded from the earth.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                And the dove came back to him in the evening, and behold, in her mouth was a newly sprouted and freshly plucked olive leaf! So Noah knew that the waters had subsided from the land.

Concordant Literal Version    And coming is the dove to him at eventide, and behold! A torn-off olive leaf is in its beak! And knowing is Noah that the waters are slight above the earth.

Darby Translation                  And the dove came to him at eventide; and behold, in her beak was an olive-leaf plucked off; and Noah knew that the waters had become low on the earth.

The Geneva Bible                  And the dove came in to him in the evening; and, lo, in her mouth [was] an f olive leaf pluckt off: so Noah knew that the waters were abated from off the earth. Which was a sign that the waters were much diminished: for the olives do not grow on the high mountains.

LTHB                                     And the dove came in to him in the evening. And, behold! In her mouth was a newly plucked olive leaf. So Noah knew that the waters had gone down from off the earth.

Syndein/Thieme                     The dove came back to him toward evening and there in its bill was a plucked-off olive leaf! Then Noah knew that the waters had decreased on the earth. {Note: This is a picture of the production of the dove/God the Holy Spirit. He produces in us (divine good) what we are unable to produce ourselves (we produce human works/'menstrual rags).}.

A Voice in the Wilderness      And the dove came to him in the evening, and behold, a freshly plucked olive leaf was in her mouth; so Noah knew that the waters had receded from off the earth.

World English Bible                The dove came back to him at evening, and, behold, in her mouth was an olive leaf plucked off. So Noah knew that the waters were abated from off the earth.

Young’s Updated LT             And the dove comes in unto him at even-time, and lo, an olive leaf torn off in her mouth; and Noah knows that the waters have been lightened from off the earth.

 

The gist of this verse:          The dove returns to Noah with an olive leaf in its beak, indicating that the water had gone down considerably.


Genesis 8:11a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

Although the Hebrew begins nearly every phrase with a wâw consecutive or a wâw conjunction, it is not necessary that we do so.

bôwʾ (בּוֹא) [pronounced boh]

to come in, to come, to go in, to go, to enter, to advance

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #935 BDB #97

Is this really a masculine singular?

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied); with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #413 BDB #39

yônâh (יוֹנָה) [pronounced yoh-NAW]

dove, pigeon

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3123 BDB #401

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʿêth (עֵת) [pronounced ģayth]

time, the right time, the proper time; opportunity

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #6256 BDB #773

ʿereb (עֶרֶב) [pronounced ĢEH-rebv]

evening, sunset

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #6153 BDB #787


Translation: And then the dove came in to him at the evening time... Noah sent out the dove, and it appears as if the dove was gone for a very long time, since it does not return until the evening. Now, a dove cannot fly all day. I don’t pretend to know much about doves, but I think I can reasonably assume that they cannot fly for 4+ hours. So, there had to be places where the dove came to rest. Therefore, outside of Noah’s vision, there were places where this dove was able to land. Now, whether this was a distance away outside of Noah’s vision or if this was land on the other side of the ark that Noah could not see from this window, we don’t know. I would guess the latter.


Recall that there is an opening of some sort in the ark (probably something like a 4'x4' opening cut into the side, so that Noah can view the outside world. He would be limited by ark as to seeing out the other side. We know tha the can see mountains off in the distance. However, Noah’s vision is going to be obstructed by the ark itself; so he can send out the dove; the dove would fly all over, looking for land and food.


Genesis 8:11b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

hinnêh (הִנֵּה) [pronounced hin-NAY]

lo, behold, or more freely, observe, look here, look, listen, note, take note; pay attention, get this, check this out

interjection, demonstrative particle

Strong’s #2009 (and #518, 2006) BDB #243

ʿâleh (עָלֶה) [pronounced ģaw-LEH]

leaf, leafage

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #5929 BDB #750

zayith (זַיִת) [pronounced ZAH-yeeth]

olive, olive tree

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #2132 BDB #268

ţârâph (טָרָף) [pronounced taw-RAWF]

freshly plucked, fresh plucked, freshly-plucked

masculine singular adjective

Strong’s #2965 BDB #383

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

peh (פֶּה) [pronounced peh]

mouth [of man, animal; as an organ of speech]; opening, orifice [of a river, well, etc.]; edge; extremity, end

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person feminine singular suffix

Strong’s #6310 BDB #804


Translation: ...and, observe, [there was] a freshly-plucked olive leaf in her beak. Now, there are no full-grown olive trees growing off somewhere. However, there would be some vegetation springing up from the ground. Where I live, for instance, I can go without mowing my lawn for 4 weeks, and there will be a variety of trees that will spring up in the meantime, peering out even over the high grass. The dove sees this green and hones in on it, and plucks it off. Now, probably the dove has eaten and it may be bringing this back for her young or this could be showing Noah just what she can do (cats love to do this sort of thing; even when not hungry, they might bring you a half-dead rat to show you). We can reasonably assume that the animals of the ark had been somewhat domesticated and raised from birth. There would have been enough time for this to have occurred.


Genesis 8:11c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

yâdaʿ (יָדַע) [pronounced yaw-DAHĢ]

to know, to perceive, to acquire knowledge, to become acquainted with, to know by experience, to have a knowledge of something; to see; to learn; to recognize [admit, acknowledge, confess]

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #3045 BDB #393

Nôach (נֹחַ) [pronounced NOH-ahkh]

rest, repose; consolation; transliterated Noah

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #5146 BDB #629

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

qâlal (קָלַל) [pronounced kaw-LAL]

➊ to be diminished (note the passive meaning); ➋ to be despised, to be contemned (again, a passive meaning); ➌ to be light, to be trifling, to be of little account;to be swift, to be fleet;to be lightly esteemed

3rd person plural, Qal perfect

Strong's #7043 BDB #886

mayim (מַיִם) [pronounced mah-YIHM]

water (s)

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4325 BDB #565

min (מִן) [pronounced mihn]

from, away from, out from, out of from, off, on account of, since, above, than, so that not, beyond, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl ]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5920, #5921 BDB #752

Together, they mean from upon, from over, from by, from beside, from attachment to, from companionship with, from accompanying [in a protective manner], from adhesion to, from. Some translators rendered this away from.

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: Therefore, Noah knew that the waters diminished from off the earth. If vegetation is pushing its way through the earth, then there is ground here and there which is above the water.


——————————


And so he waits again another seven days and so he sends the dove and she has not added to return unto him again.

Genesis

8:12

Noah [lit., he] waited another seven days and then he sent the dove out, but she discontinued returning to him again.

Noah waited another seven days and then he sent out the dove again, but she stopped returning to him.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And he prolonged yet seven days, and added to send forth the dove; but she added not to return to him again.

Latin Vulgate                          And he stayed yet other seven days: and he sent forth the dove, which returned not any more unto him.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so he waits again another seven days and so he sends the dove and she has not added to return unto him again.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And he waited yet another seven days, and sent forth the dove; but the dove did not return again to him any more.

Septuagint (Greek)                And waiting yet another seven days, he again sent forth the dove, and she did not return to him again any more.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       He waited seven more days before sending the dove out again, and this time it did not return.

Easy-to-Read Version            Seven days later, Noah sent the dove out again. But this time the dove never came back.

Good News Bible (TEV)         Then he waited another seven days and sent out the dove once more; this time it did not come back.

The Message                         He waited another seven days and sent the dove out a third time. This time it didn't come back.

New Berkeley Version           Yet another seven days he waited, then let the dove go out; but she did not return to him any more.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          But he waited another week, and then he released the dove once more. However, this time it didn't return at all.

Beck’s American Translation After waiting another 7 days he let the pigeon fly out once more, but she didn’t come back to him again.

Christian Community Bible     He waited seven more days and let the dove loose, but it did not return to him any more.

New American Bible              He waited yet another seven days and then released the dove; but this time it did not come back.

New Jerusalem Bible             After waiting seven more days, he released the dove, and now it returned to him no more.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      In yet another seven days, he sent the dove he relied on, but it never returned to him again.

Bible in Basic English             And after seven days more, he sent the dove out again, but she did not come back to him.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 Waiting yet another seven days, he sent the dove out again, and it did not again return to him.

Judaica Press Complete T.    And he again waited another seven days, and he sent forth the dove, and it no longer continued to return to him.

NET Bible®                             He waited another seven days and sent the dove out again [The word "again" is not in the Hebrew text, but is supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.], but it did not return to him this time [Heb "it did not again return to him still." For a study of this section of the flood narrative, see W. O. E. Oesterley, "The Dove with the Olive Leaf (Gen VIII 8-11)," ExpTim 18 (1906/07): 377-78.].


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And waiting is he further another seven days, and once more is sending out the dove, yet not any more to return to him further.

LTHB                                     And he waited another seven days and sent forth the dove. And she did not return again to him any more.

Syndein/Thieme                     He waited still another seven days and sent the dove forth; and it did not return to him any more. {Note: The ministry of God the Holy Spirit in the Millinium when GHS will be poured out on all flesh - see Joel 2:28-32.}.

A Voice in the Wilderness      So he waited yet another seven days and sent out the dove, which did not return again to him anymore.

Young’s Updated LT             And he stays yet other seven days, and sends forth the dove, and it added not to turn back unto him any more.

 

The gist of this verse:          After 7 days, Noah sends out another dove and she does not return to him.


Genesis 8:12a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

Although the Hebrew begins nearly every phrase with a wâw consecutive or a wâw conjunction, it is not necessary that we do so in the English translation.

yâchal (יָחַל) [pronounced yaw-KHAHL]

properly: to be caused to hope; but also: to expect, to wait in [or, with] trust and confidence, to hope in, to trust in, to place confidence in

3rd person masculine singular, Niphal imperfect

Strong’s #3176 BDB #403

ʿôwd (עוֹד) [pronounced ģohd]

still, yet, again, again and again, repeatedly, in addition to; more, farther, besides; as yet, yet, still, even yet

adverb

Strong’s #5750 BDB #728

shibeʿâh (שִבְָה) [pronounced shibve-ĢAW]

seven

numeral feminine construct

Strong's #7651 BDB #987

yâmîym (יָמִים) [pronounced yaw-MEEM]

days, a set of days; time of life, lifetime; a specific time period, a year

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

ʾachêr (אַחֵר) [pronounced ah-KHEHR]

another, following, next; other as well as foreign, alien, strange

masculine plural adjective/substantive

Strong’s #312 BDB #29


Translation: Noah [lit., he] waited another seven days... So Noah knows that there is some dry land out there, but there was not enough vegetation for the dove to simply fly and stay there. So he waits another 7 days.


Genesis 8:12b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

shâlach (שָלַח) [pronounced shaw-LAKH]

to send, to send off, to send away, to dismiss, to give over, to cast out, to let go, to set free, to shoot forth [branches], to shoot [an arrow]

3rd person masculine singular, Piel imperfect

Strong’s #7971 BDB #1018

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

yônâh (יוֹנָה) [pronounced yoh-NAW]

dove, pigeon

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3123 BDB #401


Translation: ...and then he sent the dove out,... Noah sends out the dove once again.


Genesis 8:12c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

yâçaph (יָסַף) [pronounced yaw-SAHPH]

to add, to augment, to continue to do a thing

3rd person feminine singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #3254 BDB #414

With the negative, this verb means to stop, to discontinue [doing something].

shûwb (שוּב) [pronounced shoobv]

to return, to turn, to turn back, to reminisce, to restore something, to bring back something, to revive, to recover something, to make restitution

Qal infinitive construct

Strong's #7725 BDB #996

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied); with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #413 BDB #39

ʿôwd (עוֹד) [pronounced ģohd]

still, yet, again, again and again, repeatedly, in addition to; more, farther, besides; as yet, yet, still, even yet

adverb

Strong’s #5750 BDB #728


Translation: ...but she discontinued returning to him again. This time, there was no reason for the dove to return; there was enough by way of nourishment and places to stand, that the dove felt comfortable outside. This indicates that much larger patches of dry land had appeared, and there that was a lot more by way of vegetation springing up.


On the side of a mountain, apparently some seeds had begun to germinate, and a few inches of an olive tree had begun to grow, along with a leaf, which the dove picked during her first trip to the outside world. However, there was still not enough out there in terms of food and land for the dove to want to remain out of the ark. However, the second time, the dove found food and a place to lighten feet, so she remained in the world.


Gen 8:10–12 And he waited yet another seven days. And again he sent forth the dove out of the ark. And the dove came in to him in the evening. And, lo, in her mouth was an olive leaf plucked off. So Noah knew that the waters had gone down from off the earth. And he waited yet another seven days, and sent forth the dove. And she did not return again to him any more.


This account is interesting, in that it lacks weirdness. If you go to any of the other flood legends, there are monsters, laughing frogs, black pelicans that paint themselves white and men who preserve themselves from the flood by hiding in huge reeds. However, what we find here is Noah doing what a normal person would do, in very abnormal circumstances. He is trying to determine if the outside can be inhabited by human and animal life.


Noah sends out a dove, which remains in the world for most of the day, but returns with an olive leaf in her beak. So there are bushes and trees which are beginning to grow, but none are high up enough for the dove to feel comfortable perching upon. A week later, Noah sends the dove out again, and it remains in the world.


——————————


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


God Tells Noah to Exit the Ark with His Family and Animals and They Do


And so he is in a first and six hundreds a year, in the first [in time] in a first to the [new] month had dried the waters from upon the earth. And so removes Noah a covering of the ark. And so he looks and, behold, was dried faces of the ground.

Genesis

8:13

And it is, in the 601st year [of Noah’s life], on the first [day] of the first month, [when] the waters had dried from on the earth. Therefore, Noah removed the covering of the ark. He looked and observed that the surface of the ground was dry.

And it came to pass, when Noah was 601 years old, on the first day of the first month, that the waters had dried from the earth. Therefore, Noah removed the covering of the ark. He looked out and observed that the surface of the ground was dry.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And it was in the six hundred and first year, in Tishri, in the first of the month, in the beginning of the year, that the waters were dried from upon the earth. And Noah removed the covering of the ark, and saw the faces of the ground to be dried. And in the month Marchesvan, in the twenty-seventh day of the month, the earth was dry.

Latin Vulgate                          Therefore in the six hundredth and first year, the first month, the first day of the month, the waters were lessened upon the earth, and Noe opening the covering of the ark, looked, and saw that the face of the earth was dried.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so he is in a first and six hundreds a year, in the first [in time] in a first to the [new] month had dried the waters from upon the earth. And so removes Noah a covering of the ark. And so he looks and, behold, was dried faces of the ground.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And it came to pass in the six hundred and first year, in the first month, the first day of the month, the waters were dried up from off the earth; and Noah removed the covering of the ark, and looked, and, behold, the face of the ground was dry.

Septuagint (Greek)                And it came to pass in the six hundred and first year of the life of Noah, in the first month, on the first day of the month, the water subsided from off the earth, and Noah opened the covering of the ark which he had made, and he saw that the water had subsided from the face of the earth.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           In Noah's six hundred first year, on the first day of the first month, the waters dried up from the earth. Noah removed the ark's hatch and saw that the surface of the fertile land had dried up.

Contemporary English V.       Noah was now six hundred one years old. And by the first day of that year, almost all the water had gone away. Noah made an opening in the roof of the boat and saw that the ground was getting dry.

Easy English                          In Noah's 601st year, the waters had dried off the earth. That was on the 1st day in the 1st month. Noah took the cover off the *ark and he looked. Look! The ground's surface was dry.

Easy-to-Read Version            After that, Noah opened the door [Literally, "removed the covering."] of the boat. Noah looked and saw that the ground was dry. This was the first day of the first month of the year. Noah was 601 years old.

Good News Bible (TEV)         When Noah was 601 years old, on the first day of the first month, the water was gone. Noah removed the covering of the boat, looked around, and saw that the ground was getting dry.

The Message                         In the six-hundred-first year of Noah's life, on the first day of the first month, the flood had dried up. Noah opened the hatch of the ship and saw dry ground.

New Berkeley Version           In the 601st year [The age of Noah, or of the Noah House, or both.], the first of the first month, the waters had dried off the earth. Noah removed the ark’s covering, looked out, and behold, the surface of the ground was dry.

New Life Bible                        In the year 601, in the first month, on the first day of the month, the water was dried up from the earth. Then Noah took the covering off the large boat, and looked out and saw that the earth was dry.

New Living Translation           Noah was now 601 years old. On the first day of the new year, ten and a half months after the flood began,[c] the floodwaters had almost dried up from the earth. Noah lifted back the covering of the boat and saw that the surface of the ground was drying.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          In the six hundred and first year of Noah's life, on the first day of the first month, the water had poured off the earth. So Noah opened the roof that he had made for the chest, and he could see that the water had left the ground.

God’s Word                         By the first day of the first month of Noah's six hundred and first year, the water on the land had dried up. Noah opened the top of the ship, looked out, and saw the surface of the ground.

New American Bible              In the six hundred and first year, in the first month, on the first day of the month, the water began to dry up on the earth. Noah then removed the covering of the ark and saw that the surface of the ground had dried. [Gen. 8:13-14] On the first day of the first month, the world was in the state it had been on the day of creation in chap. 1. Noah had to wait another month until the earth was properly dry as in Gen. 1:9.

NIRV                                      It was the first day of the first month of Noah's 601st year. The water had dried up from the earth. Then Noah removed the covering from the ark. He saw that the surface of the ground was dry.

New Jerusalem Bible             It was in the six hundred and first year of Noah's life, in the first month and on the first of the month, that the waters began drying out on earth. Noah lifted back the hatch of the ark and looked out. The surface of the ground was dry!

Revised English Bible            So it came about that, on the first day of the first month of his six hundred and first year, the water had dried up on the earth, and when Noah removed the hatch and looked out, he saw that the ground was dry.

Today’s NIV                          By the first day of the first month of Noah's six hundred and first year, the water had dried up from the earth. Noah then removed the covering from the ark and saw that the surface of the ground was dry.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      In the year six hundred and one, in the first of month one, the waters from above had decimated the land. Noah turned the covering from the box, and saw and beheld the face of the decimated earth.

Bible in Basic English             And in the six hundred and first year, on the first day of the first month, the waters were dry on the earth: and Noah took the cover off the ark and saw that the face of the earth was dry.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 At the end of his six hundred and first year, on the first day of the month, the waters dried from off the earth. Noah then loosened the hatches of the Ark and looking out, perceived that the surface of the ground was dry.

HCSB                                     In the six hundred and first year, in the first month, on the first day of the month, the water that had covered the earth was dried up. Then Noah removed the ark's cover and saw that the surface of the ground was drying.

New Advent Bible                  Therefore in the six hundredth and first year, the first month, the first day of the month, the waters were lessened upon the earth, and Noe opening the covering of the ark, looked, and saw that the face of the earth was dried.

NET Bible®                             In Noah's six hundred and first year [Heb In the six hundred and first year." Since this refers to the six hundred and first year of Noah's life, the word "Noah's" has been supplied in the translation for clarity.], in the first day of the first month, the waters had dried up from the earth, and Noah removed the covering from the ark and saw that [Heb “and saw and look.” As in v. 11, the deictic particle הִנֵּה (hinneh) invites readers to enter into the story, as it were, and look at the dry ground with their own eyes.] the surface of the ground was dry [In v. 13 the ground (הָאֲדָמָה, ha’adamah) is dry; now the earth (הָאָרֶץ, ha’arets) is dry.].

New Heart English Bible        It happened in the six hundred first year, in the first month, the first day of the month, the waters were dried up from the earth. Noah removed the covering of the ship, and looked. He saw that the surface of the ground was dried.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                In the year 601 [of Noah's life], on the first day of the first month, the waters were drying up from the land. And Noah [a]removed the covering of the ark and looked, and behold, the surface of the ground was drying.

Concordant Literal Version    And coming is it, in the year six hundred and one of Noah's life, in the first month, on day one of the month, drained are the waters off the earth. And away is Noah taking the covering of the ark, which he had made, and seeing is he, and behold! Drained are the waters from the surface of the ground.

Context Group Version          And it happened in the six hundred and first year, in the first month, the first day of the month, the waters were dried up from off the land { or earth }: and Noah removed the covering of the ark, and looked, and noticed that the face of the ground was dried.

Darby Translation                  And it came to pass in the six hundred and first year, in the first [month], on the first of the month, that the waters were dried up from the earth. And Noah removed the covering of the ark, and looked, and behold, the surface of the ground was dried.

English Standard Version      In the six hundred and first year, in the first month, the first day of the month, the waters were dried from off the earth. And Noah removed the covering of the ark and looked, and behold, the face of the ground was dry.

The Geneva Bible                  And it came to pass in the six hundredth and first year, in the first [month] [Called in Hebrew Abib, part of March and part of April.], the first [day] of the month, the waters were dried up from off the earth: and Noah removed the covering of the ark, and looked, and, behold, the face of the ground was dry.

New King James Version       And it came to pass in the six hundred and first year, in the first month, the first day of the month, that the waters were dried up from the earth; and Noah removed the covering of the ark and looked, and indeed the surface of the ground was dry.

Syndein/Thieme                     {Verses 13-22: Removal of Signs of God's Judgment}

In the six hundredth and first year, in the first month, the first day of the month, the waters began to dry from the earth; and when Noah removed the covering of the ark, he saw that the surface of the ground was drying.

A Voice in the Wilderness      And it came to pass in the six hundred and first year, in the first month, the first day of the month, that the waters were dried up from off the earth; and Noah removed the covering of the ark and looked, and behold, the surface of the ground was dry.

World English Bible                It happened in the six hundred first year, in the first month, the first day of the month, the waters were dried up from off the earth. Noah removed the covering of the ark, and looked. He saw that the surface of the ground was dried.

Young’s Updated LT             And it comes to pass in the six hundredth and first year, in the first month, in the first of the month, the waters have been dried from off the earth; and Noah turns aside the covering of the ark, and looks, and lo, the face of the ground has been dried.

 

The gist of this verse:          On the first day of the first month of the 601st year, Noah removes the covering of the ark and the ground outside has dried.


Genesis 8:13a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

Without a specific subject and object, the verb hâyâh often means and it will come to be, and it will come to pass, then it came to pass (with the wâw consecutive). It may be more idiomatically rendered subsequently, afterwards, later on, in the course of time, after which. Generally, the verb does not match the gender whatever nearby noun could be the subject (and, as often, there is no noun nearby which would fulfill the conditions of being a subject).

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʾechâd (אֶחָד) [pronounced eh-KHAWD]

one, first, certain, only; each, every; but it can also mean a composite unity; possibly particular; anyone

feminine singular numeral adjective

Strong's #259 BDB #25

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

shêsh (שֵש) [pronounced shaysh]

six

masculine form of numeral

Strong’s #8337 BDB #995

mêʾôwth (מֵאוֹת) [pronounced may-OHTH]

hundreds

feminine plural absolute; numeral

Strong’s #3967 BDB #547

shânâh (שָנָה) [pronounced shaw-NAW]

year

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #8141 BDB #1040


Translation: And it is, in the 601st year [of Noah’s life],... We already been given than Noah, at the beginning of the flood, was 600 years old (Gen. 7:6); therefore, even though we do not have the exact same verbiage here (Noah was a son of 601 years), a year has passed since Gen. 7:6; so, therefore, it is reasonable to apply this to Noah’s age.


Genesis 8:13b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

rîʾshônâh (רִאשֹנָה) [pronounced ree-show-NAW]

first [in time, in degree, chief, former [in time], ancestors, former things; foremost; beginning

masculine singular adjective with the definite article

Strong’s #7223 BDB #911

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʾechâd (אֶחָד) [pronounced eh-KHAWD]

one, first, certain, only; each, every; but it can also mean a composite unity; possibly particular; anyone

masculine singular numeral adjective

Strong's #259 BDB #25

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

chôdesh (חֹדֶש) [pronounced KHOH-desh]

new moon, month; monthly; first day of the month

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #2320 BDB #294


Translation: ...on the first [day] of the first month,... Now, this does not seem to necessarily that this day was just, coincidentally, the first day of the first month. After this cleansing of the earth, and flood which removes all of the perversion of the angelic attack upon mankind, it seems logical for this to be a natural start for mankind. It makes sense to call this the first day of the first month, a new beginning.


This is also Spring, which marks a new beginning. For whatever reason, we begin our year in the midst of winter, in the midst of death, so to speak; but the Jewish year begins coterminous with spring, which represents a rebirth or a new beginning. So, we should expect, with the new earth, that it is an ideal time for seeds to sprout and for flora to grow.


Genesis 8:13c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

chârêb (חָרֵב) [pronounced khaw-RAWBV]

to be dry, to be dried up; to waste, to lay waste, to be desolate

3rd person plural, Qal perfect

Strong’s #2717 BDB #351

mayim (מַיִם) [pronounced mah-YIHM]

water (s)

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4325 BDB #565

min (מִן) [pronounced mihn]

from, away from, out from, out of from, off, on account of, since, above, than, so that not, beyond, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl ]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5920, #5921 BDB #752

Together, they mean from upon, from over, from by, from beside, from attachment to, from companionship with, from accompanying [in a protective manner], from adhesion to, from. Some translators rendered this away from.

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation:...[when] the waters had dried from on the earth. We know that the waters have subsided, although the earth is probably quite soaked.


Genesis 8:13d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

çûwr (סוּר) [pronounced soor]

to cause to depart, to remove, to cause to go away; to take away; to turn away from

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect

Strong's #5493 (and #5494) BDB #693

All of the Hiphil meanings for this verb are to cause to turn aside, to cause to depart, to remove, to take away, to put away, to depose; to put aside, to leave undone, to retract, to reject, to abolish.

Nôach (נֹחַ) [pronounced NOH-ahkh]

rest, repose; consolation; transliterated Noah

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #5146 BDB #629

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

mikeseh (מִכְסֶה) [pronounced mihk-SEH]

covering [of a tent; ark]; skins of a tabernacle

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #4372 BDB #492

This is the first occurrence of this word, and the only time it is used in relationship to an ark or a boat.

têbâh (תֵּבָה) [pronounced tayb-VAW]

an ark, a chest

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #8392 BDB #1061


Translation: Therefore, Noah removed the covering of the ark. The word for covering here is not usually found in relationship to a boat or an ark or anything like that. This is the first occurrence of this word. We don’t know exactly what portion of the ship was removed at this point. This word does not match with any words used so far in the ark narrative.


Did Noah build a top which could be removed or a section which could be removed? Or did Noah simply remove a portion of the top of the ark, which is an interesting proposition, considering that Noah and company have been cooped up on the ark during the great flood.


Insofar as we know, Noah has not been given any direction at this point. He clearly understands that the rain has stopped; and, for 600 years of his life, there has not been any rain. Therefore, even though after a week or two of rainstorms, we might not take the top off our convertible; rain is unusual in Noah’s life. So, it is not necessarily illogical that Noah would remove a portion of the top of the ark, even after such a great rain. He may not even expect to see rain again.


Genesis 8:13d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

Although the Hebrew begins nearly every phrase with a wâw consecutive or a wâw conjunction, it is not necessary that we do so in the English translation.

râʾâh (רָאָה) [pronounced raw-AWH]

to see, to look, to look at, to view, to behold; to observe; to perceive, to understand, to learn, to know

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #7200 BDB #906

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

hinnêh (הִנֵּה) [pronounced hin-NAY]

lo, behold, or more freely, observe, look here, look, listen, note, take note; pay attention, get this, check this out

interjection, demonstrative particle

Strong’s #2009 (and #518, 2006) BDB #243

chârêb (חָרֵב) [pronounced khaw-RAWBV]

to be dry, to be dried up; to waste, to lay waste, to be desolate

3rd person plural, Qal perfect

Strong’s #2717 BDB #351

pânîym (פָּנִים) [pronounced paw-NEEM]

face, faces, countenance; presence; person; surface

masculine plural construct (plural acts like English singular)

Strong’s #6440 BDB #815

ʾădâmâh (אֲדָמָה) [pronounced uh-daw-MAWH]

ground, soil, dirt, earth, tillable earth, land, surface of the earth

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #127 BDB #9


Translation: He looked and observed that the surface of the ground was dry. Whatever sort of covering that Noah removes, it apparently allows him to look out and see that the ground is dry. However, Noah does not hop out of the ark suddenly and go pitch a tent.


Gen 8:13 And it happened in the six hundred and first year, at the beginning, on the first of the month, that the waters were dried up from off the earth. And Noah removed the covering of the ark and looked. And, behold, the face of the earth was desolate!


Noah was 600 when he entered into the ark; so this 601st year refers to his age. This personal reference, seamlessly integrated into the narrative, indicates that Noah wrote (or composed) this information himself. Had someone else done this, they would have written, “And it happened when Noah was 601 years old,...” However, Noah, recording this information himself, presents the information as related to his own age, but without specifically stating that this is his age. There are several clues in the book of Genesis as to who wrote which section, and this indicates to us that Noah wrote these words himself.


As an aside, despite the fact that 1000's of books have been written about Genesis, I am not aware of anyone else making this observation. What I have found, since I decided to spend the latter half of my life devoted to the study of the Bible (2–4 hours each day) is, there are still uncharted waters and there are still things to discover. The thrust of the ministry of the late R. B. Thieme, Jr. was a verse-by-verse study of the Bible, which was almost revolutionary (you may think that most churches teach the Bible, but most barely skim the surface of what is there; and there are many churches which teach the exact opposite of what is in the Bible).


However, do not misunderstand me on this point: the fundamentals of the faith still abide; Jerome, Luther, Augustine, Billy Graham, and every church council in the first few centuries would have been in 95–100% agreement with Berachah Church’s statement of faith at http://www.berachah.org/Doctrinal%20Statement.htm (as well in agreement with the statements of faith for any church listed here: http://kukis.org/Links/thelist.htm My point being, the fundamentals of the faith were taught from the very beginning and known throughout every generation; but there are a lot of tertiary doctrines and details being discovered and developed even today. The fact that Noah composed this himself is one of those details.


Noah finally opens up the ark and the ground had dried.


Gen 8:13 And it happened in the six hundred and first year, at the beginning, on the first of the month, that the waters were dried up from off the earth. And Noah removed the covering of the ark and looked. And, behold, the face of the earth was desolate!


The word to be dried is the Qal perfect of chârab (חָרַב) [pronounced KHAW-rahbv], which means to be dry, to be dried up; to be [make] wasted; to be [made] desolate. Strong’s #2717 BDB #351. The first set of meanings (to make dry) are appropriate here. The subject is waters and the tense is perfect, indicating a completed action. It is true that the waters had wasted the land (earth), but the preposition in front of earth means from upon, so the waters were dried up from upon the earth (or, ground). The verb suggests that water both seeped down into the ground and much of the moisture evaporated. The subject and the preposition indicate the meaning of the verb which is appropriate. The perfect tense, indicates that we are seeing this as a completed process and not as a continuing process (even though, quite obviously, evaporation is a continuing process).


This exact same word occurs again at the end of v. 13 and again in the Qal perfect, but this time, there is no preposition. Noah and his family look out at the surface of the ground, and it is desolate; the flood waters have laid waste the face of the earth. I have awakened after a great storm here—hurricane Ike, for instance—and there are trees all over, laying on the roads. I have a friend who lives about 2 miles away in the same neighborhood. It took me about 30 minutes to drive from my house to his, trying to avoid deep water and fallen trees. Hurricane Ike lasted for maybe 6 hours, and it devastated a lot. However, this was a 40-day rainstorm where the waters were on the earth for the better part of a year. The devastation must have been incredible to behold. Every manmade structure was certainly razed and taken away in the storm. The great forests which Noah had grown up in were gone. There was no sign of life, apart from a few bushes and very small, baby trees and grasses, all barely beginning to break the surface.


So, the writer is not repeating himself when he uses the same verb twice. Two different things are being said, but using the same verb in the same stem and tense. This verb can be seen to mean to dry in this passages: Judges 16:7–8 2Kings 19:24 Psalm 106:9; and to mean to lay waste, to make desolate in these passages: Isa. 34:10 37:18 Jer. 50:21 Ezek. 6:6. Here we find this word used in both ways in the same verse. Noah looks out and the waters have dried up and the surface of the earth was desolate and devastated.


At this point, Noah and crew are becoming more excited about exiting the ark and Noah is writing fewer things down twice. Twice, it is stated in the Qal perfect that the waters were dried up and the same Hebrew word is used. This is simple; Noah is not repeating himself. The first use of dry means that the water was no longer on the surface of the ground; the second use of dry means that the ground was no longer muddy, but a consistency upon which Noah and crew could walk.


We are told in this verse that Noah removed the covering of the ark. The word covering usually refers to animal skins (Ex. 26:14 36:19 39:34). We are only told about this here. We don’t know if this covering was over the window or covering the vent, which appeared to go around the entire ark (Gen. 6:16).


Wherever these animals skins were used, the representation here is the same as we observed back in Gen. 3: the animal killed represents Jesus Christ in His death, and the covering of the skin represents the temporary covering over of our sins (the word often used in the Old Testament for this is atonement). Noah and his family, in the ark, were protected from flood (the judgment of God) because of this covering, this atonement. We do not find the word usually translated atonement here; but the concept is here, first observed in Gen. 3:21, when God clothed Adam and the woman with animal skins.


——————————


And in the month the second, in the seven and twenty day to the month, had dried the earth.

Genesis

8:14

Now, in the second month, on the 27th day for [that] month, the earth had dried.

Now, in the 2nd month on the 27th day of that month, the earth had dried.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And in the month Marchesvan, in the twenty-seventh day of the month, the earth was dry.

Latin Vulgate                          In the second month, the seven and twentieth day of the month, the earth was dried.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And in the month the second, in the seven and twenty day to the month, had dried the earth.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And in the second month, on the twenty-seventh day of the month, the earth was dry.

Septuagint (Greek)                And in the second month the earth was dried, on the twenty-seventh day of the month.

 

Significant differences: 


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       By the twenty-seventh day of the second month, the earth was completely dry.

Easy English                          On the 27th day in the 2nd month, the earth was completely dry.

Easy-to-Read Version            By the 27th day of the second month the ground was completely dry.

New Berkeley Version           On the twenty-seventh of the next month the earth was thoroughly dried 15 and God told Noah: 16 Leave the ark, you and your wife, your sons and your sons’ wives along with you. Vv. 14–16 are included for context.

New Living Translation           Two more months went by,[d] and at last the earth was dry!.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          And by the twenty-second day of the second month, the ground was dry.

Beck’s American Translation On the 27th day of the second month the ground was dry.

NIRV                                      By the 27th day of the second month the earth was completely dry.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And on the twenty-seventh day of the second month the earth was dry.

NET Bible®                             And by the twenty-seventh day of the second month the earth [In v. 13 the ground (הָאֲדָמָה, ha’adamah) is dry; now the earth (הָאָרֶץ, ha’arets) is dry.] was dry.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                And on the twenty-seventh day of the second month the land was entirely dry.

English Standard Version      In the second month, on the twenty-seventh day of the month, the earth had dried out.

Updated Bible Version 2.11   And in the second month, on the seven and twentieth day of the month, was the earth dry.

Young's Updated LT              And in the second month, in the seven and twentieth day of the month, the earth had become dry.

 

The gist of this verse:          The ground was dry on the 27th day of the 2nd month.


Genesis 8:14a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

chôdesh (חֹדֶש) [pronounced KHOH-desh]

new moon, month; monthly; first day of the month

masculine singular noun with the definite article`

Strong’s #2320 BDB #294

shênîy (שֵנִי) [pronounced shay-NEE]

second, the second; two, both, double, twice; When only two items are named, it can be rendered [the] other

adjective singular numeral ordinal with the definite article

Strong’s #8145 BDB #1041

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

shibeʿâh (שִבְָה) [pronounced shibve-ĢAW]

seven

numeral feminine noun

Strong's #7651 BDB #987

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʿeserîym (עֶשְׂרִים) [pronounced ģese-REEM]

twenty

plural numeral adjective

Strong’s #6242 BDB #797

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article); possibly immediately

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

chôdesh (חֹדֶש) [pronounced KHOH-desh]

new moon, month; monthly; first day of the month

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #2320 BDB #294


Translation: Now, in the second month, on the 27th day for [that] month,... Interestingly enough, Noah and his family do not immediately exit the ark. They open up the ark, but they remain in the ark. It is possible that some of the birds and some of the animals are released. We are not told that, however.


By this time, there should have been a great deal of greenery outside—nothing tall, yet, but a lot of grasses should be seen, as well as the beginnings of some trees and bushes. We do not know exactly what the environment was that Noah and his family grew up in—we don’t know what the houses looked like, what tools they had developed, the level of civilization, or anything like that. But it must have looked quite different after the flood.


Genesis 8:14b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

yâbêsh (יָבֵש) [pronounced yawB-VEYSH]

to be dry, to dry up, to wither

3rd person feminine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #3001 BDB #386

This is a different word for to dry than has been used in the previous verse.

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: ...the earth had dried. This is the third time that the earth is said to have dried, but, with the previously used verb, there were two different subjects; and this time, we have a different verb.


The oceans are salty because water in the form of rivers and streams has taken all sorts of minerals out of the land and carried it into the ocean. In the antediluvian era, we do not know the extent of the saltiness of the ocean, if at all. In that era, we do not have water being produced by rain, which suggests that we did not have snow either; although glaciers and the like probably existed. With the seasons and the method that watering occurred (it appeared to rise up from the surface as a mist), the water cycle of the antediluvian era must have been quite different.


The flooding that occurred here, would have been unlike anything that this earth has ever experienced, which had an effect upon the oceans and the ground and the topology. I would be interested in the various theories as to the saltiness of the ocean pre and post flood eras. It appears to be fairly stable at this point in time, but the measurements that we can take via scientific instruments is rather recent. So, I don’t know if we have been able to examine the ocean over a lengthy enough period of time to determine the stability of the saltiness at this point in time.


Gen 8:14 And in the second month, on the twenty-seventh day of the month, the earth was dry.


Recall that Noah entered into the ark in the 2nd month, 17th day. So v. 14 is 370 days later (the Hebrews functioned on a 360 day calendar). I have often wondered about this. 360 is a nice round number, and it approximates the length of a year; but quite obviously, it does not match up with a year. Is it possible that, prior to the flood, that the earth was not on a tilted axis, and that a year was exactly 360 days? I am only speculating here. I have often wondered if the earth on its axis was a relatively recent thing—that is, did it occur when God the Holy Spirit warmed the surface of the earth (Gen. 1:2) or is it related to the flood in some way?


Quite obviously, the entire earth is not dry, as that is never the case. However, it is nearly a month after Noah looked out and observed that the earth was beginning to dry, and now it is dry enough for him and his family to actually live outside of the ark.


Since the Hebrews functioned on 30 day months, we will assume that this is the case (and it is borne out by some of the passages). # of days will be based upon the beginning of the flood as being day 0.

The Deluge Time Frame

Month

Day

# of Days

Text/Commentary/Passage

2

17

0

The rains begin. Gen. 7:11

3

27

40

There are 40 days of rain. Gen. 7:12

7

17

150

The waters prevail over the earth for 150 days. Every living thing on the face of the earth that breathes air is destroyed. The ark comes to rest on Mount Ararat. God sends a great wind over the earth, and the waters begin to subside. Gen. 7:23–24 8:2–4

10

1

224

Mountain tops become visible from the ark. Gen. 8:5

11

11

264

40 days later, Noah opens a window and sends out a raven. He also sends out a dove, and the dove returns to him, not finding a place to rest. Gen. 8:6–9

11

18

271

The dove is sent out again, 7 days later, and returns to Noah that evening with a olive leaf in its beak. Gen. 8:10–11

11

25

278

The dove is sent out again, again, 7 days later, but this time it does not return. Gen. 8:12

1

1

344

In year 601 (Noah is using himself—his own age—as the measure of time), Noah removes the covering of the ark, and observes that the ground had dried up around the ark. Gen. 8:!3

2

27

370

The earth is beginning to dry. God speaks to Noah and tells him to disembark. Gen. 8:14–19

In some cases, the month and day are given; in others, the number of days is given. I simply filled in what was missing.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


——————————


And so spoke Elohim unto Noah, to say, “Come out from the ark—you and your woman and your sons and wives of your sons.

Genesis

8:15–16

Then Elohim spoke to Noah, saying, “Come out from the ark—you and your wife and your sons and your sons’ wives—...

Then God said to Noah, “Come out from the ark—you, your wive, your sons and their wives—...


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the Lord spake with Noah, saying: Go forth from the ark, thou, and your wife, and your sons, and the wives of your sons, with you.

Latin Vulgate                          And God spoke to Noe, saying: Go out of the ark, you and your wife, your sons and the wives of your sons with you.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so spoke Elohim unto Noah, to say, “Come out from the ark—you and your woman and your sons and wives of your sons.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And God spoke to Noah, saying, 16 Go forth out of the ark, you and your wife and your sons and your sons' wives with you.

Septuagint (Greek)                And the Lord God spoke to Noah, saying, Come out from the ark, you and your wife and your sons, and your sons' wives with you.

 

Significant differences:           The targum has Lord instead of God; and the Greek has Lord God.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:


 

ontemporary English V.          God said to Noah, "You, your wife, your sons, and your daughters-in-law may now leave the boat.

Easy English                          Then God said to Noah, 'Go out of the *ark. I say that to you and your wife. And I say it to your sons and your sons' wives.

Easy-to-Read Version            Then God said to Noah, “Leave the boat. You, your wife, your sons, and your sons’ wives should go out now.

The Message                         God spoke to Noah: "Leave the ship, you and your wife and your sons and your sons' wives.

New Century Version             Then God said to Noah, 16 "You and your wife, your sons, and their wives should go out of the boat.

New Living Translation           Then God said to Noah, 16 "Leave the boat, all of you-you and your wife, and your sons and their wives.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Then Jehovah God spoke to Noah and said, 16 'Come out of the chest. you, your woman, your sons, their women who are with you,...

God’s Word                         Then God spoke to Noah, "Come out of the ship with your wife, your sons, and your sons' wives.

New American Bible              Then God said to Noah: Go out of the ark, together with your wife and your sons and your sons' wives.

New Jerusalem Bible             Then God said to Noah, 'Come out of the ark, you, your wife, your sons, and your sons' wives with you.

Revised English Bible            ...and God spoke to Noah. 16 ‘Come out of the ark together with your wife, your sons, and their wives,’ he said.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      God spoke to Noah, saying, "Proceed from the box: you, your woman, your sons, and the women of your sons with you,...

New Advent Bible                  And God spoke to Noe, saying: 16 Go out of the ark, you and your wife, your sons and the wives of your sons with you.

New Heart English Bible        God spoke to Noah, saying, 16 "Go out of the ship, you, and your wife, and your sons, and your sons' wives with you.


Limited Vocabulary Translations:


 

International Standard V        .


Catholic Bibles (those having the Imprimatur):

 

The Heritage Bible                 .


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 .


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

Kretzmann’s Commentary    .

Lexham English Bible            .

Translation for Translators     .

The Voice                               .


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And speaking is Yahweh Elohim to Noah, saying, Fare forth from the ark, you, and your wife, and your sons, and your sons' wives with you.

Context Group Version          And God spoke to Noah, saying, Go out from the ark, you, and your woman { or wife }, and your sons, and your sons' women { or wives } with you..

Updated Emphasized Bible    So then, God spake to Noah, saying: Come forth out of the ark,—you and your wife, and your sons, and your song wives with you.

English Standard Version      Then God said to Noah, "Go out from the ark, you and your wife, and your sons and your sons' wives with you.

The updated Geneva Bible    And God said to Noah, Go forth of the ark, you, and your wife, and your sons, and your sons wives with you. Noah declares his obedience, in that he would not leave the ark without Gods express commandment, as he did not enter in without the same: the ark being a figure of the Church, in which nothing must be done outside the word of God.

LTHB                                     And God spoke to Noah, saying, Go out of the ark, you and your wife, and your sons and your sons' wives with you.

World English Bible                God spoke to Noah, saying, "Go forth from the ark, you, and your wife, and your sons, and your sons' wives with you.

Young’s Updated LT             And God speaks unto Noah, saying, “Go out from the ark, you, and your wife, and your sons, and your sons” wives with you.

 

The gist of this verse:          God tells Noah to bring his family out of the ark.


Genesis 8:15a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

dâbar (דָּבַר) [pronounced dawb-VAHR]

to speak, to talk [and back with action], to give an opinion, to expound, to make a formal speech, to speak out, to promise, to propose, to speak kindly of, to declare, to proclaim, to announce

3rd person masculine singular, Piel imperfect

Strong’s #1696 BDB #180

This is the first time that this verb is found in Scripture.

The Piel stem is intensive, making dâbar is stronger. It can carry with it the idea of providing guidance and direction, if not a set of mandates (and this would be determined by context). The kind of intensification is determined by context. The Piel may call for talk, backed with action; give your opinion; expound; make a formal speech; speak out; talk it around, to give a somber and tragic report.

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun

Strong's #430 BDB #43

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

Nôach (נֹחַ) [pronounced NOH-ahkh]

rest, repose; consolation; transliterated Noah

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #5146 BDB #629

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #559 BDB #55


Translation: Then Elohim spoke to Noah, saying,... This is the first time we have the word dâbar. This can be used to provide guidance and direction, if not a direct order.


Genesis 8:16a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

yâtsâʾ (יָצָא) [pronounced yaw-TZAWH]

go [come] out, go [come] forth; rise [up]

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperative

Strong's #3318 BDB #422

min (מִן) [pronounced mihn]

from, away from, out from, out of from, off, on account of, since, above, than, so that not, beyond, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

têbâh (תֵּבָה) [pronounced tayb-VAW]

an ark, a chest

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #8392 BDB #1061


Translation:...“Come out from the ark—... The imperative mood is used here. Nearly two months have passed since Noah removed the covering from the ark, suggesting that it is easy enough for them to come and go, but they do not. What it looks like outside must be so much different than what they were used to seeing. After all, if Noah was able to build a boat, then they must have had houses; obviously, there would have been trees. Given the populations, there would have been cities; but now, all they can see is grasses.


Furthermore, the ark came to stop on the mountains of Ararat, so there is not much to see outside of the ark. They may see mountains, but there will not be any trees, any animals or any structures. Most of us have seen photographs of floods or areas after a hurricane has passed through, and a place where there used to be a neighborhood, there is no longer any houses standing. A hurricane lasts a day; this flooding and raining occurred for 40 days.


In the ark, they have the animals, food and each other. Outside the ark, it is a foreboding world. Also, the family must be somewhat shell-shocked.


Now, if they are up in the mountains, and summer has begun, then the weather is fairly comfortable. However, they must exit and move further down the mountains to prepare for the winter. They still have to survive.


Genesis 8:16b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾattâh (אַתָּה) [pronounced aht-TAW]

you (often, the verb to be is implied)

2nd person masculine singular, personal pronoun

Strong’s #859 BDB #61

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾîshshâh (אִשָּה) [pronounced eesh-SHAW]

woman, wife

feminine singular noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #802 BDB #61

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

bânîym (בָּנִים) [pronounced baw-NEEM]

sons, descendants; children; people; sometimes rendered men

masculine plural noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251