1Chronicles 18

 

1Chronicles 18:1–18

David at War


Outline of Chapter 18:

 

Introduction

 

         vv.     1–8           David’s Wars

         vv.     9–11         David’s Ally and the Dedication of the Spoils

         vv.    12–13         David’s War with Edom

         v.      14              The Quality of David’s Reign

         vv.    15–17         David’s Staff

 

Addendum


Charts, Short Doctrines and Maps:

 

         Introduction         Some Points on War

         Introduction         What is a Righteous War?

 

         v.       1              Summary: All that God Told David—the Davidic Covenant

         v.       1              Scofield Analyses the Davidic Covenant

         v.       1              Doctrine of the Davidic Covenant

         v.       1              The Essence of the Davidic Covenant

         v.       1              Israel and the Philistines

         v.       1              David and the King of Gath

         v.       3              Israel During David’s Kingdom (Map)

         v.       3              The Doctrine of Zobah

         v.       3              Map of the Kingdoms of Saul, David and Solomon

         v.       5              Easton on Damascus

         v.       9              The Doctrine of Hamath

         v.      10              The Hadoram’s of Scripture

         v.      10              A Map Showing Hamath

         v.      11              Is David Amassing Blood Money?

         v.      11              Map of the Countries around Israel

         v.      12              A Recap of the Apparent Differences of Psalm 60, 2Sam. 8 and 1Chron. 18

         v.      13              The Parallel Structure of 1Chronicles 18

         v.      15              A Condensed View of Joab

         v.      16              Some Background on Zadok the Priest

         v.      16              History of the Dual Priesthoods

         v.      16              The Doctrine of Abiathar—Part I

         v.      16              What is the Problem with Ahimelech, Abiathar and Zadok?

         v.      16              Theories as to Why is Ahimelech Listed as the Priest Here?

         v.      17              The Cherethites

         v.      17              The Pelethites

 

         Addendum          A Complete Translation of 1Chronicles 18


Doctrines Covered

Doctrines Alluded To

 

 

Edom

Moab and Ammon

 

 

The Philistines

Amalekites


Psalms Alluded To

Psalm 60

 

 

 

Psalms Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

 

 

 

 

Other Chapters of the Bible Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

2Sam. 8

 

 

 


Definition of Terms

Dispensations

God has divided up human history into sectors of time, and each era has its own individual characteristics. From Abraham to Christ, we have the dispensation of Israel, where God works through a particular people (the Jews). They write the Word of God and disseminate it. This dispensation was cut short by the dispensation of the Hypostatic Union or the Age of Christ. At this point in time, God came to the earth and lived among us. He offered Israel the kingdom, and they rejected Him. We now live in the Church Age, a dispensation where God works through the body of believers, who could be found all over the globe, and varying concentrations in various nations.


For more information, see www.kukis.org/Important_Topics/dispensations.htm or

www.kukis.org/Important_Topics/dispensations.pdf

Suzerain-vassal treaty

The Suzerain-Vassal Treaty is a conditional covenant. This type of covenant bound a subordinate vassal to a superior vassal. It was binding only upon the one who swore it. The purpose of the covenant was to emphasize the goodness and kindness of the lord to his vassal with a view to cause the vassal to gladly accept his responsibilities and obligations.

Some of these definitions are taken from

http://www.bibledoctrinechurch.org/?subpages/GLOSSARY.shtml

http://www.bigrick.org/pubs/terms.pdf

http://www.gbible.org/index.php?proc=d4d

http://www.eternalministries.org/studies/covenants.html


——————————


An Introduction to 1Chronicles


I ntroduction: 1Chron. 18 closely parallels 2Sam. 8. Given when these books were written, it is clear that the Books of Samuel and Kings were used as the source material for Chronicles, as well as other documents. In many instances, the writer of Chronicles copied portions of Samuel word-for-word. However, in almost every verse, there will be a difference of a word or two; and sometimes, there will be an additional phrase, or a complete sentence left out. I will note all of the differences between 1Chron. 18 and 2Sam. 8 in the exegesis of the Hebrew, no matter how trivial.


What I have found is, anytime I have revisited a chapter of narrative, as I do here, I generally uncover a few new things. I also try to present this chapter of Chronicles as a separate literary unit, as it was originally produced with that in mind. For that reason, I will occasionally import doctrines and whole paragraphs from my study of 2Sam. 8.


When I take something out of the exegesis of 2Sam. 8 and insert it, I will highlight it as you see below:


Let’s first get the big picture. In the previous chapter, David focused on the spiritual. Remember that Jesus urged us to “First seek the kingdom of God and His righteousness, then all things will be added to you.” (Matt. 6:33 Luke 12:31). The first thing on David’s mind was the Ark of God and that it was in storage. This required David to read and study the Law of Moses (in order to figure out how to move the Ark successfully (2Sam. 6 1Chron. 13, 15–16) which in turn led to great spiritual blessing from God (the Davidic Covenant in 2Sam. 7 and 1Chron. 17). Or, as Bob Thieme Jr. would put it, spiritual prosperity comes first and professional prosperity follows. Footnote In the Church Age, we are to focus first upon the Word of God, and then on our daily lives.

 

As a result of David’s focus, God promised David that He had been with David everywhere that he went and that God would make David a great name (he is one of the only kings prior to, say, 400 b.c. that anyone can name). God made this promise to David in 2Sam. 7:9—which reasonably looked forward as well as backward—and God fulfills His promises to David in 2Sam. 8, 10 (see specifically 2Sam. 8:6b, 13).

 

At first glance, this is a somewhat artificial record of David's military successes, which has been produced by leaving out the more interesting narratives and those less favourable to David. This view is rather inaccurate, however, since positive elements such as the birth of Solomon, David's magnanimity to Saul's family, and David's psalms are omitted. . . . The reason is that Chronicles has chosen to focus on the relationship of David's wars with the Davidic covenant and the temple preparations. Footnote

 

One needed two things to build the temple: security and money. These chapters show how David, though he could not build the temple himself, obtained the security and money necessary for his son to build the temple. Footnote


1Chron. 18 chronologically occurs after 1Chron. 13–17 because the first few words of this chapter are, And so it is, after this... What has just occurred is, David brought the Ark to Jerusalem (but not the Tabernacle) and then he began to ponder the idea of building a more permanent structure for God—a Temple. What happens next is one of the most phenomenal events of human history—God delivers the Davidic Covenant to David. So, after these things, David goes to war against the Philistines, Hadadezer, king of Zobah, Syria, Edom, Moab, and Ammon.


There is some continuity here. Jesus said, “First seek the kingdom of heaven and all things will be added to you.” (Matt. 6:33). So this is what David did. He established his kingship over all Israel, and then pondered his spiritual responsibilities as King of Israel. Therefore, he brought the Ark into Jerusalem (2Sam. 6), he considered building the Temple in an established and powerful Israel (2Sam. 7:1–3), and God, instead of allowing David to build the Temple, gave him the Davidic Covenant, reminding David that He has been with David everywhere that David went (2Sam. 7:4–17). So essentially, God begins to fulfill the Davidic Covenant and to continue to be with David in all that he does (2Sam. 8). That is, God is with David everywhere that he goes and God gives David victory over enemy armies (2Sam. 8:6b, 14b).


One of my shortcomings in exegeting any chapter of the Old Testament is, I don’t think like Hebrew writer. I think chronologically, which is not always the way things are organized in the Hebrew Old Testament. I must admit that, at first, I did not fully grasp the organization of this chapter. Later on, I will suggest the structure of this chapter to you.


We are first only given 4 sets of people that David went to war against: the Philistines, Moab, Hadadezer, and the Syrians (vv. 1–6). This leads us to an early alliance which David made, which involved tribute being brought from him to David (vv. 7–10). We are told that David put this silver, gold and bronze (or copper) aside for the building of the Temple, along with that which he got from Edom, Moab, Ammon, the Philistines and Amalek (only 2 of which had been previously mentioned) (v. 11). Then the writer of Chronicles (taking this directly from the book of Samuel) tells us about the war against Edom (vv. 12–13). For some reason, David’s staff is then named (vv. 14–17). From here, the writer of Samuel notes David’s kindness to Mephibosheth, a descendant of Saul’s (2Sam. 9; the writer of Chronicles leaves this out); and then both writers tell us about David’s campaigns against Ammon and Syria (2Sam. 10 1Chron. 19). The people never explained here are the Amalekites, but I will explain that. In any case, this strikes me as very much a stream of consciousness recording of history, recorded by the writer of Samuel (and repeated by the editor of Chronicles). The descriptions of these conflicts are quite brief. Only David’s conflicts with the alliance of Ammon and Syria is given any real detail (1Chron. 19).


Let’s break down this chapter further: first, David defeats the Philistines and takes some of their cities (v. 1). Then he defeats Moab, and they bring him tribute (v. 2). David wars against the coalition of Hadadezer and the Syrians—numbers are given and booty is described (vv. 3–6). After Hadadezer is defeated, Tou (or, Toi) contracts David, congratulates him, and brings him a significant amount of gold, silver and bonze (copper?) (vv. 9–10). Then we have an aside, where these precious metals were set aside for the building of the Temple, which David knew would be done after him. The gold, silver and bronze from Tou was added to that taken from Edom, Moab, Ammon, the Philistines and Amalek (v. 11). Then Abishai, one of David’s nephews and top generals, defeats the Edomites, and Jewish garrisons are set up in Edom (vv. 12–13). In the final verses, David’s staff is named (vv. 14–17).


Application: One of the areas in which we are greatly confused today is in reference to war. There are people who believe that peace on earth is possible, and they ignore every evidence to the contrary. The Bible tells us that there is a time for war and a time for peace (Eccles. 3:8) and Jesus told us that there would be wars and rumors of wars (reports of wars in other countries) until He returns (Matt. 24:6). History and contemporary observations bears this out. It is not as though I, a Bible-believing Christian, cling to these verses despite all evidence to the contrary. It is clear that war is an integral part of human history. In most years, there are a dozen or so conflicts throughout the world. If there is any year in history where there was no war, I am unaware of that year. However, men blinded by arrogance and influenced by evil think that there are disarmament measures which will bring peace about. We even have a president of the United States who speaks of reducing our own nuclear arsenal. This nonsense is perpetuated even more by our enemies who speak about peace, even though they prepare for war. They do it for propaganda purposes. One of the greatest propaganda efforts occurred during the Vietnam War. Obviously, there were many sincere anti-war demonstrators, but there was propaganda being pumped out of China and out of Hanoi that this was only a civil war, that the people needed to resolve this themselves, and that those in the North wanted peace. When we withdrew our troops because Congress foolishly denied military funding, there was a bloodbath in southeast Asia far worse than the war itself. And all of the people who counted on us as friends and allies were slaughtered in the streets. All of this marching for peace and preaching peace resulted in one of the greatest, most concentrated slaughters in the history of mankind—a slaughter that a few more months of concentrated warfare would have prevented. Footnote


It is chapters like these which remind us that war is a part of human existence. David, a man after God’s Own heart, a man blessed by God, spent much of his life in battle. Furthermore, it was God who taught David to fight (Psalm 18:34 144:1).


Application: I was raised to be a pacifist and anti-war. I even stupidly participated in one peace march. When I first heard the Colonel Footnote talk about war and about how a Christian in war ought to kill more of the enemy than anyone else, it was quite disconcerting. Like many new believers, I expected that I already had good values and morals, but I just did not practice them. It took quite awhile for me to realize that my mind was filled with cosmic viewpoint. However, there are so many chapters in the Bible (particularly in the Old Testament), where war is unquestionably a part of God’s plan, that, at some point in time, that has to be taken as a given. And if war is often a part of God’s plan, then a believer’s attitude toward war could not be that of a pacifist.


The following two doctrines were lifted directly out of my exegesis of 2Sam. 8. If you suffer from any human viewpoint thinking, e.g., you believe that we can stop war in our lifetime, then you need to carefully read through these doctrines.

One of the things I had problem, when it came to R. B. Thieme Jr.’s ministry was his glorification of the military, as I had not been brought up with those values. It took me many years of study, but now I appreciate his approach and his emphasis. Since 2Sam. 8 and 10 have David warring against a half dozen nations, there are some things which we need to know about war.

Some Points on War

1.      War is a normal human activity, and all of the marches for peace in the world will not end war. If the United States buried all of his weapons and dismantled its armies, we would be attacked and possibly even defeated within a year or two of doing such a stupid thing. People all over the world lust for what we have, and many think that it is simply a function of living in a prosperous country. However, the key to our prosperity is twofold: (1) the grace of God and (2) economic freedom. However, they do not recognize this, so they think if they conquer our land and us, that will make them prosperous.

2.      Like most students, I was brought up with a limited education when it comes to war. I saw wars from a very American-centric view. I never fully appreciated that, at any given time, there are probably 10 or so wars being fought around the world, and that wars have continued throughout human history, even increasing as time goes on; and that the soldier represents probably the best that a country has to offer.

3.      There is a lot of war in the Bible, and the honoring of the soldier is found throughout Scripture. The greatest compliment that Jesus paid to any individual was to a Roman soldier. Jesus did not berate the man for being a soldier; Jesus did not tell him, “Now, to be perfect, you need to lay down your weapon, desert the Roman army, and follow Me.” What Jesus said was, “I have found no one in Israel with a greater faith [than this Roman soldier].” Matt. 8:5–10

4.      Some of the greatest men in the Bible were soldiers or men of war: David, Joshua and Moses. And in the end of the Jewish Age, Jesus will return in the 2nd Advent, and He will kill so many enemies in war, that the blood will flow as high as the horse’s bridle for nearly 200 miles (Rev. 14:20).

5.      God taught David’s hands to war. Psalm 18:34 144:1

6.      No matter how you feel about war in general, the Bible presents it matter-of-factly, and the soldiers of war are presented as heroes (e.g., David’s mighty men—2Sam. 23 1Chron. 12). There will always be wars and rumors of war (Matt. 24:6); and the occupation of a soldier is honorable. This is the view of the Bible, whether you like it or not.

7.      Jesus promised that there would be wars and rumors of wars until He returned (Matt. 24:6 Mark 13:7 Luke 21:9). At no time in the Bible is there any indication that man by reaching some point in civilization or in spiritual enlightenment, will ever move beyond war. Jesus will return and rule over the earth in the Millennium, and that will end warfare (until Satan is loosed); but prior to that Jesus will kill millions of people; and prior to that, war will be a part of human history (Isa. 2:2–4 Micah 4:1–4 Rev. 19:11–21).

Please see http://www.spokanebiblechurch.com/powerpoint/WarandGod.pdf, which is a slide show presentation of the Doctrine of War in a pdf format.

Return to Chapter Outline

Return to Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines

There is a lot of war throughout the Bible, and there is no indication that man is going to suddenly become civilized and no longer engage in war. War continues throughout man’s history, and there is no empiracal evidence that, at some point in time, man will evolve beyond war.

In the United States, in the year 2009, when I write this, the current president, during his campaign, indicated that Iraq was not where American soldiers needed to be. He said that he opposed the Iraq War from the beginning, and the President Bush, by committing troops to Iraq, got his eye off the ball, which was the war in Afghanistan. Since we live in a democracy, and vote, it is worthwhile to try to figure out, when is it right to go to war?

What is a Righteous War?

1.      Bear in mind that, 99.999% of the time, we are not going to be in the position to determine whether or not we, as a nation, go to war. Even in a democracy like ours, we do not vote to go to war. What if your country is on the wrong side? What if you are a coward? I will answer those questions in this doctrine.

         1)      We are under the authority of the government of the nation in which we are born. God has placed these authorities over us, and we are subject to these authorities. Rom. 13

         2)      Jesus, when He spoke to the Roman soldier, said, “Not in all Israel have I found such a great faith.” Jesus did not tell this Roman soldier, “Now, to be perfect, you need to lay aside your weapon of war and follow Me.” This man, a soldier in Caesar’s army—a centurion, a man in authority, was fine right where he was, and Jesus did not suggest any further steps which he needed to take. Matt. 8:5–10

         3)      Therefore, when our nation calls upon us to go to war, we go to war. 99.9% of the time, that is our correct decision with regards to going to war.

         4)      Now, what if you disagree with the man in command? What if you think the president is a doofus? Paul, under Roman rule, tells us that those in authority over us are placed there by God, and we ought to obey them. Rom. 13

         5)      Let’s say you are under an incredibly unjust government and they want you to go to war, what do you do? Let’s say, your government is on the wrong side in a war, what do you do? Or your government begins the wholesale slaughter of its own citizens, what do you do? These are some very rare situations for the average believer. If you have believed in Jesus Christ, and you believe in your heart of hearts that your country is completely wrong and the enemy is complete right, then the Bible also tells us what to do—renounce your own nation and join the enemy. Here is where Jane Fonda was wrong (Jane Fonda was an actress who went to our enemies during the Vietnam War and allowed herself to be photographed by them for propaganda purposes). She did not want to stop being an American; she was not willing to renounce her citizenship and the benefits of her citizenship. She was not willing to use her money and move to North Vietnam and say, “I want to become a part of your nation. I am willing to support you in any way that I can; I want to become one of you.” All she was willing to do was to work against her own nation, and yet remain a part of America and continue to reap the benefits from being an American. On the other hand, Rahab the prostitute worked with Israel and Joshua against her own country and became a part of Israel (Joshua 2 Matt. 1:5). Had Israel failed, she would have died as a traitor to her own country. She threw in with the enemy of her country 100%; she did not straddle any fences.

         6)      The situation of Rahab is quite rare for the believer, but no doubt, it exists.

         7)      What if your country is only so-so as a country and you just do not like the idea of the wars we are engaged in? When Paul laid down the law when it came to being under the authority of national leaders, he was a citizen of Rome. He would eventually be decapitated by this government. He still supported Roman authority. Rom. 13

         8)      There has to be more to your opposition than, “I don’t believe in war.” We as believers do not get that luxury. We know that war is going to continue to be a part of our experience; that there will always be wars and rumors of wars, and that nowhere in the Bible are we given an out to conveniently support our enemies while remaining beneficiaries of our own country.

         9)      Let say that you are a coward, and the draft has been reinstituted, and war has broken out. What do you do? You have to obey the laws of the land and go into the military. At some point in time, before your location is determined, you need to privately make your cowardice known to your superior officers. There is justification in the Bible for removing cowards from the military. Ideally, you should jockey for a non-combat, support position, and there are thousands of such positions. After that, you allow God to determine where you end up.

2.      The Bible does not anywhere encourage us to be conscientious objectors or to oppose war as a general principle. On the other hand, most of us have heard the passage which reads, Your sin will find you out (Num. 32:23). The context of this passage is, this is referring to a particular sin, the sin of pacifism. 3 of Israel’s tribes decided that they were happy with the land on the east side of the Jordan and they petitioned Moses to be able to live on that land (which had been cleared of enemies on Israel’s northern trek). Moses told the leaders of this tribe, that would be fine, but they had better participate militarily in clearing out the rest of the land of Israel’s enemies. Num. 32:1–33

3.      It is certainly helpful when the population supports a war, does not protest against a war, and is unified against our enemies. We fought a disastrous war in Vietnam, a war which divided the country, and a war where the United States suffered its first defeat. One movie star—Jane Fonda—showed her approval of the acts of our enemies, and allowed her picture to be taken while on an enemy tank which was used to kill American soldiers. Other Americans sent blood to our enemies. No doubt, the marching protestors against this war had a hand in the defeat of their own country in war, and the slaughter of approximately 3 million people by the Communists which followed our retreat. Given this turmoil, we need to understand when war is justified.

         1)      As an aside, had we continued in this war for another few weeks or months, we would have obtained surrender from our enemies, according to their General Giap, who was very surprised that America suddenly withdrew its troops.

         2)      Furthermore, this would have stopped the murderous slaughter of 3 million Asians in Vietnam and Cambodia.

         3)      Our deserting our Vietnamese allies was one of the most cowardly, selfish things which out country has ever done, and our allies—men and women who put their trust in us—were killed in the streets and in their homes because of us.

4.      Most people would understand that going to war after being attacked is justified. There are a significant number out there who, if we suffered another attack similar to 9/11, would blame this attack on America and our support of Israel or our presence in the Middle East; but, the majority of Americans would support military action against whatever movement or country attacked us. Only a very small number of Christians would suggest that those in the United States turn the other cheek because that is what Jesus would have done (in their own minds). It is important to understand that, turn the other cheek applies to retaliation because of a personal vendetta and nowhere does Jesus give this a wider interpretation.

5.      In the Old Testament, much of the time, God would guide Israel to go to war against certain nations. We do not have this same guidance. If some president said that God told him to go to war against nation X, we would vote him out of office.

6.      However, there is evidence in the Old Testament as to what sort of wars we as a nation ought to be involved in.

7.      God told Abraham that this land which He gave his progeny would not be a reality until the iniquity of the Amorites became full (Gen. 15:16). At that point in time, Amorite meant westerner, and this referred to the peoples who inhabited the Land of Promise which God gave to Abraham (the Amorites were also a specific people in that region as well). When Abraham came into this land, most of the peoples there were okay. They were unbelievers, but they were not degenerate unbelievers (with the exception of the inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrah). When their iniquity became full-blown, then God would give the land to the seed of Abraham.

8.      Abraham’s seed also had to become a significant population as well. So we have two things which have to come to pass: (1) a significant number of Jews who believe in Jesus Christ who are willing to trust in God and (2) the people in the land God has given the Jews have to reach a tipping point of degeneracy. 40 years after Moses led the children of Israel out of Egypt, both of these things came to pass.

9.      How does this relate to our topic? Israel had to have an army; the people that they were going to destroy had to have transgressed more than just occupying the land which Israel wanted. Together, these things resulted in a series of wars and battles, from the time of Joshua to the time of David, when Israel secured much of the land which God had given them. God had not decided that Palestine belonged to the Jews and that He would simply destroy anyone living in this land in order to give it over to the Jews. Israel was to follow God’s leading to take the land militarily.

10.    When the Jews took the land under Joshua, they were to offer terms of peace first (Deut. 20:10 Joshua 9:15 10:1 11:19). Quite obviously, this would be overruled by a direct command from God (Joshua 6). Since God is omniscient, God knows the hearts of the people of the cities where Israel would invade. If they are 100% in negative volition toward God, then Israel did not need to offer them terms of peace.

         1)      You may note that this principle has parallels to the doctrine of heathenism. God offers peace (peace between God and man) to all mankind; however, when someone reaches God consciousness and is not interested in knowing God, God is not morally required to give the gospel to that person.

11.    What was the main problem with every evil nation in the land of Palestine? Idolatry, which led to either immoral or moral degeneracy.

12.    You recognize evil in some nations by whom they choose to ally themselves with. Although I know a little about the history of Nazi Germany, I know almost nothing about Japan’s pre-WWII history. However, I recognize that if Japan chose to ally themselves with Nazi Germany, then that reveals their true colors at that point in history.

13.    Similarly, we know the heart of a country based upon whom they identify as their enemies. When thousands of Muslims in Palestine, Lebanon, Syria or Iran march in the streets, burn American flags and shout, “Death to America,” we know where their hearts are.

         1)      Now, you may think that this is unfair, and that we should not always identify the people with their leaders, as their leaders can be despots. God gives a people the leader they deserve or a leader who is appropriate for them.

         2)      Think about our last 3 presidents (I write in 2009) and their greatest weaknesses.

                  (1)     President Clinton strove to be popular, followed the polls, and often did the popular thing—which indicates no core values. His acts of immorality in office and his attempt to cover them up (along with a lifetime of such acts) did not substantively hurt his popularity, even when he flat out lied to the public. This is a reflection of us, the people. The public support President Clinton, despite knowing that he looked us in the eye and lied to us. As long as the economy was good, we liked him.

                  (2)     After him is President George Bush, who began strong, recognizing our common enemy (whom Clinton did not fully recognize), recognize that we were at war, and took steps to deal with it. However, in moving ahead with 2 reasonably popular wars, these wars were not over fast enough, and much of the public began to moan and groan, as if this affected them directly. All they really suffered was seeing it on tv night after night after night. Although Bush remained steadfast in his opposition to terrorism and to the correct outcome of these two wars, he went haywire when it came to the economy—and when he was right (about FNMA, about social security), our other leaders stood up against him. Interestingly enough, America enjoyed some of its greatest prosperity under President Bush, and yet they turned against him—many citing the economy as a chief reason.

                  (3)     And he is followed by President Obama, who was elected primarily because he can speak well with a teleprompter, can dance around both sides of almost any issue (our news reporters call this taking a nuanced position), and exudes an attractive personage. Within a few months, he has proposed a mountain of debt tied to worthless spending unlike anyone has ever seen before and yet there are a significant portion of our population who refuses to recognize it because he is Obama. We are now at 10.2% unemployment (which translates to 17% real unemployment), and yet, there is a significant portion of Americans who do not hold President Obama responsible. He is such a good speaker and he appears so thoughtful and intelligent that a huge number of people assume it is all Bush’s fault. A huge segment of our population refuses to recognize that President Obama has absolutely no economic experience whatsoever, and therefore, has no idea how to deal with our economy (apart from spending huge sums of money). So you see how reflective our leaders are of the population?

         3)      Of course, the examples I gave were from a democracy, but bear in mind, God is in charge, and God places appropriate leaders in charge of nations.

         4)      Iran, for example: Iran is not a democracy, and its leader-figurehead is this tiny crazy person who denies the holocaust (and the real reigns of government seem to be in the hands of the mullahs). Although many have tried to distinguish Ahmadinejad from the Iranian people, these people still flood the streets, celebrate 9/11, shout “Death to America” for hours, and desire to see Israel destroyed. Ahmadinejad is their appropriate figurehead and leader. Obviously, there is a significant number of Iranians who are pro-American, but there has been no power shift as of yet (again, I write this in the year 2009).

14.    Furthermore, we know which countries are white hats based upon whom they choose to ally themselves with. We have alliances with nations such as Mexico, Canada, England, France, Germany, Japan and Britain (to name a few); their choosing to associate with us and to ally themselves with us tells us about their people and governments.

15.    In this chapter, Syria (Aram) will ally themselves with Hadadezer and go to war with David. King Toi, from the same region, will honor David when he defeats Hadadezer. This tells us about the hearts of the people and governments in this chapter at this time—those who ally themselves with David are blessed of God and those who chose to war against David are cursed by God.

16.    Note that God did not have Israel continually acting in a hostile manner against her neighbors. God did not put Israel into a 24/7/365 war mode. Egypt was continually in idolatry. God warned Israel not to go to Egypt or to depend upon Egypt, but God did not tell Israel, “You need to raise up your army and go destroy Egypt.” God did send Israel to war on many occasions against her enemies, but not against all of her enemies. At the time of Jeremiah, God expected His people to place themselves under the authority of Assyrian king Nebuchadnezzar, who had just conquered Israel. There was a remnant in the land, under Gedeliah as their governor and under Jeremiah as their spiritual leader. God did not tell them to rebel against Nebuchadnezzar; God expected them to submit themselves to Nebuchadnezzar’s rule.

17.    Let’s apply all of this to today. God has not told any of us or any of our leaders to invade this or that nation, but let’s just suppose that is somehow our decision—how do we make such a decision?

         1)      When someone goes to war against us, we have two choices: we either give up and place ourselves under their authority or we fight to preserve our freedom. Most of the time, God had Israel fight for her freedom (the book of Judges). However, in the case of Nebuchadnezzar, the people of Israel who remained alive were not to rebel against him; they were to submit to his authority. The same would have been true of the Jews under Roman rule. Rome crushed Israel because of her rebellion, but allowed Christianity to flourish, despite some heavy persecution in the beginning. Determining when to fight and when to lay down your weapons and submit requires spiritual maturity.

         2)      There are characteristics of the heathen in Palestine which are still here today: idolatry which leads to human and, particularly, child sacrifice—that is evil and is to be wiped out. You may protest and say, “No one out there is engaging in child sacrifice—not as a country.” However, when you raise your children to hate Israel and to hate America; and you raise them to commit themselves to suicide missions through cartoons and constant propaganda, and they are to do this for the glory of Allah, that is modern-day child sacrifice. Some have even strapped bombs to children and detonated them. This is highly degenerate (religious degeneracy), and it is reasonable to suppose that if God had Israel destroy peoples like this in their day, that such an enemy is fair game for us today. www.obsessionthemovie.com or http://obsessionthemovie.com/27minversion.php

         3)      Along the same lines, wanton murder by any government of its own citizenry (by Muslim fanatics or by Communists or by Nazis) is justification by itself for a righteous nation to step in. The Nazis killed millions of Jews and Christians; and the Communists have killed tens of millions of those who would not go along with their program (mostly those who believe in God; Christians and Jews and those of other religions). Wars against such forces of evil are righteous wars. In other words, our wars in Korea and Vietnam were as righteous as our war against the Nazis. When we pulled out of Vietnam, this was unrighteousness, and what followed was a bloodbath which far, far exceeded in a couple of years the number of casualties over a 16-year war. In this alone, we know that we were right to fight against the bloody Communists and that we should have defeated them (and, in case you did not know, even one of the top generals in North Vietnam was only weeks or months away from surrendering to the United States when we pulled out).

         4)      It is important to recognize that we are in a spiritual battle and that Satan is the god of this world, and his plans and deeds are not difficult to understand. We can choose to ignore them and our news services may ignore them, but much of his activity in the world is not difficult to discern. When you see the Word of God being suppressed and children being sacrificed and children being raised to hate, you know Satan is at work and has captured the hearts of much of the population where such things are taking place.

         5)      For those of you who believe that President Obama is arrogant—there is no creature so arrogant as Satan. Therefore, when he is allied with a country, it will be clear that he is. Satan is not going to take a backseat and work completely behind the scenes. Satan wants recognition, so the evil in one of his countries will be made manifest.

         6)      Even though this world is defined by a spiritual warfare, this sometimes spills over into human warfare.

         7)      When people reached a tipping point of degeneracy, God used Israel to destroy them—sometimes, every man, woman and child. Men with spiritual insight need to be able to recognize when this tipping point has been reached. This is one reason God has given us the Old Testament, so that by seeing Satan’s work in the Old Testament, we are able to recognize it in our contemporary world.

         8)      In a democracy, as we live in here, we need to elect leaders who are believers and who have a reasonable world-view. It should be clear that they are not given in to delusions, e.g., being able to smooth-talk our enemies; and they should demonstrate a clear understanding of America’s Christian heritage and future. Such men may not be doctrinally sound, but they may understand enough to be reasonable leaders.

         9)      You need to recognize that many world leaders are inspired by Satan; therefore, there is going to be no amount of clever reasoning which will overcome and neutralize them.

18.    Summary:

         1)      Satan exists and his hatred and ferocity are well-known. Although Satan is quite able to be subtle and present himself as an angel of light, he is also willing to take center stage when it comes to leading a nation dedicated to him. What I mean is, a honest appraisal of a nation makes it clear that they are led by Satan; this is not something which is carefully hidden. Anyone who has some historical knowledge of Communism, Nazism or of radical Islamic fascism recognizes how evil these ideologies are. Just yesterday, a suicide attack was carried out in Pakistan, against a Mosque, so that a maximum number of people could be killed or injured. 50 people were killed. Islamic fascists love to target innocent Muslims and innocent people in general. It should not take a spiritual genius to recognize that is absolute evil.

         2)      Because of Satan’s innate arrogance, we know that he wants recognition; therefore, we are able to recognize countries where he inspires their people and leaders.

         3)      God uses certain nations to defeat and sometimes to destroy nations which have become dangerous cancers in this world, just as He used Israel in the past. The Old Testament is given to us so that we can think through complex problems and make reasonable decisions.

         4)      God originally used Israel to defeat and destroy evil nations; and now He primarily uses client nations (nations in which a significant portion of the people believe in Jesus Christ and where Bible doctrine is taught and from which missionaries emanate).

         5)      War is an integral part of human history; its horror duly noted. Still, we will never see the end of warfare until the Millennium. All of the marching in the world and all of the peace protests will never change this. In fact, in many cases, this will give comfort and enthusiasm to our enemies, and increase the length of war, the determination of our enemy, and the body count of our own soldiers.

         6)       When a person decides to march for peace, they need to recognize that they will probably increase the number of deaths and lengthen the war they are marching against. Vietnam is a prime example of that. One of the military leaders of the North Vietnam army (General Giap) has written about that era, and was amazed that we pulled out of Vietnam. He admits that they were months if not weeks away from surrendering. Had we remained a few more months, we would have been victorious and literally millions of lives would have been saved (these are the lives of people who trusted us and who desired freedom, as well as the lives of many innocents). Our pulling out of Vietnam was an act of evil and cowardice, and many died because of it.

         7)      Going to peace marches is more of an expression of self-righteousness than anything else.

         8)      Nations which serve Satan will be anti-God, anti-Semitic and/or anti-freedom.

         9)      When they raise their children to be sacrificed in order to promote Satan’s agenda (which is anti-God, anti-Semitic and anti-freedom), they are equivalent to a nation which sacrifices its children to some false idol. The Hitlarian youth; young people not only schooled in Communism, but schooled in a world domination by Communism; Muslim children brought up to hate and with a desire to kill Jews, Americans or Brits for Allah, indicate that a nation has reached a dangerous tipping point.

         10)    Such a nation needs to be, at minimum, contained; and, at maximum, destroyed.

         11)    When do such nations need to be destroyed? When their iniquity is full.

         12)    Evil nations are a cancer in society and their evil is spread throughout their own nation and sometimes throughout the world. Radical Muslims are an example of this, an in this past decade, have launched thousands of attacks in hundreds of countries throughout the world. Since our news ignores this, I suggest you go to www.thereligionofpeace.com to see what they are up to this past month.

         13)    Watch http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6-3X5hIFXYU so see how the world we live in can be changed in a few decades by this evil mindset.

         14)    When we know the heart of one nation, we can determine the heart of other nations by whom they choose to ally themselves with and whom they choose to identify as enemies.

         15)    Since we, as Americans, living in democracy, really have little or no say in determining whether or not we ought to go to war; we can rest assured that it is a war of God—a righteous war—if it is against a people who are anti-God, anti-Christian, anti-Semitic and/or anti-freedom.

         16)    Finally, I would argue that such wars—wars of choice—are more important and consequential than wars of defense against an immediate attack. Before we were attacked at Pearl Harbor, we should have recognized how evil Nazis were, who began to move against allies of ours.

         17)    Killing our enemies—and killing as many as possible of them—often results in fewer deaths and shortened wars. Most historians agree that when President Truman used atomic weapons against Japan, this shortened the war and probably reduced the total number of casualties.

         18)    As God is with David in the wars enumerated in this chapter (2Sam. 8:14b), so God will be with us as individuals and with our nation as a corporate entity.

19.    And in case you did not know this, we have one of the greatest militaries of our history serving the United States today. Even the soldiers of our allies cannot compare to our own military. A few months ago, British soldiers were captured by Iran and they allowed themselves to be used for propaganda purposes, although what they faced for the most part was, psychological warfare after being captured. The professionalism and heroism of our soldiers (almost totally ignored by our media) is an incredible blessing from God, and it reveals how closely God is working with the United States.

The weakness of the churches today is, there is not enough taught by way of mechanics and by way of application of Bible doctrine. Too many church-goers lack personal integrity and lack appreciation for our military.

This lack of personal integrity in believers in all realms exists because so little is taught of practical application.

Nations function as a corporate witness before God. A nation which kills its own people, which stifles freedom (particularly religious freedom) and which is anti-Semitic is cursed by God. Nations where there is freedom, where people believe in Jesus Christ, where the Word of God is taught, are nations which are blessed by God. There are times in human history where those nations blessed by God will be called upon to defeat and even to destroy cancerous nations cursed by God.


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When you first become a Christian by believing in Jesus Christ, your values, your norms and standards, and your thinking has been shaped and formed by this world. Just because you are a believer in Jesus Christ does not mean that you will hear the truth and automatically believe it.

This is a very important point. When you first become a Christian by believing in Jesus Christ, your values, your norms and standards, and your thinking has been shaped and formed by this world—by the cosmic system. Just because you are a believer in Jesus Christ does not mean that you will hear the truth and automatically believe it. It takes awhile to overcome all of the false things that you believe. Even though you begin the Christian life without scar tissue, you often return to your old habits and your old way of thinking. Therefore, it is normal for the new believer to listen to the teaching of the Word of God and reject portions of what he hears. There are many places where you may find yourself butting heads with the truth: evolution versus creationism; war being a normal human activity which will never disappear from the human experience, eternal security, the correct understanding of the gift of tongues (speaking in a real foreign language that someone else in your periphery understands; a gift which died out in the 1st century a.d.), or salvation by faith alone in Christ alone (even though you were saved that way). You simply have to give it time. You cannot go out there and find some pastor who agrees with all of the stuff that you believed in before you believed in Jesus Christ and figure that you have done good in tracking down your right pastor. Guaranteed that, for awhile at least (maybe for years), you are going to disagree with your pastor. As long as this is based upon your norms and standards from being an unbeliever, that is okay. Ideally speaking, he will teach you out of your false norms and standards.


There is a lot that we learn from the Old Testament. Even though unique Church Age doctrines come from the New Testament (specifically, from the epistles), we learn many principles in the Old Testament which transcend the dispensations. For whatever was written in former days was written for our instruction, that through endurance and through the encouragement of the Scriptures we might have confidence (Rom. 15:4).


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There are just a couple more points which are important to understand before we get started.

Some Introductory Points to 1Chronicles 18

1.      Some wars fought by David were defensive wars, e.g. is found in 2Sam. 5:17–25, when Philistines arrayed themselves against Israel.

2.      God also ordered David to kill some of his enemies. God even guided David when it came to strategy and tactics. 1Sam. 30:7–8 2Sam. 5:23–25

3.      However, none of that is found 2Sam. 8 or in 1Chron. 18. At no time does God order David to attack this or that people; and at no time is it clearly indicated that David is only fighting defensive wars here. Most of these wars appear to be offensive in nature. We might even call David predatory, inasmuch as he demands tribute from those he conquers (1Chron. 18:2, 11,13).

4.      However, twice in this chapter, we are told that Jehovah helped David wherever he went. 1Chron. 18:6, 13

5.      Therefore, in this chapter and others, it is clear that there are reasons for offensive warfare.

Therefore, by application, it is legitimate for nations blessed by God to engage in offensive warfare. Let me submit to you that such wars define a nation and its integrity and are often more important than the defensive wars in which we engage.


——————————


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David's Wars


Slavishly literal:

 

Moderately literal:

And so he is after so, and so strikes David Philistines and so he humbles them and so takes David Gath and her villages from a hand of Philistines.

1Chronicles

18:1

And so it is, after these things, that [lit., and so] David strikes down the Philistines and subdues them. Therefore, David takes Gath and her villages from the control [lit., hand] of the Philistines.

After all of these things occurred, David struck down the Philistines and subdued them. Furthermore, this, he wrested control of Gath and her villages from the control of the Philistines.


Here is how others have translated this verse:

 

Ancient texts:                       Note: I compare the Hebrew text to English translations of the Latin, Syriac and Greek texts (using the Douay-Rheims translation Footnote ; the translation from George Lamsa’s translation Footnote , and Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton’s translation as revised and edited by Paul W. Esposito, respectively). When there are serious disparities between my translation and Brenton’s, I look at the Greek text of the Septuagint (the LXX) to see if a substantive difference actually exists (and I reflect these changes in the English rendering of the Greek text). I often update these texts with non-substantive changes (e.g., you for thou, etc.).

 

The Masoretic text is the Hebrew text with all of the vowels (vowel points) inserted (the original Hebrew text lacked vowels). We take the Masoretic text to be the text closest to the original. However, differences between the Masoretic text and the Greek, Latin and Syriac are worth noting and, once in a great while, represent a more accurate text possessed by those ancient translators.

 

Latin Vulgate                          And it came to pass after this, that David defeated the Philistines, and humbled them, and took away Geth, and her daughters out of the hands of the Philistines.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so he is after so, and so strikes David Philistines and so he humbles them and so takes David Gath and her villages from a hand of Philistines.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    AND after these things it came to pass that David smote the Philistines and destroyed them, and took the power from the hand of the Philistines, and took Gath and the small villages that were round about it out of the hand of the Philistines.

Septuagint (Greek)                And it came to pass afterwards, that David attacked the Philistines, and routed them, and took Gath and its villages out of the hand of the Philistines.

 

Significant differences:           The Syriac and Greek verb in the middle of this verse are probably reasonable equivalents to the original Hebrew verb. There are no other significant differences.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       Later, David attacked and defeated the Philistines. He captured their town of Gath and the nearby villages.

Easy English (Pocock)           Later David attacked the *Philistines. He defeated them. He took the city called Gath and the small towns round it from their control.

Good News Bible (TEV)         Some time later King David attacked the Philistines again and defeated them. He took out of their control the city of Gath and its surrounding villages.

The Message                         In the days that followed, David struck hard at the Philistines, bringing them to their knees, captured Gath, and took control of the surrounding countryside.

New Century Version             David Defeats Nations

Later, David defeated the Philistines, conquered them, and took the city of Gath and the small towns around it.

New Life Bible                        David's Battles

After this David won the war against the Philistines and put them under his power. He took Gath and its towns from the Philistines.

New Living Translation           David's Military Victories

After this, David defeated and subdued the Philistines by conquering Gath and its surrounding towns.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

New American Bible              After this, David defeated the Philistines and subdued them; and he took Gath and its towns away from the control of the Philistines.

NIRV                                      David Wins Many Battles

While David was king of Israel, he won many battles over the Philistines. He brought them under his control. He took Gath away from the Philistines. He also captured the villages that were around Gath.

New Jerusalem Bible             After this David defeated the Philistines and subdued them. From the grip of the Philistines he wrested Gath and its dependencies.

New Simplified Bible              After this, David defeated and crushed the Philistines. He captured Gath and its surrounding villages from them.

Revised English Bible            After this David attacked and subdued the Philistines, and took from them Gath with its villages.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Bible                So after this, David was smiting the Palestinians. They submitted and he took Gath and her daughter towns from the hand of the Palestinians.

Bible in Basic English             And it came about after this that David made an attack on the Philistines and overcame them, and took Gath with its daughter-towns out of the hands of the Philistines.

JPS (Tanakh)                         Sometime afterward, David attacked the Philistines and subdued them; and David took Gath and its dependencies from the Philistines.

Judaica Press Complete T.    And it came to pass afterwards that David smote the Philistines and vanquished them, and he took Gath and its villages from the hands of the Philistines.

NET Bible®                             David Conquers the Neighboring Nations

Later David defeated the Philistines and subdued them. He took Gath and its surrounding towns [2 Sam 8:1 identifies this region as "Metheg Ammah."] away from the Philistines [Heb "from the hand of the Philistines." Here "hand" is figurative language for "control."]. When it comes to making an actual material change to the text, the NET Bible® is pretty good about indicating this. Since most of these corrections will be clear in the more literal translations below and within the Hebrew exegesis itself, I will not continue to list every NET Bible® footnote.

New International Version      David's Victories

In the course of time, David defeated the Philistines and subdued them, and he took Gath and its surrounding villages from the control of the Philistines.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

English Standard Version      After this David defeated the Philistines and subdued them, and he took Gath and its villages out of the hand of the Philistines.

exeGeses companion Bible   DAVID EXPANDS HIS DOMINION

And so be it, after this,

David smites the Peleshethiy and subdues them;

and takes Gath and her daughters

from the hand of the Peleshethiy:

MKJV                                     And it happened after this, David struck the Philistines and humbled them. And he took Gath and its towns out of the hand of the Philistines.

New King James Version       David's Further Conquests

After this it came to pass that David attacked the Philistines, subdued them, and took Gath and its towns from the hand of the Philistines.

Young’s Updated LT             And it comes to pass after this, that David strikes the Philistines, and humbles them, and takes Gath and its small towns out of the hand of the Philistines.

 

The gist of this verse:          David, after the previous chapters, defeats the Philistines and takes what is, apparently, one of their chief cities from them.


1Chronicles 18:1a = 2Samuel 8:1a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

ʾachărêy (אַחֲרֵי) [pronounced ah-kuh-RAY]

behind, after; following; after that, afterwards; hinder parts

preposition; plural form

Strong’s #310 BDB #29

kên (כֵּן) [pronounced kane]

so, thus; upright, honest; rightly, well; [it is] so, such, so constituted;

properly, an active participle; used primarily as an adverb

Strong's #3651 BDB #485

These two words together literally mean after so; however, they appear to mean afterward, afterwards, after these things, after this, [and] after that. See Gen. 15:14 23:19 25:26 Lev. 14:36 Deut. 21:13 1Sam. 10:5.


Translation: And so it is, after these things,... Although there are times when we question the chronological order of this or that chapter and this or that verse, here the Bible is clearly giving us a time sequence. In the previous chapter, David wanted to build a permanent sanctuary for God, and God told him not to; but then, God gave David the Davidic Covenant. What God does after giving David specific assurances is, He tests David (this is after the pattern of Abraham, where God would make a promise to Abraham, and then test him on it). Footnote


Since God has given David the Davidic Covenant, and is now about to give David a pop quiz on it; we ought to know what is in the Davidic Covenant.


2Sam. 7:8–16 mark the David covenant; what God has promised to David.

Summary: All that God Told David—the Davidic Covenant

1.      God, through Nathan, Identifies Himself to David as God.

2.      This is the God Who took David from being a shepherd to the throne of Israel. David, more than anyone, realizes just how amazing this vertical move is.

3.      God has been with David always and He has cut off David’s enemies from before him.

4.      God promises David that He will make him a great name (or, He will make David’s reputation great). Many people even to this day, believers and unbelievers alike, know who David is.

5.      God promises Israel that He will plant them in a particular place and that they would not be moved nor will they be afflicted by their adversaries. This looks forward to the Millennium. However, there will be a near fulfillment, and that will be the reign of Solomon, which was marked by Israel being at peace with her neighbors (much of the reason for this is, Solomon represents our Lord’s rein in the Millennium).

6.      God promising David a house means that God will establish David’s dynasty over Israel (which will, in the future, when the northern and southern kingdoms split, be continued as a dynasty of the southern kingdom, Judah). This, in part, is a continuation as well as a promise of fulfillment of Gen. 49:10, when Jacob, in blessing Judah, said, “The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor the ruler's staff from between his feet, until tribute comes to him; and to him shall be the obedience of the peoples.”

7.      When David dies, God will bring forth a descendant from David and He will establish this man’s kingdom. This refers both to Solomon and to Jesus.

8.      God will be a Father to him and he will be a son to God. Again, this refers both to Solomon and to Jesus.

9.      God speaks of correcting this man, which obviously can only refer to Solomon. However, the language used in this verse (2Sam. 7:14) allows for the idea of the imputation of sin upon this person, which would be a reference to Jesus.

10.    God’s grace will never depart from this man, which refers to Solomon and to Jesus. For our Lord, this refers to the Divine Dynasphere in which He lived, powered by God the Holy Spirit.

11.    David’s lineage (or dynasty, signified by the word house) would be preserved forever.

12.    David’s kingdom, Israel, would be preserved forever. Not only will Israel live in this postage stamp of a country, but they will occupy a much larger piece or real estate, which is bloom like a garden in the Millennium.

13.    David’s throne—his kingship—will be preserved forever. Now, quite obviously, there was a break in David’s throne (and, eventually, in his kingdom Israel), but these will be a fixed part of the Millennium.

In case you have ever wondered, why the Millennium? Why the various dispensations? God allows His plan to work in a number of different situations, so that we are without excuse. Some will complain about the environment, and had the environment been good, then they would have turned toward God. In the Millennium, the environment will be perfect, and there will be no wars. Some will complain that they would have believed, but they needed God to tell them personally. We have had the dispensation of the Hypostatic Union and we will have the Millennium, and we know that there were people who listened to Jesus, the God-man, and rejected Him; and there are indications that some people will reject the gospel in the Millennium.

Originally presented in 2Samuel 7; the proper link is...

http://kukis.org/Samuel/2Sam_07.htm#Summary:%20All%20that%20God%20Told%20David%E2%80%94the%20Davidic%20Covenant

Chapter Outline

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C. I. Scofield was a master of brevity, stating the greatest spiritual truths with the least amount of words.

Scofield Analyses the Davidic Covenant

This covenant, upon which the glorious kingdom of Christ "of the seed of David according to the flesh" is to be founded, secures the following:

(1) A Davidic "house"; that is, Posterity, family

(2) A "throne"; that is, Royal authority

(3) A kingdom; that is, Sphere of rule

(4) In perpetuity; "forever"

(5) And this fourfold covenant has but one condition: disobedience in the Davidic family is to be visited with chastisement; but not to the abrogation of the covenant (2Sam. 7:15 Psalm 89:20-37 Isa. 24:5 54:3). The chastisement fell; first in the division of the kingdom under Rehoboam, and, finally, in the captivities. (2Kings 25:1–7). Since that time but one King of the Davidic family has been crowned at Jerusalem and He was crowned with thorns.

The Davidic Covenant confirmed to David by the oath of Jehovah, and renewed to Mary by the angel Gabriel, is immutable (Psalm 89:30–37) and the Lord God will yet give to that thorn–crowned One "the throne of his father David" (Luke 1:31–33 Acts 2:29–32 15:14–17).

C. I. Scofield, Scofield Notes from the Scofield King James’ Bible; from e-Sword, 2Sam. 7:16. Slight editing

Originally presented in 2Samuel 7; the proper link is...

http://kukis.org/Samuel/2Sam_07.htm#Scofield%20Analyses%20the%20Davidic%20Covenant

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Let me give you another set of notes from the Maranatha Church:

Doctrine of the Davidic Covenant

July 10, 1996

 

I.       Preliminary considerations.

         A.      Scripture: 2Sam.7:12-16; cp. Ps.89:3,4,19-37.

         B.      Historical background.

                  1.      David had established his authority over his enemies (2Sam.7:1).

                  2.      He lived in a house of cedar and desired to build God a house (2Sam.7:2).

                  3.      David was not permitted to build this house, but was promised a "house" that would endure forever (2Sam.7:11).

                  4.      The prophet Nathan was informed of the details by a vision 2Sam.7:4; Ps.89:19).

         C.     Key terms defined.

                  1.      "House" refers to the Davidic royal dynasty (2Sam.7:11,16).

                  2.      "Seed", or "descendant", refers to the male heirs, beginning with Solomon and ending with Jesus Christ (2Sam.7:12; Ps.89:4a,29a,36a)."Covenant" refers to the binding contract between God and His servant, David (Ps.89:3a,28b,34a).

                  3.      "Throne" refers to the right to rule over the kingdom defined by the land grant of the Abrahamic Covenant (2Sam.7:13,16; Ps.89:4b,29b,36b).

         D.     The Abrahamic Covenant is centered in "land" and "seed".

         E.      What the Covenant requires for fulfillment: it demands that a biological descendant of David occupy his throne forever.

II.      Reasons why David was selected.

         A.      He was a member of the chosen people (Ps.89:19c) and of the tribe destined for royalty in Israel (Ps.78:68; cp. Gen.49:8-10; Pss.60:7; 76:1; 108:8).

         B.      He was in the line of Christ (Rom.1:3).

         C.     He was anointed king by the prophet Samuel to replace the renegade Saul (1Sam.16:13; Ps.89:20).

         D.     He was spiritually qualified to inherit such Ph2 blessing (2Sam.7:8,9; Ps.89:26).

         E.      And he was physically endowed to be a warrior-king (Pss.89:19b; 18:32-34).

III.     Promises associated with the Covenant fulfilled in David's lifetime. David was promised:

         A.      An heir who would succeed him and who would build the Temple (2Sam.7:12,13).

         B.      Continued success over his enemies (Ps.89:21-23).

         C.     A great name among the peoples of the earth (2Sam.7:9).

         D.     An expanded kingdom according to the Abrahamic mandate (Psalm 89:25 Ex. 23:31 Deut. 1:7, 8 11:24 1Kings 4:21, 24).

         E.      Elevation to the highest rank of kings (Ps.89:27; cp. 2Sam.7:14).

IV.     The eternal provisions of the Covenant are centered in two spheres: "seed/descendants" and "throne" (Ps.89:3,4,28,29,35-37).

         A.      There is the promise that there will always be a Davidic descendant (Ps.89:4a; 2Sam.7:16).

         B.      There is the promise that the throne of David would last forever (Ps.89:4b; 2Sam.7:13).

V.      The problem associated with the interrupted rule of the house of David.

         A.      The problem stated.

                  1.      An uninterrupted succession of kings ruled over the house of David between 1010BC and 586 b.c.

                  2.      But with the fall of the Southern Kingdom, the throne of David has remained unoccupied to this present day.

                  3.      Furthermore, God placed a curse upon the line of descent through Solomon during the reign of Jehoiakin/Jeconiah/Coniah (Jer.22:30).

                  4.      This curse means that no man in the David/Solomon line of descent could ever prosper as ruler over Israel, no matter how great he was spiritually.

                  5.      Yet the promise to David was that the throne of his son Solomon would remain forever (2Sam.7:13,16).

                  6.      Clearly, the promise does not require an uninterrupted succession of rulers, but it does require the throne to be established forever.

         B.      The solution.

                  1.      The line of unbroken male descendants continued from the time of the Babylonian captivity to the birth of Christ (cp. Mt.1:12ff).

                  2.      Because of the "Jeconiah curse", the individuals of this line could never occupy the throne of David.

                  3.      So God established another unbroken line of descent from David through his son Nathan; this line links Jesus to David biologically; this line is Mary's genealogy (Lk.3:23ff).

                  4.      The virgin birth enabled Jesus to side-step the Coniah curse and still retain the legal right to the throne since Joseph was His legal link to the throne, while Mary was His biological link to David.

                  5.      Jesus Christ is, in every way, the legal heir to the throne of David.

                  6.      He will re-establish David's throne in connection with His Second Coming (Act.15:16).

         C.     Conclusion: The Covenant did not guarantee uninterrupted rule by David's descendants, but did require that the right to rule would always remain with David's dynasty.

VI.     In the person of Jesus Christ, God established the Covenant.

         A.      The virgin birth enabled Jesus to be the physical descendant of David and not come under the "Jeconiah curse".

         B.      The resurrection of Christ eliminated the need for a continuation of the genealogy (since Jesus died childless), and provided the Covenant with an indestructible heir.

         C.     The doctrine of the Second Advent establishes the promise of an eternal throne for David occupied by his greater son, Jesus Christ (Lk.1:32,33).

VII.    The security of the Covenant.

         A.      It was not affected by the sins of the Davidic kings (2Sam.7:14,15; Ps.89:30-37).

         B.      It is seen in the repeated use of the term "forever" or its equivalent (Ps.89:4,28,29,36).

         C.     It was confirmed by a divine oath, thus giving the strongest possible assurance to its fulfillment (Pss.89:3,4,33; 132:11; 2Sam.7:13,16).

VIII.   The Covenant demands literal fulfillment.

         A.      Portions of the Covenant fulfilled literally.

                  1.      David had a son, who built the Temple, and who was disciplined for his sins (2Sam.7:12-15).

                  2.      There is an unbroken line of descendants from David to Christ, thus fulfilling the "seed" promise (Matthew 1 and Luke 3).

                  3.      Jesus Christ is a descendant of David according to the flesh (Act.2:29,30; Rom.1:3; 2Tim.2:8).

         B.      The Jews of Jesus' day expected literal fulfillment (cp. Mk.11:10; Jn.7:42).

         C.     David so understood that the Covenant was being fulfilled literally (2Sam.23:5).

         D.     Solomon, likewise, held this conviction (2Chr.6:14-17).

         E.      The unfulfilled portion has to do with the "throne" promise (2Sam.7:16).

                  1.      Amillennialism (denial of the doctrine of the literal 1,000-year reign of Christ on earth) teaches that the throne in heaven is David's throne.

                  2.      It is true that Jesus Christ is seated on His Father's throne in heaven in session (Heb.12:2); however, the throne of God in heaven and the throne of David are not one and the same.

                  3.      God has promised through the prophets that the throne (political rule) of David would be restored after long centuries of non-existence at the Second coming of Christ (Lk.1:31-33; Act.15:14-17; cp. LXX of Amos.9:11,12).

                  4.      The centuries since the fall of the kingdom of Judah and the dispersions of Israel have not rendered the promise void, even though it may appear to be the case (cp. Ps.89:38-49).

                  5.      Whatever the changing form, temporary interruptions, or chastisements, the line of David will always retain the right to rule over Israel and will, in fact, exercise this privilege.

                  6.      The right to rule will never be transferred to another family, and the Covenant's blessings are designed for eternal perpetuity (cp. Ps.89:34-36 "My covenant I will not violate, Nor will I alter the utterance of My lips. Once I have sworn by My holiness/integrity; I will not lie to David. His descendants shall endure forever, and his throne as the sun before Me").

                  7.      It is confirmed in such passages as Isa.9:6,7; Jer.23:5,6; 30:8,9; 33:14-17,20,21; Ezek.37:24,25; Dan.7:13,14; Hos.3:4,5; Amos.9:11; Zech.14:4-9.

                  8.      David's throne was temporarily vacated due to the disobedience of his descendants, but the promise to rule forever stands because of the faithfulness of his greater Son, Jesus Christ.

                  9.      Again, the only necessary feature of the Covenant is that the lineage is unbroken, not that the throne be occupied continuously.

                  10.    The kingdom on earth to be established by Christ be an eternal kingdom, since the "throne/house/kingdom" were all promised to David in perpetuity.

                  11.    According to the established rules of interpretation (hermeneutics), the unfulfilled "throne" promise must be fulfilled literally, as were the fulfilled portions (as is the case with the "seed" promise).

Isa. 55:3 "Incline your ear and come to Me. Listen, that you may live; and I will make an everlasting covenant (New Covenant with Israel) with you, According to the faithful mercies shown to David."


Rev. 3:7 "And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write: He who is holy, who is true, who has the key of David, who opens and no one will shut, and who shuts and no one opens, says this:"


Rev. 22:16 "I, Jesus, have sent My angel to testify to you these things for the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, the bright and morning star."

c Copyright 1998, Maranatha Church, Inc.

Taken from: http://www.versebyverse.org/doctrine/davidicov.html

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And since brevity is the soul of wit:

The Essence of the Davidic Covenant

1.      God has given a particular land grant to Israel. 1Chron. 17:9

2.      God will build a dynasty for David specifically, indicating that this dynasty will come from David. 1Chron. 17:10–11a

3.      This dynasty will culminate with David’s Greater Son, Jesus Christ, on the throne of David forever. 1Chron. 17:11b–12, 14

So there are 3 things for David to trust God for: the land grant given in previous covenants still stands; David will have a dynasty (i.e., only David’s sons would sit on the throne of positive volition Israel); and at some point, a man from David’s own loins would sit on this throne forever.


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God has given David a set of promises, and now God will test David’s faith in His promises. Let’s say that someone you know and trust to some degree comes to you, gives you a checkbook, and says, “I have deposited $10,000,000 into your account which is now yours; you may spend it as you wish.” If you toss the checkbook, it means that you just did not believe this person. If you go to the bank and check to verify the funds are there, then you have some element of faith in what this person told you. If you write a check for your next house payment without verifying these funds with the bank, you are demonstrating even more faith in him. FInally, if you write a check which covers the balance on your house note, then you are demonstrating tremendous faith in this person.


So, now we will observe: David has been promised that Israel would receive a plot of land larger than what it sits on at this time; he is promised a dynasty; and he has been promised a Son Who would sit on his throne forever. Now, how will David act? Will David trust these promises? That is what 2Sam. 8, 10, 1Chron. 18 and Psalm 60 are all about.


Application: Here is a subjective observation which I have made, and I have heard others agree with this. For some reason, your life will, from time to time, intersect exactly with the Bible teaching which you are receiving. That is, you learn something in Bible class and, lo and behold, that week, you are making application of what you have learned. I’ve have had this happen in very specific instances, e.g., when I was considering leaving one job and going to another because of problems at work. Bob Thieme Jr. spoke to that exact situation during the week that I was contemplating this. Here’s the deal: you learn something from God, and then God gives us a pop quiz afterwards. You might have learned a new promise or a new approach to a problem, or a new way of thinking about this or that; and then God drops you into a situation where you either apply the doctrine that you know, or you don’t. In short, it is just like school. You learn something one day and then you get tested on it the next.


The way that God conveys to us His Word is fascinating. Most religious books give you a list of things to do, believe and/or follow. Jews developed a complex system of laws and rules for them to abide by, and codified this in the Talmud and the Mishna. However, this is not God’s way of teaching us these things. God shows us examples of men applying the Word of God; e.g., David in this chapter.


1Chronicles 18:1b = 2Samuel 8:1b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

nâkâh (נָכָה) [pronounced naw-KAWH]

to smite, to assault, to hit, to strike, to strike [something or someone] down, to defeat, to conquer, to subjugate

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect

Strong #5221 BDB #645

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Pelishetîy (פְּלִשְתִּי) [pronounced pe-lish-TEE]

transliterated Philistines

masculine plural gentilic adjective (acts like a proper noun)

Strong’s #6430 BDB #814

Here, this is spelled Pelishetîym (פְּלִשְתִּים) [pronounced pe-lish-TEEM].


Translation: ...that [lit., and so] David strikes down the Philistines... 2Sam. 8:1 is in sharp contrast to 2Sam. 7:1, which reads: And it came about when the king lived in his house and Jehovah had given him rest on every side from all his enemies. David’s son, Solomon, although he is not born yet, will learn all about his father David and the wars in which Israel has been engaged. Very likely, these two chapters had been written down by the time that Solomon was able to read (the chapters in Samuel), which, in part, inspired Solomon to write: For everything there is a season, and a time for every matter under heaven; a time to kill, and a time to heal; a time to break down, and a time to build up; a time to love, and a time to hate; a time for war, and a time for peace (Eccles. 3:1, 3, 8).


We find figures of speech throughout the Old and New Testaments. Here, we have a metonym. A metonym is where one thing stands in for another. They are so common and obvious, that we often read them, understand them, and not even realize that we are reading a metonym. Here, it reads ...and David strikes down the Philistines. David is not single-handedly attacking Philistia. David is either sending his army or leading his army against Philistia. As King of Israel, David may or may not directly participate; he may not even go to the battlefield; if he goes to the battlefield, he might not even kill a single Philistine himself. The true meaning of this verse is, the army of Israel strikes down the Philistines. David is a metonym for the army of Israel. I mention this because, even though I take the Bible literally, I also interpret it reasonably, allowing the writers of Scripture to use common and well-understood figures of speech. This in no way takes away form the literal understanding of the Bible. This simply understands the use of a common literary device and interprets the Bible accordingly.


It is not clear who the aggressor is, in this chapter. In 1Sam. 4 29 and 2Sam. 5, it is clear that the Philistines are the aggressors. Since there is no such language in this verse, it is reasonable that this is an offensive war on the part of David. We have already examined the Doctrine of War and the Doctrine of a Righteous War. A nation must, at times, be aggressive, and this is not wrong. In David’s case, it was, in part, based upon the Davidic Covenant. However, David was also aware that the Philistines would continue to move against him. Here, the verb used along with the lack of verbiage indicating Philistine aggression suggests to us that David moved against the Philistines, and probably without recent provocation.


Application: The so-called Bush Doctrine (a name given by the media, not by George W. Bush himself) says that we can go to war against a nation if we have reason to believe that they will present a threat to us or to our allies in the near future. I would assert that it would be moral and just to go to war against nations who are wholly consumed with evil, e.g., Arab nations who raise their children from infants to hate and want to destroy the United States and Israel. Now, this in no way means that I have some innate unquenchable hatred for Arabs. As a teacher, I have had many Arab students and they were among my best students, and I liked many of them personally a great deal. I cannot think of a single Middle Eastern person whom I have met that I personally dislike. A believer with doctrine can observe various nations and understand whether or not they are strongly influenced by Satan.


Application: Let me give you some specific examples of being able to correctly understand contemporary history: R.B. Thieme Jr. understood, back in the 60's and 70's, that Rhodesia, South Africa and Israel were nations operating properly under the laws of divine establishment, whereas, America, at that time, had gone off the tracks (one example is our cowardly desertion of our allies in South Vietnam, one of the greatest foreign policy blunders in U.S. history). However, during this time period, almost all of the media outlets were telling us that South Africa and Rhodesia were terrible nations and that apartheid was evil; and that he war in Vietnam was unwinnable. People believed the media. There was no FoxNews. There was no internet We withdrew our troops from Vietnam and our allies were slaughtered in numbers so great as to be mind-numbing. We used our influence to end apartheid in South Africa and Rhodesia, and turned these once safe and prosperous nations into uncivilized messes, with increased unemployment and increased poverty. Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe, has been ruled for decades by the corrupt and vicious Robert Mugabe whose reign has been characterized by economic mismanagement, hyperinflation, and widespread reports of human rights abuses. Footnote As a country, we would have been more righteous to either not become involved or to support the established government.


Application: Some of the things which we just studied were obedience to rulers and the appropriateness of particular leaders in a country. People were all in a tizzy because of apartheid in Rhodesia. Many nations exercised economic sanctions (out of self righteousness) and helped to plunge Rhodesia into great poverty under a horrible dictator.


There are 5 city-states which generally considered Philistine cities. Because of this, there would have been an interesting dynamic between the leaders of the Philistines. Like many leaders, they would have to have a lust for power and great military ability. They still seemed to function quite well as a unit.


If you will recall, David fought against the Philistines almost immediately after taking Jerusalem. Prior to that, David actually lived on Philistine property with the permission of the King of Gath.


This doctrine was taken from our study in 2Sam. 8, the parallel chapter from Samuel.

Israel and the Philistines

1.      Israel and Philistia have been traditional enemies for many centuries.

2.      During the time of the Judges, the Philistines oppressed Israel for 40 years and Samson delivered them (Judges 13–16).

3.      Under the final judge, Eli, Israel fought with the Philistines and the Philistines took the Ark of God from them (which the Israelites brought into battle as a good luck charm—1Sam. 4).

4.      The Ark caused the Philistines so many problems that they eventually returned it to Israel. All of these problems substantially weakened the Philistines for some time. 1Sam. 5–6

5.      Israel was then able to decisively defeat the Philistines in battle under Samuel’s guidance. 1Sam. 7

6.      The hatred for Israel among many Philistines was strong, and they continued to attack Israel, attempting to divide Israel by attacking central Israel while Saul was king (Saul governed Israel from central Israel). 1Sam. 13

7.      Jonathan enjoyed a tremendous victory over the Philistines in 1Sam. 14:1–23.

8.      However, despite their many setbacks, the Philistines continued to war with King Saul. 1Sam. 14:52

9.      The Philistines arrayed themselves against Israel with Goliath as their front man. David defeats Goliath and the Philistines flee. 1Sam. 17

10.    David becomes one of Saul’s main generals, defeating many enemies (which possibly includes additional skirmishes with the Philistines). However, Saul became jealous of David and began to focus his anger and jealousy against David, causing David to flee. 1Sam. 18–24

11.    Because of this rift, David goes to the Philistines to find a place to live, and he and his small army are placed in southeastern Palestine, becoming somewhat of a buffer between Israel and the Philistines. 1Sam. 27

12.    The Philistines decide to war against Saul, and David, because he is living on their land, is expected to join with them. However, Philistines who know David and know of him decide that going to war with David and his men among them was a potential threat to them, so David was let off the hook and sent back to his campsite. 1Sam. 29

13.    The Philistines wage war against Saul and his sons and are victorious, killing them, routing the Israeli soldiers, and taking over their cities in central Israel (primarily in Benjamin). 1Sam. 31:1–7

14.    After this time, Saul’s son, Ishbosheth is ruling over northern and eastern Israel and David has control of southern Israel. Central Israel is probably still under the control of the Philistines. 2Sam. 2

15.    When David solidifies his control over all Israel, the Philistines attack. This is somewhat confusing. Approximately 7 years before, the Philistines took the cities of central Israel. Whether they are still in these cities or not is unclear. However, in any case, David defeats them twice, sending them back to their traditional land in southwestern Palestine. 1Sam. 7

16.    Time passes: David moves the Ark to Jerusalem, he thinks about building a permanent structure to God, and God gives David the Davidic Covenant (2Sam. 6–7). David is again at war with the Philistines, although we are given few details here, apart from him taking Gath, which is one of the primary cities of the Philistines, being almost due east of Jerusalem. This suggests that we are speaking of new conflicts with the Philistines, rather than rehashing David’s battles with them from 2Sam. 5.

17.    Because of this recent and continuous history that Israel has with the Philistines, it is no wonder that they are mentioned first.

18.    Israel has another war with Gath, one of the chief cities of the Philistines, in 1Chron. 20:6–8 which involves some of the giants. This appears to have taken place during the Bathsheba incident.

19.    Somehow, in all of this, David appears to have acquired a large number of Gittites (men of Gath).

20.    Much later in David’s life, after the Absalom revolt, the Philistines will come back to war against the Israelites. It appears as though there were several battles and perhaps several wars. David and his armies would be victorious on every occasion. 2Sam. 21:15–22

21.    The references in 2Sam. 23 to the Philistines are simply recounting the heroic exploits of some of David’s soldiers.

22.    From 2Sam. 21 until the end of Solomon’s life, the Philistines brought tribute to the Israelites. 1Kings 4:21 reads: Solomon ruled over all the kingdoms from the Euphrates to the land of the Philistines and to the border of Egypt. They brought tribute and served Solomon all the days of his life.

23.    The next time that we hear about the Philistines, it is almost incidental. The Kingdom of Israel was divided after Solomon. The northern kingdom, under its 2nd king (Nadab) was warring against the Philistines, and Baasha killed Nadab when he was laying siege against the Philistines. Baasha became the 3rd king over the Northern Kingdom of Israel. This is 909 b.c. 1Kings 15:27

24.    24 years later, we hear about the Philistines again in an incidental way, when Omri was apparently at war against the Philistines. However, the battle with the Philistines is presented as incidental to Omri being made king over the Northern Kingdom (Omri is the 6th king of Israel). This is 885 b.c. 1Kings 16:15

25.    The Philistines are mentioned again incidentally in 2Kings 8 (circa 840 b.c.); in a passage which indicates that a woman was able to go from Israel into Philistia and live for 7 years.

26.    Hezekiah, circa 720 b.c., king of Judah, hands a crushing defeat to the Philistines in 2Kings 18:8.

27.    We do not find the Philistines mentioned in any subsequent history (Kings or Chronicles), but they are mentioned by later prophets: Jer. 25:20 47:1, 4 Ezek. 16:27, 57 25:15–16 Obad. 1:19

Quite obviously, there is a long and bloody history between Israel and the Philistines.


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1Chronicles 18:1c = 2Samuel 8:1c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

kânaʿ (כָּנַע) [pronounced kaw-NAHĢ]

to bow down, to bring anyone low, to humble, to subdue

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect; with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong’s #3665 BDB #488


Translation: ...and subdues them. David carries out a very successful campaign against the Philistines, and the extent to which he will be covered in the rest of this verse. Because of what follows in this verse, it is clear that this is a separate campaign from the one noted back at the end of 2Sam. 5.


1Chronicles 18:1d = 2Samuel 8:1d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

lâqach (לָקַח) [pronounced law-KAHKH]

to take, to take away, to take in marriage; to seize

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #3947 BDB #542

The BDB gives the following meanings: to take, take in the hand; to take and carry along; to take from, take out of, take, carry away, take away; to take to or for a person, procure, get, take possession of, select, choose, take in marriage, receive, accept; to take up or upon, put upon; to fetch; to take, lead, conduct; to take, capture, seize; to take, carry off; to take (vengeance).

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Gath (גַּת) [pronounced gahth]

wine-press and is transliterated Gath

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1661 BDB #387

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

bath (בַּת) [pronounced bahth]

daughter; village

feminine singular noun with the 3rd person feminine singular suffix

Strong's #1323 BDB #123

Instead of Gath and its villages, the text in Samuel has:

Metheg (מֶתֶג) [pronounced MEH-theg]

a bridle; control, authority

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4964 BDB #607

ʾAmmâh (אַמָּה) [pronounced ahm-MAW]

foundation; beginning; metropolis; transliterated Ammah

proper feminine singular noun/location with the definite article

Strong’s #520 BDB #52

This is the same noun which is used to mean cubit.

There is the problem, can this be seen as one place or as the control of Ammah. In the latter case, this would be a construct state, and a noun in the construct state cannot have a definite article. Since both of these nouns have definite articles, we cannot understand this to be in the construct state.

min (מִן) [pronounced mihn]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

yâd (יָד) [pronounced yawd]

generally translated hand

feminine singular construct

Strong's #3027 BDB #388

Yâd as a construct and the min preposition are literally rendered from a hand of; together, they can also mean out of the hand of; out of the power of; from the power of.

Pelishetîy (פְּלִשְתִּי) [pronounced pe-lish-TEE]

transliterated Philistines

masculine plural gentilic adjective (acts like a proper noun)

Strong’s #6430 BDB #814

Here, this is spelled Pelishetîym (פְּלִשְתִּים) [pronounced pe-lish-TEEM].


Translation: Therefore, David takes Gath and her villages the control [lit., hand] of the Philistines. You may recall that we spent several pages in 2Samuel trying to figure out what Metheg-Ammah was. I believe that these words must have also confused the writer of Chronicles, or he knew that this designation would have confused people, so he gave the city-state which David had attacked and defeated.


What this seems to suggest is, Metheg-Ammah simply means the control of the [Philistine] metropolis, which apparently was at Gath.


David has enjoyed a unique relationship with the king of Gath, which might be worth reviewing here.

David and the King of Gath

1.      Prior to this, David had a fairly reasonable relationship with the Achish, King of Gath. You may recall that, the first time David found himself in Gath, he realized what a mistake he had made, so he started acting crazy. When brought to the royal palace, Achish, the king, said, “Don’t I already have enough madmen in my palace? Did you think I needed another one?” And, with that, dismissed David. 1Sam. 21:10–15

2.      David wrote Psalm 34 about this time, as the inscription mentions the situation described in point #1. However, he is called Abimelech here rather than Achish (Abimelech means son of a king, which Achish probably was).

3.      David returned years later as a refugee from Saul and Israel and this king gave David a plot of land on which to dwell, in a southern portion of Philistia. 1Sam. 27:1–6

4.      While living in this land, David often lied to the King of Gath about what he was actually doing there. He was making money by plundering Israel’s enemies, but he did not reveal this to the King of Gath. Recall that David was out of God’s geographical will, and therefore, was probably out of fellowship much of the time. 1Sam. 27:8–12

5.      Given these situations, one might want to conclude that Achish was an overly-trusting buffoon; however, it is difficult to be the leader of a country, a military hero, and yet to simultaneously be a buffoon. We have, in our country, made out several presidents—incorrectly might I add—to be buffoons. I think the psychology here is, Achish did not personally fear David and that he may have known more about David’s comings and goings than he let on. The bottom line is, he appeared to believe that, if he treated David kindly, that David would not turn on him. I take this from my sense of the dynamic between David and Achish; I could not point to specific Scriptures to back this up.

6.      David, as a man living on Philistine territory, was responsible to help defend it against its enemies. Therefore, when the Philistines were to march against Israel, David joined them, at the request of Achish. David’s bad decisions had placed him in a morally untenable situation and there was no way for him to get out of it. However, the other kings of Philistia balked at David’s presence, so he did not have to war against his own people. 1Sam. 28:1–21 29:1–11

7.      The fact that David was willing to join with the Philistines because Achish requested him to do so, indicates to me that David was not simply taking advantage of the kindness Achish (although, that may have been his original relationship with Achish). David could have told Achish, “I am a Jew and most of those with me are Jews; and even though we are estranged from Israel, we cannot fight against our own brothers.” However, because he was living on Philistine land, David recognized that he had a responsibility to Achish, who allowed him to reside in Philistine territory.

8.      After the death of Saul, David takes control of southern Israel and then, 7 years later, northern Israel. When David takes Jerusalem, then the Philistines move against him. At this point, we do not know whether the King of Gath with whom David has been associated was still in charge. Since there are 5 kings in all, it is not clear whether all 5 of them moved against David at this time. Given the past relationship of David and Achish, I would theorize that (1) Achish was dead, deposed or retired; or (2) Gath did not participate in this attack (which is less likely). 2Sam. 5:17–25

9.      My assumption here is, David’s former ally, Achish, is out of the picture in 2Sam. 5. If I have correctly assessed their relationship, then Achish would not have feared to have David next door to him as king of Israel. However, a new king—even the son of Achish—could have been unduly influenced by the other 4 kings of the Philistines, and caused to move against David.

10.    In this chapter, it is anywhere between 10 to 20 years later. David takes control of Gath. Again, nothing is said specifically about his former ally (2Sam. 8:1, 12). And, again, my assumption would be that Achish is no longer in the picture (that is, he is dead), so that David’s dynamic with Gath has changed.

11.    There is another Achish, King of Gath mentioned in 1Kings 2:39–40 whose father has a similar name to the Achish associated with David (compare 1Sam. 27:2 where it is called Achish ben Maoch, king of Gath; and 1Kings 2:39 where he is called Achish ben Maacah, king of Gath). Whether or not this is the same man is debatable (I would think not). If these are different fathers, then these men could have been uncle and nephew or grandfather and grandson.* A reasonable theory was, Achish, David’s ally, had died many years ago and his son was in charge. When David defeated Gath, he may have set up his own king in Israel, Achish ben Maacah, the grandson of his friend. In 1Kings 2, a man named Shimei travels from Israel to and from Gath without any problems. This further supports my theory.

Being that there were primarily 5 kings and 5 city-states, Achish may have fallen out of favor at the end of 1Samuel, but come back into favor in 1Kings 2. Or, more likely, during the 7 years that it took for David to combine his kingdom, Achish may have died during that time period. We really do not know. In any case, it was an unusual relationship.

* Under the subject heading, Achish, Easton and Fausset treat these as two different men; ISBE sees Achish as only one man.


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It is important to note that David’s defeat of Gath was not only about strength and destruction, as David took with him 600 men which became a part of his elite force. And all his servants were passing on by his side, and all the Cherethites, and all the Pelethites, and all the Gittites, 600 men who came at his feet from Gath. These were passing on before the king (2Sam. 15:18).


Application: Just as these Gittites became some of David’s greatest soldiers, we have similar alliances with Germany and Japan, our great enemies of World War II.


Application: This actually has a direct application to this day and time. We have recently elected a president (President Barrack Obama) who many people will be the man to turn the page on our foreign relationships. Even though Obama had no real experience in these matters, many believed that his propensity to talk would reduce the chances of ill feelings and even war. Here we have the illustration of David replacing Saul, and David could not be in more stark contrast to Saul. Furthermore, David had a relationship established between himself and the King of Gath from several years back. However, this does not make any difference. Not only do Israel and Philistia go to war against one another, but in this verse, David has moved against the Philistines, taking their chief city. Now, if David, who is a marked improvement over Saul and has previously established international relationships, cannot maintain peaceful relations with Philistia, it should stand to reason that our new president, who, although being dramatically different in some ways from the previous president, and yet has no experience in foreign affairs and has no real established relationships; is, therefore, far less able to maintain peaceful relations between ourselves and many of the nations with which we are at odds.

 

Application: Nations are what they are, and we learn a great deal about a nation by its internal practices and by its allies. Even the greatest of leaders is unable to avoid conflicts because that is just who some people are. in the age in which we live, the most intelligent rhetoric in the world is not going to dissuade North Korea or Iran from developing nuclear weapons and then building missiles capable of delivering a nuclear warhead. We either let them or we don’t, but no amount of talk is going to slow them down.


Application: We have the examples of President Woodrow Wilson and Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain to remind us that world organizations and peace treaties do not bring about peace in our time nor do these things assure peace for the future. President Truman provides the example that killing huge numbers of our enemies can bring about a lasting peace (along with nation building).


——————————


And so he strikes Moab. And so is Moab slaves to David—those bringing tribute.

1Chronicles

18:2

[David] also struck Moab. Therefore, Moab became David’s servants, bringing [him] tribute [as he required].

David also struck the country of Moab. Therefore, Moab became subjugated to David, bringing him tribute as he required.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          And he defeated Moab, and the Moabites were made David's servants, and brought him gifts.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so he strikes Moab. And so is Moab slaves to David—those bringing tribute.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And he smote Moab; and the Moabites became David's servants and brought tribute.

Septuagint (Greek)                And he defeated Moab; and the Moabites became servants to David, and tributaries.

 

Significant differences:           None.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       David also defeated the Moabites, and so they had to accept him as their ruler and pay taxes to him.

Easy English (Pocock)           David defeated the army of Moab. The people in Moab became his servants and they paid taxes to him.

Easy-to-Read Version            Then David defeated the country of Moab. The Moabite people became David’s servants. They brought tribute [197] to David.

Good News Bible (TEV)         He also defeated the Moabites, who became his subjects and paid taxes to him.

The Message                         He also fought and defeated Moab. The Moabites came under David's rule and paid regular tribute.

New Century Version             He also defeated the people of Moab. So the people of Moab became servants of David and gave him the payment he demanded.

New Life Bible                        He won the war against Moab. And the Moabites were made to work for David, bringing taxes to him.

New Living Translation           David also conquered the land of Moab, and the Moabites who were spared became David's subjects and paid him tribute money.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Then he attacked Moab and made them serve him and pay him tribute.

Ancient Roots Translinear      He smote Central-Jordan, and the Central-Jordanians were David's servants, lifting food-gifts.

NIRV                                      David also won the battle over the people of Moab. They were brought under his rule. They gave him the gifts he required them to bring him.

Revised English Bible            He defeated the Moabites, and they became subject to him and paid him tribute.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And he overcame Moab, and the Moabites became his servants and gave him offerings.

Complete Apostles’ Bible      And he defeated Moab; and the Moabites became servants to David, and tributaries.

Context Group Version          And he struck Moab; and the Moabites became slaves to David, and brought tribute.

JPS (Tanakh)                         He also defeated the Moabites; the Moabites became tributary vassals of David.

Judaica Press Complete T.    And he smote Moab, and the Moabites became vassals to David, paying tribute.

NET Bible®                             He defeated the Moabites; the Moabites became David's subjects and brought tribute [Heb "and the Moabites were servants of David, carriers of tribute."].


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

English Standard Version      And he defeated Moab, and the Moabites became servants to David and brought tribute.

exeGeses companion Bible   and he smites Moab;

and the Moabiy become servants of David

and bear offerings:.

WEB                                      He struck Moab; and the Moabites became servants to David, and brought tribute.

Young’s Updated LT             And he strikes Moab, and the Moabites are servants to David, bringing a present.

 

The gist of this verse:          David defeats the Moabites, so that they become his servants, bringing him tribute.


1Chronicles 18:2a = 2Samuel 8:2a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

nâkâh (נָכָה) [pronounced naw-KAWH]

to smite, to assault, to hit, to strike, to strike [something or someone] down, to defeat, to conquer, to subjugate

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect

Strong #5221 BDB #645

The Greek inserts the proper noun David here (in both the Samuel and Chronicles passage), which may simply be a literary choice on the part of the Greek translator.

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Môwʾâb (מוֹאָב) [pronounced moh-AWBV]

of his father; transliterated Moab

masculine singular, proper noun

Strong’s #4124 BDB #555


Translation: [David] also struck Moab. As we found in 2Sam. 8, the wars and battles of David are quickly enumerated—and without detail—in this chapter. Again, we do not know if these wars all occurred over the same period of time or if this is an overall summary throughout his career. My own suspicions are, David, for a period of perhaps 10 years or so, experiences a period of time where he is always at war. Eccles. 3:1, 8 read: For everything there is a season, and a time for every matter under heaven: a time to love, and a time to hate; a time for war, and a time for peace. This was David’s season for war.


Now bear in mind that David had just received the Davidic Covenant. In this covenant, he was promised land, a dynasty, and a Son Who would reign forever. Therefore, these wars are just details. I believe that what David is doing is taking the land which was given to him by God. There are not enough Israelites to populate these lands, so David simply exercises control over them. From the brutality described in 2Sam. 8, where David kills 2 of every 3 Moabite soldiers, suggests that he Moabites may have attacked Israel first, and viciously.


This conflict with the Moabites is also unusual, as David had deposited his parents with them (when Saul had threatened his life) and David himself was partially Moabite himself (recall that David’s great grandmother, Ruth, was a Moabite). The Jews and the Moabites could have been—and should have been—natural allies. The key was, David adhered to the truth of God and they rejected it, so this rift goes much deeper than blood.


2Samuel 8:2b–2c (text not found in 1Chornicles 18)

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

The following text is in 2Sam. 8, but not in 1Chron. 18.

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

mâdad (מָדַד) [pronounced maw-DAHD]

to measure

3rd person masculine singular, Piel imperfect, with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong’s #4058 BDB #551

I don’t know that I accept this definition entirely. Perhaps there is within these definitions, the idea of to evaluate, to take the measure of a man.

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

Strong’s# none BDB #88

chebel (חֶבֶל) [pronounced KHEB-vel]

rope, cord, bands; a measuring rope; a territory, lot, portion; a group [of things]

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #2256 BDB #286

shâkab (שָכַב) [pronounced shaw-KAHBV]

to make [anyone] lie down, to prostrate; to lay down; to cause to rest; to pour out a vessel

Hiphil infinitive absolute

Strong’s #7901 BDB #1011

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object affixed to the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the directional hê

Strong's #776 BDB #75

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

mâdad (מָדַד) [pronounced maw-DAHD]

to measure

3rd person masculine singular, Piel imperfect

Strong’s #4058 BDB #551

shenêy (שְנֵי) [pronounced shen-Ā]

two, two of, a pair of, a duo of

dual numeral construct

Strong’s #8147 BDB #1040

chebel (חֶבֶל) [pronounced KHEB-vel]

rope, cord, bands; a measuring rope; a territory, lot, portion; a group [of things]

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #2256 BDB #286

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

mûwth (מוּת) [pronounced mooth]

to kill, to cause to die, to put to death, to execute

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect

Strong's #4191 BDB #559

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

melôʾ (מְלֹא) [pronounced melow]

fulness, that which fills, that which is full; multitude, crowd [i.e., those which fill a city]

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #4393 BDB #571

chebel (חֶבֶל) [pronounced KHEB-vel]

rope, cord, bands; a measuring rope; a territory, lot, portion; a group [of things]

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #2256 BDB #286

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

châyâh (חָיָה) [pronounced khaw-YAW]

to keep alive, to deliver from death, to grant life

Hiphil infinitive construct

Strong's #2421 & #2425 BDB #310


Translation (from 2Sam. 8:2b–2c only): He measured them with a lot, making them lie down on the ground. He determined [lit., measured] two lots to kill [the man] and a complete lot to keep alive. You may recall the description of this and how tough David was on the Moabites. It appears as though he killed 2 out of 3 Moabites.


The editor of Chronicles chose to leave this out of his text.


1Chronicles 18:2b = 2Samuel 8:2d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

In 2Sam. 8:2, this is a feminine singular.

Môwʾâb (מוֹאָב) [pronounced moh-AWBV]

of his father; transliterated Moab

masculine singular, proper noun

Strong’s #4124 BDB #555

The noun is unchanged. I don’t know if the translation ought to read differently, or whether Moab, as a noun, could be seen as a country (feminine singular) as well as a people (masculine plural). I suspect that the key is the predicate nominative in this case, which lacks the lâmed preposition in the Chronicles text. .

ʿôbêd (עֹבֵד) [pronounced ģoh-BADE]

a slave, a servant

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #5660 BDB #713

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

In the Samuel text, we have the lâmed preposition followed by the masculine plural noun servants, slaves.

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʿôbêd (עֹבֵד) [pronounced ģoh-BADE]

a slave, a servant

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #5660 BDB #713

The Samuel text reads, literally: And so is Moab to David for slaves those bringing tribute. The Chronicles text reads, literally: And so is Moab slaves to David those bringing tribute. There does not appear to be any difference in meaning.

nâsâʾ (נָשָׂא) [pronounced naw-SAW]

those lifting up, bearers, those carrying; the ones exalting; those taking away

masculine plural construct, Qal active participle

Strong’s #5375 (and #4984) BDB #669

minechâh (מִנְחָה) [pronounced min-HAWH]

tribute offering, gift, present; sacrifice, bloodless offering; [a general term for] offering

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #4503 BDB #585


Translation: Therefore, Moab became David’s servants, bringing [him] tribute [as he required]. The writer of Chronicles left out David’s particularly harsh way of dealing with the Moabites and simply indicates that they brought tribute to David. There is really nothing more going on here than the taxation of a controlled province, which is something which is commonly practiced today.


The Moabites would continue to pay a yearly tribute to David, and then later to Solomon and to Rehoboam, until the revolt of the ten tribes, and then they apparently continued to paid it to the kings of Israel, to the times of Ahab. After Ahab’s death, the Moabites rebelled against Israel (2Kings 1:1 3:4–5).

 

Here is where we must reasonably understand ancient culture. Paying tribute to a stronger, dominant country was common (1Sam. 10:27 2Chron. 26:8 Psalm 72:10 Isa. 36:16). Whether this established or implied some sort of a suzerain–vassal treaty, I don’t know. But understanding this to be a part of ancient culture better helps us to understand David and Nabal back in 1Sam. 25. David sent his men to collect a tribute from Nabal, whose shepherds had been in David’s periphery without incident. Nabal refused, and at least one commentator (Barthel) took this as David requiring protection money. This was simply the way that things were done. It may seem like gangster protectionism, but in that day and age, it was common.

 

As was customary in war, the loser often paid the winner tribute. One may understand this to be the natural order of things and, in some cases, this might be seen as legitimate protection money. Being conquered does not automatically mean that two nations will remain at odds with one another forever. Many people liked it when Rome conquered their area because this brought law and order to their province and put them under the protection of Rome. Quite obviously, they would be taxes by Rome; but, at the same time, they would enjoy the protection of Rome and great internal orderliness. Many conquered peoples would petition and/or pay for Roman citizenship in order to have the rights of a Roman citizen.


Although we do not have it mentioned here, there was probably a suzerain-vassal treaty established between David and the Moabites—this would have been a treaty written by the suzerain, David, requiring signatures from those who were heads of the Moabites (the Moabites were the vassals). We can only guess as to what David offered—it could have been as little as, “I will not bring my armies into Moab and kill everyone there” (although this sentiment may have been dressed up more than that); and the vassals would have been subject to bringing David tribute (my guess is, there would have been a set amount each year). Whether David offered any protection is another matter.


Bear in mind that the Moabites were once friends of David’s. He was part Moabite himself; he sent his parents there for safekeeping when Saul was after him. However, the Moabites had a change of thinking.


Application: This change of thinking can occur almost overnight. A new generation rises up, they listen to the wrong voices, and they are led astray. To give you examples of going both ways: In the 60's and 70's there was some serious anti-Semitism attached to the conservative movement. I used to listen to a show called Liberty Lobby, which had some reasonable information, but then they also talked about the secret gathering of Jewish businessmen (the Bilderberger’s, I think?), and they made a big fuss over this. In their minds, this was a grand conspiracy, and at the heart of all of this was plain and simple anti-Semitism. I think that one of the reasons that Barry Goldwater did so poorly when he ran against Democrat Lyndon Johnson, was anti-Semitism. There were enough anti-Semites in the Republican party who simply were not going to vote for a Jew, despite the fact that Goldwater was probably the best Republican to come along since Calvin Coolidge. However, this changed. With the advent of Ronald Reagan, the voices of groups like Liberty Lobby became less and less a factor; and anti-Semitism seemed to leave the conservative movement almost altogether. However, at the same time, in the Democratic party, we are getting more and more atni-Semitic views. At this point, we are to the point of equivocation—the Jews and the Arabs share equal blame in the Middle East unrest, in the eyes of many Democrats. They seem to be unable to make a clear distinction between the Jewish army and Palestinian radicals.


To see our end, we need only look to the Moabites. For decades, they have a warm and friendly relationship with David; and then that changes. When it changed, David had to take some radical measures to keep the Moabites in line—so he had all the captured Moabite soldiers lay down in 3 rows and he killed everyone in 2 of the 3 rows. This made such an impression on the remaining Moabites, that they were never again a problem to David. 2Sam. 8:2


Concerning these various military conflicts, there are just so many Jews and a specific sized army. Therefore, David is going to take the most contiguous areas for Israel (clearing out hot spots of indigenous Canaanites). There are going to be outlying areas where there are not enough Jews to populate these lands. David either wants to have a friendly neighbor here (like Toi in vv. 9–10) or a conquered and subservient people, like the Moabites. Ideally speaking, these would form a buffer zone which would protect Israel. An entire population of Jews would not have to be transferred there—David could place garrisons there or simply expect that population to provide him with yearly tribute. Interestingly enough, for the most part, we are never told whether David is the aggressor or whether he is responding to attacks from the outside. More interestingly, there is never anything said about God’s guidance in these wars.


Recall that David studied the Bible intensely at the time of moving the Ark. For him, the Bible would have consisted of the Law and perhaps the books of Job, Joshua and Judges. In Numbers, he would have read: “I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not near: a star shall come out of Jacob, and a scepter shall rise out of Israel; it shall crush the forehead of Moab and break down all the sons of Sheth. Edom shall be dispossessed; Seir also, his enemies, shall be dispossessed. Israel is doing valiantly. And one from Jacob shall exercise dominion and destroy the survivors of cities!" Then he looked on Amalek and took up his discourse and said, "Amalek was the first among the nations, but its end is utter destruction.” And he looked on the Kenite, and took up his discourse and said, "Enduring is your dwelling place, and your nest is set in the rock. Nevertheless, Kain shall be burned when Asshur takes you away captive." (Num. 24:17–22). David is, in part, a fulfillment of this prophecy. Jesus Christ, in the Tribulation, will be a completely fulfillment of this prophecy. The sons of Sheth (or, Seth) are Semites (Jews and Arabs). In this case, we are referring to Arabs who have turned away from Jesus Christ and who express their negative volition by their hatred of the Jew. In 2Sam. 8, I cover this prophecy in greater detail.


David possibly had regular contact with Nathan the Prophet, who may have guided him; however, Nathan is never spoken of in these chapters dealing with war. What I prefer to think is, David had doctrine in his soul; he has the guidance of God the Holy Spirit (just as we do); and was able to make these decisions about war from his own soul.


Later, David wrote these words, while under the power of God the Holy Spirit: God has spoken in his holiness: "With exultation I will divide up Shechem and portion out the Vale of Succoth. Gilead is Mine; Manasseh is Mine; Ephraim is My helmet; Judah is My scepter. Moab is My washbasin; upon Edom I cast My shoe; over Philistia I shout in triumph.” (Psalm 60:6–8). See Psalm 60 for more information.


——————————


And so strikes David Hadadezer king of Zobah Hamath-ward in his going to set up his hand in a river of Euphrates.

1Chronicles

18:3

David also struck down Hadadezer [possibly, Hadarezer], the king of Zobah toward Hamath when he went to establish his power [lit., his hand] near the River Euphrates.

David also defeated Hadadezer, the king of Zobah out toward Hamath when he attempted to restore his power out as far as the Euphrates River.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          At that time David defeated also Adarezer king of Soba of the land of Hemath, when he went to extend his dominions as far as the river Euphrates.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so strikes David Hadadezer king of Zobah Hamath-ward in his going to set up his hand in a river of Euphrates.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    Then David slew Hadarezer the king of Nisibin, as he went to establish his dominion by the river Euphrates.

Septuagint (Greek)                And David defeated Hadadezer king of Zobah of Hamath, as he was going to establish power [lit., his hand] toward the River Euphrates.

 

Significant differences:           The Syriac leaves out Hamath. The second phrase or sentence in the Latin reads (in the English translation) to extend his dominions, which is close to the Hebrew, but not an accurate rendering. The English translation of the Syriac verb is a reasonable translation of the Hebrew verb.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       While King Hadadezer of Zobah was trying to gain control of the territory near the Euphrates River, David met him in battle at Hamath and defeated him.

Easy English (Pocock)           David fought King Hadadezer of Zobah all the way to Hamath town. Hadadezer had gone to increase his control along the Euphrates river.

Easy-to-Read Version            David also fought against Hadadezer’s army. Hadadezer was the king of Zobah. David fought against that army all the way to the town of Hamath. David did this because Hadadezer tried to spread his kingdom all the way to the Euphrates River.

Good News Bible (TEV)         Next, David attacked King Hadadezer of the Syrian state of Zobah, near the territory of Hamath, because Hadadezer was trying to gain control of the territory by the upper Euphrates River.

The Message                         On his way to restore his sovereignty at the Euphrates River, David defeated Hadadezer king of Zobah (over toward Hamath).

New Century Version             David also defeated Hadadezer king of Zobah all the way to the town of Hamath as he tried to spread his kingdom to the Euphrates River.

New Life Bible                        David won the war against King Hadadezer of Zobah as far as Hamath, as he went to bring his power to the Euphrates River.

New Living Translation           David also destroyed the forces of Hadadezer, king of Zobah, as far as Hamath [The meaning of the Hebrew is uncertain.], when Hadadezer marched out to strengthen his control along the Euphrates River.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          David also attacked AdraAzar, the king of SoUba, at Hamath, as he was marching toward the EuPhrates.

Ancient Roots Translinear      David smote King Hadarezer of Zobah in Hama, as he went to station his hand by the river Euphrates.

God’s Word                         When David went to establish his control over the territory along the Euphrates River, he defeated King Hadadezer at Hamath.

NIRV                                      David fought against Hadadezer all the way to Hamath. Hadadezer was king of Zobah. He had gone to take complete control of the land along the Euphrates River.

New Jerusalem Bible             David also defeated Hadadezer king of Zobah, which lies in the direction of Hamath, when the latter mounted an expedition to assert his rule on the River Euphrates.

Revised English Bible            He also defeated King Hadadezer of Zobah-hamath, who was on his way to set up his monument of victory by the river Euphrates.

Today’s NIV                          Moreover, David defeated Hadadezer king of Zobah, in the vicinity of Hamath, when he went to set up his monument at [Or to restore his control over] the Euphrates River.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             Then David overcame Hadadezer, king of Zobah, near Hamath, when he was going to make his power seen by the river Euphrates.

HCSB                                     David also defeated King Hadadezer of Zobah at Hamath when he went to establish his control at the Euphrates River.

NET Bible®                             David defeated King Hadadezer of Zobah as far as Hamath, when he went to extend his authority [Heb "hand."] to the Euphrates River [Heb "when he went to set up his hand at the Euphrates River." The Hebrew word יַד (yad, "hand") is usually understood to mean "control" or "dominion" here. However, since יַד does occasionally refer to a monument, perhaps one could translate, "to set up his monument at the Euphrates River" (i.e., as a visible marker of the limits of his dominion). For another example of the Hiphil of נָצַב (natsav) used with יַד ("monument"), see 1 Sam 15:12.].

The Scriptures 1998              And Dawid? smote Had?ad?ezer sovereign of Tsob?ah as far as Ḥamath, as he went to establish his power by the River Euphrates.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

English Standard Version      David also defeated Hadadezer king of Zobah-Hamath, as he went to set up his monument at the river Euphrates.

exeGeses companion Bible   and David smites Hadar Ezer sovereign of Sobah to Hamath,

as he goes to station his hand by the river Euphrates:

A Voice in the Wilderness      And David struck Hadadezer king of Zobah as far as Hamath, as he went to establish his hand by the River Euphrates.

WEB                                      David struck Hadarezer king of Zobah to Hamath, as he went to establish his dominion by the river Euphrates.

Young’s Updated LT             And David strikes Hadarezer king of Zobah, at Hamath, in his going to establish his power by the river Phrat,...

 

The gist of this verse:          The only conflict which is given any real detail is between David and Hadadezer. This verse introduces that conflict. It appears as though David steps up to curtail Hadadezer’s attempts to expand and/or restore his kingdom.


1Chronciles 18:3a = 2Samuel 8:3a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

nâkâh (נָכָה) [pronounced naw-KAWH]

to smite, to assault, to hit, to strike, to strike [something or someone] down, to defeat, to conquer, to subjugate

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect

Strong #5221 BDB #645

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Hădadeʿezer (הֲדַדְעֶזֶר) [pronounced huhd-ahd-ĢEH-zer]

Hadad is a helper; transliterated Hadadezer

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #1909 BDB #212

The proper noun found here is possibly:

Hădareʿezer (הֲדַרְעֶזֶר) [pronounced huhd-ahr-ĢEH-zehr]

 Hadar is a help; and is transliterated Hadarezer

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #1928 BDB #214

Hadadezer is found in 2Sam. 8:3, 5, 7–10, 12 1Kings 11:23. Hadarezer is found in: 2Sam. 10:16, 19 1Chron. 18:3, 5, 7-10 (the parallel chapter to 2Sam. 8) 19:16, 19. The d and r in Hebrew are often confounded. Many Bibles will have one or the other spellings in all of these passages. Although most Chronicles’ manuscripts have Hadarezer, 2 early printed editions do not, according to Rotherham. Footnote

Barnes tells us that Hadadezer, is the true form, as seen in the names Benhadad, Hadad (1Kings 11:14 15:18). Hadad was the chief idol, or sun–god, of the Syrians. Footnote

The phrase son of Rechob is not included in the Chronicles text:

bên (בֵּן) [pronounced bane]

son, descendant

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

Rechôwb (רְחוֹב) [pronounced rekh-OHBV]

broad, open place and is transliterated Rechob, Rehob

masculine singular proper noun; location

Strong's #7340 BDB #932

Also spelled Rechôb (רְחֹב) [pronounced rekh-OHBV].

meleke (מֶלֶך׃) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572

Tsôwbâh (צוֹבָה) [pronounced tzohb-VAW]

transliterated Zobah

Proper noun, territory

Strong’s #6678 BDB #844

Chămâth (חֲמָת) [pronounced khuhm-AWTH]

fortress, defense, citadel; sacred enclosure; transliterated Hamath

proper singular noun/location; with the directional hê

Strong’s #2574 BDB #333


Translation: David also struck down Hadadezer [possibly, Hadarezer], the king of Zobah toward Hamath... David is said to have struck down, defeated Hadadezer, and the writer of Chronicles indicates that this is out toward Hamath (an addition to the Samuel text by the writer of Chronicles). What this author is doing is simply helping to identify a particular area for his readers by indicating that this is in the vicinity of Hamath.



Israel During David’s Kingdom


This is an excellent map to refer to with respect to these various wars of David. In the upper right-hand corner is Aram-Zobah (in red letters). Directly above that (and off the map) is Hamath.

david's_israel.jpg

 

For a better view of this map, go to: http://www.bible-history.com/map-davids-kingdom/

Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines

Zobah, as a kingdom, was a significant enemy of Israel’s during the monarchy of the unified kingdom. It is located northeast of Israel, although its exact location is disputed (see geography under the ISBE reference).

The Doctrine of Zobah

1.      Zobah appears to have been an independent country northeast of Israel, which eventually allied itself with Aram (Syria) or was conquered by the Syrians. Smith suggests that this was an independent portion of the Syrian kingdom during the reigns of Saul, David and Solomon.

2.      Easton describes it as a Syrian province or kingdom to the south of Coele-Syria, and extending from the eastern slopes of Lebanon north and east toward the Euphrates.

3.      We first hear of Zobah when Saul’s military victories are spoken of in 1Sam. 14:47. These were victories over Moab, Ammon, Edom, Zobah, and Philistia.

4.      Zobah is not mentioned again until our passage (and the parallel passage in 2Sam. 8:3–6) where David defeats Hadadezer, king of Zobah, which expanded Israel’s borders as far as the Euphrates River. David decimated Hadadezer’s army, wiping out its armor division along with 10's of 1000's of soldiers. 1Chron. 18:3–4

5.      Syrians from Damascus joined in the fray, and David defeated them as well. 2Sam. 8:5–6 1Chron. 18:5–6

6.      In this war, David scored big time against Hadadezer, carrying away shields of gold, and other articles of silver, gold and bronze. 2Sam. 8:7–8, 11–12 1Chron. 18:7–8, 10–11

7.      David became allied with Toi, King of Hamath, because David defeated Hadadezer, King of Zobah. 2Sam. 8:9–10 1Chron. 18:9–10

8.      When we get to 2Sam. 10, the writer speaks of the Syrians of Zobah. My first impression was, the Syrians took over this area after David defeated Hadadezer. However, Hadadezer is mentioned by name in 1Kings 11:23. This suggests that Zobah is a region, and that, at some point in time, the Syrians had control over a portion of that region so as to be identified with it. It could be that Zobah was always an Aramæan kingdom, but not specifically identified until 2Sam. 10. In any case, David defeats a large coalition of enemy forces (Aram, Zobah, Ammon, along with enemies from Bethrehob, Ishtob and Maacah). ISBE nicely describes this war: During David's Ammonite war, the enemy was strengthened by alliance with Zobah, Maacah and Beth-rehob, and Israel was attacked from both North and South at the same time. The northern confederation was defeated by Joab, but Hadadezer again gathered an army, including levies from beyond the Euphrates. These, under Shobach the captain of the host, were met by David in person at Helam, and a great slaughter ensued, Shobach himself being among the slain (2Sa_10:6-19, the King James Version “Zoba”; 1 Ch 19:3-19). 2Sam. 10 1Chron. 19

9.      ISBE adds: The kingdom of Zobah in addition to its mineral wealth must have been rich in vineyards and fruitful fields, and its conquest must have added greatly to the wealth and power of Israel's king.

10.    Psalm 60 appears to have been composed after David defeated Aram-zobah (2Sam. 10) and Edom (2Sam. 8). Psalm 60 inscription

11.    During the time of Solomon, Rezon, a fugitive from Hadadezer, established himself as king of Damascus and was a problem for Solomon, David’s son,. He was a man who loathed Israel. 1Kings 11:23–25

12.    In 2Chron. 8, Solomon goes up ot Hamath-zobah and takes it (this is the only time it is called by this name in the Bible). He also rebuilds cities given to him by Hiram; so, under Solomon, there is a northward expansion; however, it does not appear as though this area was conquered by warfare (except, indirectly by David’s wars). Zobah is never mentioned again after this passage. ISBE suggests that, by the time of the writing of Chronicles, the distinction between Hamath and Zobah had faded, so that this reference simply refers to the northern territory taken in by Solomon. See the map below:

13.    Smith: 2Chron. 8:3...is the last that we hear of Zobah in Scripture. The name however, is found at a later date in the inscriptions of Assyria, where the kingdom of Zobah seems to intervene between Hamath and Damascus

Some additional material culled from:

M.G. Easton M.A., D.D., Illustrated Bible Dictionary; 1897; from e-Sword, topic: Zobah.

The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia; James Orr, Editor; ©1956 Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.; Ⓟ by Hendrickson Publishers; from E-Sword; Topics:  Hamath-zobah, Zobah.

Dr. William Smith, Smith’s Bible Dictionary; 1894; from e-Sword, topic: Zobah.

The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible; Merrill Tenney, ed., Zondervan Publishing House, ©1976; Vol. 5, pp. 1069–1070.

Return to Chapter Outline

Return to Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines

Map of the Kingdoms of Saul, David and Solomon


To help explain that final point in the doctrine of Zobah, the pinkish area at the top is Hamath-zobah, an area taken over by Solomon in 2Chron. 8.


You will see that Edom, Moab and Ammon are separate territories enclosed in purple (David’s kingdom), which indicates that David gave them some autonomy, but collected tribute (taxes) from them.

davidkingdom.jpg

 

Graphic from: http://biblenews1.com/maps/DavidKingdom.gif


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


1Chronciles 18:3b = 2Samuel 8:3b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

Strong’s# none BDB #88

The infinitive construct, when combined with the bêyth preposition, can often take on a temporal meaning and may be rendered when [such and such happens]. It can serve as a temporal marker that denotes an event which occurs simultaneously with the action of the main verb.

hâlake (הָלַךְ) [pronounced haw-LAHKe]

to go, to come, to depart, to walk; to advance

Qal infinitive construct with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #1980 (and #3212) BDB #229

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

nâtsab (נָצַב) [pronounced naw-TSAHBV]

to station oneself, to take one’s stand, to stand up, to set something upright, to erect; to fix, to establish

Hiphil infinitive construct

Strong’s #5324 BDB #662

The Samuel text has the following verb instead:

shûwb (שוּב) [pronounced shoobv]

to cause to return, to bring, to be caused to turn back mentally, reminisce, to return something, to restore, to bring [send, turn] back, to regain, to recover, to make restitution, reconsider, think again, to be caused to return

Hiphil infinitive construct

Strong's #7725 BDB #996

The change of verb here is interesting. The writer of Samuel understood what this returning was all about. The writer of Chronicles does not necessarily understand about the return (or, believes that his readers won’t understand it, and so he changes the verb).

yâd (יָד) [pronounced yawd]

hand; strength, power (figuratively); side (of land), part, portion (metaphorically) (figuratively); (various special, technical senses); sign, monument; part, fractional part, share; time, repetition; axle-trees, axle; stays, support (for laver); tenons (in tabernacle); a phallus, a hand (meaning unsure); wrists

feminine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #3027 BDB #388

In case you are wondering where some of the translators came up with translations which involved the word monument, there are an additional handful of specialized uses for this noun: a. a sign, a monument (1Sam. 15:12 2Sam. 18:18); b. a part, a fractional part (Gen. 47:24 2Sam. 19:44 2Kings 11:7 Neh. 11:1); c. time, repetition (Gen. 43:34 Deut. 1:29). Footnote

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

Strong’s# none BDB #88

nâhâr (נָהָר) [pronounced naw-HAWR]

stream, river

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #5104 BDB #625

A marginal note in the Masoretic text adds this word to the text of 2Sam. 8:3: Footnote This is how it reads in 1Chron. 18:3.

Pherât (פְּרָת) [pronounced fe-RAWT]

to break forth, rushing; transliterated Euphrates

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #6578 BDB #832

This is also found in the Septuagint (LXX), the Syriac Peshitta, and the Latin Vulgate of 2Sam. 8. Therefore, it is reasonable to suppose that this word was in the original text of Samuel.


Translation: ...when he went to establish his power [lit., his hand] near the River Euphrates. The change of verb here is interesting. In the Samuel text, it appears that either Hadadezer is reestablishing his power in that area. However, the different text in Chronicles could even allow for the erection of a monument (which would indicate the establishment of power in Hamath area). However, this new verb with the word hand can simply be taken to mean that Hadadezer is establishing his power in or his control of that area.


I have made an assumption here (and in 2Sam. 8:3) that he refers to Hadadezer. The bêyth preposition and the infinitive construct of the verb tie v. 3a to v. 3b temporally. Although it is possible to take the subject of first clause (David) as the subject of the second clause, the most proximate noun to v. 3b is Hadadezer. The overall meaning is essentially unchanged, whether we understand David to be expanding his kingdom, or for Hadadezer to be attempting to expand his kingdom. Although this approach may trigger a different understanding of the exact events, the end result is the same: David defeats Hadadezer and makes him his vassal.


At this time, we do not know if this was infringing on David’s territory or not. David may have been exercising the so-called Bush Doctrine, and launching a first strike against an obviously hostile force; Hadadezer may have been encroaching on territory which belonged to David or, Hadadezer may have been going to get additional troops with which to move against David.

 

What David appears to be doing is taking the land which God had promised to him and which was promised originally to Abraham and later to David. Gen. 15:18–21: On that day the LORD made a covenant with Abram, saying, "To your offspring I give this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the river Euphrates, the land of the Kenites, the Kenizzites, the Kadmonites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Rephaim, the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Girgashites and the Jebusites." See also Ex. 23:31 Deut. 11:24 Psalm 89:25. If this is the case, then this chapter fits in very neatly here, because the Davidic Covenant was given in the previous chapter. Whether Hadadezer is attempting to recover the boundaries of his own land or going to the Euphrates for additional troops, David’s suggested motivation here is not incompatible with either scenario.

 

When I first began this chapter, it seemed to be disconnected to what came before, but, what came before was both promises of God to make David’s name great and to be with him wherever he went (2Sam. 7:9); and that David’s kingdom would extend from the Mediterranean Sea to the Euphrates River (Psalm 89:25). Essentially, we are observing the fulfillment of God’s promises to David in this chapter.

 

Israel’s power extended as far as the Euphrates, here, under David, and later, under Solomon. Solomon ruled over all the kingdoms from the Euphrates to the land of the Philistines and to the border of Egypt. They brought tribute and served Solomon all the days of his life (1Kings 4:21). Had Israel remained a united nation with doctrinally oriented kings, this would have been Israel’s future—domination over this huge mass of land followed by populating this same land. Furthermore, the end result would have been great stability to that part of the world.

 

Application: What is the most stable continent in the world right now? North America. We have great Muslim infiltrations throughout all of Europe, which includes a lot of anger and political unrest (I write this in 2009). We have great civil and political unrest throughout all of Africa. In the Middle East, despite the great influx of money due to their rich oil deposits, there are only a handful of places anyone would want to live in the Middle East. Muslims continue to seethe with hatred against Israel. In Asia, we have Muslim uprisings in many Asian countries; a small uprising in Thailand; and a nation (North Korea) which is developing atomic weapons and launching missile tests, which could threaten the stability of central and northern Asia. Apart from the recent drug wars in Mexico, Canada, the United States and Mexico have been very stable over the past 100+ years, without any encroachment of any of these countries. We are stable here because of the number of believers in Jesus Christ who reside in the United States and because of the dissemination of Bible doctrine throughout our land. Canada and Mexico are blessed by association. The key to great stability in this world is the gospel of Jesus Christ and knowledge of God’s Word. This is why David stabilized the area around Israel and this is why the United States has enjoyed such great peace and prosperity over the past century or more.


——————————


And so captures David from him a thousand and seven thousands horsemen and twenty thousand a man a footman. And so hamstrings David all the horse and so he preserves alive from him a hundred horse.

1Chronicles

18:4

David captured from him [Hadadezer] 1000 chariot riders, 7000 horsemen and 20,000 foot soldiers. David also disabled all of the chariots, but [lit., and] he kept from them 100 chariots.

David captured alive 1000 charioteers, 7000 horsemen and 20,000 foot soldiers from Hadadezer. He disabled all but 100 of the chariots.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          And David took from him 1000 chariots, and 7000 horsemen, and 20,000 footmen, and he houghed all the chariot horses, only 100 chariots, which he reserved for himself.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so captures David from him a thousand and seven thousands horsemen and twenty thousand a man a footman. And so hamstrings David all the horse and so he preserves alive from him a hundred horse.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And David took from him 1000 chariots and 7000 horsemen, and David hamstrung all the chariot horses, but reserved of them 100 chariots.

Septuagint (Greek)                And David took of them 1000 chariots, and 7000 horsemen, and 20,000 infantry men. And David hamstrung all the chariot horses, but he left 100 chariots among them.

 

Significant differences:           They Syriac lacks the 20,000 footmen. In the final clause of this verse, the Hebrew has from him, referring back to Hadadezer. The Greek has out from them; the Syriac of them and the Latin for himself. Although quite different, there is no dramatic difference in understanding what actually happened based upon those words.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       David captured one thousand chariots, seven thousand chariot drivers, and twenty thousand soldiers. And he crippled all but one hundred of the horses.

Easy English (Pocock)           And David took from him 1000 *chariots, 7000 riders, and 20 000 other soldiers. He made all except 100 horses unable to pull *chariots.

Easy-to-Read Version            David took from Hadadezer 1,000 chariots [A small wagon used in war], 7,000 chariot drivers, and 20,000 soldiers. David also crippled most of Hadadezer’s horses that were used for pulling chariots. But David saved enough horses to pull 100 chariots.

Good News Bible (TEV)         David captured a thousand of his chariots, seven thousand cavalry troops, and twenty thousand foot soldiers. He kept enough horses for a hundred chariots and crippled all the rest.

New Century Version             David captured one thousand of his chariots, seven thousand men who rode in chariots, and twenty thousand foot soldiers. He crippled all but a hundred of the chariot horses.

New Life Bible                        David took from him 1,000 war-wagons, 7,000 horsemen, and 20,000 foot soldiers. And he cut the legs of all but 100 war-wagon horses.

New Living Translation           David captured 1,000 chariots, 7,000 charioteers, and 20,000 foot soldiers. He crippled all the chariot horses except enough for 100 chariots.

New Simplified Bible              David took one thousand chariots, seven thousand horsemen, and twenty thousand foot soldiers from him. David also disabled all but one hundred of their horses so that they could not pull chariots.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          And there he captured a thousand chariots, seven thousand horses, and twenty thousand of their infantrymen. Then David had all the chariots destroyed, except for a hundred of them.

Ancient Roots Translinear      David claimed from him 1,000 chariots, 7,000 horsemen, and 20,000 on-foot. David chopped all the chariots, but preserved a 100 chariots.

God’s Word                         David took 1,000 chariots, 7,000 horsemen, and 20,000 foot soldiers from him. David also disabled all but 100 of their horses so that they couldn't pull chariots.

New American Bible              David took from him twenty thousand foot soldiers, one thousand chariots, and seven thousand horsemen. Of the chariot horses, David hamstrung all but one hundred.

Revised English Bible            From him David captured a thousand chariots, seven thousand horsemen, and twenty thousand foot-soldiers; he hamstrung all the chariot-horses, except a hundred which he retained.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And David took from him a thousand war-carriages and seven thousand horsemen and twenty thousand footmen: and he had the leg-muscles of all the horses cut, keeping only enough of them for a hundred war-carriages.

JPS (Tanakh)                         David captured 1,000 chariots and 7,000 horsemen and 20,000 foot soldiers of his force; and David hamstrung all the chariot horses except for 100, which he retained.

NET Bible®                             David seized from him 1,000 chariots, 7,000 charioteers [Or "horsemen."], and 20,000 infantrymen. David cut the hamstrings of all but a hundred of Hadadezer's [Heb "his"; the referent (Hadadezer) has been specified in the translation for clarity.] chariot horses [Heb "and David cut the hamstrings of all the chariot horses, and he left from them one hundred chariot horses."].


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                David took from him 1,000 chariots, 7,000 horsemen, and 20,000 foot soldiers. David also hamstrung all the chariot horses, but reserved enough for 100 chariots.

Concordant Literal Version    ...and David captures from him a thousand chariots, and seven thousand horsemen, and twenty thousand footmen, and David destroys utterly all the chariots, and leaves of them a hundred chariots [only].

A Conservative Version         And David took from him a thousand chariots, and seven thousand horsemen, and twenty thousand footmen. And David hocked all the chariot horses, but reserved from them for a hundred chariots.

English Standard Version      And David took from him 1,000 chariots, 7,000 horsemen, and 20,000 foot soldiers. And David hamstrung all the chariot horses, but left enough for 100 chariots.

exeGeses companion Bible   ...and from him,

David captures a thousand chariots

and seven thousand cavalry

and twenty thousand footmen;

and David uproots/hamstrings all the chariots;

but a hundred of their chariots remain.

MKJV                                     And David took from him a thousand chariots and seven thousand horsemen, and twenty thousand footmen. David also hamstrung all the chariot horses, but kept from them a hundred chariots.

NASB                                     David took from him 1,000 chariots and 7,000 horsemen and 20,000 foot soldiers, and David hamstrung all the chariot horses, but reserved enough of them for 100 chariots.

New King James Version       David took from him one thousand chariots, seven thousand [Or seven hundred (compare 2 Samuel 8:4)] horsemen, and twenty thousand foot soldiers. Also David hamstrung all the chariot horses, except that he spared enough of them for one hundred chariots.

Syndein/Thieme                     And David captured from him one thousand chariots,

and seven thousand cavalry/horsemen,

and twenty thousand infantry/footmen.

And, David hamstrung all the chariot horses,

but reserved of them one hundred chariots.

Young’s Updated LT             And David captures from him 1000 chariots, and 7000 horsemen, and 20,000 footmen, and David destroys utterly all the chariots, and leaves of them 100 chariots only.

 

The gist of this verse:          David captures 1000 chariots (or, chariot riders) 7000 horsemen and 20,000 of Hadadezer’s infantry. He either hamstrings all of the horses, but keeps 100 of them or destroys all of the chariots, and keeps 100 of them.


1Chronicles 18:4a = 2Samuel 8:4a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

lâkad (לָכַד) [pronounced law-KAHD]

to capture, to seize, to take, to choose [by lot]

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #3920 BDB #539

Lâkad (לָכַד) has three basic meanings: ➊ to take, to catch, to take as a capture, to capture; ➋ to intercept, to take before; to take, to chose [something by lot]. The Niphal is simply the passive of either ➊ (2Kings 16:18 Psalm 9:16 Jer. 51:56) or ➌ (1Sam. 10:20–21).

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

min (מִן) [pronounced mihn]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʾeleph (אֶלֶף) pronounced EH-lef]

thousand, family, (500?); military unit

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #505 (and #504) BDB #48

rekeb (רֶכֶב) [pronounced REH-khebv]

riders, cavalry; chariot; horses; the upper millstone [riding on a lower millstone]

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #7393 BDB #939

These may seem like very divergent concepts, however, they are all related to the wheel. A person might refer to his car as my wheels; their circular objects would also be given a similar name. It is usually rendered chariot(s) (Gen. 50:9 Ex. 14:6–7, 9 Deut. 11:4). My guess is that this could have been a word which had its origins in Egypt. There is another usage which apparently has to do with day to day life in the ancient kitchen, although millstone may not be correct (Deut. 24:6 Judges 9:53 2Sam. 11:21). Context makes it easy to distinguish the two divergent meanings.

This word rekeb is missing from the Samuel text, which certainly causes many of the problems with the differing texts.

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

shebaʿ (שֶבַע) [pronounced sheb-VAHĢ]

seven

numeral masculine construct

Strong's #7651 BDB #987

ʾeleph (אֶלֶף) pronounced EH-lef]

thousand, family, (500?); military unit

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #505 (and #504) BDB #48

Instead of thousands, the Samuel text has the word:

mêʾôwth (מֵאוֹת) [pronounced may-OHTH]

hundreds

feminine plural absolute; numeral

Strong’s #3967 BDB #547

pârâsh (פָּרָש) [pronounced paw-RASH]

horse, steed; horseman

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #6571 BDB #832

The Greek has David capturing 1000 chariots and 7000 horsemen as opposed to 1700 horsemen. This agrees with the 1Chron. 18:4 text.

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʿeserîym (עֶשְׂרִים) [pronounced ģese-REEM]

twenty

plural numeral adjective

Strong’s #6242 BDB #797

ʾeleph (אֶלֶף) pronounced EH-lef]

thousand, family, (500?); military unit

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #505 (and #504) BDB #48

ʾîysh (אִיש) [pronounced eesh]

a man, a husband; anyone; a certain one; each, each one, everyone

masculine singular noun (sometimes found where we would use a plural)

Strong's #376 BDB #35

ragelîy (רַגְלִי) [pronounced rahge-LEE]

on foot, footmen; foot soldier

masculine singular adjective

Strong’s #7273 BDB #920


Translation: David captured from him [Hadadezer] 1000 chariot riders, 7000 horsemen and 20,000 foot soldiers. About the weakest text in all of the Bible is that of Samuel. There are more problems with this text, for whatever reason, than the text of Chronicles (which is newer). Much of the time, when there is a difficulty between the Samuel and Chronicles text, we follow the Chronicles text. Since the problems appear to be with the Samuel text, I have gone into great detail in the exegesis of 2Sam. 8:4 to explain it. Since the text of Chronicles appears to be okay, there is no reason to explain the problems of the Samuel text here.


The Bible to us is one whole book, and that is how God the Holy Spirit meant for us to take it. However, for hundreds of years, even though the Bible was seen as a collection of inspired writings, one did not always have all of these writings together at one place at one time. So, in the storage, transportation and recopying of some texts, problems cropped up in the text, some of them fairly obvious (e.g., the missing noun after 1000 in the Samuel text).


I believe that part of this is to keep exegetes of the text on their toes. The end result, ideally speaking, will be that the person exegeting the passage get more information from the passage in order to teach.


David’s conflict with Hadadezer is given more text than any of the other conflicts. The number of men captured seems quite large and nothing in this text indicates what is done with them. My guess would be, these men are put into slavery.


1Chronicles 18:4b = 2Samuel 8:4b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʿâqar (עָקַר) [pronounced ģaw-KAHR]

to hamstring [horses]

3rd person masculine singular, Piel imperfect

Strong’s #6131 BDB #785

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

the whole, all of, the entirety of, all; can also be rendered any of

masculine singular construct followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

rekeb (רֶכֶב) [pronounced REH-khebv]

riders, cavalry; chariot; horses; the upper millstone [riding on a lower millstone]

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #7393 BDB #939

These may seem like very divergent concepts, however, they are all related to the wheel. A person might refer to his car as my wheels; their circular objects would also be given a similar name. It is usually rendered chariot(s) (Gen. 50:9 Ex. 14:6–7, 9 Deut. 11:4). My guess is that this could have been a word which had its origins in Egypt. There is another usage which apparently has to do with day to day life in the ancient kitchen, although millstone may not be correct (Deut. 24:6 Judges 9:53 2Sam. 11:21). Context makes it easy to distinguish the two divergent meanings.


Translation: David also disabled all of the chariots,... The word for chariots looks at the chariot itself as a whole, including the rider, the horse, and the chariot itself. David disables all of the chariots; however, from the noun used, we do not know whether this means that he disabled the chariots themselves or the horses pulling the chariots (by hamstringing them); or he may have done both.


1Chronicles 18:4c = 2Samuel 8:4c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

yâthar (יָתַר) [pronounced yaw-THAHR]

to save over, to preserve alive; to cause someone to abound with something; to let remain, to leave; to make profit; to show [have] excess

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect

Strong’s #3498 BDB #451

min (מִן) [pronounced mihn]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

mêʾâh (מֵאָה) [pronounced may-AW]

one hundred, a hundred, hundred

feminine singular numeral

Strong’s #3967 BDB #547

rekeb (רֶכֶב) [pronounced REH-khebv]

riders, cavalry; chariot; horses; the upper millstone [riding on a lower millstone]

masculine singular noun, pausal form

Strong’s #7393 BDB #939


Translation: ...but [lit., and] he kept from them 100 chariots. David apparently makes a conscious choice here not to supplement his own army with a march enlarged armor division. He has chosen to trust in God as opposed to trusting in chariots.


If you have gone through my exegesis of the Samuel text, you will see that I went to great pains to show that rekeb refers to the totality of the chariot (the horse, the chariot and the rider). The final translation is therefore: David captured from him [Hadadezer] 1000 chariot riders, 7000 horsemen and 20,000 foot soldiers. David also hamstrung all of the horses [and disabled all of the chariots], but [lit., and] he kept aside from them 100 horses [and chariots].


The verb found here usually refers to hamstringing horses, and it is unclear whether David disabled the chariots and then hamstrung the horses in place, or if he simply disabled the chariots. The LXX simply has the Jews disabling the chariots, without reference to the horses. One commentator (Clarke Footnote ) could not imagine David doing anything as inhuman as hamstringing the horses and letting them die; Gill suggests Footnote that this procedure rendered these horses worthless with regards to warfare, but allowed the horse to still live and function. Poole Footnote seems to agree with this assessment. Not being an expert on horses, I don’t know how exactly one would disable the horse for functioning with a chariot, and yet leave the horse alive and otherwise functioning.

 

It is interesting that chariots have been around for a long time; Egyptians, the Philistines and Hadadezer all used chariots against the Israelites. The Israelites almost always prevailed, their infantry defeating the chariots. Interestingly enough, the Jews had many occasions to capture, keep and man a chariot army, but they never seemed to choose to do this until the time of Solomon (1Kings 4:26). It could simply be that the Jews knew that, you destroy any component part of a chariot (the man, horse or the chariot itself) and you disable the chariot altogether. It could have been that God had promised the Jews victory in this or that battle, so that they depended upon Him rather than upon something like chariots. For whatever, reason, the Jews were late in using chariots.

 

What is not the case is, the Jews decided that having chariots would be anti-God in some way. I have seen several commentators remark that the Jews knew they were to depend upon God and not chariots (Joshua 11:6 Psalm 20:7), and therefore, would not use chariots. The idea here is, they would be depending upon chariots and horses rather than upon God if they used chariots and horses. Listen: all of Israel’s great military leaders used strategy and tactics in war. Sometimes these were dictated by God, and sometimes these were applied by the general in charge to the situation. However, if using strategy and tactics does not violate their trust in God, then horses and chariots would not either. God is depended upon in their thinking; God is depended upon by the doctrine in their souls.


God, when he told kings of Israel not to multiply horses to themselves, was addressing 3 problems: the accumulation of great wealth to the king, dependence upon a great cavalry, and the frequent interaction with the nation of Egypt, which was famous in the ancient world for its horses. This did not mean that beefing up the army of Israel showed a lack of faith in God. Modern Israel has one of the most advanced armies and weapons systems in the world (as does the United States). I cover this more completely in the exegesis of 2Sam. 8:4.


Application: Being a believer should not turn you into a blithering idiot. You do what is right and prudent, and you place your trust in God. God will, on occasion, drop a job into your lap. However, most of the time, you have to prepare a resume, set appointments with prospective employers, and show up early for these interviews. God expects for us to be out there interacting with the world. When it comes to a national army, we support the largest, most advanced army that we can possibly muster. However, simultaneously, we depend upon God.


Application: Our armed forces follow our degenerate culture to some degree, and move toward being politically correct. One of the reasons why we are in Iraq and Afghanistan is to share the gospel with the people there. A large majority of the servicemen are believers in Jesus Christ, and the people of these two countries observe their discipline and their faithfulness. Therefore, these men ought to be allowed to share their faith, or, at least, a Bible. One believer in Jesus Christ shared coins with the people of Iraq, one side of which read “Where will you spend eternity?” and the other side read “For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have eternal life. John 3:16.” This was written in Arabic. In Afghanistan, the military confiscated New Testament Bibles written in Dari and Pashto from soldiers. This is a mistake. What will provide a longer alliance with Iraq and Afghanistan is believers in these nations growing to maturity.


Application: Because of the problems between President Truman and General MacArthur, it is questionable whether the resolve reached in Korea was the best that we could have gotten. However, a pivot of believers was established in South Korea, and the end result has been a long-term peace for South Korea, great prosperity, and a close relationship with the United States. I do not know what part our servicemen played in this, but I suspect that many of them were a witness there to the faith that they have in Jesus Christ.


——————————


And so comes in Aram of Damascus to help to Hadadezer king of Zobah. And so strikes down David in Aram twenty and two thousand a man.

1Chronicles

18:5

Aram of Damascus went to help Hadadezer, the king of Zobah. So David struck down 22,000 men in Aram.

The Syrians of Damascus went to aid Hadadezer, the king of Zobah. So David struck down 22,000 of their soldiers.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          And the Syrians of Damascus came also to help Adarezer king of Soba: and David slew of them likewise two and twenty thousand men.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so comes in Aram of Damascus to help to Hadadezer king of Zobah. And so strikes down David in Aram twenty and two thousand a man.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And when the Edomites and the Arameans of Damascus came to help Hadarezer king of Nisibin, David slew of the Edomites twenty-two thousand men.

Septuagint (Greek)                And the Syrians came from Damascus to help Hadadezer king of Zobah; and David killed of the Syrian army twenty-two thousand men.

 

Significant differences:           The Syriac has both Edom and Aram in the first sentence. These two words are very similar in the Hebrew. In the last phrase, the English translation from the Latin adds the word likewise. The English translation of the Syriac leaves off the 2nd and (I leave off the first and). Apart from the Syriac’s addition of Edom, there is no important difference between the texts.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       When troops from the Syrian kingdom of Damascus came to help Hadadezer, David killed twenty-two thousand of them.

Easy English (Pocock)           People from the country called Aram came from Damascus. They came to support King Hadadezer of Zobah. But David killed 22 000 of them.

Easy-to-Read Version            The Aramean people from the city of Damascus came to help Hadadezer. Hadadezer was the king of Zobah. But David defeated and killed 22,000 Aramean soldiers.

Good News Bible (TEV)         When the Syrians of Damascus sent an army to help King Hadadezer, David attacked it and killed twenty-two thousand men.

The Message                         When the Arameans from Damascus came to the aid of Hadadezer king of Zobah, David killed 22,000 of them.

New Century Version             Arameans from Damascus came to help Hadadezer king of Zobah, but David killed twenty-two thousand of them.

New Life Bible                        The Syrians of Damascus came to help King Hadadezer of Zobah. But David killed 22,000 of the Syrian men.

New Living Translation           When Arameans from Damascus arrived to help King Hadadezer, David killed 22,000 of them.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          And when the Syrians came from Damascus to help AdraAzar, David attacked them and killed twenty-two thousand of their men,...


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And when the Aramaeans of Damascus came to the help of Hadadezer, king of Zobah, David put to the sword twenty-two thousand Aramaeans.

Judaica Press Complete T.    And Aram of Damascus came to aid Hadarezer, king of Zobah, and David smote of Aram twenty-two thousand men.

NET Bible®                             The Arameans of Damascus came to help King Hadadezer of Zobah, but David killed 22,000 of the Arameans.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

A Conservative Version         And when the Syrians of Damascus came to aid Hadarezer king of Zobah, David smote of the Syrians twenty-two thousand men.

English Standard Version      And when the Syrians of Damascus came to help Hadadezer king of Zobah, David struck down 22,000 men of the Syrians.

exeGeses companion Bible   And the Aramiy of Dammeseq

come to help Hadar Ezer sovereign of Sobah,

and David smites of the Aramiy

- twenty-two thousand men:

Hebrew Names Version         When the Syrians of Damascus came to help Hadad`ezer king of Tzovah, David struck of the Syrians twenty-two thousand men.

Syndein/Thieme                     And when the Syrians of Damascus

came to help Hadadezer king of Zobah,

David slew of the Syrians

two and twenty thousand men.

Young’s Updated LT             And Aram of Damascus comes in to give help to Hadarezer king of Zobah, and David strikes in Aram twenty and two thousand men.

 

The gist of this verse:          The Syrians (= Aram) are allies of Hadadezer and they send an army to assist him. David kills 22,000 of their men.


1Chronicles 18:5a = 2Samuel 8:5a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

bôwʾ (בּוֹא) [pronounced boh]

to come in, to come, to go in, to go, to enter

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #935 BDB #97

In the Samuel txt, bowʾ is a feminine singular verb.

ʾĂram (אֲרַם) [pronounced uh-RAHM]

the highland, high region; exalted; and is transliterated Aram; sometimes rendered Syria, Mesopotamia

masculine singular, proper noun; construct state

Strong’s #758 BDB #74

Dameseq (דַּמֶּשֶׂק) [pronounced dahm-MEH-sehk]

alertness; and is transliterated Damascus

proper singular noun; location

Strong’s #1833 and #1834 BDB #199 and #200

BDB lists #1833 on p. 200 as a separate noun, which refers to damask, silk, Damascene cloth. The vowel points and the pronunciation are different. Gesenius puts this all under #1933. There are 2 more alternate spellings for this noun.

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʿâzar (עָזַר) [pronounced ģaw-ZAHR]

to help, to aid

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #5826 BDB #740

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

Hădadeʿezer (הֲדַדְעֶזֶר) [pronounced huhd-ahd-ĢEH-zer]

Hadad is a helper; transliterated Hadadezer

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #1909 BDB #212

See v. 3a for the alternative spelling (Hadarezer) and the locations for these two spellings.

meleke (מֶלֶך׃) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572

Tsôwbâh (צוֹבָה) [pronounced tzohb-VAW]

transliterated Zobah

Proper noun, territory

Strong’s #6678 BDB #844


Translation: Aram of Damascus went to help Hadadezer, the king of Zobah. The writer of Chronicles retains the play on words here. Hadadezer means Hadad is a helper; so the Syrians send men to help him. This is the writer of Samuel being clever and mocking the Syrians here.


Aram of Damascus is northeast of Israel, as is Hadadezer; they obviously had some sort of an alliance. Redpath tells us that there were two capitols to the Syrian empire: one in Zobah and the other in Damascus. Footnote


Easton tells us a little about Damascus (this was also in the exegesis of 2Sam. 8):

Easton on Damascus

Damascus is the most ancient of Oriental cities; the capital of Syria (Isa. 7:8 17:3); situated about 133 miles to the north of Jerusalem. Its modern name is Esh–Sham; i.e., “the East.” The situation of this city is said to be the most beautiful of all Western Asia. It is mentioned among the conquests of the Egyptian king Thothmes III. (1500 b.c.), and in the Amarna tablets (1400 b.c.).

Damascus is first mentioned in Scripture in connection with Abraham's victory over the confederate kings under Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:15). It was the native place of Abraham's steward (Gen. 15:2).

We do not hear of Damascus again until the time of David, when “the Syrians of Damascus came to help Hadadezer” (2Sam. 8:5; 1Chron. 18:5). In the reign of Solomon, Rezon became leader of a band who revolted from Hadadezer (1Kings 11:23), and they moved to Damascus, settled there and made their leader king. There was a long war, with varying success, between the Israelites and Syrians, who at a later period became allies of Israel against Judah (2Kings 15:37).

What follows is future from our passage:

The Syrians were at length subdued by the Assyrians, the city of Damascus was taken and destroyed, and the inhabitants carried captive into Assyria (2Kings 16:7–9; compare Isa. 7:8). In this, prophecy was fulfilled (Isa. 17:1 Amos 1:4 Jer. 49:24). The kingdom of Syria remained a province of Assyria till the capture of Nineveh by the Medes (625 B.C.), when it fell under the conquerors. After passing through various vicissitudes, Syria was invaded by the Romans (64 B.C.), and Damascus became the seat of the government of the province. In a.d. 37 Aretas, the king of Arabia, became master of Damascus, having driven back Herod Antipas.

This city is memorable as the scene of Saul's conversion (Acts 9:1–25). The street called “Straight,” in which Judas lived, in whose house Saul was found by Ananias, is known by the name Sultany, or “Queen's Street.” It is the principal street of the city. Paul visited Damascus again on his return from Arabia (Gal. 1:16–17). Christianity was planted here as a centre (Acts 9:20), from which it spread to the surrounding regions.

In a.d. 634 Damascus was conquered by the growing Mohammedan power. In 1516 it fell under the dominion of the Turks, its present rulers. It is now the largest city in Asiatic Turkey. Christianity has again found a firm footing within its walls [Easton wrote in 1897, so things have changed since then].

From M.G. Easton M.A., D.D., Illustrated Bible Dictionary; 1897; from e-Sword, topic: Damascus (slightly edited).


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RBT suggests Footnote that David used the 100 chariots from the previous verse to beef up his reconnaissance. They raced out and saw the Syrians coming on his flank. Therefore, David sends out a force to destroy the Syrians as well. Although this is conjecture, it is a reasonable conjecture, and it ties these verses together.


1Chronicles 18:5b = 2Samuel 8:5b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

nâkâh (נָכָה) [pronounced naw-KAWH]

to smite, to assault, to hit, to strike, to strike [something or someone] down, to defeat, to conquer, to subjugate

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect

Strong #5221 BDB #645

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

Strong’s# none BDB #88

ʾĂram (אֲרַם) [pronounced uh-RAHM]

the highland, high region; exalted; and is transliterated Aram; sometimes rendered Syria, Mesopotamia

masculine singular, proper noun

Strong’s #758 BDB #74

ʿeserîym (עֶשְׂרִים) [pronounced ģese-REEM]

twenty

plural numeral adjective

Strong’s #6242 BDB #797

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

shetayim (שְתַּיִם) [pronounced shet-TAH-yim]

two, two of, a pair of, a duo of

feminine numeral noun

Strong’s #8147 BDB #1040

ʾeleph (אֶלֶף) pronounced EH-lef]

thousand, family, (500?); military unit

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #505 (and #504) BDB #48

ʾîysh (אִיש) [pronounced eesh]

a man, a husband; anyone; a certain one; each, each one, everyone

masculine singular noun (sometimes found where we would use a plural)

Strong's #376 BDB #35


Translation: So David struck down 22,000 men in Aram. David’s fight against the Syrians (Aram) appears to have been quite successful. The Aramaeans have made the grievous error of allying themselves with the wrong nation. Had they been bullied by Hadadezer, it was their ideal opportunity to break free and ally themselves with David. However, they did not, and, as a result, 22,000 of their army died in battle.


As I have mentioned in the past, you can tell what a nation and a people are like based upon their friends and allies. There were those allied against Israel and those allied with Israel.


Application: This may help to explain nationalism to those who do not get it. Many nations and peoples align themselves with Satan and others align themselves with God. This allows God to corporately bless some nations and corporately curse others. This also allows for evil, hatred and anti-Semitism to be confined geographically.

 

Application: The more multi-cultural a nation becomes, the more it can be swayed away from God and toward cosmic thinking. Cosmic thinking is aggressive and attempts to superimpose a mindset over those in their periphery. Those who believe in God tend to respect freedom and believe in live and let live. The United States is called a melting pot because, for many decades, those who came to America were proud to become Americans. They were proud to assimilate themselves into our culture. However, what we see in many European nations today are large groups of Muslims moving into their nations and remaining separate culturally and socially. There is no melting pot concept. A Muslim does not move to France to become a Frenchman, he moves to France to be a Muslim and to move France in that direction. They do not see themselves as Frenchmen; they do not see themselves as becoming Frenchmen through cultural assimilation. They see themselves as Muslims, as remaining Muslims and as a force to change decadent French society (at least in their immediate periphery). What we end up with are European nations which have huge pockets of people which resist European culture.


Application: I write this in October of 2009, and we have just had one of the most remarkable occurrences in our country’s history—we have had 3 thug dictators praise our president, one of them calling for him to be president of American for all time. It is not a good sign when evil men praise you. We understand who a person is, based upon his friends and his enemies.


Application: David is allied with God and the Syrians are aligned with Hadadezer, and evil leader dedicated to war. We have modern-day examples of important national movements. In Europe, the people have become more and more secular, turning further and further away from God and depending more and more upon their governments. As a result, their freedoms have been restricted and their countries infiltrated with anti-God Muslims who actually threaten to take over these European countries. Many population experts, based upon the current populations of various European countries and their birth rates, project Muslim majorities in these countries within this century. Moving further away from God means that you are moving closer to Satan.


——————————


And so puts David (garrisons) in Aram of Damascus and so is Aram to David servants carrying tribute. And so delivers Yehowah David in all that he went.

1Chronicles

18:6

David then placed garrisons in Aram of Damascus and the Syrians became David’s servants, bringing [him] tribute. And Yehowah [continued to] save [and preserve] David wherever he went.

David then placed garrisons in Aram of Damascus and the Syrians became David’s vassals, bringing him taxes. Furthermore, God continued to deliver and preserve David wherever he went.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          And he put a garrison in Damascus, that Syria also should serve him, and bring gifts. And the Lord assisted him in all things to which he went.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so puts David (garrisons) in Aram of Damascus and so is Aram to David servants carrying tribute. And so delivers Yehowah David in all that he went.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    Then David appointed governors in Damascus, and the Arameans became David's servants and brought tribute. Thus the LORD preserved David wheresoever he went.

Septuagint (Greek)                And David put a garrison in Syria near Damascus; and they became servants bearing gifts to David. And the Lord delivered David wherever he went.

 

Significant differences:           The noun garrisons appears to have dropped out of the Hebrew text of Chronicles. Garrisons is in the plural in the Hebrew of 2Sam. 8; however, it is in the singular in the Greek in both the Samuel and Chronicles passages. It also appears to be singular in the Latin text. In this same phrase, we have Aram of Damascus in the Hebrew; however, both the Latin and the Syriac appear to carry Syria into the next phrase.

 

In the 2nd phrase, the Hebrew repeats the noun Aram (Syria), but the Greek, Latin and Syriac do not. This could have been done simply because it sounds better not to repeat the noun.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       Then David stationed some of his troops in Damascus, and the people there had to accept David as their ruler and pay taxes to him. Everywhere David went, the LORD helped him win battles.

Easy English (Pocock)           Then David put army camps in Damascus. The people in Aram became David's servants and they paid taxes to him. The *LORD helped David to win battles everywhere that he went.

Easy-to-Read Version            Then David put fortresses [A building or city with tall, strong walls for protection] in the city of Damascus in Aram. The Aramean people became David’s servants and brought tribute [Money and gifts paid by one king to the king that defeated him] to him. So the Lord gave victory to David everywhere he went.

Good News Bible (TEV)         Then he set up military camps in their territory, and they became his subjects and paid taxes to him. The LORD made David victorious everywhere.

The Message                         David set up a puppet government in Aram-Damascus. The Arameans became subjects of David and were forced to bring tribute. GOD gave victory to David wherever he marched.

New Century Version             Then David put groups of soldiers in Damascus in Aram. The Arameans became David's servants and gave him the payments he demanded. So the Lord gave David victory everywhere he went.

New Life Bible                        Then David put soldiers in Syria of Damascus. And the Syrians became servants to David, paying taxes. The Lord helped David in every place he went.

New Living Translation           Then he placed several army garrisons [As in Greek version and Latin Vulgate (see also 2 Sam 8:6); Hebrew lacks several army garrisons.] in Damascus, the Aramean capital, and the Arameans became David's subjects and paid him tribute money. So the Lord made David victorious wherever he went.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          ...and he left a garrison in Syria near Damascus. So, Syria became David's servants and had to bring tributes to him.

Well, Jehovah watched over David, no matter where he went.

Ancient Roots Translinear      The Syrians were David's servants, and lifted food-gifts to set for David in Damascus. Yahweh saved David in all his goings in Syria.

God’s Word                         David put troops in the Aramean kingdom of Damascus, and the Arameans became his subjects and paid taxes to him. Everywhere David went, the LORD gave him victories.

New American Bible              Then David set up garrisons in the Damascus region of Aram, and the Arameans became his subjects, paying tribute. Thus the LORD made David victorious in all his campaigns.

NIRV                                      He stationed some soldiers in the Aramean kingdom of Damascus. The people of Aram were brought under his rule. They gave him the gifts he required them to bring him. The Lord helped David win his battles everywhere he went.

New Jerusalem Bible             David then imposed governors in Aram of Damascus, and the Aramaeans became David's subjects and paid him tribute. Wherever David went, Yahweh gave him victory.

New Simplified Bible              David stationed troops in the Aramean kingdom of Damascus. The Arameans became his subjects and paid taxes to him. Everywhere David went Jehovah gave him victories.

Revised English Bible            ...and stationed garrisons among these Aramaeans; they became subject to him and paid him tribute. Thus the Lord gave David victory wherever he went.

Today’s NIV                          He put garrisons in the Aramean kingdom of Damascus, and the Arameans became subject to him and brought him tribute. The LORD gave David victory wherever he went.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             Then David put armed forces in Damascus, and the Aramaeans became his servants and gave him offerings. And the Lord made David overcome wherever he went.

Context Group Version          Then David put [ garrisons ] in Syria of Damascus; and the Syrians became slaves to David, and brought tribute. And YHWH gave victory to David wherever he went.

JPS (Tanakh)                         David stationed [garrisons] in Aram of Damascus, and the Arameans became tributary vassals of David. The Lord gave David victory wherever he went.

Judaica Press Complete T.    And David placed garrisons in Aram of Damascus, and the Arameans became vassals to David, paying tribute, and the Lord gave victory to David wherever he went.

NET Bible®                             David placed garrisons in the territory of the Arameans of Damascus [Heb "and David placed in Aram of Damascus." The object נְצִיבִים (netsiybiym, "garrisons") appears to have been accidentally omitted from the text. See v. 13, as well as the parallel passage in 2 Sam 8:6, which includes it.]; the Arameans became David's subjects and brought tribute. The LORD protected [Or "delivered."] David wherever he campaigned [Or "wherever he went."].


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                Then David put garrisons in Syria, [whose capital was] Damascus; the Syrians became David's servants and brought tribute. Thus the Lord preserved and gave victory to David wherever he went.

Concordant Literal Version    ...and David puts [garrisons] in Aram of Damascus, and the Arameans are to David for servants, bearing a present, and Yahweh gives salvation to David whithersoever he has gone.

exeGeses companion Bible   ...and David sets in Aram Dammeseq;

and the Aramiy become servants of David

and bear offerings.

Thus Yah Veh saves David wherever he goes.

Fred Miller’s Revised KJV     Then David put garrisons in Syria-Damascus; and the Syrians became David's servants, and brought gifts. Thus the LORD preserved David whereever he went.,

MKJV                                     Then David placed troops in Syria, in Damascus. And the Syrians became David's servants, bringing gifts. And Jehovah preserved David wherever he went.

Syndein/Thieme                     Then David put garrisons in Syria-Damascus;

and the Syrians became David's servants, and brought gifts.

Thus Jehovah/God preserved David wherever he went..

Third Millennium Bible            Then David put garrisons in Syriadamascus; and the Syrians became David's servants, and brought gifts. Thus the LORD preserved David whithersoever he went.

Young’s Updated LT             And David puts garrisons in Aram of Damascus, and the Aramaeans are to David for servants, bearing a present, and Jehovah gives deliverance to David wherever he has gone.

 

The gist of this verse:          David set up garrisons throughout Aram and the Syrians became subservient to David, bringing him tribute. God continued to be with David no matter where he went.


1Chronicles 18:6a = 2Samuel 8:6a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

sîym (שִׂים) [pronounced seem]; also spelled sûwm (שׂוּם) [pronounced soom]

to put, to place, to set; to make; to appoint

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #7760 BDB #962

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

The following word is found in the parallel passage in 2Sam. 8, as well as in the Aramaic, Syriac, Greek and Latin; Footnote however, it is missing from the Chronicles text.

netsîyb (נְצִיב) [pronounced neTZEEBV]

pillar, prefect, garrison, post, outpost

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #5333 BDB #662

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

Strong’s# none BDB #88

ʾĂram (אֲרַם) [pronounced uh-RAHM]

the highland, high region; exalted; and is transliterated Aram; sometimes rendered Syria, Mesopotamia

masculine singular construct, proper noun

Strong’s #758 BDB #74

Dameseq (דַּמֶּשֶׂק) [pronounced dahm-MEH-sehk]

alertness; and is transliterated Damascus

proper singular noun; location

Strong’s #1833 and #1834 BDB #199 and #200


Translation: David then placed [garrisons] in Aram of Damascus... The fidelity of text is quite interesting here. In all the known ancient texts and in the parallel passage in 2Sam. 8, we have the word garrisons. We need to have a direct object for the verb. Therefore, you would suppose, the copyists would be able to figure out that the word garrisons obviously dropped out and needs to be placed back with the text. They do not do this! Why? The copyists refuse to add or take away from the Word of God. They consider the text sacred. They are going to preserve the text before them, no mater what. It is not their decision to determine if a word or a phrase needs to be changed or corrected; it is their job to reproduce the text exactly as it stood before them, and the scribes did this with unflinching accuracy. It is passages like this, where all English translations insert the missing word garrisons (or some similar word), which causes us to realize that, whatever was in front of the scribe, that he copied, without veering to the left or the right, without inserting his own opinions. The English translations are correct in what they chose to do; the fact that the copyists would not insert what is the obvious text here is a testimony to the accuracy of the text which has been preserved up until this time. If these copyists would not insert of word which all other manuscripts cry out to insert, then we know that their focus was good and true.


As was mentioned in the previous verse, the Syrians were divided into two main groups: one was associated with Zobah and the other with Damascus. This sort of division is noted by the way this is expressed: Aram of Damascus rather than the other way around.


David is conquering the land around him. Here, it appears to be the result of aggressions toward him and his army. So, having conquered Aram-Damascus, David puts in an army outpost in order to collect taxes.


1Chronicles 18:6b = 2Samuel 8:6b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person feminine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

ʾĂram (אֲרַם) [pronounced uh-RAHM]

the highland, high region; exalted; and is transliterated Aram; sometimes rendered Syria, Mesopotamia

feminine singular proper noun

Strong’s #758 BDB #74

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

The lâmed preposition is missing from the Chronicles text (which could simply indicate a change in the language, as Chronicles was written hundreds of years after Samuel).

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʿebed (עֶבֶד) [pronounced ĢEB-ved]

slave, servant

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #5650 BDB #713

nâsâʾ (נָשָׂא) [pronounced naw-SAW]

those lifting up, bearers, those carrying; the ones exalting; those taking away

masculine plural, Qal active participle

Strong’s #5375 (and #4984) BDB #669

minechâh (מִנְחָה) [pronounced min-HAWH]

tribute offering, gift, present; sacrifice, bloodless offering; [a general term for] offering

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #4503 BDB #585


Translation: ...and the Syrians became David’s servants, bringing [him] tribute. As was customary in the ancient world, when a land was conquered, it then paid a tribute—parallel to our concept of taxes—to the conquering country. This may seem foreign to us, and the United States tends to pour more money into a country it has liberated rather than to take money out.


1Chronicles 18:6c = 2Samuel 8:6c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

yâshaʿ (יָשַע) [pronounced yaw-SHAHĢ]

to deliver, to save; to set free, to preserve; to aid, to give relief

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect

Strong’s #3467 BDB #446

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

Instead of the lâmed preposition, the Samuel text has the sign of the direct object instead (which can function as a preposition and which can also mean to).

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

Strong’s# none BDB #88

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]; also kol (כֹּל) [pronounced kol]

all, all things, the whole, totality, the entirety, everything

masculine singular noun without the definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced ash-ER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

In Joshua 1:7, Owen and the NASB translates these three words wherever; Young: in every [place] whither; Rotherham and the KJV: whithersoever. In 2Sam. 7:7, the NASB renders this wherever, but Owen translates it in all places. Young, in an unusual move, renders this during all [the time] that in 2Sam. 7:7. Literally, this is in all which; and wherever is a good modern rendering.

hâlake (הָלַךְ) [pronounced haw-LAHKe]

to go, to come, to depart, to walk; to advance

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect, pausal form

Strong’s #1980 (and #3212) BDB #229


Translation: And Yehowah [continued to] save [and preserve] David wherever he went. God was with David and God delivered and preserved David wherever he went.


Application: David was saved and his mind was focused on Bible doctrine. However, David spent a great deal of time in carnality for at least one period of his life. God knew this from the beginning, and yet God blessed David greatly. A relationship with God through Jesus Christ and spiritual growth should be our fundamental focus in life.


In our passage, we have David warring against a number of nations. There is no indication that God told David, “Now, you need to attack Moab; after that, the Syrians.” Although David no doubt was guided by God, much of it was from the doctrine in his soul from studying God’s Word. He had the incomplete Word of God; we have the completed Word of God. He had a specific responsibility as king in Israel. He had access to the prophet Nathan, to two High Priests, and a limited form of the Word of God. If you do not realize this, we have the better deal. Whether we are a believer in the United States, England, Russia, the Philippines or in Saudi Arabia, God has a plan for our lives, and He can communicate to us through His Word what we ought to know and do, whether we happen to live in a client nation or a nation which is very negative toward God’s Word; whether we are raised in a family of believers or unbelievers. The more we understand the Word of God, the easier it is to figure out what to do day-to-day.


——————————


And so takes David shields of the gold which were upon servants of Hadadezer and so he brings them [to] Jerusalem.

1Chronicles

18:7

David also took the shields of gold [or, brilliant shields] which belonged to the [lit., which are to, which are upon] servants of Hadadezer and he brought them to Jerusalem.

David also took the shields of gold which had belonged to the servants of Hadadezer and brought them to Jerusalem.



Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          And David took the golden quivers which the servants of Adarezer had, and he brought them to Jerusalem.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so takes David shields of the gold which were upon servants of Hadadezer and so he brings them [to] Jerusalem.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And David took the shields of gold that were hanging on the horses of the servants of Hadarezer, and brought them to Jerusalem.

Septuagint (Greek)                And David took the golden shields that were on the servants of Hadadezer, and brought them to Jerusalem.

 

Significant differences:           Although the Latin seems out of step with regards to the golden shields, quivers is a legitimate translation of the Hebrew word. The English translation of the Latin and Syriac do not match up with the Hebrew when it comes to the shields being upon the servants of Hadadezer (although, this preposition, in rare instances, can mean to).


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       Hadadezer's officers had carried gold shields, but David took these shields and brought them back to Jerusalem.

Good News Bible (TEV)         David captured the gold shields carried by Hadadezer's officials and took them to Jerusalem.

The Message                         David plundered the gold shields that belonged to the servants of Hadadezer and brought them to Jerusalem.

New Life Bible                        David took the battle-coverings of gold which were carried by Hadadezer's servants, and brought them to Jerusalem.

New Living Translation           David brought the gold shields of Hadadezer's officers to Jerusalem,...


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          So David took the golden collars and other items of gold that were worn by the servants of AdraAzar, and had it all carried back to Jerusalem.

Ancient Roots Translinear      David took the gold spiked-shields that were over the servants of Hadarezer, and brought them to Jerusalem.

God’s Word                         David took the gold shields that Hadadezer's servants carried, and he brought them to Jerusalem.

New American Bible              David took the golden shields that were carried by Hadadezer's attendants and brought them to Jerusalem.

New Jerusalem Bible             David took the golden shields carried by Hadadezer's guards and brought them to Jerusalem.

New Simplified Bible              David took the gold shields that Hadadezer’s servants carried. He brought them to Jerusalem.

Revised English Bible            David took the gold shields borne by Hadadezer’s servants and brought them to Jerusalem.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And the gold body-covers of the servants of Hadadezer, David took to Jerusalem.

Context Group Version          And David took the shields of gold that were on the slaves of Hadarezer, and brought them to Jerusalem.

JPS (Tanakh)                         David took the gold shields carried by Hadadezer’s retinue and brought them to Jerusalem;...

Judaica Press Complete T.    And David took the golden quivers that were on Hadarezer's servants and brought them to Jerusalem.

NET Bible®                             David took the golden shields which Hadadezer's servants had carried [Heb "which were upon the servants of Hadadezer."] and brought them to Jerusalem.

New International Version      David took the gold shields carried by the officers of Hadadezer and brought them to Jerusalem.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And David takes the shields of gold that have been on the servants of Hadarezer, and brings them in to Jerusalem;"

English Standard Version      And David took the shields of gold that were carried by the servants of Hadadezer and brought them to Jerusalem.

MKJV                                     And David took the shields of gold which were on the servants of Hadarezer, and brought them to Jerusalem.

Young’s Updated LT             And David takes the shields of gold that have been on the servants of Hadarezer, and brings them in to Jerusalem.

 

The gist of this verse:          David confiscated the shields made with gold from Hadadezer’s soldiers and brought them to Jerusalem.


1Chronicles 18:7a = 2Samuel 8:7a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

lâqach (לָקַח) [pronounced law-KAHKH]

to take, to take away, to take in marriage; to seize

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #3947 BDB #542

The BDB gives the following meanings: to take, take in the hand; to take and carry along; to take from, take out of, take, carry away, take away; to take to or for a person, procure, get, take possession of, select, choose, take in marriage, receive, accept; to take up or upon, put upon; to fetch; to take, lead, conduct; to take, capture, seize; to take, carry off; to take (vengeance).

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

sheleţ (שֶלֶט) [pronounced SHEH-leht]

a shield; arms, equipment; quivers, arrows, darts

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #7982 BDB #1020

The different meanings represent differing opinions as to the meaning of this word. However, of the 7 times this word is found in the Old Testament, it could be reasonably rendered shield (s) every time (2Sam. 8:7 2Kings 11:10 1Chron. 18:7 2Chron. 23:9 SOS. 4:4 Ezek. 27:11). Furthermore, shield is the only meaning offered by BDB and Gesenius.

zâhâb (זָהָב) [pronounced zaw-HAWBV]

gold; a measure of weight [related to gold]; [figuratively used for] brilliance, splendor

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #2091 BDB #262

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced ash-ER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person plural, Qal perfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over; on the ground of, because of, according to, on account of, on behalf of, with, by, besides, in addition to, to, toward, together with, in the matter of, concerning, as regards to

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

When not showing a physical relationship between two things, ʿal can take on a whole host of new meanings: on the ground of, according to, on account of, on behalf of, concerning, besides, in addition to, together with, beyond, above, over, by on to, towards, to, against, in the matter of, concerning, as regards to. It is one of the most versatile prepositions in Scripture. This word often follows particular verbs. In the English, we have helping verbs; in the Hebrew, there are helping prepositions.

The parallel text in 2Sam. 8 has the preposition ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced et] instead. I do not know if this represents a change in the meaning of ʿal or what. The other explanation is to interpret the use of this preposition quiet differently, as most translators did, and understand these to be the shields which most warriors of Hadadezer carried. In any case, these are very different prepositions.

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced el]

unto, in, into, toward, to, regarding, against

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

ʿebed (עֶבֶד) [pronounced ĢEB-ved]

slave, servant

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #5650 BDB #713

Hădadeʿezer (הֲדַדְעֶזֶר) [pronounced huhd-ahd-ĢEH-zer]

Hadad is a helper; transliterated Hadadezer

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #1909 BDB #212

The text actually reads Hadarezer instead. 2 early printings have Hadadezer. See v. 3 for more details.


Translation: David also took the shields of gold [or, brilliant shields] which belonged to the [lit., which are upon, which are to] servants of Hadadezer... The shields referenced here could have been shiny and brilliant rather than made of gold. That these shields were upon the servants of Hadadezer simply means they carried these shields. Also, although it is possible that the word here refers to a variety of implements of war (according to other translators), BDB and Gesenius both offer only shield as its meaning; and this meaning is reasonable all 7 times that this word is found.


As should be obvious, David did not personally gather up all of these shields himself. David is a metonym for David’s army.


This spoil represents the blessings of God being poured out upon David, David’s army, and upon all Israel.


1Chronicles 18:7b = 2Samuel 8:7b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

bôwʾ (בּוֹא) [pronounced boh]

to take in, to bring, to come in with, to carry

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect; with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong’s #935 BDB #97

Yerûwshâlayim (יְרוּשָלַיִם) [pronounced yʾroo-shaw-LAH-yim]

possibly means founded upon peace or city of the Jebusites (or both); it is transliterated Jerusalem

proper singular noun, location; pausal form

Strong’s #3389 BDB #436


Translation: ...and he brought them to Jerusalem. David brought these shields to Jerusalem, his capitol city.


This set me to thinking, we will possibly knock out a demon in the final war at the end times (according to R. B. Thieme, Jr., a set of passages I have not yet studied), and it makes me wonder—are there going to be things which we as believers take as the spoils of war from this defeat of the demon army? I don’t know what they have that we can take, but all of these passages which we find here are placed here for a reason, and there are often parallel situations which are set up, and that may be what we are seeing here.

 

Application: In any case, if you have gotten with doctrine and, in this way, have made an impact in the Angelic Conflict, by the power of God the Holy Spirit, then you have no doubt accumulated blessings in your life (the spoils of battle). These may be material things and they may be familial relationships or vocational prosperity (you love your job) or something along these lines. I write this during an economic downturn in the United States (and even greater elsewhere) which will very likely become much worse. Just having a job might be a portion of your blessings from God.

 

What David is doing is collecting materials which he set aside for Solomon (not yet born) to use in the building of the Temple. Here we do have a clear spiritual parallel. David has all of these blessings which he is setting aside for the future which will be applied to spiritual things. The one thing which we take with us in death is our souls (and our divine production). The most prudent thing to do would be to accumulate wealth in our souls and wealth by way of divine good.


David is not building up wealth simply for wealth’s sake. It is used to pay his soldiers; it builds up the treasury for Israel; and much will be set aside for the Temple of God. Solomon, unlike David, will use much of this accumulated wealth for himself.


——————————


And from Tibhath and from Chun, cities of Hadadezer, took the King David bronze much exceedingly (with it, Solomon made sea of the bronze and the pillars and vessels of the bronze).

1Chronicles

18:8

And from Tibhath and Chun, cities of Hadadezer, King David took a huge amount of brass [bronze and copper] (with it, Solomon made the bronze sea, the pillars and the bronze vessels).

David took a great deal of bronze, brass and copper from Hadadezer’s cities, Tibhath and Chun (from this, Solomon made the bronze sea, the pillars and the bronze vessels).


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          Likewise out of Thebath and Chun, cities of Adarezer, he brought very much brass, of which Solomon made the brazen sea, and the pillars, and the vessels of brass.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And from Tibhath and from Chun, cities of Hadadezer, took the King David bronze much exceedingly (with it, Solomon made sea of the bronze and the pillars and vessels of the bronze).

Peshitta (Syriac)                    Likewise from Tibhath and from Berothi, cities of Hadarezer, David took very much brass, wherewith Solomon made the bronze sea and the pillars of brass and the oxen of brass and the vessels of brass in abundance.

Septuagint (Greek)                And David took very much bronze out of Tibhath and out of the chief cities of Chun; of this Solomon made the bronze sea, and the pillars, and the bronze vessels.

 

Significant differences:           The English translation of the Latin and Syriac begins with likewise, which is not a completely unreasonable rendering of the wâw conjunction. David is not named specifically in the Latin as the subject of the verb. In the final phrase, the English translation from the Syriac adds the words in abundance.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       He also took a lot of bronze from the cities of Tibhath and Cun, which had belonged to Hadadezer. Later, Solomon used this bronze to make the large bowl called the Sea, and to make the pillars and other furnishings for the temple.

Easy English (Pocock)           He also took a great quantity of *bronze from Tibhath and Cun. These had been among the cities that Hadadezer ruled. Later Solomon used this *bronze. With it, he made the *bronze basin, the columns and tools (for the *temple).

Good News Bible (TEV)         He also took a great quantity of bronze from Tibhath and Kun, cities ruled by Hadadezer. (Solomon later used this bronze to make the tank, the columns, and the bronze utensils for the Temple.)

The Message                         He also looted Tebah and Cun, cities of Hadadezer, of a huge quantity of bronze that Solomon later used to make the Great Bronze Sea, the Pillars, and bronze equipment in The Temple.

New Century Version             David also took many things made of bronze from Tebah and Cun, which had been cities under Hadadezer's control. Later, Solomon used this bronze to make things for the Temple: the large bronze bowl, which was called the Sea, the pillars, and other bronze utensils.

New Life Bible                        He took a very large amount of brass from Hadadezer's cities, Tibhath and Cun. This was the brass Solomon used to make the brass pool, the pillars, and the brass pots.

New Living Translation           along with a large amount of bronze from Hadadezer's towns of Tebah [Hebrew reads Tibhath, a variant spelling of Tebah; compare parallel text at 2 Sam 8:8] and Cun. Later Solomon melted the bronze and molded it into the great bronze basin called the Sea, the pillars, and the various bronze articles used at the Temple.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Then he went to MataBeth (which was one of AdraAzar's capital cities) and he brought back a tremendous amount of brass, which Solomon later used to make the Sacred Sea, the brass columns, and many other sacred utensils.

Ancient Roots Translinear      David took very much bronze from Hadarezer's cities of Tibhath and Cun. (Solomon made the bronze sea, the pillars, and the articles of bronze from it.).

God’s Word                         David also took a large quantity of bronze from Tibhath and Cun, Hadadezer's cities. (Later Solomon used it to make the pool, pillars, and utensils for the temple.)

NIRV                                      He took a huge amount of bronze from Tebah and Cun. Those towns belonged to Hadadezer. Later, Solomon used the bronze to make the huge bronze bowl for washing. He also used it to make the pillars and many other bronze articles for the temple.

New Jerusalem Bible             From Tibhath and from Cun, towns belonging to Hadadezer, David captured a great quantity of bronze, with which Solomon made the bronze Sea, the pillars and the bronze implements.

New Simplified Bible              David also took a large quantity of bronze from Tibhath and Cun, Hadadezer’s cities. Later Solomon used it to make the pool, pillars, and utensils for the temple.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And from Tibhath and from Cun, towns of Hadadezer, David took a great store of brass, of which Solomon made the great brass water-vessel and the brass pillars and vessels.

JPS (Tanakh)                         ...and from Tibhath and Cun, towns of Hadadezer, David took a vast amount of copper, from which Solomon made the bronze tank, the columns, and the bronze vessels.

Judaica Press Complete T.    And from Tibhath and from Cun, cities of Hadarezer, David took huge quantities of copper, from which Solomon made the copper sea and the pillars and the copper vessels.

NET Bible®                             From Tibhath [The MT reads "Tibhath" here, a variant name for Tebah (cf. 2 Sam 8:8). Some English translations substitute the other version of the name here (e.g., NIV, NLT), while others follow the reading of the Hebrew text at this point (e.g., NAB, NASB, NRSV).] and Kun [The parallel text of 2 Sam 8:8 has the variant name "Berothai."], Hadadezer's cities, David took a great deal of bronze. (Solomon used it to make the big bronze basin called "The Sea," [Heb "the sea of bronze," or "[the] sea, the bronze one." See the note at 1 Kgs 7:23.] the pillars, and other bronze items.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

English Standard Version      And from Tibhath and from Cun, cities of Hadadezer, David took a large amount of bronze. With it Solomon made the bronze sea and the pillars and the vessels of bronze.

exeGeses companion Bible   ...and from Tibchath and from Kun,

cities of Hadar Ezer,

David takes mighty much copper,

with which Shelomoh

works the copper sea and the pillars

and the instruments of copper.

Hebrew Names Version         From Tivchat and from Cun, cities of Hadad`ezer, David took very much brass, with which Shlomo made the bronze sea, and the pillars, and the vessels of brass.

NASB                                     Also from Tibhath and from Cun, cities of Hadadezer, David took a very large amount of bronze, with which [1Kings 7:40-47 2Chron. 4:11-18] Solomon made the bronze sea and the pillars and the bronze utensils.

NRSV                                     From Tibhath and from Cun, cities of Hadadezer, David took a vast quantity of bronze; with it Solomon made the bronze sea and the pillars and the vessels of bronze.

Third Millennium Bible            Likewise from Tibhath and from Chun, cities of Hadarezer, David brought very much brass, wherewith Solomon made the brazen sea and the pillars and the vessels of brass.

WEB                                      From Tibhath and from Cun, cities of Hadarezer, David took very much brass, with which Solomon made the brazen sea, and the pillars, and the vessels of brass.

Young’s Updated LT             And from Tibhath, and from Chun, cities of Hadarezer, David has taken very much brass; with it has Solomon made the brazen sea, and the pillars, and the vessels of brass.

 

The gist of this verse:          David brought the items made of metal back to Jerusalem from two of Hadadezer’s cities.


1Chronicles 18:8a = 2Samuel 8:8a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

min (מִן) [pronounced mihn]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

Ţibechath (טִבְחַת) [pronounced tihb-KHAHTH]

extension; transliterated Tibhath

proper masculine singular noun/location

Strong’s #2880 BDB #371

The Samuel text has the following noun instead. These proper nouns have the same basic letters in them, but they are mixed up. We don’t know if that is simply a different way of referring to the city or if one of the passages is a play on words (e.g., the passage in Samuel).

Beţach (בְּטַח) [pronounced BEH-tahkh]

security, safety, confidence; transliterated Betah

masculine singular noun; a location

Strong’s #984 BDB #105

You can see how the name of this city as found in Samuel is found within this Chronicles designation.

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

min (מִן) [pronounced mihn]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

Kûwn (כּוּן) [pronounced koon]

established; transliterated Cun Chun

proper masculine singular noun/location

Strong’s #3560 BDB #467

Again, the city is dramatically different; and this time, there is no rescrambling of the letters. The most logical explanation is, these cities had changed hands over the past 400–500 years, and had new names, by which names they were known at the time of the writing of Chronicles.

Bêrôthay (בֵּרֹתַי) [pronounced bay-roh-THAH-ā]

cypress grove; and is transliterated Berothai

proper singular noun; a location

Strong’s #1268 BDB #92

ʿîyr (עִיר) [pronounced ģeer]

encampment, city, town

feminine plural construct

Strong's #5892 BDB #746

Hădadeʿezer (הֲדַדְעֶזֶר) [pronounced huhd-ahd-ĢEH-zer]

Hadad is a helper; transliterated Hadadezer

masculine singular proper noun; pausal form

Strong’s #1909 BDB #212

Our parallel passage in 2Sam. 8:8 reads: And from Betah and from Berothai, cities of Hadadezer, David took a large amount of bronze.

The text actually reads Hadarezer instead. 2 early printings have Hadadezer. See v. 3 for more details.


Translation: And from Tibhath and Chun, cities of Hadadezer,... The cities named here are different than those in 2Sam. 8:8. Two possible explanations: (1) 400–500 years have passed since the writing of the book of Samuel, so these 2 cities may be under the control of a different nation altogether; and therefore, have different names. The new names would be that readers of that era would know. (2) David brought booty in from several cities, 2 prominent ones are named in Samuel, and 2 prominent ones are named in Chronicles (a less likely solution). Footnote

 

Jamieson, Fausset and Brown write: Tibhath and from Chun––These places are called Betah and Berothai (2Sam. 8:8). Perhaps the one might be the Jewish, the other the Syrian, name of these towns. Neither their situation nor the connection between them is known. The Arabic version makes them to be Emesa (now Hems) and Baal–bek, both of which agree very well with the relative position of Zobah. Footnote


The NIV Study Bible places these cities in the valley between the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon mountain ranges. Footnote ZPEB says that the location of Tibhath is unknown, Footnote but that Cun is located on the northern part of Aram-Zobah on the eastern sdie of the Lebanon mountains. Footnote If you look back at the map Israel During David’s Kingdom, you see the beginning of the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon mountains at the top of the map.


The NIV Study Bible also tells us that Tibhath is a variant form of Tebah. Footnote What this does is relate this particular city and its wealth back to Tebah, the son of Nahor, Abraham’s brother (Gen. 22:24), and ZPEB identifies the tribe descended from him with this city. Footnote


1Chronicles 18:8b = 2Samuel 8:8b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

lâqach (לָקַח) [pronounced law-KAHKH]

to take, to take away, to take in marriage; to seize

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #3947 BDB #542

The BDB gives the following meanings: to take, take in the hand; to take and carry along; to take from, take out of, take, carry away, take away; to take to or for a person, procure, get, take possession of, select, choose, take in marriage, receive, accept; to take up or upon, put upon; to fetch; to take, lead, conduct; to take, capture, seize; to take, carry off; to take (vengeance).

King is in the Samuel text, but not in the Chronicles text.

meleke (מֶלֶך׃) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

nechôsheth (נְחֹשֶת) [pronounced ne-KHOH-sheth]

copper, bronze, brass; that which is made of brass or copper—money, fetter, bonds, leg irons

masculine singular noun (listed here, by Owen, as a feminine singular noun)

Strong’s #5178 BDB #638

Both Owen and BDB seem to spell this word the same for the masculine and feminine forms. It is identified as masculine in 2Sam. 8:8 by Owen and as masculine in general by BDB. However, the th ending generally indicates a feminine ending, so I am somewhat perplexed here. Owen here, in 1Chron. 18:8, lists this as a feminine singular noun. I am going to assume that the gender of the noun is defined by the adjective here?

rabbâh (רָבָּה) [pronounced rahb-BAW]

many, much, great (in the sense of large or significant, not acclaimed)

feminine singular adjective

Strong's #7227 BDB #912

The BDB definitions are much, many, great; much; many; abounding in; more numerous than; abundant, enough; great; strong; greater than; much, exceedingly; [as a masculine noun] captain, chief.

The Samuel text has the related word here, instead of the adjective above:

râbâh (רָבָה) [pronounced rawb-VAWH]

to make [do] much; to multiply, to increase; to give much; to lay much; to have much; to make great; many [as a Hiphil infinitive construct]

Hiphil infinitive absolute (used here as an adverb)

Strong’s #7235 BDB #915

The Hiphil infinitive absolute is often used as an adverb: in doing much, very much, exceedingly great (the latter two with the adverb meʾôd).

meʾôd (מְאֹד) [pronounced me-ODE]

exceedingly, extremely, greatly, very

adverb

Strong’s #3966 BDB #547

The LXX adds the second sentence which is not found in the Hebrew text in Samuel, but found in 1Chron. 18:8b: With it Solomon made the bronze sea and the pillars and the vessels of bronze. In the previous verse, we observed that someone (possibly the Greek translator) added a gloss to the text, probably based on some superficial and incorrect research. Although this sentence could have been added for the same reason (although it would be accurate text this time), it is possible that this sentence dropped off the Masoretic text after the Greek translation had been made (again, the Hebrew text of Samuel is just about the weakest text of the Old Testament).

Personally, I believe that a translator of the 70 added this phrase, taking it from Chronicles. If this were a gloss to the Samuel text, then it would have been added, quite obviously, during or after the reign of Solomon.


Translation: ...King David took a huge amount of brass [bronze and copper]. Even though David was told by God not to build the Temple, he began early on to put things aside for the building of the Temple. David’s thinking went beyond his own life.


Application: We are supposed to also be laying up treasure in heaven. David is a picture of that, both in his spiritual life and metaphorically, as we have here. Laying up treasure simply means that you function by the power of the Spirit, learning and applying doctrine. What is not required is for you to do some specific spiritual job. Most believers are not called to do stuff around a church. Obviously, there are deacons, office workers, janitorial staff and Sunday school teachers; but this is still a small subset of the congregation. Most believers have a regular job where they interface with believers and unbelievers alike day in and day out. It is here where divine good is done and treasure is laid aside for us in heaven. Do you cheat those that you work with? Do you speak ill of them and gossip about them during your lunch break? Do you use their shoulders and heads as stepping stones for you to reach a higher position and salary? There is not going to be much treasure set aside for you in heaven. If you treat your co-workers fairly and with respect; if you do not spend your time developing mental attitude sins about them or committing verbal sins, then you just might be laying aside treasure in heaven for yourself. And, if there is the opening where you can witness to them, all the better.


Application: You are not going to necessarily be witnessing several hours a day. Now, some believers are able to do this; however, for most of us, it is difficult to share your faith. However, when you are in the world, people with whom you rub shoulders with day in and day out may provide an opening for you. Your function where you work—the person they see every day—is going to back up your words when you give them the gospel.


Application: This is important in every aspect of your life. Have you cheated your landlord? Have you cheated your tenants? Did you hire someone to work for you and then did you stiff him for the bill? Did you hire a contractor and then treat him poorly throughout the transaction? Are you a contractor who did not do the best job possible for your customer, given the agreed upon payment? I have known a lot of believers who are cheats, and this destroys their Christian testimony.


Application: There are a lot of churches which do not appear to teach a person to be honest and forthright in their financial dealings. When it comes to money, are you honest? When it comes to money, does your church teach how important it is to be honest?


1Chronicles 18:8c

(not found in the Samuel text; but found in the LXX Samuel text)

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity with the 3rd person feminine singular suffix

Strong’s# none BDB #88

ʿâsâh (עָשָֹה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWH]

to do, to make, to construct, to fashion, to form, to prepare, to manufacture

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #6213 BDB #793

Shelômôh (שְלֹמֹה) [pronounced shel-oh-MOH or shloh-MOH]

peace, peaceful; transliterated Solomon

masculine singular, proper noun

Strong’s #8010 BDB #1024

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

yâm (יָם) [pronounced yawm]

sea, lake, river, seaward, west, westward

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #3220 BDB #410

nechôsheth (נְחֹשֶת) [pronounced ne-KHOH-sheth]

copper, bronze, brass; that which is made of brass or copper—money, fetter, bonds, leg irons

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #5178 BDB #638

Apart from the definite article, and a minor change because of the definite article, I see no difference between the masculine form here, and the feminine form given earlier in this verse.

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʿammûwd (עַמּוּד) [pronounced ģahm-MOOD]

pillar, column; platform, scaffold

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #5982 BDB #765

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

kelîy (כְּלִי) [pronounced melee]

manufactured good, artifact, article, utensil, vessel, weapon, armor, furniture, receptacle; baggage, valuables

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #3627 BDB #479

nechôsheth (נְחֹשֶת) [pronounced ne-KHOH-sheth]

copper, bronze, brass; that which is made of brass or copper—money, fetter, bonds, leg irons

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #5178 BDB #638


Translation: ...(with it, Solomon made the bronze sea, the pillars and the bronze vessels). The writer of Chronicles would have known what Solomon used this booty for. It is possible—in fact, it is most likely—that the writer of Samuel did not necessarily have the full perspective of this and did not know what Solomon would use it for. It is likely, a translator was working with both the Chronicles and Samuel text and just decided to bring it into the Samuel text. This would explain why this is found in the Chronicles text and in the LXX of Samuel.


The bronze sea is described in 1Kings 7:23–26: Then he made the sea of cast metal. It was round, ten cubits from brim to brim, and five cubits high, and a line of thirty cubits measured its circumference. Under its brim were gourds, for ten cubits, compassing the sea all around. The gourds were in two rows, cast with it when it was cast. It stood on twelve oxen, three facing north, three facing west, three facing south, and three facing east. The sea was set on them, and all their rear parts were inward. Its thickness was a handbreadth, and its brim was made like the brim of a cup, like the flower of a lily. It held two thousand baths. This would be very similar in size to a large, circular above-ground pool with an 18 ft. diameter.


When you take something of this world and give it over to a spiritual use (the most common expression of this is giving to a church, to a missionary, etc.), that has eternal impact (obviously, you must do this while filled with the Holy Spirit). These are the things which have eternal impact, and will travel with us into eternity. What is done in the Lord’s work has eternal impact both upon others (who might believe in Jesus Christ or grow spiritual as a result of our giving) and upon us as well. This is a part of the capital that we take with us into the eternal state.


——————————


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


David's Ally and the Dedication of the Spoils


And so hears Tou [Toi] King of Hamath that struck David all of an army of Hadadezer, king of Zobah; and so he sends Hadoram [Joram] his son unto the King David to ask to him to peace and to bless him upon which he fought in Hadadezer and so he struck him (for a man of wars Tou was [to] Hadadezer). And all articles of gold and silver and bronze...

1Chronicles

18:9–10

When [lit., and so] Tou [Toi], King of Hamath, heard that David defeated all the army of Hadadezer, king of Zobah, he sent his son Hadoram [Joram] to King David to request peace on his behalf and to bless David [lit., him] because he waged war against Hadadezer and he defeated him (for Tou had been a man of war [with regards to] Hadadezer). And all articles of gold, silver, and bronze...

When Tou [Toi], the King of Hamath, heard that David had defeated the army of Hadadezer, king of Zobah, he sent his son Hadoram [Joram] to King David to establish a mutual peace between them and to bless David because he successfully waged war against Hadadezer, defeating him (for Tou [Toi] and Hadadezer were constantly at war with one another). All articles of gold, silver and bronze...


The writer of Chronicles brings that final few words of v. 10 into v. 11 (which is condensed from the Samuel text). Many translations follow suit. Although I am keeping all of vv. 9–10 together in this section, I will present these final few words again with vv. 11–12. There is no real error or problem here. The verses should have simply been divided up differently in both Chronicles and Samuel (and different from one another as well).


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          Now when Thou king of Hemath heard that David had defeated all the army of Adarezer king of Soba, He sent Adoram his son to king David to desire peace of him, and to congratulate him that he had defeated and overthrown Adarezer: for Thou was an enemy to Adarezer. And all the vessels of gold, and silver and brass...

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so hears Tou [Toi] King of Hamath that struck David all of an army of Hadadezer, king of Zobah; and so he sends Joram his son unto the King David to ask to him to peace and to bless him upon which he fought in Hadadezer and so he struck him (for a man of wars Tou was [to] Hadadezer). And all articles of gold and silver and bronze...

Peshitta (Syriac)                    Now Pul, king of Hamath, heard that David had smitten the whole army of Hadarezer, king of Nisibin; And he sent Jehoram his son to David to inquire of his welfare and to congratulate him because he had fought against Hadarezer and killed him (for Hadarezer was a valiant warrior) and Jehoram had with him all manner of vessels of gold and silver and brass.

Septuagint (Greek)                And Tou king of Hamath heard that David had defeated the whole force of Hadadezer king of Zobah. And he sent Hadoram his son to King David to ask how he was, and to congratulate him because he had fought against Hadadezer, and had defeated him; for Tou was the enemy of Hadadezer. And all the golden and silver and bronze vessels,...

 

Significant differences:           Both the Greek and Latin took the final words of v. 10 and added them to v. 11.

 

Although v. 9 begins with the wâw consecutive, it can be translated now, when or even now when. There are several synonyms used in the English rendering of v. 9, which suggest the Hebrew text is fine.

 

To inquire of his welfare in the Syriac is a reasonable rendering of the Hebrew. The verb to bless can be reasonably rendered to congratulate.

 

Both the English translation of the Greek and Latin list Hadadezer as an enemy of Tou. Although this is true, the Hebrew calls him a man of wars, which is similar, but not the same thing.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       King Tou of Hamath and King Hadadezer had been enemies. So when Tou heard that David had defeated Hadadezer's whole army, he sent his son Hadoram to congratulate David on his victory. Hadoram also brought him gifts made of gold, silver, and bronze.

Easy English (Pocock)           King Tou of Hamath heard that David had defeated all the army of King Hadadezer of Zobah. So, Tou sent his son Hadoram to greet King David. He praised David for the defeat of Hadadezer. There had been a war between Tou and Hadadezer. Hadoram brought to David many things of gold, silver, and *bronze.

Easy-to-Read Version            Tou was king of the city of Hamath. Hadadezer was the king of Zobah. Tou heard that David had defeated all of Hadadezer’s army. So Tou sent his son Hadoram to King David to ask for peace and to bless him. He did this because David had fought against Hadadezer and defeated him. Hadadezer had been at war with Tou before. Hadoram gave David all kinds of things made of gold, silver, and bronze.

Good News Bible (TEV)         King Toi of Hamath heard that David had defeated Hadadezer's entire army. So he sent his son Joram to greet King David and congratulate him for his victory over Hadadezer, against whom Toi had fought many times. Joram brought David presents made of gold, silver, and bronze.

The Message                         Tou king of Hamath heard that David had struck down the entire army of Hadadezer king of Zobah. He sent his son Hadoram to King David to greet and congratulate him for fighting and defeating Hadadezer. Tou and Hadadezer were old enemies. Hadoram brought David various things made of silver, gold, and bronze.

New Life Bible                        King Tou of Hamath heard that David had won the war against all the army of King Hadadezer of Zobah. So he sent his son Hadoram to King David, to say hello to him and give honor to him, because David had fought against Hadadezer and won. For Hadadezer had been at war with Tou. Hadoram brought all kinds of things of gold and silver and brass.

New Living Translation           When King Toi [As in parallel text at 2 Sam 8:9; Hebrew reads Tou; also in 18:10] of Hamath heard that David had destroyed the entire army of King Hadadezer of Zobah, he sent his son Joram [As in parallel text at 2 Sam 8:10; Hebrew reads Hadoram, a variant spelling of Joram.] to congratulate King David for his successful campaign. Hadadezer and Toi had been enemies and were often at war. Joram presented David with many gifts of gold, silver, and bronze.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Well, when Thoa the king of Hamath heard that David had beaten the army of AdraAzar (the king of SoUba), he sent his son AdouRam to King David to enquire of his welfare, and to congratulate him on winning his war against AdraAzar and killing him, because Thoa had been at war with AdraAzar.

New Simplified Bible              When King Tou of Hamath heard that David had defeated the whole army of Zobah’s King Hadadezer, he sent his son Hadoram to greet King David and congratulate him for fighting and defeating Hadadezer. There had often been war between Hadadezer and Tou.

Revised English Bible            When King Tou of Hamath heard that David had defeated the entire army of King Hadadezer of Zobah, he sent his son Hadoram to King David to greet him and to congratulate him on his victory over Hadadezer in battle, for Hadadezer had been at war with Tou; Hadoram brought with him vessels of gold, silver, and bronze.

Today’s NIV                          When Tou king of Hamath heard that David had defeated the entire army of Hadadezer king of Zobah, he sent his son Hadoram to King David to greet him and congratulate him on his victory in battle over Hadadezer, who had been at war with Tou. Hadoram brought all kinds of articles of gold, of silver and of bronze.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             Now when Tou, king of Hamath, had news that David had overcome all the army of Hadadezer, king of Zobah, He sent his son Hadoram to King David, to give him words of peace and blessing, because he had overcome Hadadezer in the fight, for Hadadezer had been at war with Tou; and he gave him all sorts of vessels of gold and silver and brass.

HCSB                                     When King Tou of Hamath heard that David had defeated the entire army of King Hadadezer of Zobah, he sent his son Hadoram to King David to greet him and to congratulate him because David had fought against Hadadezer and defeated him, for Tou and Hadadezer had fought many wars. Hadoram brought all kinds of items of gold, silver, and bronze.

JPS (Tanakh)                         When King Tou of Hamath heard that David had defeated the entire army of King Hadadezer of Zobah, he sent his son Hadoram to King David to greet him and to congratulate him on his military victory over Hadadezer—for Hadadezer had been at war with Tou; [he brought with him] all manner of gold, silver, and copper objects.

NET Bible®                             When King Tou [The name is spelled "Toi" in the parallel text in 2 Sam 8:9.] of Hamath heard that David had defeated the entire army of King Hadadezer of Zobah, he sent his son Hadoram [The name is spelled "Joram" in the parallel text in 2 Sam 8:10.] to King David to extend his best wishes [Heb "to ask concerning him for peace."] and to pronounce a blessing on him for his victory over Hadadezer, for Tou had been at war with Hadadezer. [Heb "and to bless him because he fought with Hadadezer and defeated him, for Hadadezer was a man of battles with Tou."] He also sent various items made of gold, silver, and bronze [Heb "[along with] all items of gold and silver and bronze."].


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

American KJV                        Now when Tou king of Hamath heard how David had smitten all the host of Hadarezer king of Zobah; He sent Hadoram his son to king David, to inquire of his welfare, and to congratulate him, because he had fought against Hadarezer, and smitten him; (for Hadarezer had war with Tou;) and with him all manner of vessels of gold and silver and brass.

English Standard Version      When Tou king of Hamath heard that David had defeated the whole army of Hadadezer, king of Zobah, he sent his son Hadoram to King David, to ask about his health and to bless him because he had fought against Hadadezer and defeated him; for Hadadezer had often been at war with Tou. And he sent all sorts of articles of gold, of silver, and of bronze.

exeGeses companion Bible   And Tou sovereign of Hamath

hears that David smites all the valiant

of Hadar Ezer sovereign of Sobah;

and he sends Hadoram his son to sovereign David

to ask shalom of him and to bless him

because he fought Hadar Ezer and smote him

- for Hadar Ezer was a man of wars with Tou;

and all manner of instruments

of gold and silver and copper:

Fred Miller’s Revised KJV     Now when Tou king of Hamath heard how David had struck all the army of Hadarezer king of Zobah; He sent Hadoram his son to king David and with him all manner of vessels of gold and silver and brass, to enquire of his welfare and to congratulate him, because he had fought against Hadarezer and defeated him; (for Hadarezer had war with Tou).

MKJV                                     And Tou king of Hamath heard that David had struck all the army of Hadarezer king of Zobah, he sent Hadoram his son to King David to ask of his welfare, and to praise him because he had fought against Hadarezer and had beaten him. For Hadarezer had war with Tou. And he sent all kinds of vessels of gold and silver and bronze.

Young’s Updated LT             And Tou king of Hamath hears that David has smitten the whole force of Hadarezer king of Zobah, and he sends Hadoram his son unto king David, to ask of him of peace, and to bless him (because that he has fought against Hadarezer, and strikes him, for a man of wars with Tou had Hadarezer been,) and all kinds of vessels, of gold, and silver, and brass.

 

The gist of this verse:          When Tou (Toi), the King of Hamath, heard that David had defeated Hadadezer in battle, he sent his son to insure peace with David, and brought him gifts to show his good intentions.


1Chronicles 18:9 = 2Samuel 8:9

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

Wâw consecutives can be used before causal sentences like כִּי to mean because, for, in that; and a wâw consecutive can be used before connives or inferential sentences, and mean so that, therefore, wherefore. Footnote

shâmaʿ (שָמַע) [pronounced shaw-MAHĢ]

to listen [intently], to hear, to listen and obey, [or, and act upon, give heed to, take note of], to hearken to, to be attentive to, to listen and be cognizant of

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #8085 BDB #1033

Tôʿûw (תֹּעוּ) [pronounced TOH-ģoo]

transliterated Tou, Thou, Toi

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #8583 BDB #1073

This is spelled Toʿîy (תֳעִי) [pronounced TOH-ģee] in 2Sam. 8. The problem is the final letter, which could easily be confounded.

meleke (מֶלֶך׃) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572

Chămâth (חֲמָת) [pronounced khuhm-AWTH]

fortress, defense, citadel; sacred enclosure; transliterated Hamath

proper singular noun/location

Strong’s #2574 BDB #332

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

nâkâh (נָכָה) [pronounced naw-KAWH]

to smite, to assault, to hit, to strike, to strike [something or someone] down, to defeat, to conquer, to subjugate

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil perfect

Strong #5221 BDB #645

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

chayil (חַיִל) [pronounced CHAH-yil]

army, force; strength, courage, power, might; efficiency; and that which is gotten through strength—wealth, substance

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #2428 BDB #298

Hădadeʿezer (הֲדַדְעֶזֶר) [pronounced huhd-ahd-ĢEH-zer]

Hadad is a helper; transliterated Hadadezer

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #1909 BDB #212

These final 2 words are found in the Chronicles text only (and back in v. 5 in both Samuel and Chronicles).

meleke (מֶלֶך׃) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572

Tsôwbâh (צוֹבָה) [pronounced tzohb-VAW]

transliterated Zobah

Proper noun, territory

Strong’s #6678 BDB #844


Translation: When [lit., and so] Tou [Toi], King of Hamath, heard that David defeated all the army of Hadadezer, king of Zobah,... David’s wars were broadcast on the evening news regularly. In fact, this was quite amazing to the peoples of that territory, that David was leading such a strong army out of a small area.


In the Samuel text, the King of Hamath is called Toi; here, he is called Tou. Although it is possible for this text to have been confounded, it is just as likely that the transliteration of his name changed over the years.


This text was lifted from the Samuel exegesis, most of which was culled from ZPEB.

The Doctrine of Hamath

1.      Hamath, also known as Lebo-Hamath (Num. 13:21), Hamath the Great (Amos 6:2) and Hamath-zobah (2Chron. 8:3), Footnote was a city located approximately 125 miles north of Damascus. It was built along both sides of the Orontes River in the valley of Lebanon, in between the mountains of Lebanon and Antilebanon. It is surrounded by hills and enjoys a warm and humid climate. It was originally populated by descendants of Canaan (Gen. 10:18). These would be Hittites, although it is not clear whether other Hittite groups conquered this area or whether these particular descendants were in control of Hamath for a very long time.

2.      When the Jews first came into the land (circa 1440 b.c.), they explored it as far north as Lebo-Hamath (Num. 13:21), and, in times of great prosperity, Israel’s border went that far north (1Kings 8:65 2Kings 14:25). If you will examine the map above, it is apparent that is very far north for what we consider to be Israel.

3.      Hamath, like many ancient cities, was destroyed and rebuilt on several occasions. It was first destroyed in 1750 b.c., possibly by the Hyksos. This would have been while the Jews were living in Egypt. Later, circa 1460 b.c., Thutmose III of Egypt conquered Hamath—at a time Egypt’s power would have been at a high point, right before God called Israel out of Egypt. Hamath was allied with David and Solomon, apparently bring both kings tribute (2Sam. 8:9 2Chron. 8:4). By 900 b.c., this was the center of a small Hittite kingdom again. This suggests to me that the expansion of Israel’s kingdom simply meant that people this far north paid tribute to Israel (as we will have in this chapter). Jeroboam II, a king of Israel of the divided kingdom, who lived in the first half of the 8th century b.c., reasserted Israeli control over Hamath (2Kings 14:25).

4.      Not long after, Assyrian king Shalmaneser III (circa 860–825 b.c.) invaded Hamath on several occasions, at first being rebuffed by a fairly large coalition, which included Damascus, Israel, Hamath and 12 kings of the coast; but every few years, Shalmaneser III would return, and on the 3rd attack, he conquered Hamath. Tiglath-pileser III (745–727 b.c.) conquered Hamath, making them pay tribute, and later, in 720 b.c., Sargon II conquered Hamath. Sargon II transported his conquered peoples around, moving Israelites up into Hamath (among other places—Isa. 11:11). He brought residents of Hamath down to Israel, who brought with them their pagan gods (2Kings 17:24, 30)

5.      Today, Hamath is found at Hama in west Syria. Hama is actually build around Hamath, which has been excavated (1931–1938) and 12 strata of occupation have been found.

Much of this information came from The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible; Merrill Tenney, ed., Zondervan Publishing House, ©1976; Vol. 3, pp. 21–22. I also culled additional information from Easton, Fausset, Smith and ISBE.


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1Chronicles 18:10a = 2Samuel 8:10a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

Wâw consecutives can be used before causal sentences like כִּי to mean because, for, in that; and a wâw consecutive can be used before connives or inferential sentences, and mean so that, therefore, wherefore. Footnote

shâlach (שָלַח) [pronounced shaw-LAKH]

to send, to send for [forth, away], to dismiss, to deploy, to put forth, to stretch out, to reach out

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #7971 BDB #1018

Toi’s name is found in the Samuel text here, but left out in the Chronicles text.

Tôʿûw (תֹּעוּ) [pronounced TOH-ģoo]

transliterated Tou, Thou, Toi

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #8583 BDB #1073

This is also spelled Toʿîy (תֳעִי) [pronounced TOH-ģee].

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Hădôwrâm (הֲדוֹרָם) [pronounced huhd-oh-RAWM]

noble honor; transliterated Hadoram

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #1913 BDB #213

The spelling of his name in the Samuel passage is slightly different:

Yôwrâm (יוֹרָם) [pronounced yoh-RAWM]

Yah is exalted; transliterated Joram

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #3141 BDB #221

This is an abbreviated spelling for Yehôwrâm (יְהוֹרָם) [pronounced yeh-hoh-RAWM]. Strong’s #3088 BDB #221.

There are differences in the spelling of the king’s name and his son’s name in the parallel passage of 2Sam. 8. In the case of the son, this could either be an alternative spelling or a copyist error. In the case of the father, the Chronicles passage appears to have a more formal spelling of his name (something which is common and found with the names Joshua and Jehoshaphat as well.

bên (בֵּן) [pronounced bane]

son, descendant

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced el]

unto, in, into, toward, to, regarding, against

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

meleke (מֶלֶך׃) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187


Translation: ...he sent his son Hadoram to King David... There were a plethora of peoples living in the Middle East. Some of them were very warlike and aggressive, like Hadadezer. King Tou evaluated the situation. We will find out that Hadadezer had gone to war with Tou already; so for David to defeat Hadadezer is a great thing for Tou.


David speaks of Tou sending his son to him in Psalm 18:44: At the hearing of the ear they listen to me; the sons of foreigners shall bow down to me.


Tou has a couple of things which he can do—he can simply monitor the situation, and see what David does to him, or he can take the first step. Sending his son indicates that Tou has a great deal of trust in David’s honor.


Application: Whenever a world situation confuses you—particularly when it involves countries that you are unsure about, simply look at their allies and look at their enemies.


Hadoram might be the more proper name of Tou’s son. Joram means Yah [God] is exalted; and it is even possible that David gave him this name. It is certainly possible that these names are interchangeable, like Robert and Bob. Several different meanings are given to the name Hadoram, which include noble honor, their beauty.

The Hadoram’s of Scripture

#

A Brief Bio

1.  

The fifth son of Joktan (Gen. 10:27 1Chron. 1:21). His settlements, unlike those of many of Joktan's sons, have not been identified.

2.  

Son of Tou or Toi, king of Hamath; his father's ambassador to congratulate David, on his victory over Hadarezer, king of Zobah (1Chron. 18:10). (B.C. 1035). Hadoram could have been his given name, and Joram may have been a nickname given him by David, emphasizing his faith in Jesus Christ. Joram means Yah [God] is exalted.

3.  

The form assumed in Chronicles, by the name of the intendant of taxes under David, Solomon and Rehoboam (2Chron. 10:18). In Kings, the name is given in the longer form of Adoniram, but in Samuel, (2Sam. 20:24) as Hadoram. He was sent by Rehoboam as messenger to Israel at the time of the revolt of the ten tribes and was stoned to death by them.

Doctrines like this are to keep you from going off the deep end and thinking that everyone named Hadoram is the same person.

From: Dr. William Smith, Smith’s Bible Dictionary; 1894; from e-Sword, topic: Hadoram.

Additional material from The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia; James Orr, Editor; ©1956 Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.; Ⓟ by Hendrickson Publishers; from E-Sword; Topic:  Hadoram.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


1Chronicles 18:10b = 2Samuel 8:10b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

shâʾal (שָאַל) [pronounced shaw-AHL]

to ask [petition, request, inquire]; to demand [require]; to question, to interrogate; to ask [for a loan]; to consult; to salute

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #7592 BDB #981

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

The meanings of the lâmed preposition broken down into groups: ➊ to, towards, unto; it is used both to turn one’s heart toward someone as well as to sin against someone; ➋ to, even to;  in this sense, it can be used with a number to indicate the upper limit which a multitude might approach (nearly). ➌ Lâmed can be equivalent to the Greek preposition eis (εἰς), meaning into, as in transforming into something else, changing into something else (Gen. 2:7). This use of lâmed after the verb hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW] (Strong’s #1961 BDB #224) is one thing becoming another (Gen. 2:7). ➍  Its fourth use is the mark of a dative, after verbs of giving, granting, delivering, pardoning, consulting, sending, etc. This type of dative is broken down into several categories, but one includes the translation by, which would be apropos here. ➎ With regards to, as to. Similar to the Greek preposition eis (εἰς) plus the dative. [Numbering from Gesenius]. ➏ On account of, because, propter, used of cause and reason (propter means because; Gesenius used it). ➐ Concerning, about, used of a person or thing made the object of discourse, after verbs of saying. ➑ On behalf of anyone, for anyone. ➒ As applied to a rule or standard, according to, according as, as though, as if. ➓ When associated with time, it refers to the point of time at which or in which anything is done; or it can refer to the space of time during which something is done (or occurs); at the time of.

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

shâlôwm (שָלוֹם) or shâlôm (שָלֹם) [pronounced shaw-LOHM]

completeness, soundness, welfare, peace, safe, secure, tranquil, undisturbed, unagitated

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #7965 BDB #1022


Translation: ...to request peace on his behalf... This phrase is gotten wrong, in my opinion, by almost every English translation. Tou did not go to David to say, “Hey, how’s it going?” Tou went to David to establish an alliance, and the alliance would clearly establish David as superior.


Tou realized that, the enemy of his enemy is potentially a friend; and he approaches David in that way, showing great deference, trust and respect. He will send his own son, and his son will carry a lot of wealth with him (quite obviously, his son is not traveling alone, but probably with a small army).


David would know the names of the rulers all around him; as well as have intelligence information about them. Whether he knows what they actually look like is another thing. I am assuming that Hadoram appeared regal to David’s security forces, who probably monitored his movements as he moved into Israeli territory. Given what is being carried and Hadoram’s rank, it is likely that they were first stopped by security forces and then escorted to Jerusalem.


1Chronicles 18:10c = 2Samuel 8:10c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

bârake (בָּרַך׃) [pronounced baw-RAHKe]

to invoke God, to praise, to celebrate, to adore, to bless [God]; to bless [men], to invoke blessings; to bless [as God, man and other created things], therefore to cause to prosper, to make happy; to salute anyone [with a blessing]; to curse

Piel infinitive construct with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #1288 BDB #138


Translation: ...and to bless David [lit., him]... I believe that this is shorthand for wishing blessings upon David. Tou, since he will bring with him, a great deal of wealth, will provide some of these blessings for David.


1Chronicles 18:10d = 2Samuel 8:10d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl ]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced ash-ER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

This combination of ʿal and ʾăsher mean because, because that, in that.

lâcham (לָחַם) [pronounced law-KHAHM]

to engage in battle, to engage in war, to wage war; to fight, to battle

3rd person masculine singular, Niphal perfect

Strong’s #3898 BDB #535

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

Strong’s# none BDB #88

Hădadeʿezer (הֲדַדְעֶזֶר) [pronounced huhd-ahd-ĢEH-zer]

Hadad is a helper; transliterated Hadadezer

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #1909 BDB #212


Translation: ...because he waged war against Hadadezer... This is the key to Tou’s calculation: David went to war against his enemy, Hadadezer; this is a good thing in Tou’s book. So King Tou assumes that David is the polar opposite of Hadadezer in character. No doubt, Tou had an intelligence force as well, and they delivered to him information about David’s character (which would have been reasonably well-known throughout this land anyway).


1Chronicles 18:10e = 2Samuel 8:10e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

nâkâh (נָכָה) [pronounced naw-KAWH]

to smite, to assault, to hit, to strike, to strike [something or someone] down, to defeat, to conquer, to subjugate

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong #5221 BDB #645


Translation: ...and he defeated him... We can also see this from a typically cynical view and think that Tou is just watching out for his own country; and rather than go to war with David, he sends his son with a lot of wealth to placate David. However, I think that David’s character was well-known throughout the ancient world, and that Tou was depending upon David’s reputation, as well as his war record.


For David to have defeated Hadadezer, this would have taken men and equipment and resources. As a result, this saves Tou a bundle of money and preserves the lives of many of his soldiers. Therefore, bringing tribute to David is a logical and honorable thing to do. This was also the accepted thing to do.


1Chronicles 18:10f = 2Samuel 8:10f

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

ʾîysh (אִיש) [pronounced eesh]

a man, a husband; anyone; a certain one; each, each one, everyone

masculine singular construct

Strong's #376 BDB #35

milechâmâh (מִלְחָמָה) [pronounced mil-khaw-MAW]

battle, war, fight, fighting; victory; fortune of war

feminine plural noun

Strong’s #4421 BDB #536

Owen, mistakenly I believe, lists as a feminine plural construct in Chronicles; however, it ought to be a feminine plural noun, as it is listed in Samuel—the spelling is identical.

Tôʿûw (תֹּעוּ) [pronounced TOH-ģoo]

transliterated Tou, Thou, Toi

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #8583 BDB #1073

This is also spelled Toʿîy (תֳעִי) [pronounced TOH-ģee].

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

Hădadeʿezer (הֲדַדְעֶזֶר) [pronounced huhd-ahd-ĢEH-zer]

Hadad is a helper; transliterated Hadadezer

masculine singular proper noun; pausal form

Strong’s #1909 BDB #212


Translation:...(for Tou had been a man of war [with regards to] Hadadezer). This simply tells us that Tou and Hadadezer has had their own run-in’s on the battlefield. Apart from this, we have no real details.


Over the years, I have become a lover of maps, and it geographically orients us to the narrative here. This was was originally placed with the Samuel text.

A Map Showing Hamath

On the right is a map showing the location of Hamath, which is to the north of Israel. You can also see the Euphrates River, which is the direction in which Hadadezer’s army was moving, in order to reestablish his won territory of influence.


Aram-Syria is the general area where Kings Hadadezer and Toi lived.


Israel, during the time of David and Solomon, controlled the land as far north as Hamath (1Kings 8:65 2Kings 14:25).

1chron18.gif

 

Taken from http://www.quicksilver899.com/Hamath/HamahMap2.jpg


1Chronicles 18:10g = 2Samuel 8:10g

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

The next 3 words are found in the Samuel text, but not in the Chronicles text:

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

yâd (יָד) [pronounced yawd]

generally translated hand

feminine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #3027 BDB #388

This combination of the bêyth preposition and hand means with him; through him, by him, by means of him; at his hand [i.e., before him, in his sight].

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person plural, Qal perfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

In the Chronicles text, we have the word all, which is not found in the Samuel text:

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

kelîy (כְּלִי) [pronounced melee]

manufactured good, artifact, article, utensil, vessel, weapon, armor, furniture, receptacle; baggage, valuables

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #3627 BDB #479

At this point, the writer of Chronicles abbreviates the text somewhat, so I will simply separate the two sets of phrases:

zâhâb (זָהָב) [pronounced zaw-HAWBV]

gold; a measure of weight [related to gold]; [figuratively used for] brilliance, splendor

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #2091 BDB #262

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

keçeph (כֶּסֶף) [pronounced KEH-sef]

silver, money

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #3701 BDB #494

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

nechôsheth (נְחֹשֶת) [pronounced ne-KHOH-sheth]

copper, bronze, brass; that which is made of brass or copper—money, fetter, bonds, leg irons

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #5178 BDB #638

The Samuel text has, instead:

keçeph (כֶּסֶף) [pronounced KEH-sef]

silver, money

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #3701 BDB #494

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

kelîy (כְּלִי) [pronounced melee]

manufactured good, artifact, article, utensil, vessel, weapon, armor, furniture, receptacle; baggage, valuables

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #3627 BDB #479

zâhâb (זָהָב) [pronounced zaw-HAWBV]

gold; a measure of weight [related to gold]; [figuratively used for] brilliance, splendor

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #2091 BDB #262

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

kelîy (כְּלִי) [pronounced melee]

manufactured good, artifact, article, utensil, vessel, weapon, armor, furniture, receptacle; baggage, valuables

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #3627 BDB #479

nechôsheth (נְחֹשֶת) [pronounced ne-KHOH-sheth]

copper, bronze, brass; that which is made of brass or copper—money, fetter, bonds, leg irons

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #5178 BDB #638


Translation: And all articles of gold, silver, and bronze... I will repeat this phrase with the next two verses.


In the Samuel text, Hadoram brings with him silver, gold and bronze as tribute for David and the nation Israel. In the Chronicles text, the author edits this, and just speaks of the wealth which David received from the nations he defeated and nations who became his allies. This was common in the ancient world. 2Chron. 9:1, 9:23–24 Isa. 39:1.


It is interesting how the world has changed with respect to national interrelationships. During the time of David, friends and foes alike brought David tribute. Friends, because David provided them with a modicum of protection (he beat down nations which threatened them) and foes, because David defeated them, but allowed them some modicum of sovereignty.

 

In today’s world, the United States—certainly not the United Nations—provides a modicum of protection for our allies abroad. However, we are the ones who provide tribute for them. This is so ingrained in my own thinking that, when studying David and Nabal (back in 1Sam. 23), I had a difficult time wrapping my brain around Nabal owing David money. However, God has poured so much grace upon our nation—something which many people do not fully recognize—that it has overflowed to many other nations. There could be parallels to the Church Age, as we are given great spiritual assets in the Church Age, and our blessings often overflow.

 

This caused me to recall David’s interaction with a man called Nabal and his wife Abigail, whom David took as his own wife. This took place back in 1Sam. 25, and my concern was, David appeared to be running a protection racket. However, when dealing with ancient events, we need to take into account ancient culture. David was, to some degree, providing a measure of protection for King Hamath and his people. The immediate response was one of gratitude and gifts. This should have been Nabal’s response, and this passage here indicates that this was a common practice in the ancient world. We tend to think more of mobsters offering protection from themselves, but that is not the case here.

 

In vv. 7–8, I spoke of some of the material wealth which we put aside for service to God has eternal consequences. Note the parallel which we find here. God sends His Son to make peace with us. Because we have overcome the evil one (Satan, who is a man of war), God blesses us with great rewards. Overcoming the evil one is not our salvation, but a result of our salvation. The rewards we receive are not because of our salvation but as a result of our salvation, spiritual growth, and divine operating assets.

 

Neighboring nations saw the hand of God on David and brought him honor and gifts. They knew that a strong, godly leader of Israel was good for the whole community of nations, not just good for Israel itself. Footnote


——————————


I will include v. 10g with the exegesis of v. 11 (as have a few other translators; notably, God’s Word™ and the Ancient Roots Translinear Bible):


And all articles of gold, silver, and bronze, also with them consecrated the King David to Yehowah, with the silver and the gold which he had taken from all the Goiim—from Edom and from Moab and from sons of Ammon and from Philistines and from Amalek.

1Chronicles

18:10g–11

And all articles of gold, silver, and bronze—even these, King David consecrated to Yehowah, [along] with the silver and gold that he took from all of the Gentiles: from Edom and from Moab and from the sons of Ammon and from the Philistines and from Amalek.

And all articles of gold, silver, and bronze, King David consecrated to the Lord, along with the silver and gold which he had already taken from all of the Gentile nations round about: from Edom, Moab and Ammon; from the Philistines and from Amalek.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          And all the vessels of gold, and silver and brass king David consecrated to the Lord, with the silver and gold which he had taken from all the nations, as well from Edom, and from Moab, and from the sons of Ammon, as from the Philistines, and from Amalec.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And all articles of gold, silver, and bronze, also with them consecrated the King David to Yehowah, with the silver and the gold which he had taken from all the Goiim—from Edom and from Moab and from sons of Ammon and from Philistines and from Amalek.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    ...and Jehoram had with him all manner of vessels of gold and silver and brass. Some of these also King David dedicated to the LORD, together with the silver and the gold that he had captured from all the nations which he had subdued: from the Edomites, from the Moabites, from the children of Ammon, from the Philistines, and from the Amalekites.

Septuagint (Greek)                And all the golden and silver and bronze vessels, even these King David consecrated to the Lord, with the silver and the gold which he took from all the nations; from Edom, Moab, and from the children of Ammon, and from the Philistines, and from Amalek.

 

Significant differences:           The Latin, Greek and Syriac texts all place and all vessels of gold, silver and brass with v. 11.

 

The Syriac text adds the information that Hadoram brought this gold, silver and bronze to David (which is found in many English translations as well).


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       Hadoram also brought him gifts made of gold, silver, and bronze. David gave these gifts to the LORD, just as he had done with the silver and gold he had captured from Edom, Moab, Ammon, Philistia, and Amalek.

Easy English (Pocock)           Hadoram brought to David many things of gold, silver, and *bronze. King David gave these precious things to the *LORD. Also, he gave to the *LORD the silver and gold that he had taken from the nations. These nations were Edom, Moab, Ammon, the *Philistines, and Amalek.

Easy-to-Read Version            Hadoram gave David all kinds of things made of gold, silver, and bronze. King David made those things holy and gave them to the Lord. David did the same thing with all the silver and gold he had gotten from Edom, Moab, the Ammonite people, the Philistine people, and Amalekite people.

Good News Bible (TEV)         Joram brought David presents made of gold, silver, and bronze. King David dedicated them for use in worship, along with the silver and gold he took from the nations he conquered---Edom, Moab, Ammon, Philistia, and Amalek.

The Message                         Hadoram brought David various things made of silver, gold, and bronze. King David consecrated these things along with the silver and gold that he had plundered from other nations: Edom, Moab, the Ammonites, the Philistines, and Amalek.

New Century Version             Hadoram brought items made of gold, silver, and bronze. King David gave them to the Lord, along with the silver and gold he had taken from these nations: Edom, Moab, the Ammonites, the Philistines, and Amalek.

New Life Bible                        Hadoram brought all kinds of things of gold and silver and brass. King David set these apart to the Lord, with the silver and gold he had carried away from all the nations. He took things from Edom, Moab, the sons of Ammon, the Philistines, and Amalek.

New Living Translation           Joram presented David with many gifts of gold, silver, and bronze. King David dedicated all these gifts to the Lord, along with the silver and gold he had taken from the other nations-from Edom, Moab, Ammon, Philistia, and Amalek.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Then David took all the gold, silver, and brass items that he captured from the nations of Idumea, Moab, the Ammonites, the Philistines, and the Amalechites, and set them aside as holy to Jehovah.

Ancient Roots Translinear      King David sanctified for Yahweh all the gold, silver and bronze articles with the silver and the gold that he also lifted from all the nations: South-Jordan, Central-Jordan, the sons of Amman, Palestine (Gaza Strip), and from the slave-traders.

God’s Word                         King David dedicated all the articles of gold, silver, and bronze to the LORD, along with the silver and gold he had taken from other nations-from Edom, Moab, Ammon, the Philistines, and Amalek.

NIRV                                      So Hadoram brought David all kinds of articles that were made out of gold, silver and bronze. King David set those articles apart for the Lord. He had done the same thing with the silver and gold he had taken from other nations. The nations were Edom, Moab, Ammon, Philistia and Amalek.

New Jerusalem Bible             He also sent all sorts of objects made of gold, silver and bronze, which King David also consecrated to Yahweh, as well as the silver and gold which he had levied from all the nations, from Edom, Moab, the Ammonites, the Philistines and Amalek.

New Simplified Bible              King David dedicated all the articles of gold, silver, and bronze to Jehovah, along with the silver and gold he had taken from other nations-from Edom, Moab, Ammon, the Philistines, and Amalek.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             ...and he gave him all sorts of vessels of gold and silver and brass. These King David made holy to the Lord, together with the silver and gold he had taken from all nations; from Edom and Moab and from the children of Ammon and from the Philistines and from Amalek.

HCSB                                     Hadoram brought all kinds of items of gold, silver, and bronze. King David also dedicated these to the LORD, along with the silver and gold he had carried off from all the nations--from Edom, Moab, the Ammonites, the Philistines, and the Amalekites.

NET Bible®                             He also sent various items made of gold, silver, and bronze [Heb "[along with] all items of gold and silver and bronze."]. King David dedicated these things to the LORD [Heb "also them King David made holy to the Lord."], along with the silver and gold which he had carried off from all the nations, including [Heb "from."] Edom [The parallel text of 2 Sam 8:12 of the MT reads "Aram." However, a few Hebrew mss along with the LXX and Syriac of 2 Sam 8:12 read "Edom" in agreement with 1 Chr 18:11 (cf. 2 Sam 8:14).], Moab, the Ammonites, the Philistines, and Amalek.

New International Version      Hadoram brought all kinds of articles of gold and silver and bronze. King David dedicated these articles to the LORD, as he had done with the silver and gold he had taken from all these nations: Edom and Moab, the Ammonites and the Philistines, and Amalek.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    ...and all kinds of vessels, of gold, and silver, and brass;" also them has king David sanctified to Yahweh with the silver and the gold that he has taken from all the nations, from Edom, and from Moab, and from the sons of Ammon, and from the Philistines, and from Amalek.

English Standard Version      And he sent all sorts of articles of gold, of silver, and of bronze. These also King David dedicated to the LORD, together with the silver and gold that he had carried off from all the nations, from Edom, Moab, the Ammonites, the Philistines, and Amalek.

exeGeses companion Bible   ...and all manner of instruments

of gold and silver and copper:

and sovereign David hallows to Yah Veh,

with the silver and the gold

he lifts from all the goyim

- from Edom and from Moab

and from the sons of Ammon

and from the Peleshethiy and from Amaleq.

MKJV                                     And he sent all kinds of vessels of gold and silver and bronze. And King David dedicated them to Jehovah, with the silver and the gold which he brought from all the nations, from Edom, and from Moab, and from the sons of Ammon, and from the Philistines, and from Amalek.

NRSV