Genesis 22

Written and compiled by Gary Kukis

Genesis 22:1–22

God directs Abraham to offer up his son, Isaac, as a sacrifice


These studies are designed for believers in Jesus Christ only. If you have exercised faith in Christ, then you are in the right place. If you have not, then you need to heed the words of our Lord, Who said, “For God so loved the world that He gave His only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son, so that every [one] believing [or, trusting] in Him shall not perish, but shall be have eternal life! For God did not send His Son into the world so that He should judge the world, but so that the world shall be saved through Him. The one believing [or, trusting] in Him is not judged, but the one not believing has already been judged, because he has not believed in the Name of the only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son of God.” (John 3:16–18). “I am the Way and the Truth and the Life! No one comes to the Father except through [or, by means of] Me!” (John 14:6).


Every study of the Word of God ought to be preceded by a naming of your sins to God. This restores you to fellowship with God (1John 1:8–10). If there are people around, you would name these sins silently. If there is no one around, then it does not matter if you name them silently or whether you speak aloud.


Document Navigation

Quotations

Preface

Outline of Chapter

Charts, Graphics, Short Doctrines

Doctrines Alluded to

Chapters Alluded to

Dictionary of Terms

Introduction and Text

Addendum


Links to the word-by-word, verse-by-verse studies of Genesis (HTML) (PDF) (that is what this document is). This incorporates 2 previous studies done in the book of Genesis. However, much of this material was thrown together without careful editing. Therefore, from time to time, there will be concepts and exegetical material which will be repeated, because there was no overall editing done once all of this material was combined.

 

There is a second, less complete set of weekly lessons of Genesis (HTML) (PDF). Every word of that study can be found in the word-by-word, verse-by-verse studies.

 

This study makes reference to a wide-range of sources. There are quotations from doctrinal teachers, of course; but from Catholic commentaries and from other sources as well. Wherever I found relevant truth, I quoted from it or was inspired by it. Even though it is clear that some churches have a better concept of our reason for being here, that does not mean that there is no truth to be found anywhere else. So, from time to time, I will quote from John Calvin, even though I do not subscribe to 5-point Calvinism; I will quote from some Catholic sources, even though I believe that they are very wrong regarding Mary, the pope, apostolic succession and other such doctrines. The intention is for this to be the most thorough and accurate study of Genesis available anywhere.

 

Also, it is not necessary that you read the grey Hebrew exegesis tables. They are set apart from the rest of the study so that you can easily skip over them (based upon the suggestion of a friend). However, if you ever doubt the translation of a word, phrase or a verse, these translation tables are then available.



Quotations:

 

Peter Pett: Abraham had been called by Yahweh to leave his home, his kinsfolk and his country to go to a new land which God had purposed for him. His spiritual life was not smooth. He was not without testing. The very call itself was a test. The long wait for Isaac was a test. The incident of Sodom and Gomorrah was a test. But he had come through it all with his faith enhanced. Now he would face the greatest test of all.

 

J. Vernon McGee: If you were to designate the ten greatest chapters of the Bible, you would almost have to include Genesis 22...This chapter compares with Psalm 22 and Isaiah 53. The first time that I saw in this chapter these great truths which depict the cross of Christ, it was breathtaking. Not only in the birth of Isaac, but now also in the sacrifice of Isaac, there is a strange similarity to the life of our Lord.

 

Coffman on Gen. 22: This great chapter lies at the very heart of Genesis, and for that matter, at the center and citadel of the entire Old Covenant. The constitution and charter of Judaism and the embryo of Christianity lie side by side here in this inner womb of the O.T. This chapter is not legend, or myth, but the Word of Almighty God. It is not a scissors-and-paste job by five different "redactors" putting together three or four, or five or six, "previous sources." Someone has said that this chapter is welded together like cast iron, and the unity of it is indestructible.

 

Gary Kukis: (1) God is not going to appear to you and tell you exactly where you need to go. (2) God is not going to appear to you and tell you to sacrifice your son. (3) God is not going to appear to you visually in this life.

 

Philippians 2:5–8 You should think about things the way Christ Jesus did. He existed in the form of God [i.e., He shared God’s very nature], but did not consider [remaining] equal with God something [to continue] to hold onto. Instead, He gave up what He had and took on the form [i.e., the nature] of a slave, becoming like a man, [and even] His appearance was found to be like a man’s. He humbled Himself [by] becoming obedient [to God] to the point of death, even death on a cross.


Preface: God will require Abraham to offer up his son upon Mount Moriah, and Abraham will obey, thus establishing a great parallel between Abraham offering his son and God offering His Son to save us from our sins.


This should be the most extensive examination of Gen. 22 available, where you will be able to examine in depth every word of the original text.


Outline of Chapter 22:

 

Introduction

 

         vv.     1–2           God Tells Abraham to Take His Son to Moriah and Offer Him Up as a Burnt Offering

         vv.     3–4           The Trip to Moriah

         vv.     5–6           Abraham and Isaac Go to Worship Alone

         vv.     7–8           God Will Provide the Burnt Offering

         vv.     9–10         Abraham Is About to Offer Up His Son

         vv.    11–12         The Angel of the Lord Calls from Heaven

         vv.    13–14         God Provides the Ram

         vv.    15–18         The Angel of the Lord Calls to Abraham Again and Blesses Him

         v.       19           Abraham Returns to Beersheba

         vv.    20–24         The Children of Nahor

 

Addendum


Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines:

 

         Introduction         The Grace Apparatus for Perception

         Introduction         Rembrandt’s the Sacrifice of Isaac

         Introduction         The Prequel of Genesis 22

         Introduction         The Principals of Genesis 22

         Introduction         The Places of Genesis 22

         Introduction         The Patriarchal Timeline for Genesis 22

         Introduction         Clarke’s Synopsis of Genesis 22

         Introduction         Matthew Henry’s Alternate Outline

         Introduction         Lawlor: Genesis 22 Reads like a Two-Act Play

         Introduction         David Cox’s Alliterative Division of the First Section

 

         v.       1              The Bible Query on, God Tempting Abraham

         v.       1              Robbie Dean on God Testing Abraham

         v.       2              When Critics Ask, How is Isaac Abraham’s only son?

         v.       2              The Trinity in the Old Testament (the Abbreviated Version)

         v.       2              Maps of the Land of Moriah

         v.       2              ISBE and Smith on the Land of Moriah

         v.       2              Jerusalem from a distance (photo)

         v.       2              The Sacrifices of Abraham Required by God

         v.       2              Scofield on the Four Crises of Abraham

         v.       2              When Critics Ask, How can God ask Abraham to sacrifice his own son?

         v.       2              The Bible Query on, Did Abraham Offer Up Ishmael and not Isaac?

         v.       4              Clarke (and Ainsworth) “On the third day...”

         v.       6              Abraham and Isaac Walking Toward the Mountain; a graphic by Jim Padgett

         v.       6              Child Sacrifice

         v.       6              Abraham and Child Sacrifice

         v.       6              Abraham and Isaac Ascending the Mountain (a graphic)

         v.       7              Hineni (graphic)

         v.       7              Abraham and Isaac (Illustration by Robert Crumb)

         v.       8              The Lord Will Provide (a graphic)

         v.       8              Explain: “My son, God will look to Himself, the lamb for a burnt offering.”

         v.      11              The Abbreviated Doctrine of the Angel of Jehovah

         v.      11              Repeated Names, by Wells of Living Water Commentary

         v.      12              Caravaggio: The Sacrifice of Isaac (1605)

         v.      12              Caravaggio’s The Sacrifice of Isaac (1603)

         v.      12              Titian’s Abraham and Isaac

         v.      12              When Critics Ask on, Didn’t God know what Abraham would do?

         v.      12              Abraham and Isaac (an artistic rendition by Peter Bently)

         v.      12              The Great Analogy of the Written Word of God and the Living Word of God

         v.      13              Why did God not allow Abraham to offer his son, and then resurrect Isaac?

         v.      13              An Illustration of the Parallel Between Abraham Offering Isaac and the Cross

         v.      13              The Parallels Between Abraham Offering Up Isaac and Jesus Offering Himself

         v.      13              Parallels between the Deaths of Jesus and Isaac, from the Bible Illustrator

         v.      14              Explaining 2Samuel 22:14

         v.      14              Names of God

         v.      14              An atheist interlude

         v.      14              Word Cloud for Atheism Resource homepage

         v.      17              Genesis 22:17 (a graphic)

         v.      17              Operation Footstool

         v.      17              The Doctrine of Typology

         v.      18              Hithpael Usage in “All the Nations of the Earth will be Blessed by your Seed.”

         v.      18              Dr. Thomas Constable on the Four Seeds of Abraham

         v.      18              Isaac was a Type of Christ

         v.      18              God’s Promised Blessings to Abraham in Genesis 22

         v.      18              God Piles Blessings onto Abraham

         v.      18              Abrahamic Covenant Passages

         v.      18              The Offering of Isaac and Our Lord’s Sacrifice on the Cross

         v.      18              Hebrews 11:17–19 Interlude

         v.      18              God’s plan is person-specific

         v.      18              Escrow Blessings

         v.      18              Ancient adoption

         v.      18              Adoption and escrow blessings (Ephesians 1:3–10)

         v.      18              Our inheritance is based upon adoption (Ephesians 1:11–13)

         v.      18              The 3 categories of truth (Ephesians 1:14–20)

         v.      18              Escrow Blessings Explained

         v.      18              Escrow Blessings Graphic

         v.      18              Second Escrow Blessings Chart

         v.      18              Stan Simonton of Katy Community Church on Escrow blessings

         v.      18              Third Escrow Blessing Graphic

         v.      18              The Exegesis of James 2:14–26

         v.      21              The Uz’s of Scripture

         v.      21              The Bible Query, on Asimov’s Guide to the Bible

         v.      24              Clarke on Concubines

         v.      24              Marriage Equality Graphic

         v.      24              Why Nahor’s Children are Listed in Scripture

         v.      24              The Line of Terah (a genealogical chart)

 

         Addendum          Why Genesis 22 is in the Word of God

         Addendum          What We Learn from Genesis 22

         Addendum          Josephus’ History of this Time Period

         Addendum          Edersheim Summarizes Genesis 22

         Addendum          A Complete Translation of Genesis 22

         Addendum          Word Cloud from a Reasonably Literal Paraphrase of Genesis 22

         Addendum          Word Cloud from Exegesis of Genesis 22


Chapter Outline

 

Charts, Graphics, Short Doctrines

Beginning of Document

Doctrines Covered or Alluded to

Chapters of the Bible Alluded to

Definition of Terms

Introduction and Text

Addendum

www.kukis.org

 

Exegetical Studies in Genesis


Doctrines Covered or Alluded To

American Heritage Special

Angel of Jehovah

Angelic Conflict

Christian Basics

Fear of the Lord in the Old Testament

How Isaac's Unusual Birth Foreshadowed the Birth of Our Lord

Importance of Bible Doctrine

Justification

Living the Christian Life

Lucky Guesses in Genesis

Marriage Alternatives Found in the Bible

Melchizedek

Parallels between the Birth of Isaac and the Birth of our Lord

Righteousness

Sanctification

The Trinity in the Old Testament

Typology: Abraham's Offering of Isaac/God's offering of Jesus

 

 

 

Additional doctrines and links are found in Definition of Terms below.


Chapters of the Bible Alluded To and/or Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

 

Genesis 3

 

2Sam. 18


Many who read and study this chapter are 1st or 2nd generation students of R. B. Thieme, Jr., so that much of this vocabulary is second nature. One of Bob’s contributions to theology is a fresh vocabulary along with a number of concepts which are theologically new or reworked, yet still orthodox. Therefore, if you are unfamiliar with his work, the definitions below will help you to fully understand all that is being said. Also, I have developed a few new terms and concepts which require definition as well.

In addition, there are other more traditional yet technical theological terms which will be used and therefore defined as well.

Sometimes the terms in the exegesis of this chapter are simply alluded to, without any in-depth explanation of them. Sometimes, these terms are explained in detail and illustrated. A collection of all these terms is found here: (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Definition of Terms

The 5th stage of national discipline

The 5th stage of national discipline involves complete loss of personal and national sovereignty, the destruction of the family and the nation. Offerings to God are unacceptable. Nations which have undergone this destruction have experienced slavery, cannibalism, and the assimilation of its surviving citizens into other cultures.

Angelic Conflict

The Angelic Conflict is an invisible war which is taking place which involves God, the elect angels and the fallen angels. Man was created to resolve the Angelic Conflict. See the Angelic Conflict (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Anthropopathism

An anthropopathism is taking an easily understood emotion, thought or action that man has or does and attributing that emotion, thought or action to God, to explain God’s thinking and action in language of accommodation. One might view this is somewhat of a shortcut when speaking about God. For more information, see Bible Doctrine Resource.

Operation Footstool

Operation footstool, where God the Father makes all of the enemies of Jesus Christ His footstool (in the sense that they are subjugated to Him).

Progressive Revelation

Progressive revelation simply means that God reveals Himself progressively. As we read about God and His decree in the Bible, it is not revealed to us all at once. Although we find suggestions of the Trinity in Gen. 1, it is not until the New Testament that the concept of the Trinity is revealed well enough to more fully comprehend it. God’s grace and judgment, and what He would do about sin, is first mentioned in Gen. 3; further elaborated on when God asked Abraham to sacrifice his firstborn (by Sarah); and fulfilled by the incarnation of Jesus Christ. See the Doctrine of Progressive Revelation (HTML) (PDF) (WPD)

Protocol Plan of God

This is simply the plan of God with a recognition that it is personal, designed for each one of us, and explicit, as protocol is a rigid long-established code prescribing complete deference to superior rank and strict adherence to due order of precedence, precise and correct procedure.

Rebound (Restoration to fellowship with God)

In the New Testament, this is naming your sins to God, so that you are both restored to temporal fellowship with God and are then filled with the Spirit of God. In the Old Testament, naming your sins to God would result in a restoration of fellowship and, in some cases, the empowerment of the Holy Spirit once again (the Holy Spirit was not given to all Old Testament believers). See the Doctrine of Rebound (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

The Revealed God (or, the Revealed Lord)

We do not look within ourselves or do we build up some concept of God based upon our own experiences, but we first understand God as He has revealed Himself. Throughout the lives of the saints who have gone before us, God revealed Himself through the written Word and sometimes through direct contact. Once a foundation is laid, then we can see how God is understood through various experiences in our lives.


We do not look within to find God and we do not go out and search for God. He will reveal Himself to us. Those who look to other gods are simply worshiping that which others have defined as God; or, in many cases, they incorporate their own norms and standards into their belief of the God they choose to believe in. Essentially, such a person is making God in his own image.

Type, Antitype, Typical

A type is a preordained representation wherein certain persons, events, and institutions of the O.T. stand for corresponding persons, events, and institutions of the N.T. Types are pictures or object lessons by which God has taught His redemptive plan. They are a shadow of things to come, not the image of those things (Col. 2:17 Heb. 8:5 10:1). See the Doctrine of Typology (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Some of these definitions are taken from

http://gracebiblechurchwichita.org/?page_id=1556

http://www.bibledoctrinechurch.org/?subpages/GLOSSARY.shtml

http://rickhughesministries.org/content/Biblical-Terms.pdf

http://www.gbible.org/index.php?proc=d4d

http://www.wordoftruthministries.org/termsanddefs.htm

http://www.realtime.net/~wdoud/topics.html

http://www.theopedia.com/


——————————


An Introduction to Genesis 22


I ntroduction: Genesis 22 is one of the most important chapters in the Old Testament. The more and more I study the Old Testament, the more I see Christ revealed in a way which seems obvious to us today, but it would not be at all obvious to those living during OT times. L.S. Chafer points out that salvation by faith in Christ seems to be more perspicuous in the New Testament than in the Old. Salvation does occur by faith in Yahweh Elohim in the Old Testament, and there is an indication of a sacrifice involved, but given only the Old Testament, it might be difficult to understand what would transpire on the cross until after the fact.


I believe that the judgement of Jesus Christ for our sins on the cross was unknown in those specifics to the people of the Old Testament and to Satan. Satan engineered the capture and persecution of our Lord and saw to it that He would be convicted and I do not believe that Satan would have done that, had he known in advance that our Lord would die on our behalf for our sins during His crucifixion. And if Satan didn't know this, it would follow that no one else knew exactly what was to transpire on the cross until after the resurrection. Satan was outsmarted and outflanked by the cross and he is perhaps the most intelligent created being that there is; so if he did not know, again, it is likely that no one else knew either. There are two reasons why we may assert that Satan did not know about the cross in advance: (1) he entered into Judas to see that Jesus was betrayed over to the Jewish religious leaders, and (2) had he realized that our Lord would die for our sins on our behalf, he would have done his best to prevent the crucifixion.


The reason that chapter 22 is so important is that we have in shadow form the crucifixion of our Lord. We have the father's son being put on the altar to be sacrificed; this is the father's only-born son—that is, the one in Abraham's spiritual line. The son is innocent and goes willingly to be sacrificed. Then there is a substitution of a ram without spot and without blemish. All of this early on gives us a picture, somewhat obscure, of what is to come. This picture was recorded over 4000 years ago and still has meaning for us today.


A really good murder mystery is the kind that there are liberal clues, yet you cannot determine who the murderer is until the very end. Then, all of a sudden, it all seems so clear and obvious and everything which transpired all of a sudden falls into place and makes sense. This chapter by itself, the Levitical offerings, Isa. 53 and other Messianic passages, do not to those who read them soon after they were written necessarily read as Jesus going to the cross to bear out sins. However, in the light of what happened and in retrospect, it suddenly seems so obvious that we often make the mistake of thinking that believers in the Old Testament understood this as well. I do not believe that to be the case.


I believe that this is the cross to Satan. He should have been smart enough to see it coming, but he did not. Once it began, there was nothing that he could do to stop it. It is the cross, where Jesus Christ died for our sins, which broke the back of Satan and sealed his fate of eventual destruction.


This is one of the truly amazing things concerning the Old Testament. All the information is there about Jesus Christ, the Suffering Servant, the One to die for our sins—yet it does not appear that anyone fully apprehended this until after the cross.

 

J. Vernon McGee: If you were to designate the ten greatest chapters of the Bible, you would...have to include Genesis 22 . One of the reasons for that is that this is the first time human sacrifice is even suggested. It is in the plan and purpose of God to make it clear to man that human sacrifice is wrong. This incident reveals that. It also reveals that God requires a life to be given up in order that He might save sinners. There is no one among the children of men worthy to take that place. God's Son was the only One. It is interesting that Paul said, "God spared not His own Son," but you might add that He did spare the son of Abraham and did not let him go through with the sacrifice of Isaac.


Abraham will offer up his son to God as a sacrifice in this chapter as an act of obedience. At no time is there any indication that Abraham understood that he was bringing about one of the greatest types to be found in all the Old Testament. I believe that he simply did what God told him to do; and that all of this was understood as simple obedience, along with a trust in God’s promises which still stood.


On the other hand, God knew all along what was to occur; the cross was always a part of His plan and He revealed this to us; we just did not recognize it until after the fact. Then suddenly, all these Messianic passages and these types make perfect sense. In fact, these things make so much sense that some believers have a hard time believing that Abraham, Moses, David and Jeremiah were never really in on it as we are.

 

J. Vernon McGee: In this chapter we come to another great high point of the Bible. We are walking on mountain peaks in the Book of Genesis. Chapter 22 is the account of Abraham's offering of his own son. God commanded him to offer Isaac on the altar and then restrained him at the last minute when He saw that Abraham was willing to go through with it. This chapter brings us to the seventh and last appearance of God to Abraham. After this, there is nothing more that God could ask Abraham to do. This is the supreme test that He brought to this man.


Gen. 22 is one of the most important chapters in the Old Testament. You will recall the term progressive revelation; where, bit by bit, more and more divine truth is revealed to mankind, which parallels our own spiritual lives, where we learn more and more spiritual truth as we advance (or, we don’t advance). This is true with respect to the Bible as time goes on, and more is added; until the canon of Scripture is complete.


We have observed this with Abraham. At first, he received a short promise from God. Then, once Abraham had grown more spiritually, God expanded on that promise; God built upon that promise. Abraham’s spiritual growth continued, and these promises from God were continued as well, expanded upon with each successive revelation. Every time that God spoke to Abraham, more details were given.


Believers grow spiritually as well, but this involves the intake of Bible doctrine. Grow by means of grace and by means of knowledge of the Lord Jesus Christ is a mandate from God, given in the imperative mood in 2Peter 3:18. This happens a bit at a time. By the way, there are no other methods by which Christians grow. We do not grow by attending a church that has all of the programs we like (lots of singing, a nursery, a young people’s group, etc.). We grow in a church that may be tiny, medium or large, but from which pulpit the Word of God is taught regularly—not in 15 minute chunks thrice a week, but an hour 4x a week or more. We may sing hymns, but they should enforce what we know or help to teach us doctrine. There are a lot of things that we might do at church, but the primary focus of a church is to see that its members Grow by means of grace and by means of knowledge of the Lord Jesus Christ. Grace is the system by which God made it possible for all believers to grow (R. B. Thieme, Jr. coined the phrase, the grace apparatus for perception, or GAP).


I have mentioned this concept in previous lessons, but have never properly defined or explained it. I have even linked to this doctrine several times in the past. This is a summary of this doctrine. R. B. Thieme, Jr. coined the phrase and developed the doctrine originally.

The Grace Apparatus for Perception

1.      The terminology comes from R. B. Thieme, Jr., and it means that there is a grace means by which all believers may understand Bible doctrine. The basic idea is, all believers grow spiritually through the understanding of Bible doctrine. A believer with an I.Q. of 150 does not have any advantage over the believer who has an I.Q. of 90. This will be backed up with Scripture, but R. B. Thieme, Jr. Ministries also puts out a booklet on a particular person, Laura Kay Tapping, who showed this to be true.

2.      That we are to grow in grace and knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ is a mandate from the Bible. This is not an option; and this is not just one way of many ways for a believer to grow. Just as there is only one way to be saved, there is only one Savior; similarly, there is only one way to grow and there is only one Word of Truth, the Bible, to be learned. 2Peter 3:18

3.      Understanding Bible doctrine is much different from human understanding, which is not the basis of spiritual understanding or spiritual growth. 1Cor. 2:1, 8–9

4.      At salvation, we are regenerated by the Holy Spirit, which results in our becoming trichotomous, having a soul, spirit and body. Titus 3:5 1Thess. 5:23

5.      It is the soul which allows us to understand the things of man; the human spirit which allows us to understand the things of God. 1Cor. 2:10–12 Eph. 3:16

6.      Spiritual growth can only take place when we are filled with the Holy Spirit; so, therefore, we must be in fellowship when learning spiritual things. 1Cor. 11:31 1John 1:9

7.      Being filled with the Spirit is a mandate for the Christian life. Eph. 5:18

8.      It is God’s desire that everyone be saved and come to the knowledge of the truth. 1Tim. 2:4

9.      One of the passages grace apparatus for perception is based upon is Eph. 3:16–19 (this is a prayer, written by Paul to the Ephesians) That God would give you, according to [the norm or standard of] the riches of His glory, to be strengthened with inherent power by His Spirit in the inner man; so that Christ may dwell [or, be at home] in your hearts by means of faith; that you, being rooted and grounded in love, may be able to comprehend with all saints what is the breadth, and length, and depth, and height; and to know the love of Christ, which surpasses knowledge, that you might be filled with all the fullness of God. Let’s look at this prayer phrase-by-phrase:

         1)      That God would give you, according to [the norm or standard of] the riches of His glory,... God has an abundance of or a wealth of glory. One of the reasons that we are left on earth after salvation is to glorify Him. Now, given your sorry Christian life and mine, that seems pretty much impossible, but that is our Christian duty and purpose. We reveal, from day-to-day, God’s character and essence in us, despite our great imperfections and failings. God actually gives this opportunity to us again and again, every single day of our lives. However, only the mature believer truly glorifies Jesus Christ. Let me draw an analogy here: we all understand, to some degree, the father and son relationship. If a son goes out there, and is educated or builds up his own business or behaves like a decent human being, he does his father proud. Such a man glorifies his father. Now, as a child of 7 in a school play or singing some song at a pageant, there is some pride in that, but not a lot. Mostly, that is just cute. But when a son reaches adulthood and begins to apply the principles of life which he has learned at home, that is when a son can potentially glorify his father. As believers in Jesus Christ, we glorify God in the same way. Once we reach adulthood, that is when we begin to glorify Him. You no doubt know some 30 or 40 year-old men who act like children, and everything is about them, and they are selfish and lazy. Such a man is an embarrassment to his father. Some believers reach spiritual adulthood and some do not, but we all have the potential to do so, and this potential is based upon the grace apparatus for perception.

         2)      ...to be strengthened with inherent power by His Spirit in the inner man;... We are strengthen or empowered (passive voice) with dúnamis (δύναμις) [pronounced DOO-nahm-iss], which means power, ability, able, capable; inherent power, power residing in a thing by virtue of its nature. Strong’s #1411. So this power, which we receive, is an inherent power or a power which resides within us. This is done by means of God’s Spirit in the inner man. So, again, this process works within us. Notice that there is no legalism here. This does not happen because you used to be immoral and now you are moral. That is a good thing, but the result of growth and not the means of growth (and becoming moral might be the result of social pressure or self-will as well—as some people turn toward God simply because they are disgusted with themselves). This inner man refers to the human spirit, and being strengthened with inherent power in the inner man, refers to this spiritual growth that occurs within us. The Holy Spirit is instrumental in making this happen. The Holy Spirit teaches our human spirit; and the Holy Spirit allows the grace apparatus for perception to function when we are in fellowship.

         3)      ...so that Christ may dwell in your hearts by means of faith;... This is one of the mysteries of the Church Age, where Jesus Christ indwells us. To dwell is the Greek verb katoikéô (κατοικέω) [pronounced kah-toy-KEH-oh], which means to live, to reside; this is a word which usually refers to one’s semi-permanent dwelling. Thayer definitions: 1) to dwell, settle; 1a) metaphorically divine powers, influences, etc., are said to dwell in his soul, to pervade, prompt, govern it; 2) to dwell in, inhabit; 2a) God is said to dwell in the temple, i.e. to be always present for worshippers. Notice how this is used metaphorically divine powers, influences, etc., are said to dwell in his soul, to pervade, prompt, govern it. This is exactly what we are talking about, something which occurs on this inside. Strong’s #2730. This is done by means of faith, which is the Greek word pistis (πίστις) [pronounced PIHS-tihs], and pistis refers to having faith or confidence in something, but it also refers to that which you have faith and confidence in. In the latter sense, this is one of the many synonyms in the Bible for Bible doctrine. Strong’s #4102. Therefore, Christ makes Himself at home in your inner being by means of exercising faith in Bible doctrine. Spiritual information in the Bible is of no use to you. Spiritual information which you hear and reject is of no use to you. You must hear it, you must understand it (grace apparatus for perception) and then you must believe it. If you find yourself rejecting half of what your pastor says, then you are in the wrong church (or, you are negative toward doctrine). If you are not growing spiritually, then you are in the wrong church. If you cannot look back over a period of, say, 5 years, and be able to note unmistakable spiritual growth, then you are in the wrong church or you are just not doing it right.

         4)      ...that you, being rooted and grounded in love, may be able to comprehend with all saints what is the breadth, and length, and depth, and height; and to know the love of Christ, which surpasses knowledge,... This is a long section, so we will break it up into further sub-points:

                  (1)     Being rooted is the perfect passive participle of rhizoô (ῥιζόω) [pronounced hrid-ZOH-o], which means, to cause to strike root, to strengthen with roots, to render firm, to fix, establish, cause a person or a thing to be thoroughly grounded. Thayer definitions only. Strong’s #4492. A plant without a strong root system is easily harmed. It is the root system which goes deep into the ground, in all directions, which pulls in nutrients for the plant.

                  (2)     Grounded is the perfect passive participle of themelioô (θεμελιόω) [pronounced them-el-ee-OH-oh], which means, 1) to lay the foundation, to found; 2) to make stable, establish. Thayer definitions only. Strong’s #2311. Again, notice how all of this is foundational; there is strength and power and nourishment in the foundation or in the roots. Perfect tense in the Greek refers generally to a past action with present continuing results. Passive means that we do not actually build this root system ourselves, but this is done for us, when we learn Bible doctrine.

                  (3)     In love is often used throughout the New Testament for being in fellowship (we find it used in this manner throughout John’s first epistle). No spiritual growth occurs out of fellowship.

                  (4)     Be able is the aorist active subjunctive of Verb exischuô (ἐξισχύω) [pronounced ex-is-KHOO-oh], which means, to be eminently able, able, to have full strength. Thayer definition only. Strong’s #1840. The subjunctive mood means that we have this power, we have this ability, but we may not choose to use it. The iterative aorist indicates that there are points in time throughout our lives when we are able (when we are filled with the Spirit and growing—more specifically, taking in the food needed to grow).

                  (5)     To comprehend is the aorist middle infinitive of Verb katalambanô (καταλαμβάνω) [pronounced kat-al-am-BAHN-oh], which means, 1) to lay hold of; 1a) to lay hold of so as to make one’s own, to obtain, attain to, to make one’s own, to take into one’s self, appropriate; 1b) to seize upon, take possession of; 1b1) of evils overtaking one, of the last day overtaking the wicked with destruction, of a demon about to torment one; 1b2) in a good sense, of Christ by his holy power and influence laying hold of the human mind and will, in order to prompt and govern it; 1c) to detect, catch; 1d) to lay hold of with the mind; 1d1) to understand, perceive, learn, comprehend. Thayer definition only. Strong’s #2638. Comprehension is related to spiritual growth.

                  (6)     We are able to comprehend with all the saints. This is not something which is reserved for believers who have I.Q.’s of 110 or higher; this is for every believer. If you understand the gospel enough to believe in Jesus Christ, then you can learn in the classroom of the local church and build upon that session after session, and apply that to your life, with all other believers.

                  (7)     Then we have: ...what is the breadth, and length, and depth, and height. These are categories of doctrine wherein we store information. If you deal with a lot of paperwork and you are organized, then you separate this paperwork into different drawers, into different files or different containers. Doctrine is much the same way. We begin with basic categories of doctrine (the breadth, and length, and depth, and height), and then we place more and more information into the categories. Breadth refers to doctrines concerning Jesus Christ and His death on the cross, along with the essence of God. Length refers to dispensational teaching, so that we know what has been in the past and what will be found in the future; as well as to the progressive plan of God for our lives. Depth refers to advanced doctrines; and height refers to all information related to the Angelic Conflict (HTML) (PDF) (WPD). As we learn more and more in the Christian life, we are able to file these doctrines into these various drawers.

                  (8)     You are able to, with all the saints, comprehend the love of Christ; which refers to the plan of God, which begins at the cross, which represents the love of Christ, as well as His justice and His righteousness. If Jesus chose not to go to the cross, then we would have no relationship with God. Jesus chooses to do this out of love for us and God the Father chose this plan out of love for us. John 15:13 1John 4:10

                  (9)     This goes beyond or exceeds or transcends knowledge. There are several words for knowledge in the Bible, but there are two which are pertinent to this context: gnosis and epignosis. What we have here is gnôsis (γνσις) [pronounced GNOH-sis] which can refer to human knowledge, general intelligence, human understanding. This understanding depends upon the context. Strong’s #1108. There is another word called epignôsis (ἐπίγνωσις) [pronounced ehp-IHG-noh-sis], which means, 1) precise and correct knowledge 1a) used in the NT of the knowledge of things ethical and divine; this is a word which refers to over and above knowledge. Epignosis is over-and-above knowledge. When in contrast with gnôsis, this is divine knowledge or knowledge of Bible doctrine. Strong’s #1922. Epignôsis is the word that we find in 1Tim. 2:3b–4 God our Savior...desires all people to be saved and to come to the [full] knowledge of the truth.

         5)      ...that you might be filled with all the fullness of God. The word that can refer to a result clause or to a purpose clause, and the purpose of taking in Bible doctrine is so that we might be filled with all the fullness of God. Grace apparatus for perception, the very process that we are describing, is the way that it occurs. We are not filled with all the fulness of God by learning a holy language and then repeating it at the right intervals; we are not filled with the fulness of God by finding certain people in the church and then imitating their personalities (I have seen this happen even in good doctrinal churches). We are not filled with the fullness of God by turning our lives around and becoming more moral. That is a good thing, but it may or may not indicate spiritual growth.

10.    The second extended passage on this topic is 1Cor. 2:11–16 For who among men knows the things of a man except the spirit of man within him? So also no one knows the things of God except the Spirit of God. But we have not received the spirit of the world, but the Spirit from God, so that we might know the things that are freely given to us by God. These things we also speak, not in words which man's wisdom teaches, but which the Holy Spirit teaches, comparing spiritual things with spiritual. But the natural man does not receive the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him; neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned. But he who is spiritual judges all things, yet he himself is judged by no one. For who has known the mind of the Lord, that he may instruct Him? But we have the mind of Christ.

         1)      For who among men knows the things of a man except the spirit of man within him? When we are born again, we receive a human spirit, which has been shut down or has been non-operational for the entirety of our lives, due to the function of the sin nature. We understand our fellow man by means of our soul; and we understand God by means of our human spirit. The terms soul and spirit can be used both technically and non-technically throughout the Bible. Technically, the soul is what is inside of us which allows us to know the things of man; technically, the human spirit is what is inside of us which allows us to know the things of God. The spirit of man here is the non-technical use, and it refers to the human soul. We know this, because it is qualified: the spirit of man.

         2)      So also no one knows the things of God except the Spirit of God. It is the Holy Spirit, Who is given to all believers at salvation, which guides us into all truth (John 16:13 1Cor. 12:13). The Holy Spirit makes the human spirit operational and allows for the flow of Bible doctrine from the teaching of the pastor-teacher to the human spirit of the believer. It is the Holy Spirit Who is the co-Author of the Word of God and Who teaches us through the pastor-teacher (which is the primary means of growth for the believer). If we were supposed to grow by simply reading our Bibles, then there would be no need for the spiritual gift of pastor-teacher nor would there be any need to have a local church, which is designed to be the classroom which allows for spiritual growth. The apostle John speaks of the superiority of face to face teaching over written material. 2John 12. Paul clearly taught this as well in 1Thess. 2:17-18 3:2,10.

         3)      But we have not received the spirit of the world, but the Spirit from God, so that we might know the things that are freely given to us by God. The spirit of the world is the thinking of human viewpoint. Today, this is humanism, fairness, equality and political correctness. Once and awhile, a culture can have as a strong component of that culture divine viewpoint. However, Satan works to destroy that sort of thinking as quickly as possible. A good example of human viewpoint today is the gay marriage movement. If you say that homosexual activity is wrong, you will be told that you are judging, and that Jesus told you not to judge. However, the Bible is clear on this: homosexual acts are wrong and sinful. Understanding what is sinful is not judging. The gay marriage movement says that homosexual desires are natural and God-given. It goes much deeper than that, however. The whole Satanic purpose of the gay marriage movement is to censor pastors and/or to censor the Bible and/or to denigrate the Bible. The idea is to put Christians into difficult positions and then to ostracize them or even sue them if they do not tow the gay marriage party line. Since gay marriage was legalized in Canada, there have been hundreds of lawsuits, most of them against Christians and Christian speech and actions. To know is the perfect active subjunctive of eidô (εἴδω) [pronounced Ī-doh], which means to see, to perceive, to discern, to know. Strong’s #1492. The perfect tense is action which occurs in the past, but with results that carry on into the present. The subjunctive mood means, we may choose to know and we may choose not to know. However, that which God wants us to know is freely given to us. Any believer with positive signals to the Word of God can learn the Word of God through the channels which God has set up. As an aside, I lived in a large city, at one time, where finding good teaching was nearly impossible. I found okay, but legalistic teaching, at a Christian institute. However, now, with the internet, there is a surfeit of good teaching available. See the cities and pastors in the List. In this day and age, there is no reason for a believer to be ignorant of the Word of God.

         4)      These things we also speak, not in words which man's wisdom teaches, but which the Holy Spirit teaches, comparing spiritual things with spiritual. Paul, as an apostle and as a pastor-teacher, teaches these things, not as the philosophies of the day, but he teaches what the Holy Spirit teaches, where spiritual things are compared with spiritual. The verb is the present active participle of Verb sugkrinô (συγκρίνω) [pronounced soong-KREE-no], which means, 1) to joint together fitly, compound, combine; 2) to interpret; 3) to compare. Thayer definition only. Strong’s #4793. We then have the neuter plural adjective used twice: pneumatikós (πνευματικός) [pronounced nyoo-mat-TEE-koss], which means spiritual; as a plural, it acts like noun, and it means spiritual things, spiritual matters. Strong’s #4152. It is found as an accusative and as a dative; so the verb acts upon spiritual things and to this we append with spiritual things. The idea here is, doctrine is built upon doctrine. You do not walk into Bible class the first day and, in an hour, get everything you need for you spiritual life. In fact, you do not get this after going to a good church for a year; or for 5 years. This is a process which continues throughout your entire life, because, for 15 hours a day, you are exposed to human viewpoint from every side: from your parents, from your children, from your supervisor, from your job description, from the movies and from television. Taking the example which I used earlier—gay marriage—we find the gay agenda in such diverse programs as Downton Abbey and the innocuous Pretty Little Liars (from the Disney channel, I believe). In fact, on perhaps half of the programs I have seen, we have the gay agenda presented, over and over again. We wonder why the youth of America favors gay marriage—it is because they have been exposed to nothing else in all of what they take in. This is one example, mentioned primarily because it is a big issue today (far more important to our president than economic matters). 5 years ago, our president told us that he believed that marriage was between 1 man and 1 woman and that God was in the mix. And recently, he is telling Africans about the gay agenda. So, in order to combat human viewpoint, which is going to come at us from every side, we need a little bit of the Word of God. The reason we need it daily is, we are going to be exposed to human viewpoint all day long, in its many and contradictory forms (for instance, American Muslims and LGBT types overwhelmingly support the Democratic party, even though these two groups are diametrically opposed to one another).

         5)      But the natural man does not receive the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him; neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned. The natural man is the unbeliever, who views the things of the spirit as foolishness. On the Facebook page Being Liberal, nearly every day, there are anti-Christian graphic postings. Here, the Bible tells us that the unbeliever cannot learn or retain the things of the Spirit. This helps to explain to me how I could listen to and sing Christmas hymns throughout my entire life without understanding what they all meant. Although I celebrated Easter for 20 or 21 years before I was saved, I did not even know what happened to Jesus after the resurrection. I am not sure if I knew much about the resurrection itself, despite all of my exposure to it. This explains why liberals complain that Christians are judging when they say that homosexual acts are wrong. This is why these same liberals think that this is a violation of what Jesus said about judging, because they are unable to understand spiritual matters. This is why liberals often think that Jesus is a long-haired, sandal-wearing hippie who was the first socialist who gave away free healthcare. He did wear sandals, by the way, but the rest of this picture is wrong. However, they cannot receive the things of the Spirit. Also, it is man’s nature to make God in his own image.

         6)      But he who is spiritual judges all things, yet he himself is judged by no one. For who has known the mind of the Lord, that he may instruct Him? But we have the mind of Christ. To be spiritual here means not just filled with the Holy Spirit but with some spiritual growth as well. Also, Paul here claims to have the mind of Christ, which is the thinking of Jesus Christ, which is the content of all Bible doctrine. He uses the pronoun we referring to himself and the crew that he moved about with. This can be further extended to all of the apostles at this time, as well as to their protegees; and to pastor-teachers today who actually know and teach the Word of God.

11.    A natural question which may come out of this is, how does the unbeliever understand the gospel of Jesus Christ? After all, this is fundamental Christian doctrine. The Holy Spirit graciously acts as the human spirit for the believer and makes the gospel understandable. I recall hearing the gospel for the first time and it was really poorly explained to me, but I walked away from that conversation knowing that I needed to make a decision. I wasn’t sure about what exactly, but I did understand that there was a decision to be made. I eventually turned to the book of John, and understood the decision to be made as Jesus explained it in John 3 (like so many others who have been saved).

12.    To sum up the doctrine of GAP, you need a trained pastor-teacher teaching his congregation Bible doctrine. They need to be filled with the Spirit (in fellowship) and there needs to be enough teaching to counteract the constant flow of human viewpoint which we all experience. All believers in that congregation, being in all stages of spiritual growth, can learn from what is being taught. One of the things which I found to be fascinating is, I listened and took copious notes on R. B. Thieme, Jr.’s study of David. 30 years later, I re-listened to this study, and it was as if I had never heard a word of it before. The difference was, I had a much greater background of spiritual information the second time that I listened to this study. I got something out of it when I first heard it; and I got a great deal more out of it the second time through. There was more spiritual information in my soul, to which I could compare (lay along side) the spiritual information being taught.

         1)      As an aside, the same thing is true of the pastor. R. B. Thieme, Jr. for 10+ years taught book after book after book of the Bible to his congregation (none of which is available to us today). He would teach 1 or more chapters a night, night after night, which we are aware of today because of the classes from the early 1960's which are still available to us. He continued increasing the number of classes to the point where, at his peak, he was teaching ten 1.25 hour classes a week. By the 2nd or 3rd or 4th pass-through of this or that book, his knowledge and understanding of the Bible expanded to a point where he could expound on these passages in much greater detail, often spending a full hour on each verse, gleaning from it as much meaning as possible.

Other resources for the Doctrine of grace apparatus for perception (GAP) (some of these were used as partial sources for this doctrinal development as well):

http://gracebiblechurchwichita.org/?page_id=134

http://www.versebyverse.org/doctrine/gap.html

http://makarios-online.org/notes/pdf/GAP%204-09.pdf

These other sources go into greater detail on this doctrine.

Related to this doctrine is the Importance of Bible Doctrine (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


In a similar fashion, we learn more and more about God’s plan as we move through the book of Genesis. Here, God will reveal His plan for salvation for mankind. So far, we have the promise of Gen. 3:15 “I [God] will put enmity between you [the serpent = Satan] and the woman, and between your offspring and her offspring; He will bruise your head [deadly blow], and you will bruise his heel [painful, even debilitating blow, but not fatal].” The cross of Christ would result in a painful, debilitating suffering for our Lord, but He would recover and He would be raised up again. However, this same cross would break the back of Satan, so our Lord would, thereby, crush his head.


genesis22.gif

After this, we have the importance of animal sacrifices; and, many times, the narrative of the life of Abraham is stopped as he builds an altar to God and offers on this altar animals as blood offerings and/or burnt offerings. Therefore, we understand that long before God gave the people of Israel the Mosaic Law, the key is, the sacrifice of an innocent (this is where Adam and Eve received the animal skins; this is the dispute between Cain and Abel; and this is the sacrifice which Noah made coming out of the ark).


Rembrandt’s the Sacrifice of Isaac; oil on canvas 1635. From Wikimedia Commons, accessed December 13, 2014.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


In Gen. 22, God takes this another step forward and reveals more about this sacrifice which is to come.


All of these things mentioned speak of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, which is the central event of human history, and the most important event of human and angelic history. On the one hand, the crucifixion of Jesus Christ reveals all of the hatred and anger of Satan, which continues to grow; and, on the other, the crucifixion is the central event of God’s plan—God the Father poured out on God the Son all of the sins that we have committed (and will commit), and He judged those sins in God the Son. Jesus took on the penalty for our sins during the crucifixion. This same event is, at once, the result of the hatred and viciousness of Satan and is simultaneously the ultimate expression of God’s love, righteousness and justice. It reveals just how deep the hatred of Satan and the depravity of man can go; and it reveals the perfect character of God at the very same time.


At this point in the narrative of Genesis, we come to the most powerful foreshadowing of the crucifixion to date—the offering of Isaac—Abram’s unique son—as a sacrifice to God. We should understand that there are two very different perspectives of this event: the perspective of the Old Testament; and the perspective of Church Age believers.


Also interesting—and pertinent—there are only two human witnesses to this event: Abraham and Isaac.


When it comes to Abraham, he looks at what is to come as a simple act of obedience—God tells him to do this, and so he does it. God will ask Abraham to offer up his uniquely-born son, Isaac, as a sacrifice to God, and Abraham will obey God. For the next 2000 years, this is how Jews will view this event—as a great act of obedience. Abraham will show all of human creation just how devoted and obedient that he was to God. He was obedient to the point of the offering of his son to God as a sacrifice.

 

Peter Pett: We can compare with this how a man who is a judge may have a son whom he loves, but one day, when the son is brought before his court he has to forget the sonship and behave as a judge. In a sense that is what Yahweh does here. This demonstrates that this incident has a larger purpose than just a personal issue between Yahweh and Abraham. It is a vindication before the world. Abraham must be shown to the world as totally beyond reproach.


From our perspective, we know that this sacrifice is all about Jesus Christ. Progressive revelation. Progressive revelation may be defined as the process of God's own disclosure of Himself and His plan given to man throughout history by means of nature (Rom. 1:18-21; Ps. 19), providential dealings (Rom. 8:28), preservation of the universe (Col. 1:17), miracles (John 2:11), direct communication (Acts 22:17-21), Christ Himself (John 1:14) and through the Bible (1 John 5:39). There is much more involved in Abraham’s offering up his son to God as a sacrifice than simple obedience. However, what that much more is, will be revealed at the cross and discovered by Christian theologians (there is only one verse which hints at the parallel).


For Abraham, the basis of all that God has promised him lies in his uniquely-born son Isaac. All that God has promises Abraham is meaningless apart from Isaac. Isaac is key to the blessings promised by God. Therefore, Abraham knows that, even though God will ask him to sacrifice Isaac, God must bring about what He has promised. Therefore, whatever happens, Isaac cannot die (of, if he dies, God must revive him again). Consequently, Abraham will respond to God’s demand with perfect obedience. I realize that I am telling you the basic plot of the narrative to come, but this narrative is better understood if we know what is going to happen from the beginning.


It is important to understand what has gone before.

The Prequel of Genesis 22

In the previous chapter, Isaac, is born; then, as he weaned, Abraham prepares a great feast for him. However, his half-brother, Ishmael, presents a threat to him. Therefore, Sarah demands that Hagar (Ishmael’s mother) and Ishmael leave the compound. God tells Abraham that is okay.


Then some gentiles come to Abraham in Beersheba and reaffirm their close relationship with him.


We have no other information about Isaac apart from him being born and being weaned.

Gen. 22 will begin with God telling Abraham to offer up his son as a burnt offering.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


We need to know who the people are who populate this chapter.

The Principals of Genesis 22

Characters

Commentary

God

God will come to Abraham and tell him to offer up his son.

Abraham

Abraham is the father of the Jewish race. He is living in the Land of Promise and he has fathered a son by Sarah. Abraham will offer up his son as a burnt offering. God will stop him before he slits Isaac’s throat.

Isaac

Isaac is Abraham’s son—perhaps around 10–12 years old in this chapter. His age is a matter of contention and it will be discussed in this chapter.

Two servants

Abraham and Isaac are accompanied by two servants on their trip to Moriah.

 

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


We need to know where this chapter takes place.

The Places of Genesis 22

Place

Description

Beersheba

Presumably, this is where Abraham is living (Gen. 21:31–32).

Moriah

Moriah is the land where God sends Abraham to offer up his son. It is a 3-day trip from wherever Abraham is living.

Mount Moriah

God would direct Abraham to a particular mountain in the Moriah area. Many assume that this is where Solomon’s original Temple was erected, which is probably Golgotha.

Maps will follow.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


The Patriarchal Timeline for Genesis 22


Legend

Birth or death

God speaks with Abraham

Historical incidents (most of which are related to Abraham)

Parenthetical dates (2065 b.c.) simply refer to taking the date assigned by the chronologist and using Scripture to determine the next date.

The entire Abrahamic Timeline (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

The entire Patriarchal Timeline (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).


Brent MacDonald

Age of Abraham

Reese’s Chronology Bible

Scripture

Event/Description

2234 b.c.

 

2097 b.c.

Gen. 11:24

Terah, Abram’s father, is born. Gen 11:24–26 Nahor lived 29 years and fathered Terah. After he fathered Terah, Nahor lived 119 years and fathered other sons and daughters. Terah lived 70 years and fathered Abram, Nahor, and Haran.

 

 

1978 b.c.

Gen. 11:25

Death of Nahor, Abram’s uncle

2164 b.c.

0

1967 b.c.

Gen. 11:26–27

Abraham (Terah’s son) and Lot (Haran’s son) born in Ur of the Chaldeans. Abram would be the 43rd generation from Adam. Gen 11:26 Terah lived 70 years and fathered Abram, Nahor, and Haran.

Reese occasionally supplies 2 dates in his Chronological Bible; the first is his and the second is Klassen’s.

 

 

1907 b.c.

1927 b.c. (Klassen)

Gen. 11:28, 22

Abram’s family travel from Ur to Haran, although their original intention had been to go to the land of Canaan. Gen 11:28, 22 Haran died in his native land, in Ur of the Chaldeans, during his father Terah's lifetime. Terah took his son Abram, his grandson Lot (Haran's son), and his daughter-in-law Sarai, his son Abram's wife, and they set out together from Ur of the Chaldeans to go to the land of Canaan. But when they came to Haran, they settled there.

 

 

1892 b.c.

Gen. 11:32

Death of Terah, Abram’s father. Gen. 11:32 Terah lived 205 years and died in Haran.

2089 b.c.

75

1892 b.c.

Gen. 12:1–4

Abraham leaves for Promised Land from Haran, after being so instructed by God. Gen 12:4 So Abram went, as the LORD had told him, and Lot went with him. Abram was 75 years old when he left Haran.

Reese actually gives the date of Terah’s death as April 1–4, 1892 b.c. and the date of Abram leaving Haran as April 5, 1892 b.c.

(2065 b.c.)

99

1868 b.c.

Gen. 17:1–14

God renews His covenant with Abram and renames him Abraham. Gen 17:1 When Abram was 99 years old, the LORD appeared to him, saying, "I am God Almighty. Live in My presence and be devout. Circumcision is given as a sign of the covenant and of Abraham’s faith in his covenant with God. Circumcision represents regeneration (the new birth).

(2065 b.c.)

99

(1868 b.c.)

Gen. 17:15–19

Sarai’s name is changed to Sarah and Isaac, a future son, is promised the Abraham and Sarah. Gen 17:17 Abraham fell to the ground, laughed, and thought in his heart, "Can a child be born to a hundred-year-old man? Can Sarah, a ninety-year-old woman, give birth?"

(2065 b.c.)

99

(1868 b.c.)

Gen. 17:21–22

The time that Sarah would give birth is revealed; at a set time in the next year. Gen 17:21 But I will confirm My covenant with Isaac, whom Sarah will bear to you at a set time next year."

(2065 b.c.)

99

(1868 b.c.)

Gen. 17:23–27

Abraham obeys God and circumcises himself and the men with him, responding in faith to God’s mandate. Gen 17:24 Abraham was 99 years old when the flesh of his foreskin was circumcised, and his son Ishmael was 13 years old when the flesh of his foreskin was circumcised.

(2065 b.c.)

 

(1867 b.c.)

Gen. 18:1–15

Jehovah and two angels come to Abraham and promise that Sarah would have a child in a year’s time. Gen 18:10, 14 The LORD said, "I will certainly come back to you in about a year's time, and your wife Sarah will have a son!" Now Sarah was listening at the entrance of the tent behind him. Is anything impossible for the LORD? At the appointed time I will come back to you, and in about a year she will have a son."

 

 

 

Gen. 20:1–18

Abraham lies again about his wife to King Abimelech in Gerar, in southern Judah. Although some believe that this chapter is placed here in Genesis due to thematic elements rather than because it belongs here chronologically, we find Abraham in Gerar in the next chapter, which suggests that this chapter is correctly placed.

2064 b.c.

100

 

Gen. 21:1–7 1Chron. 1:34

Isaac born to Abraham. Isaac would be the 44th generation from Adam. Gen 21:5 Abraham was 100 years old when his son Isaac was born to him.

 

 

1864 b.c.

Gen. 21:8–21

Conflicts arise between Isaac and Ishmael, Abram’s two sons. Hagar and Ishmael are both cast out, and they wander the desert of Beer-sheba (which is at the edge of southern Judah). Later, they move to the desert of Paran.

 

 

1864–1834 b.c.

Gen. 21:22–34

Abraham makes a covenant with Abimelech, which suggests that Abraham is still in or near Gerar. They will make a covenant in Beer-sheba. We are told that Abraham remains in the land of the Philistines for many days.

 

 

1834 b.c.

1829 b.c. (Klassen)

Gen. 22:1–19

Abraham is told by God to go to the land of Moriah to offer up his son Isaac to God as a sacrifice. This was a 3-day journey away. They then go to Beer-sheba, which could simply indicate that they are returning home to Beer-sheba.

Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge puts this date at 1872 b.c., based upon Antiquities by Josephus.

 

 

 

Gen. 22:20–24

Abraham learns of his brother Nahor’s family.

1989 b.c.

175

1792 b.c.

Gen. 25:7–10

Abraham dies. Gen 25:7 This is the length of Abraham's life: 175 years. He is buried in the cave of Machpelah near Mamre, in the field of Nephron (this would be with Sarah).


Bibliography

MacDonald’s timeline is from: http://www.bibleistrue.com/qna/qna63.htm accessed October 11, 2011.

See http://www.bibleistrue.com/qna/qna63dating.htm for his justification of his timeline.

From: http://www.christianshepherd.org/bible_study_guides/abram_to_the_exodus.pdf (Christian shepherd)

The Reese Chronological Bible; KJV translation; Editor: Edward Reese; ©1977 by Edward Reese and Klassen’s dating system ©1975 by Frank R. Klassen; Ⓟ1980 by Bethany House Publishers, South Minneapolis, MN; pp. 18–19, 54–74.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Here is what to expect from Genesis 22:

Clarke’s Synopsis of Genesis 22

The faith and obedience of Abraham put to a most extraordinary test, Gen. 22:1). He is commanded to offer his beloved son Isaac for a burnt–offering (Gen. 22:2). He prepares, with the utmost promptitude, to accomplish the will of God (Gen. 22:3–6).

Isaac’s question (Gen. 22:7); and Abraham’s answer (Gen. 22:8).

Having arrived at mount Moriah he prepares to sacrifice his son (Gen. 22:9–10); and is prevented by an angel of the Lord (Gen. 22:11 (Gen. 22:12). A ram is offered in the stead of Isaac (Gen. 22:13); and the place is named Jehovah–jireh (Gen. 22:14).

The angel of the Lord calls to Abraham a second time (Gen. 22:15); and, in the most solemn manner, he is assured of innumerable blessings in the multiplication and prosperity of his seed (Gen. 22:16–18).

Abraham returns and dwells at Beer–sheba (Gen. 22:19).

Abraham hears that his brother Nahor has eight children by his wife Milcah (Gen. 22:20; their names (Gen. 22:21–23); and four by his concubine Reumah (Gen. 22:24).

Like all chapters of the Word of God, you need more than just the simple plot outline to understand what God wants us to know.

Adam Clarke, Commentary on the Bible; from e-Sword, Gen. 22 chapter comments (edited).

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines

 

Coffman: The great theme of this glorious chapter focuses upon the offering of Isaac by his father Abraham in a suspense drama that rises above the literature of all times and nations. God commanded Abraham to offer up his only son as a burnt-offering! Abraham proceeded to do so and was restrained only at the last moment when God stayed his hand.


I broke this chapter up into a great many sections. Henry combined many of these.

Matthew Henry’s Alternate Outline

I.       The strange command which God gave to Abraham concerning it (Gen. 22:1–2).

II.      Abraham's strange obedience to this command (Gen. 22:3–10)

III.     The strange issue of this trial.

         A.      The sacrificing of Isaac was countermanded (Gen. 22:11, Gen. 22:12).

         B.      Another sacrifice was provided (Gen. 22:13–14).

         C.     The covenant was renewed with Abraham hereupon (Gen. 22:15–19).

IV.     Lastly, an account of some of Abraham's relations (Gen. 22:20, etc.)

Matthew Henry, Commentary on the Whole Bible; from e-Sword, Gen. 22 chapter comments (slightly edited).

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


I peruse perhaps 100 commentaries. I liked the organization that Lawlor offers.

Lawlor: Genesis 22 Reads like a Two-Act Play

Prologue, 22: 1                      God calls to Abraham in Beersheba.

Act I: Ordeal/Crisis, 22:2-10   God tells Abraham to sacrifice his son Isaac, and Abraham obeys.

         Scene 1, 22:2-5            God tells Abraham to sacrifice his son, and so Abraham and Isaac travel to Mount Moriah in order to obey God.

         Scene 2, 22:6-10          Abraham and Isaac go up the mountain and Abraham begins to offer his son.

Act II: Resolution, 22:11-18    The substitution and the blessing.

         Scene I, 22:11-14         God stays the hand of Abraham and offers a substitute.

         Scene 2, 22:15-18        God reiterates His promises to Abraham, which will be fulfilled by means of Isaac.

Epilogue, 22: 19                     Abraham, Isaac and the servants return to Beersheba.

Sometimes, we gain some understanding by looking at this chapter from afar. Abraham’s willingness to accomplish God’s will and the substitute sacrifice are both following by a promise of great blessing.

From Gordon.edu, accessed December 11, 2014. Commentary/explanation added by me.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


This chapter really breaks down into two sections: the offering of Isaac and the family of Nahor. The first section could be further broken down into subsections.

David Cox’s Alliterative Division of the First Section

1A.    THE SACRIFICE THAT ABRAHAM WAS TO MAKE - Gen. 22:1-2

2A.    THE SYMBOLS OF DEATH - 22:3-6

3A.    THE SUBMISSION OF ISAAC - 6-8

4A.    THE SUBSTITUTION OF THE RAM - 9-13

5A.    THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ABRAHAM’S RESPONSE TO GOD - 14-19

From http://www.davidcox.com.mx/library/H/Hocking,%20David%20-%20Genesis.pdf accessed September 19, 2014.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


This chapter is unique. The Angel of Yehowah will ask Abraham to offer up his unique-born son, and Abraham will obey Him. Often, critics complain about the idea of child sacrifice here, but without understanding the meaning of this chapter. If you google “atheist Abraham Isaac”, you will find a great number of websites where this particular narrative causes them great difficulties.


When viewed superficially, one cannot help but conclude that this is a barbaric and inhuman request by God, suggesting little difference between the Revealed God and the heathen gods of that area. But, in order to take that viewpoint, you must equate God telling Abraham to sacrifice his son with God’s intention that Isaac be actually sacrificed at the hands of his father. God wants Abraham to submit to His authority; God wants Abraham to go to the point where he is about to bring the knife down on the throat of his own child, but God will provide a substitutionary sacrifice.


Abraham did not sacrifice his son to God. Abraham was willing to sacrifice his son to God. God did not want Abraham to actually kill his son; God wanted Abraham to be willing to offer up his son. For many, they do not see this distinction, but there is quite a distinction.


What is going on—and this will be made perspicuous in the exegesis which follows—is God is setting up a parallel. You will recall that there are Parallels between the Birth of Isaac and the Birth of our Lord (HTML) (PDF) (WPD). In this chapter, there will be a parallel between the offering of Isaac and the offering of our Lord. The first (the birth of Isaac; the offering of Isaac) is the type; the second (the birth of Jesus; the crucifixion of Jesus) is the antitype. The first telegraphs what is going to occur in God’s plan; the second is God’s plan at work for our salvation.


You will find out a lot of new information in this chapter. One of the first things is, Abraham did not realize that the birth of his son and the offering of his son were types. The birth of his son came by the promise of God; the offering of Isaac in this chapter was the result of Abraham’s obedience to God. At no time does Abraham indicate that he is aware of typology. In fact, much of what occurs in the Old Testament and many of the people in the Old Testament are typical. What is fascinating is, even thought Paul alludes to this relationship between the Old and New Testaments (Rom. 5 1Cor. 15); there is no indication that there was much development of this theological science for centuries, with a few exceptions (Saint Augustine apparently developed some strains of Typology in the 300's). A great deal of typology has been developed over the past 100 years. Dake has done some excellent work in typology.

 

Barnes: The grand crisis, the crowning event in the history of Abraham, now takes place. Every needful preparation has been made for it. He has been called to a high and singular destiny. With expectant acquiescence he has obeyed the call. By the delay in the fulfillment of the promise, he has been taught to believe in the Lord on his simple word. Hence, as one born again, he has been taken into covenant with God. He has been commanded to walk in holiness, and circumcised in token of his possessing the faith which purifies the heart. He has become the intercessor and the prophet. And he has at length become the parent of the child of promise. He has now something of unspeakable worth, by which his spiritual character may be thoroughly tested. Since the hour in which he believed in the Lord, the features of his resemblance to God have been shining more and more through the darkness of his fallen nature - freedom of resolve, holiness of walk, interposing benevolence, and paternal affection. The last prepares the way for the highest point of moral likeness.


——————————


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


God Tells Abraham to Take His Son to Moriah and Offer Him Up as a Burnt Offering


Slavishly literal:

 

Moderately literal:

And so he is after the words the these and the Elohim tested Abraham. And so he says unto him, “Abraham;’ and so he says, “Behold me.”

Genesis

22:1

And so it is after these things that the Elohim tested Abraham. Therefore He said to him, “Abraham;” and he replied, “Here [lit., behold] I [am].”

And it came to pass after these things that God tested Abraham. Therefore, He said to him, “Abraham;’ and he replied, “I am here.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:

 

Ancient texts:                       Note: I compare the Hebrew text to English translations of the Latin, Syriac and Greek texts, using the Douay-Rheims translation; George Lamsa’s translation, and Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton’s translation as revised and edited by Paul W. Esposito, respectively. I often update these texts with non-substantive changes (e.g., you for thou, etc.). I often use the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible instead of Brenton’s translation, because it updates the English text.

 

The Septuagint was the earliest known translation of a book (circa 200 b.c.). Since this translation was made before the textual criticism had been developed into a science and because different books appear to be translated by different men, the Greek translation can sometimes be very uneven.

 

When there are serious disparities between my translation and Brenton’s (or the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible), I look at the Greek text of the Septuagint (the LXX) to see if a substantive difference actually exists (and I reflect these changes in the English rendering of the Greek text). I use the Greek LXX with Strong’s numbers and morphology available for e-sword. The only problem with this resource (which is a problem for similar resources) is, there is no way to further explore Greek verbs which are not found in the New Testament. Although I usually quote the Complete Apostles’ Bible here, I have begun to make changes in the translation when their translation conflicts with the Greek and note what those changes are.

 

The Masoretic text is the Hebrew text with all of the vowels (vowel points) inserted (the original Hebrew text lacked vowels). We take the Masoretic text to be the text closest to the original. However, differences between the Masoretic text and the Greek, Latin and Syriac are worth noting and, once in a great while, represent a more accurate text possessed by those other ancient translators.

 

In general, the Latin text is an outstanding translation from the Hebrew text into Latin and very trustworthy (I say this as a non-Catholic). Unfortunately, I do not read Latin—apart from some very obvious words—so I am dependent upon the English translation of the Latin (principally, the Douay-Rheims translation).

 

Underlined words indicate differences in the text.

 

Bracketed portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls are words, letters and phrases lost in the scroll due to various types of damage. Underlined words or phrases are those in the Dead Sea Scrolls but not in the Masoretic text.

 

The Targum of Onkelos is actually the Pentateuchal Targumim, which are The Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan Ben Uzziel. On the Pentateuch With The Fragments of the Jerusalem Targum From the Chaldee by J. W. Etheridge, M.A. Taken from http://targum.info/targumic-texts/pentateuchal-targumim/ and first published in 1862.

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so he is after the words the these and the Elohim tested Abraham. And so he says unto him, “Abraham;’ and so he says, “Behold me.”

Dead Sea Scrolls                   Only a few words of Gen. 22 are still readable in the Dead Sea Scrolls. They will be no help to us in this chapter.

Targum of Onkelos                And it was after these things that Izhak and Ishmael contended; and Ishmael said, It is right that I should inherit what is the father’s because I am his firstborn son. And Izhak said, It is right that I should inherit what is the father”s, because I am the son of Sarah his wife, and you are the son of Hagar the handmaid of my mother. Ishmael answered and said, I am more righteous than you, because I was circumcised at thirteen years; and if it had been my will to hinder, they should not have delivered me to be circumcised; but you were circumcised a child eight days; if you had had knowledge, perhaps they could not have delivered you to be circumcised. Izhak responded and said, Behold now, to-day I am thirty and six years old; and if the Holy One, blessed be He, were to require all my members, I would not delay. These words were heard before the Lord of the world, and the Word of the Lord at once tried Abraham, and said to him, Abraham! And he said, Behold me.

Jerusalem targum                  And it was after these things that the Lord tried Abraham with the tenth trial, and said to him, Abraham! And he said, Behold me.

Latin Vulgate                          After these things, God tempted Abraham, and said to him: Abraham, Abraham. And he answered: Here I am.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    AND it came to pass after these things that God tested Abraham and said to him, Abraham. And he said, Behold, here I am.

Septuagint (Greek)                And it came to pass after these things that God tested Abraham, and said to him, Abraham, Abraham; and he said, Behold! I am here.

 

Significant differences:           The targum has this huge narrative in it. The Latin and Greek have Abraham’s name twice, which will be found later on in this chapter.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Binding of Isaac

After these events, God tested Abraham and said to him, "Abraham!"

Abraham answered, "I'm here."

Contemporary English V.       Some years later God decided to test Abraham, so he spoke to him. Abraham answered, "Here I am, LORD."

Easy-to-Read Version            After those things, God decided to test Abraham’s faith. God said to him, “Abraham!”

Good News Bible (TEV)         Some time later God tested Abraham; he called to him, "Abraham!" And Abraham answered, "Yes, here I am!"

The Message                         After all this, God tested Abraham. God said, "Abraham!" "Yes?" answered Abraham. "I'm listening."

New Berkeley Version           Following this, God tested [God does not tempt (James 1:13); temptation is always from “the evil one.” But God tests often.] Abraham. He said to him, Abraham! He answered, “Here I am.”

New Living Translation           Abraham's Faith Tested

Some time later, God tested Abraham's faith. "Abraham!" God called.

"Yes," he replied. "Here I am."


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          After that, it so happened that God tested AbraHam. He called to him, saying, 'AbraHam. AbraHam!'

And [AbraHam] replied, 'Look! It's me!'

Ancient Roots Translinear      It was after these words, God proved Abraham, saying to him, "Abraham!" He said, "Here I am!"

Beck’s American Translation God Tests Abraham’s Faith

After this God tested Abraham. “Abraham!” God said to him.

“Yes,” he answered.

God’s Word                         Later God tested Abraham and called to him, "Abraham!" "Yes, here I am!" he answered.

International Standard V        The Command to Offer Isaac

Sometime later, God tested Abraham. He called out to him, "Abraham!"


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             Now after these things, God put Abraham to the test, and said to him, Abraham; and he said, Here am I.

Conservapedia                       After all these things had taken place, God probed Abraham. He said to him, "Abraham!" And Abraham said, "Behold me."

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 The Trial of Abraham’s Faith

After these events, GOD tried Abraham and said to him, “Abraham,” and he replied, “I am here.”

NIV – UK                                Abraham tested

Some time later God tested Abraham. He said to him, `Abraham!'

`Here I am,' he replied.


Catholic Bibles (those having the imprimatur):

 

Christian Community Bible     The sacrifice of Isaac

Some time later God tested Abraham and said to him, “Abraham!” And he answered, “Here I am.”

The account of the sacrifice of Isaac shocks us: how could God ask Abraham to sacrifice his son? Doubtless in order to understand this text it should be understood from two different points of view. The text is first a formal condemnation of human sacrifices. We must not forget that at the time this account was drawn up the sacrifice of children was practiced by the Canaanites: many Israelites following the example of the Canaanites thought that such sacrifice was pleasing to God. The prophets strongly opposed this kind of sacrifice (see Jer 19). In a first instance Abraham sees the immolation of his son Isaac as the will of God but the end of the account clearly states that God prevents him from carrying it out. In a first reading the text also justifies the ransom of firstborn children. All first-fruits belong to God; but unlike the first-born of animals which are immolated, children are redeemed (Ex 13:13). The text of Genesis, however, invites us to read in this the example of unfailing faith of the patriarch: God tests his friends in order to increase their faith. God saves his best gifts for those who remain faithful during times when he takes all hope away from them. In the course of his life Abraham had trusted in God’s promises for his son. Now, would Abraham be willing to sacrifice his son and the promises? God has placed him on a road. What will Abraham do when the road appears closed? After the test, Abraham would know that he loves his son in the same way God loves, because he chose God over his son. We know without doubt that God approves our dedication to a particular task if on some occasion we have shown that we are willing to let go even of that task, if God wills it so. Likewise when our hope in God’s promises seems to fall to pieces, only true love can keep us faithful.

Heritage Bible                        And after these words God tested Abraham, and said to him, Abraham, and he said, Behold.

"Here I am!" he answered.

New American Bible              The Testing of Abraham. [22:1-19] The divine demand that Abraham sacrifice to God the son of promise is the greatest of his trials; after the successful completion of the test, he has only to buy a burial site for Sarah and find a wife for Isaac. The story is widely recognized as a literary masterpiece, depicting in a few lines God as the absolute Lord, inscrutable yet ultimately gracious, and Abraham, acting in moral grandeur as the great ancestor of Israel. Abraham speaks simply, with none of the wordy evasions of chaps. 13 and 21. The style is laconic; motivations and thoughts are not explained, and the reader cannot but wonder at the scene. In vv. 15-18, the angel repeats the seventh and climactic promise. Moriah: the mountain is not given a precise geographical location here, though 2 Chr 3:1 identifies Moriah as the mountain of Jerusalem where Solomon built the Temple; Abraham is thus the first to worship there. The word "Moriah" is a play on the verb "to see" (Heb. ra'ah); the wordplay is continued in v. 8, "God will provide (lit., "see")" and in v. 14, Yahweh-yireh, meaning "the Lord will see/provide."

Some time afterward, God put Abraham to the test and said to him: Abraham! "Here I am!" he replied.

New Jerusalem Bible             It happened some time later that God put Abraham to the test. 'Abraham, Abraham!' he called. 'Here I am,' he replied.

Revised English Bible            Some time later God put Abraham to the test. ‘Abraham!’ he calle do him, and Abraham replied, ‘Here I am!’


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 The Test

After these events, God tested Abraham.

'Abraham!' He said.

'Yes.' Literally, 'Here I am,' or 'I am here.' It is, however, an idiom denoting an answer to a summons; see Genesis 27:1, 31:1, 37:13, Exodus 3:4, 1 Samuel 3:4, 2 Samuel 1:7. See note on Genesis 15:4.

The Scriptures 1998              And it came to be after these events that Elohim tried Araham, and said to him, “Araham!” And he said, “Here I am.”


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

The Amplified Bible                After these events, God tested and proved Abraham and said to him, Abraham! And he said, Here I am.

The Expanded Bible              God Tests Abraham

After these things God tested ·Abraham's faith [L?Abraham]. God said to him, "Abraham!"

And he answered, "Here I am."

Kretzmann’s Commentary    The Journey to Moriah

And it came to pass after these things that God did tempt Abraham and said unto him, Abraham; and he said, Behold, here I am. After these happenings at Beersheba God tempted, or tested, Abraham, not by giving him an occasion to sin, James 1:13, but by trying his faith as to its soundness and strength. Upon the Lord's calling to him, probably in a dream-vision, Abraham promptly signifies his eagerness to hear.

Lexham English Bible            God Tests Abraham

And it happened [that] after these things, God tested Abraham. And he said to him, "Abraham!" And he said, "Here I [am]."

NET Bible®                             The Sacrifice of Isaac

Some time after these things God tested [The Hebrew verb used here means "to test; to try; to prove." In this passage God tests Abraham to see if he would be obedient. See T. W. Mann, The Book of the Torah, 44-48. See also J. L. Crenshaw, A Whirlpool of Torment (OBT), 9-30; and J. I. Lawlor, "The Test of Abraham," GTJ 1 (1980): 19-35.] Abraham. He said to him, "Abraham!" "Here I am!" Abraham ["he"; the referent (Abraham) has been specified in the translation for clarity.] replied. When it comes to making an actual material change to the text, the NET Bible® is pretty good about indicating this. Since most of these corrections will be clear in the more literal translations below and within the Hebrew exegesis itself, I will not continue to list every NET Bible® footnote.

Syndein/Thieme                     {Acrostic - TOP} {Verses 1-2: T= Testing}

And it came to pass after these things {after Abraham left behind Caldea and idolatry, his father, Egypt etc.}, that 'Elohiym/Godhead did prove or test Abraham, and said unto him, "Abraham", and He said, "Behold me."

Translation for Translators                        Yahweh told Abraham to offer Isaac as a sacrifice

Several years later, God tested Abraham to find out whether Abraham really trusted in him and would obey him. He called out to Abraham, and Abraham replied, "I'm here."

The Voice                               After a period of time, God decided to put Abraham to the test.

Eternal One: Abraham!

Abraham: I am right here.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And it is coming, after these things, that the Elohim probes Abraham and is saying to him, "Abraham! Abraham!" And saying is he, "Behold me!"

LTHB                                     And it happened after these things, testing Abraham, God said to him, Abraham! And he said, Behold me.

World English Bible                And it came to pass after these things, that God tempted Abraham, and said to him, Abraham: and he said, Behold, [here] I [am].

Young’s Updated LT             And it comes to pass after these things that God has tried Abraham, and says unto him, “Abraham;” and he says, “Here am I.”

 

The gist of this verse:          God decides to test Abraham; and He calls for him.


Genesis 22:1a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

Without a specific subject and object, the verb hâyâh often means and it will come to be, and it will come to pass, then it came to pass (with the wâw consecutive). It may be more idiomatically rendered subsequently, afterwards, later on, in the course of time, after which. Generally, the verb does not match the gender whatever nearby noun could be the subject (and, as often, there is no noun nearby which would fulfill the conditions of being a subject).

ʾachar (אַחַר) [pronounced ah-KHAHR]

after, following, behind; afterwards, after that

preposition

Strong’s #310 BDB #29

debârîym (דְּבָרִים) [pronounced dawb-vawr-EEM]

words, sayings, doctrines, commands; things, matters, reports

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong's #1697 BDB #182

ʾêlleh (אֵלֶּה) [pronounced ALE-leh]

these, these things

demonstrative plural adjective with the definite article

Strong's #428 BDB #41


Translation: And so it is after these things... This clearly places us in a specific time period, which is after all of the previous chapters. Isaac is older now, possibly a child and possibly a young man. We will be able to figure out his age based upon some clues in this chapter.


Genesis 22:1b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong's #430 BDB #43

nâçâh (נָסָה) [pronounced naw-SAWH]

to test, to try, to attempt, to try to do a thing; to practice doing a thing

3rd person masculine singular, Piel perfect

Strong’s #5254 BDB #650

This is the first occurrence of this word in the Bible.

This word was translated tempt in the KJV. Preacher’s Complete Homiletical Commentary: "God did tempt Abraham." We are not to understand the word "tempt" in the unfavourable sense in which it is used of Satan. The meaning is, that God proved the faith and obedience of Abraham by putting them to a severe test.

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʾAberâhâm (אַבְרָהָם) [pronounced ahbve-raw-HAWM]

father of a multitude, chief of a multitude; transliterated Abraham

masculine singular proper noun; pausal form

Strong’s #85 BDB #4


Translation: ...that the Elohim tested Abraham. In the Bible, we sometimes view things in two ways: what is actually occurring on the surface and what God is accomplishing. God is looking at Abraham, who is thrilled to have this son by Sarah, the son of promise; and now God is going to test Abraham (the first time that this word occurs in the Bible).

 

Preacher’s Complete Homiletical Commentary: The teaching of this narrative is to be judged by the issue, which shows that God did not intend to sanction human sacrifices, but only to give an evident demonstration of Abraham's complete surrender to the Divine will. The command was so given that Abraham could understand it only in one way, i.e., that he was bidden actually to offer up his son in sacrifice. But God had another end in view for his servant, who was by this trial to be selected from the rest of mankind as an extraordinary instance of faith.


This is not a big deal, but some people still point to this as if it is some kind of contradiction.

The Bible Query on, God Tempting Abraham

Q: In Gen 22:1 (KJV), how could God "tempt" Abraham, since James 1:13 says God does not tempt people?

A: The word "tempt" is only in the King James version, translated 400 years ago. Both modern translations and the Hebrew word here, nâcâh, mean "to test or prove". The difference between tempt and test is that God does not entice us to do evil, but God does allows us, like Abraham and Job, to have tests of our faith. See Bible Difficulties and Seeming Contradictions p.207-208, Now That’s A Good Question p.475-476, and Hard Sayings of the Bible p.124-125 for more info.

From Bible Query March 2006 version. Copyright (c) Christian Debater(tm) 1997-2006. Accessed from E-sword; Gen. 22:1.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


When God tests us, the purpose is for our benefit; and, sometimes, for the benefit of others. When Satan tempts us, the purpose is to bring us down, to discourage us, to impede our spiritual growth. Ultimately, Satan wants to stop the plan of God, if simply because, at the end of this first era, he will be cast into the Lake of Fire. 1Peter 1:6–7 In this you rejoice, though now for a little while, if necessary, you have been grieved by various trials, so that the tested genuineness of your faith--more precious than gold that perishes though it is tested by fire--may be found to result in praise and glory and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ. (ESV)

 

Chuck Smith: Our scientists today have created many exotic materials for use in space. But these materials are subjected to all kinds of testing procedures. Now the purpose of these testing procedures isn"t to destroy the material, but to prove whether or not the material will stand up in particular kinds of stresses. We want to prove the value of the material. And so the testing is to prove the worth, the value of the material. Will it stand up under stress, under strain, under heat, under cold, under pressure? 


It may be helpful for you to know in advance that, historically, what occurs in this chapter meant one thing. In this chapter, it is all about testing Abraham; it is all about Abraham’s obedience. However, this meaning changed dramatically after the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.


Throughout Abraham’s life, God tested him in various ways, as God tests us. Understanding God’s purposes in testing Abraham helps us to understand what is going on when God tests us.

Robbie Dean on God Testing Abraham

1.      The tests referred to in Scripture for spiritual advance are more than just the negative vicissitudes and problems that we run into in life. Most of those things that we deal with on a day to day basis don't really rise to the same level of those situations in the Scripture that are designed as tests. These are specific events that are designed God for each one of us to produce momentum in our spiritual advance.

2.      In fact, many of the things which we think are great personal tests are really the normal results of a group of sin natures interacting with one another (our sin nature interacting with the sin natures of others). So there may be times when you tell your friends, “I am being tested of the Lord;” whereas, you are just reaping the natural results of acting like a jackass. When Abraham went to a new city or area, and lied about who Sarah was, he was not being tested; he was just reaping the natural response of lying to the gracious leaders of his host country.

3.      We see from the illustration of Abraham's spiritual life and his tests are of a higher quality. These tests are often negative circumstances that are directly related to the promises God made in the Abrahamic covenant.

4.      We see that the tests are specifically designed by God. Genesis 22:1, "And it came to pass after these things, that God did test Abraham." So it is a divinely designed test, not just the negative things that happen because we live in a fallen world. These are of a higher quality.

5.      Tests are for the benefit of the one tested in terms of spiritual growth. They are designed to produce momentum in our spiritual growth, to use particular doctrines we have earned, and to deal specifically with us in terms of the weaknesses of our sin nature so that those weaknesses can be dealt with by the Word of God. It allows the believer to convert the potential, which is the doctrine in the soul, into reality. Since God is omniscient He knows exactly what each of our weaknesses are; we have to figure out what doctrine to use. He is going to push everybody's button differently.

6.      The ultimate purpose is for the believer to demonstrate love for God through obedience and application of doctrine. That is what God is after; that is why the test.

7.      God promises the believer that He is in charge of all these tests. 1 Corinthians 10:13, "No testing has overtaken you but such as is common to man: but God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that you are able." The testing doesn't come into our life by chance but under the sovereign direction of God. What does "above that you are able" mean? It doesn't mean that God is not going to give you more than you can handle. There is more to it than that. It goes on from there: "but will with the temptation also make a way to escape, that you may be able to endure it"—that you can stay under the testing, the pressure; that you can continue to live in the midst of the pressure cooker day in and day out by means of the promises of God and the filling of the Holy Spirit. The reason we can handle these testings and bear them is because God has given us positionally as a believer in the Lord Jesus Christ everything that we need to be able to handle them. But the tests don't come randomly, they come under the sovereign control of God, so we can relax and know that no matter how horrible it may be God is in control and He has designed this test specifically for our needs in order that we can advance in our spiritual lives.

8.      The test is designed to manifest God's grace, foreknowledge and power—essentially to demonstrate God’s divine attributes—and to be a testimony to other human beings and to the angels. The test gives the believer an opportunity to be a spotlighted example of the grace of God. Genesis 22:1, "And it came to pass after these things, that God did test Abraham."

9.      The word there for test is the Hebrew word massah, which means to test, to try, to prove in the sense of assaying gold and proving its value. It is translated "tempt" but in the sense of testing. The word etymologically derives from a Hebrew word which means a signal pole, a standard, an ensign, a banner or sign, and it shows that the understanding in Hebrew and the concept of testing is that it gave an opportunity of raising a banner that illustrated the grace of God; that you were posting a billboard over you life, that "I am being tested by God and this gives me a chance of testifying and being a witness to the sufficiency of God's grace and power in my life. That is exactly what we see revealed in the New Testament: that every time we have a test it is an opportunity to be, as it were, a legal witness in a courtroom to the grace of God, the sufficiency of His grace and the Word of God, and His ability to take care of us even under the most dire of circumstances.

10.    It ought to be abundantly clear, by the time that you complete this study, that God uses Abraham to teach and inform angels, as well as mankind. What God does through Abraham is set up one of the most amazing parallels in human history.

From http://phrasearch.com/Trans/DBM/setup/Genesis/Gen108.htm accessed December 13, 2014 (edited and appended).

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


God has made unequivocal promises to Abraham concerning his seed, the land and the blessing which God has promised to Abraham and/or his seed. God’s test will demand that Abraham focus carefully on what has been promised him, and to hold tight to those promises, believing God, despite what God asks him to do.

 

Robbie Dean: Job said, "Though He slay me, yet will I trust Him." This is the ultimate statement of the faith-rest drill. No matter what is costs me personally I am going to trust God and do what His Word says, even if it is painful, even if it threatens my life, even if it is the last thing in the world I want to do. This is where we see most Christians fail in spiritual growth: at some point the reality of what the Word of God is teaching in terms of your cherished life, how you try to handle the problems in your life, deal with people around you and relationships, is going to come head to head in confrontation with what the Word of God says. It often happens in the context of relationships.


Now, you may be wondering, after studying this chapter, Okay, I can see the point of Abraham being tested here; he sets up a typology that is marvelous even to this day; but what about me? There will never be some kind of eternal typology based upon what I do in my spiritual life. This is true; there won’t be. There is not going to be a Bible edition 2.0, where Charley Brown’s trials and tribulations are highlighted; and with them, are messages to people in the future about God’s character and faithfulness. However, by our faith and by our actions, what we do and how we deal with testing is related to the Angelic Conflict. Angels watch us and they actually learn about God’s character and essence by watching us (and many of us would be cool if angels changed the channel and started watching someone else).


But, just as the life of Abraham has impact, so our lives have impact. We may not fully understand. With some doctrine, we can sometimes understand tests that we face, in the light of those around us; but sometimes, there is no one around us—no one human—who appreciates what we are subjected to. Then it is easy to lose heart. Then it is easy to pack it in and say, “Screw this test; I fail. Game over.” But God has a reason for everything; even when circumstances seem bleak.


Genesis 22:1c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied); with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #413 BDB #39

ʾAberâhâm (אַבְרָהָם) [pronounced ahbve-raw-HAWM]

father of a multitude, chief of a multitude; transliterated Abraham

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #85 BDB #4


Translation: Therefore He said to him, “Abraham;”... We do not know how much time has passed at this point; we do not know if God has spoken to Abraham for a long while.


It is my opinion that God did not just hang out with Abraham every few days, but that what is recorded in the Bible are all of the times that Abraham spoke with God. After all, in your own sorry life, let’s say you spoke face to face with God 10 times, and you write your autobiography—do you think you might just record the top 6 times of those 10 times that you are with a manifestation of God, editing out the other 4 times as superfluous or not as interesting? Of course not! So, when Abraham recorded these incidents in his life, first and foremost will be the times that God came to speak to him. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that every meeting with God is documented in Scripture.


Genesis 22:1d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

hinnêh (הִנֵּה) [pronounced hin-NAY]

lo, behold, or more freely, observe, look here, look, listen, note, take note; pay attention, get this, check this out

interjection, demonstrative particle with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #2009 (and #518, 2006) BDB #243


Translation: ...and he replied, “Here [lit., behold] I [am].” God calls to Abraham, and Abraham responds with a particle and the 1st person singular suffix. Giving a literal translation to this does not quite sound right (“Behold, me.”). So most translators render this, “Here am I;” or with similar phrasing.


We don’t know what Abraham saw each time, apart from the time when God came with two angels (they all appeared as men). So, we do not know if this is a disembodied voice or where God is before Abraham as a man. We do not know if Abraham had a vision, or if God came to him in a dream.


Generally speaking—and this is an hypothesis—when it comes to God’s plan (that is, God’s direction or God’s will for Abraham), I would think that it is God the Father Who speaks to Abraham. However, where more interaction is involved, let me suggest to you that this would be God the Son, the Revealed Member of the Trinity, in His Preincarnate form. Most of the time, this would be as an angel, which looks very much like a man. In this case, most or all of the time, this is Jesus Christ in His preincarnate form.


I base the latter half of this hypothesis on the fact that, in the many times that God appears as a Messenger of Yehowah, no one remarks, “Dude, what are those things—wings? You got wings?” For this reason, even though angels are said to have bodies of light; and wings; that is not our Lord’s appearance when He is a Messenger (Angel) of God.


Genesis 22:1 And it happened after these things that God tested Abraham, and said to him, “Abraham!” And he said, “Here I am [lit., Behold me].”


God initiates this contact. He speaks to Abraham.


There seems to be a pattern—when God asks a question, then He is speaking to someone who is outside of the plan of God—be they an unbeliever, a fallen angel or a believer out of fellowship. Because God has asked a question, protocol demands that they respond. However, when speaking to one in the plan of God, God simply speaks—often calling them by name. I would suggest to you that Abraham is in fellowship at this time.


Application: Legalism is the enemy of Christianity and we find legalism everywhere. One place where we find it is in connection with the rapture. Some teach that you will only be raptured if you are in fellowship. Others teach that the rapture will occur after the Tribulation—and one gave me the explanation, “God makes Christians suffer all the time. I don’t see why this ought to be any different.” Given the multitude of time that God speaks to various people in Scripture, it ought to be clear that some of them are in fellowship and some are not. Here, Abraham is in fellowship; when Hagar stormed off mad and pregnant from Abraham’s compound, she was clearly not in fellowship. She was upset, unreasonable, and outside of God’s geographical will. Yet God contacted Hagar despite her mental attitude. So, when you take a theological position, make certain that this position is in relation to God’s grace; and not to your concept of what you deserve.


Recall that, only recently, Abraham planted a tree, and then called upon the name of the Lord, meaning his fellowship with God centered around teaching.


——————————


And so He says, “Take now your son, your only one whom you have loved, Isaac, and go for yourself unto a land of the Moriah and you will cause him to go up there for a burnt offering upon one of the mountains which I will say unto you.”

Genesis

22:2

And God [lit., He] said, “Now take your son, your only son whom you have loved, Isaac, and go on behalf of yourself to the land of Moriah and cause him to ascend as though a burnt offering on one of the mountains which I will say to you.”

And God said, “Now take your son, Isaac, your only son, the son whom you have loved, and go for your sake to the land of Moriah and offer him up as a burnt offering on one of the mountains that I will designate.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so He says, “Take now your son, your only one whom you have loved, Isaac, and go for yourself unto a land of the Moriah and you will cause him to go up there for a burnt offering upon one of the mountains which I will say unto you.”

Targum of Onkelos                And He said, Take now your son, your only one whom you love, Izhak, and go into the land of worship, and offer him there, a whole burnt offering, upon one of the mountains that I will tell you [JERUSALEM. At Mount Moriah.].

Latin Vulgate                          He said to him: Take your only begotten son Isaac, whom you love, and go into the land of vision; and there you will offer him for an holocaust upon one of the mountains which I will show you.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And he said, Take now your son, your only son Isaac, whom you love, and go to the land of the Amorites; and offer him there for a burnt offering upon one of the mountains of which I will tell you.

Septuagint (Greek)                And He said, Take your son, the beloved one, whom you have loved — Isaac, and go into the high land, and offer him there for a whole burnt offering on one of the mountains of which I will tell you.

 

Significant differences:           The Greek has beloved rather than only. The targum has worship rather than Moriah. The Latin has vision; the Syriac has Amorites; and the Greek has high [land].


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           God said, "Take your son, your only son whom you love, Isaac, and go to the land of Moriah. Offer him up as an entirely burned offering there on one of the mountains that I will show you."

Contemporary English V.       The LORD said, "Go get Isaac, your only son, the one you dearly love! Take him to the land of Moriah, and I will show you a mountain where you must sacrifice him to me on the fires of an altar."

Easy English                          God said, `Please take your son Isaac, your precious child, whom you love. Go to the district called Moriah. Offer Isaac there as a *burnt offering on a mountain. I shall show you which mountain.'

Easy-to-Read Version            Then God said, “Take your son to the land of Moriah. At Moriah kill your son as a sacrifice [A gift to God. Usually it was a special animal that was killed and burned on an altar.] for me. This must be Isaac, your only son—the son you love. Use him as a burnt offering on one of the mountains there. I will tell you which mountain.”

Good News Bible (TEV)         "Take your son," God said, "your only son, Isaac, whom you love so much, and go to the land of Moriah. There on a mountain that I will show you, offer him as a sacrifice to me.”

The Message                         He said, "Take your dear son Isaac whom you love and go to the land of Moriah. Sacrifice him there as a burnt offering on one of the mountains that I'll point out to you."

New Berkeley Version           Take now your son, He said, your only one, Isaac, whom you love; betake yourself to the region of Moriah and there offer him up as a burnt-sacrifice on one of the summits which I will designate to you.

New Century Version             Then God said, "Take your only son, Isaac, the son you love, and go to the land of Moriah. Kill him there and offer him as a whole burnt offering on one of the mountains I will tell you about."

New Life Bible                        God said, "Take now your son, your only son, Isaac, whom you love. And go to the land of Moriah. Give him as a burnt gift on the altar in worship, on one of the mountains I will show you."

New Living Translation           "Take your son, your only son-yes, Isaac, whom you love so much-and go to the land of Moriah. Go and sacrifice him as a burnt offering on one of the mountains, which I will show you."


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Then [God] said, 'Take your beloved son - this one whom you love, IsaAc - then go to the highlands and offer him there on one of the mountains that I'll tell you about, as a burnt offering.

Beck’s American Translation “Take your only son Isaac, whom you love,” he said. “Go to the country of Moriah, and sacrifice him there as a burnt offering on one of the hills I will point out to you.”

God’s Word                         God said, "Take your son, your only son Isaac, whom you love, and go to Moriah. Sacrifice him there as a burnt offering on one of the mountains that I will show you."

International Standard V        God [Lit. He] said, "Please take your son, your unique son whom you love-Isaac-and go to the land of Moriah. Offer him as a burnt offering there on one of the mountains that I will point out to you."

NIRV                                      Then God said, "Take your son, your only son. He is the one you love. Take Isaac. Go to Moriah. Give him to me there as a burnt offering. Sacrifice him on one of the mountains I will tell you about."


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      He said, "Please take your son, your only-child Isaac, that you love. Go into the land of Moriah. Ascend him there as a holocaust over one of the mountains which I say to you."

Bible in Basic English             And he said to him, Take your son, your dearly loved only son Isaac, and go to the land of Moriah and give him as a burned offering on one of the mountains of which I will give you knowledge.

Conservapedia                       And He said, "Please take your son, your only son Isaac, whom you love, and go to the land of Moriah. Offer him there for an ascent offering on one of the mountains that I will point out to you." The phrase translated "burnt offering" actually translates as "ascent offering."

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 Then He said, “Take your son, your peculiar one, whom you love—Isaac—and go to the Land of Vision, and offer him as a burnt-offering upon one of the hills which I will point out to you.”

NIV – UK                                Then God said, `Take your son, your only son, whom you love - Isaac - and go to the region of Moriah. Sacrifice him there as a burnt offering on a mountain that I will show you.'


Catholic Bibles (those having the imprimatur):

 

Heritage Bible                        And he said, Take now your son, your only son, Isaac, whom you love, and walk into the land of Moriah, and cause him to ascend there as a burnt offering upon one of the mountains which I will name to you.

New American Bible              Then God said: Take your son Isaac, your only one, whom you love, and go to the land of Moriah. There offer him up as a burnt offering on one of the heights that I will point out to you. 2 Chr 3:1; 1 Mc 2:52; Heb 11:17.

Revised English Bible            ‘Take your son, your one and only son Isaac whom you love, and go to the land of Moriah. There you shall offer him as a sacrifice on one of the heights which I shall show you.’


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

exeGeses companion Bible   And he says, Take now your son,

your only Yischaq, whom you love;

and go into the land of Mori Yah:

and holocaust him there for a holocaust

on one of the mountains I say.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               And He said, “Take your son, your favored one, Isaac, whom you love, and go to the land of Moriah, and offer him there as a burnt offering on one of the heights that I will point out to you.”

Judaica Press Complete T.    And He said, "Please take your son, your only one, whom you love, yea, Isaac, and go away to the land of Moriah and bring him up there for a burnt offering on one of the mountains, of which I will tell you."

Kaplan Translation                 'Take your son, the only one you love - Isaac - and go away to the Moriah area [This was the Temple Mount; 2 Chronicles 3:1. Some say that it was called Moriah because the Amorites lived there (Rashbam; see Syrian version of Yov'loth 18:2). It is in Jerusalem, 43 miles north of Beer-sheba.]. Bring him as an all-burned offering [Oloth in Hebrew, literally, offerings that ascend, since the entire offering ascends when it is burned. Usually translated as 'burnt offerings.' Others, however, interpret it as 'uplifting offerings' (Hirsch). Also see Genesis 22:2, Exodus 18:12, 24:5.] on one of the mountains that I will designate to you.'

The Scriptures 1998              And He said, “Take your son, now, your only son Yitsḥaq, whom you love, and go to the land of Moriyah, and offer him there as a burnt offering on one of the mountains which I command you.”


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

The Expanded Bible              Then God said, "Take your ·only [or precious] son, Isaac, the son you love, and go to the land of Moriah [2 Chr. 3:1; Cthe temple would later be built here]. Offer him as a whole burnt offering on one of the mountains I will tell you about."

Kretzmann’s Commentary    And He said, Take now thy son, thine only son Isaac, whom thou lovest, and get thee into the land of Moriah, and offer him there for a burnt offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of. The Lord makes His proposal with deliberate, detailed emphasis. Abraham was to take his son, not Ishmael, but his only son, the darling of his old age, the one whom he loved dearly, namely, Isaac. Him he was to offer up as a sacrifice in the land of Moriah, the mountain range in the neighborhood of what was afterward Jerusalem, on one of the mountains which the Lord would indicate to him.

Lexham English Bible            And he said, "Take your son, your only child, Isaac, whom you love, and go to the land of Moriah, and offer him there as a burnt offering on one of the mountains where I will tell you."

NET Bible®                             God [Heb "he"; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.] said, "Take your son — your only son, whom you love, Isaac [Take your son...Isaac. The instructions are very clear, but the details are deliberate. With every additional description the commandment becomes more challenging.] — and go to the land of Moriah [There has been much debate over the location of Moriah; 2Chron. 3:1 suggests it may be the site where the temple was later built in Jerusalem]! Offer him up there as a burnt offering [A whole burnt offering signified the complete surrender of the worshiper and complete acceptance by God. The demand for a human sacrifice was certainly radical and may have seemed to Abraham out of character for God. Abraham would have to obey without fully understanding what God was about.] on one of the mountains which I will indicate to [Heb "which I will say to."] you."

Syndein                                  And He {God} said, "Take, NOW, your son, your only one {greatest possible love in Hebrew} Isaac, whom you have always loved, and get you into the land of Moriah {means 'to cause to be seen of the Jehovah' or 'manifestation of Jehovah' Jehovah caused to provide - RBT says he is going to Golgotha - where Jesus later would die as a sacrifice also}; and offer him there for a burnt offering upon one of the mountains of which I will tell you.

Translation for Translators     God said, "Your son, Isaac, whom you love very much, is the only son who is still here with you. But take him and go together to the Moriah region. Offer him as a sacrifice like a burnt offering, on a hill that I will show you."

The Voice                               Eternal One: Take your son, your only son Isaac whom I know you love deeply, and go to the land of Moriah. When you get there, I want you to offer Isaac to Me as a burnt offering on one of the mountains. I will show you which one.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And saying is He, "Take, pray, your son, your only one, whom you love, Isaac, and go you to the land of Moriah, and offer him up there for an ascent offering on one of the mountains of which I will apprize you.

Context Group Version          And he said, Take now your son, your only son, whom you give allegiance, even Isaac, and go into the land of Moriah. And offer him there for an ascension [offering] on one of the mountains which I will tell you of.

Green’s Literal Translation    And He said, Now take your son, Isaac, your only one whom you love, and go into the land of Moriah. And there offer him for a burnt offering on one of the mountains which I will say to you.

World English Bible                He said, "Now take your son, your only son, whom you love, even Isaac, and go into the land of Moriah. Offer him there for a burnt offering on one of the mountains which I will tell you of."

Young’s Updated LT             And He says, “Take, I pray you, your son, your only one, whom you have loved, even Isaac, and go for yourself unto the land of Moriah, and cause him to ascend there for a burnt-offering on one of the mountains of which I speak unto you.”

 

The gist of this verse:          God tells Abraham to take Isaac, the son whom he loves, his only son, to a particular mountain in the land of Moriah, and cause him to ascend as a burnt offering.


Genesis 22:2a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

lâqach (לָקַח) [pronounced law-KAHKH]

take, seize, take away, take in marriage; send for, fetch, bring, receive

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperative

Strong’s #3947 BDB #542

nâʾ (נָא) [pronounced naw]

now; please, I pray you, I respectfully implore (ask, or request of) you, I urge you

a primitive particle of incitement and entreaty

Strong's #4994 BDB #609

Nâʾ is used for a submissive and modest request. It is used to express a wish (Job 32:21: “Oh, that I may not respect any man’s person”); to incite or to urge (Jer. 5:24); it is depreciatory when affixed to the 2nd person with a particle of negation (do not, I implore you—see Gen. 33:10 19:18); with the it expresses a wish or request (Psalm 124 129:1 SOS 7:9), a challenge (Jer. 17:15), asking leave (Gen. 18:4), and depreciation with a negation (Gen. 18:32). In many of these examples, we would express this with the addition of the word let.

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

bên (בֵּן) [pronounced bane]

son, descendant

masculine singular noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119


Translation: And God [lit., He] said, “Now take your son,... Abraham has only one son, and that is Isaac. Ishmael has shipped out with his mother and is living elsewhere. It was time for them to go. He is old enough to take care of his mother. But, the point I am making is, when God said to Abraham, “Take your son,” Abraham was not suddenly confused. He did not start pondering about, “Hmm, I wonder which son God is referring to?” He has only one son with him at this time.


God will add all of these descriptors because God has a meaning that needs to be conveyed to us and to all Israel, not to Abraham. Abraham understands who God is talking about immediately.


Genesis 22:2b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

yâchîyd (יָכִיד) [pronounced yaw-KHEED]

single, solitary, only one [as in only-begotten, only child]

masculine plural adjective/substantive with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's  #3173 BDB #402

This is the first occurrence of this word in the Bible.


Translation: ...your only son... The word only is yâchîyd (יָכִיד) [pronounced yaw-KHEED], which means single, solitary, only one [as in only-begotten, only child]. Strong's  #3173 BDB #402. It’s meaning is confirmed in Judges 11:34 Then Jephthah came to his home at Mizpah. And behold, his daughter came out to meet him with tambourines and with dances. She was his only child; besides her he had neither son nor daughter. (ESV) This same word is applied prophetically to Jesus Christ in Zech. 12:10 "And I will pour out on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem a spirit of grace and pleas for mercy, so that, when they look on Me, on Him Whom they have pierced, they shall mourn for Him, as one mourns for an only child, and weep bitterly over Him, as one weeps over a firstborn.” (ESV, capitalized) This same word, poetically, refers to something of great value in Psalm 22:20 and 35:17 (in both cases, it is in parallel with the word for soul, life). As we might imagine, Isaac has become Abraham’s life. He has become as important to Abraham as his own life.


V. 2 so far: And God said, “Now take your son, Isaac, your only son,... Abraham has only one son with him; this son is the only son that he and his wife, Sarah, have given life to. But, God the Holy Spirit is setting up an analogy here. God the Son is God the Father’s only Son; Jesus is our Father’s only-begotten, or, if you will, uniquely-born Son. The birth of Isaac was unique in all the world; and the birth of our Lord Jesus Christ was unique in all the world. So, from the very beginning of this chapter, we are seeing an analogy laid out.


This might be a little overkill here.

When Critics Ask, How is Isaac Abraham’s only son?

GENESIS 22:2 —How could Isaac be Abraham’s “only son” when he already had Ishmael?

PROBLEM: Abraham was told here, “Take now your son, your only son Isaac.” However, Abraham had Ishmael many years before ( Gen. 16 ) and he also had other “sons” ( Gen. 25:6 ).

SOLUTION: The other sons of Genesis 25 were probably born later, being mentioned three chapters after Isaac is called his “only son.” Furthermore, they were sons by “the concubines which Abraham had” ( Gen. 25:6) and were not counted as heirs of God’s promise. Likewise, Ishmael was conceived in unbelief by a concubine and not counted as heir to the promised inheritance. In addition, the phrase “only son” may be equivalent to “beloved son” (cf. John 1:18 ; 3:16), that is, a special son. God said clearly to Abraham, “in Isaac your seed shall be called” (Gen. 21:12 ).

Gill abbreviates this to: Isaac was his only legitimate son, his only son by his lawful wife Sarah; the only son of the promise, his only son, in whom his seed was to be called.

Norman Geisler and Thomas Howe, When Critics Ask; Victor Books; taken from e-Sword, Gen. 22:2.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Over and over again, God takes things which are a part of our daily lives and He lays these things along side spiritual truth, so that we can examine what we know to be true in our own lives, and, thereby, understand spiritual truth. In the New Testament, these are called parables, but such parables, if you will, go back to the beginning of man’s sinfulness. Recall that, when Adam and the woman sinned, what did God do? He covered their nakedness with animal skins. This is not because Adam and the woman were crappy at making clothes out of fig leaves, but God is an excellent tanner. This was to teach that the sacrifice of an animal (something which was done for the first time before Adam and the woman) was necessary in order to cover up their sins. So, we should expect often throughout the Bible parallel situations.


You may be confused and think that this whole parable thing began with Jesus; that Jesus was the One to initiate teaching by means of parables. This is found throughout the Word of God. This is how God teaches some concepts to us. We look at a situation which we understand and can relate to—and then God teaches some spiritual truth related to that.


Now, think about angelic creation who observe us. They see us act out in many ways in this life—they see us as believers who totally screw things up and they see us as believers who act in accordance with God’s plan for our lives. Angels are able to observe us and what we do, and put that alongside the Word of God and draw conclusions based upon these things. As believers in the Church Age, we find ourselves in the midst of the Angelic Conflict; and what we do, as related to the Word of God, teaches angels about God, about His essence and about His plan. Just like your friends Tom, Dick and Harry are important parts of your life and the plan of God; so are the billions of angels. Our lives, while being theater on a grand scale for angels, are actually meaningful and instructive to angels. It ought to be clear to all of us that we are inferior to angels in every respect—and yet, we actually instruct them in God’s character. Angels can observe us—in all our inferiority—and still understand God’s love, justice and righteousness.


Genesis 22:2c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

ʾâhêb (אָהֵב) [pronounced aw-HAYVB]

to desire, to breathe after; to love; to delight in; human love [for another] [familial, sexual]; human love [desire, appetite] for [food, drink, sleep, wisdom]; human love [for, to God]; God’s love [toward men, people of Israel, righteousness]; to like

2nd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #157 BDB #12

This is the first occurrence of this word in the Bible. This is significant because it helps us to understand, to a limited degree, God the Father’s love for His Son; and for us.


Translation: ...whom you have loved,... Abraham certainly loves Isaac, and there is the added bonus that Isaac is born by Sarah, Abraham’s wife of many decades.


Abraham is approximately 110 years old (Isaac is a young man, probably not yet a teenager). Ishmael is gone from Abraham’s life forever. He absolutely loves his son Isaac. This is, in fact, the first time the word love is used in the Bible. In the past 40 years, Abraham has gone from a little trust in our Lord to no trust to a little more trust back to no trust, etc. This is going to be the spiritual high point of Abraham's life. It will just about be the high point for Isaac's spiritual life too. God has outlined what He expects Abraham to do from the start and Abraham goes along with this willingly.


Again, this is a parallel situation that is being set up. "And behold, a voice from heaven said, `This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased.'" (Matthew 3:17; ESV). And: "That the world may know that You sent Me and loved them even as You loved Me." (John 17:23). God the Father loves God the Son just as Abraham loves Isaac.

 

Driver: The severity of the demand is indicated by the emphatic accumulation of the three accusatives.


There is an interesting point of syntax here: the verb is in a perfect tense, which usually indicates a point of time, a specific period of time, or a longer period of time seen as a whole. Now, had this been all about Abraham, the imperfect tense would have seemed to be more apropos—Abraham has loved Isaac since his birth and he continues to love Isaac. However, using the perfect tense suggests more of a focus of the love of God the Father for God the Son (even though this is specifically all about Abraham and Isaac). God loved Jesus from eternity past. There has never been a time when the Father did not love the Son. Not only is the existence of God eternal, but the love between the members of the Trinity is also eternal. So the perfect tense gathers up this love over eternity and presents it as an accomplished fact or event.


Genesis 22:2d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Yisechâq (יִשְׂחָק) [pronounced yihse-KHAWK]

he laughs; laughing; transliterated Isaac

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #3327 & #3446 BDB #850

This is also spelled Yitsechâq (יֹצְחָק) [pronounced yihyse-KHAWK]. When you hear about manuscript discrepancies in the Old Testament, many of them simply involve alternate spellings.


Translation: ...Isaac,... God continues to identify just exactly which son He is speaking of, and He uses Isaac’s name here. So, even though I don’t know how Abraham could have been confused even from the beginning; it is clear beyond measure who this is a reference to.


Genesis 22:2a And He said, “Take now your son, your only one, Isaac,...


We should be able to tell from the very beginning, that a parallel is being drawn here between Abraham and his son, and God the Father and Jesus, His Son.


Concerning the Trinity: this has been in the Bible from the very first chapter of Genesis. It does not matter if no Jew realizes this ever, throughout the entire history of Israel. It is important that we recognize it now. In fact, it is far more amazing that the Trinity is found throughout the Old and New Testaments, even though Jews never believed in a Triune God. This way, we take what we know from the New Testament, look back to the Old, and are encouraged to see, “It’s the same. The Trinity exists in both testaments.”


What about salvation? If no Jew ever understood the Trinity and therefore, never believed in the Trinity, what about their salvation? All Jews are saved by believing in the 2nd Person of the Trinity, Who is Yehowah Elohim in the Old Testament—the Revealed Lord. Abraham had believed Yehowah and it was credited to him as righteousness (Gen. 15:6). Abraham did not have to know that the Godhead was a Trinity; he did not have to know the separate functions of the Members of the Godhead, even though these functions are laid out in the first chapter of Genesis. Abraham simply had to believe in the 2nd Person of the Trinity, the Revealed God, Yehowah Elohim in the Old Testament and Jesus Christ in the New. He would be the One to die for Abraham’s sins, future from Abraham; and He has died for our sins, which is an event from the historical past.


Here are a few Old Testament verses where the Trinity is clearly proclaimed:

The Trinity in the Old Testament (the Abbreviated Version)

1.      The 4th word of Gen. 1:1 is Elohim, which can be translated God or gods. The -im ending is the plural ending in the Hebrew. This word takes on a masculine singular verb here, and for that reason, some have called this the plural of excellence, indicating that God is so excellent that, this could only be expressed with a plural noun. Although I am not saying this is wrong, at the same time, always bear in mind that the first title used for God is a plural word.

2.      Before we go further, we should make a quick stop at Deut. 6:4: Listen, O Israel, Jehovah is our God [Elohim] Jehovah is one. I have carefully maintained the order of the Hebrew words, and note two things: the parallelism and the italicized words. The italicized words are inserted, and every translator inserts them; sometimes the nouns are mixed around a bit (e.g., Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD or Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God, the LORD is one). You will note that Jehovah occurs twice and therefore suggests a parallelism. In the Hebrew, the subject is not necessarily found first, but the parallelism suggests that Jehovah is either the subject both times or it is the predicate nominative both times. So Moses could be saying, “Listen, O Israel, our God is Jehovah, One is Jehovah;” or, “Listen, O Israel, Jehovah is our God [and] Jehovah is one.” The latter makes the most sense to me, as the numeral one is found more often as a modifier than as a noun. However, the numeral one is not necessarily one in number but it is often used for something which represents a unity, as in, a man and a woman shall leave their parents and they will become one flesh. Even in sexual union, a man and a woman are still two distinct people; however, what they form is a union (ideally a union for life). So, Moses was not making the point that Jehovah God is a single God, although Christians do believe in one God; but that Jehovah is our Elohim (plural) and Jehovah is one, indicating one in unity and purpose and essence rather than one in number. Jehovah (or, more properly, Yehowah) can refer to any Member of the Trinity, and these Members of the Trinity act as one.

3.      Now let’s return to creation. Although it is clear that God created all that is, with and through Jesus Christ (John 1:1–14), we are going to restrict ourselves to the Old Testament. On the 6th day, God created man. we read: God [plural noun] said [masculine singular verb], "Let Us make [plural verb] man in Our image, after Our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the sky, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth" (Gen. 1:26). Up until now, even though we had the plural noun Elohim, we would always find a masculine singular verb; however, this time, the verb to make is a plural verb. This is followed by two words which plural suffixes (our). When God designed man, there is apparently a different approach to man than God creating even the heavens and the earth. Up until the creation of man, the verbs have all been masculine singular; now, the verb to make is in the plural. Man will be created trichotomous and, apparently, with a greater complexity than what God had already created. We can attest to this complexity, as we can usually recognize human life, but giving it greater definition than that eludes even those in the medical profession. For instance, just how alive is a person who is hooked up to medical machinery which, for instance, breathes for him? Just how alive is the fetus in the womb? These are almost more moral questions than they are medical, as medicine and science cannot say with complete certainty what these lives are. Science, in most cases, is able to sustain these lives or to destroy these lives, but giving them further definition, beyond a guess as to how viable these examples are, is outside of medicine’s ability. So, when God created a body with a soul and a spirit, this is a creation which man to this day does not fully apprehend. Scientists may tell us that we are 98% identical to chimps (I have forgotten the exact percentage here), in terms of DNA, but people with an IQ above room temperature don’t have any problems distinguishing their fellow human beings from chimps. So, as a result, we have a large percentage of scientists who believe that we evolved from primates, as our DNA is so similar; yet there are a significant number of scientists who do not believe that such an evolution occurred. As a result, there are scientists out there who want to create life in order to harvest portions of it to attempt to cure this or that disease; and there are even some who would want to try human cloning; and there are many out there who view these things as morally repugnant, and in differing amounts. This is all because, we do not know exactly what the soul is, how it is connected to the body, and we medically don’t know what the soul is doing or where it can be found with respect to fetuses, lobodomized patients or comatose patients. Some think that the key to life is the EEG (electroencephlograph) readings of the brain (which is what we use, essentially, to determine if someone is dead). However, a 3 week old fetus has EEG readings; and who knows before that? My only point in all of this is, we are wonderfully made, put together with a variety of elements, that, in and of themselves, are clearly not alive; and that, somehow, by the breath of God, we are made alive (Psalm 139:13–16 Gen. 2:7). And so, when God made man, all 3 members of the Trinity were involved.

4.      The building of a house can be likened to the function of the Trinity.

         a.      You have the plans for a house, which is analogous to God the Father. The architect may never be seen by anyone directly associated with the house. We know God’s plan as the divine decrees.

         b.      You have the workmen who show up—they are seen, and they actually do the work—and these workmen are analogous to God the Son. Jesus Christ fulfilled the prophecies of the Old Testament; He kept the Law of Moses, and He died on the cross for our sins. This is the work that man saw.

         c.      Thirdly, you then have the power for the power tools—also unseen—and that is analogous to God the Holy Spirit. God the Holy Spirit gives us the power and ability to do the plan of God. Although this is an excellent analogy, analogies do not prove anything; they simply help to illustrate truths.

5.      Isa. 48 is spoken by God, although we may not, at first understand which member of the Trinity is speaking. However, generally speaking, the revealed member of the Trinity is Jesus Christ. In Isa. 48:3, we read: “I have declared the former things from then; and they went out of My mouth; and I made them hear; suddenly I acted, and they came about.” This is clearly God and not Isaiah speaking, because Isaiah did not act in order to make his own words come to pass. God speaks of His wrath in v. 9, He speaks of refining Israel in v. 10, and of His name being profaned in v. 11. Then He says (vv. 12–13): “Listen to Me, O Jacob, and Israel My called: I am He; I am the First; surely I am the Last. My hand surely founded earth, and My right hand has stretched out the heavens; I called to them, they stood up together.” Clearly this is God Who is speaking, and, as we will find out, God the Son, the Revealed Member of the Trinity. Isa. 48:16: “Come near to Me, hear this; I have not spoken in secret from the beginning. From its being, I was there; and now the Lord Jehovah, and His Spirit, have1 sent Me.” The Lord Jehovah refers to God the Father; His Spirit, of course, is the Holy Spirit. The One speaking is Jesus Christ, the revealed member of the Trinity. The singular verb here is sometimes used, even with a plural subject, when that subject is split up, as it is here. The Hebrew actually reads: ...the Lord Jehovah has sent Me and His Spirit. The exact understanding can be cleared up at a later date; but that we find the Trinity here is clear.

6.      In Daniel 7:13, we have two members of the Trinity: I was looking in the night visions. And behold! One like the Son of Man came with the clouds of the heavens. And He came to the Ancient of Days. And they brought Him near before Him. God the Son comes to God the Father. And to Him was given dominion and glory and a kingdom, that all peoples, nations, and languages should serve Him; His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and His kingdom one that shall not be destroyed (Daniel 7:14). God the Father gives to God the Son an everlasting kingdom.

7.      We find God the Father and God the Son in Hosea 1:4–7 as well: Yahweh said to him, "Call his name Jezreel; for yet a little while, and I will avenge the blood of Jezreel on the house of Jehu, and will cause the kingdom of the house of Israel to cease. It will happen in that day that I will break the bow of Israel in the valley of Jezreel." She conceived again, and bore a daughter. Then he said to him, "Call her name Lo-Ruhamah; for I will no longer have mercy on the house of Israel, that I should in any way pardon them. But I will have mercy on the house of Judah, and I will save them by Yahweh their God, and will not save them by bow, nor by sword, nor by battle, by horses, nor by horsemen."

1 This is a singular verb and is a peculiarity of the Hebrew. Two subjects may be involved in the action; however, one is named first, with the verb (as we find in the Hebrew of this verse), and then the second subject of the verb follows. In that construction of a Hebrew sentence, the verb is found in the singular, even though there are two subjects.

I strongly recommend reading the complete Doctrine of the Trinity in the Old Testament (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


When it comes to faith in Christ, there is not a lot that we have to believe. When I believed in Jesus Christ, as dumb as it may seem, I did not know about the resurrection. For some reason, that fact had gone over my head, even though I had attended many different churches in the past, including a Baptist church. When I began to study, I found out more about the cross of our Lord, that He had died, was in the grave for 3 days, and then God raised Him from the dead. I did not know about His later ascension at the time that I expressed, privately, faith in Christ. I believe all of that now; but, when I first believed in Jesus, I did not know much more than a little about Who Jesus is. Everything else, I may have been aware of, from time to time, but it never really sank in. This was information that I could not have drawn upon, to say, “Here is what Christians believe.”


So far, we have studied the first verse and a half:


Genesis 22:1–2a And it happened after these things that God tested Abraham, and said to him, “Abraham!” And he said, “Here I am [lit., Behold me].” And He said, “Take now your son, your only one, Isaac, whom you love.


As we have discussed, there will be two tracks to observe in this narrative: first, the obedience track, where God tells Abraham what to do, and Abraham obeys God. That is the simplest view of this passage and the way that most Jews read this passage. God tells Abraham what to do and Abraham does it. This is, no doubt, how Abraham understood this incident in his life, and how Isaac appreciated it in looking backward. There is no indication that Abraham ever saw this in any other way.


However, the second view is that, this chapter reveals the crucifixion of Jesus Christ 2000 years prior to this crucifixion taking place. We have a father offering up his uniquely-born son as a sacrifice in a very near to the place where the crucifixion will actually take place. This is known as a type, which is a person, an action or a circumstance which looks forward to Jesus Christ, to His sacrifice on the cross, or to some other future event. The thing that it looks forward to is called the antitype. We studied this with Melchizedek (HTML) (PDF) (WPD), where he is the type and Jesus is the antitype. Our study of type and antitype goes back to Gen. 3 (HTML) (PDF) (WPD) (also lesson #39). We will study this in great detail in this chapter.


This obedience track is the understanding of the human author, who is Abraham or Isaac. However, the Divine Author, God the Holy Spirit, knows the plan of God. He knows that, in this same place, Jesus the Messiah would give Himself as an offering for our sins. That is the foretelling of this passage; or, if you will, the type to the antitype of the crucifixion.


Genesis 22:2e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

hâlake (הָלַךְ) [pronounced haw-LAHKe]

go, come, depart, walk; advance

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperative

Strong’s #1980 (and #3212) BDB #229

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

The meanings of the lâmed preposition broken down into groups: ➊ to, towards, unto; it is used both to turn one’s heart toward someone as well as to sin against someone; ➋ to, even to;  in this sense, it can be used with a number to indicate the upper limit which a multitude might approach (nearly). ➌ Lâmed can be equivalent to the Greek preposition eis (εἰς), meaning into, as in transforming into something else, changing into something else (Gen. 2:7). This use of lâmed after the verb hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW] (Strong’s #1961 BDB #224) is one thing becoming another (Gen. 2:7). ➍  Its fourth use is the mark of a dative, after verbs of giving, granting, delivering, pardoning, consulting, sending, etc. This type of dative is broken down into several categories, but one includes the translation by, which would be apropos here. ➎ With regards to, as to. Similar to the Greek preposition eis (εἰς) plus the dative. [Numbering from Gesenius]. ➏ On account of, because, propter, used of cause and reason (propter means because; Gesenius used it). ➐ Concerning, about, used of a person or thing made the object of discourse, after verbs of saying. ➑ On behalf of anyone, for anyone. ➒ As applied to a rule or standard, according to, according as, as though, as if. ➓ When associated with time, it refers to the point of time at which or in which anything is done; or it can refer to the space of time during which something is done (or occurs); at the time of.

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

masculine singular construct

Strong's #776 BDB #75

Môrîyâh (מֹרִיָה) [pronounced moh-ree-YAW]

chosen by Yehowah; and is transliterated Moriah

proper singular noun, location; with the definite article

Strong’s #4179 BDB #599


Translation: ...and go on behalf of yourself to the land of Moriah... We have the lâmed preposition which is used twice in this verse, and it difficult to apprehend. Abraham is supposed to go to himself or for himself to the land of Moriah. As we will find out, this is a few day’s journey from where he lives, which appears to be a more southern location.


Genesis 22:2a And He said, “Take now your son, your only one, Isaac, whom you love. And go into the land of Moriah...


There are several mountains scattered in the land of Moriah (we are assuming that this is in the Mount Moriah, Mount Zion area).

 

J. Vernon McGee: "And get you into the land of Moriah." It is the belief of a great many that Moriah - that is, this particular pare - is the place where the temple was built centuries later and also the place that the Lord Jesus was sacrificed - right outside the city walls. When I was in Jerusalem, I had the feeling that Golgotha and the temple area were not very far apart. They belong to the same ridge. A street has been cut through there, and the ridge has been breeched, but it is the same ridge, and it is called Moriah. Let’s not say that the Lord Jesus died in the exact spot - we don’t know - but certainly He died on the same ridge, the same mountain, on which Abraham offered Isaac.


The land where this takes place is likely the mount upon which Solomon built his temple. 2Chron. 3:1 tells us that Solomon built his temple in the hills of Moriah. The word possibly Moriah possibly means provided, or shown by Jah [God]. It has been suggested that this was the hill of Golgotha. In any case, we are speaking of a considerable journey here (40 miles or so). They would not have made this journey directly. That would have involved a great deal of travel through mountains and foothills.


Is such a journey possible? I recall in the days of the presidential emphasis upon fitness, that 50 mile walks were encouraged, and these, since most people could complete them during daylight hours. Given that Abraham is traveling for a period of 3 days (Gen. 22:4) over a rugged terrain, and given the fact that we are speaking of several hills in this vicinity, it is quite reasonable that Abraham has traveled all the way from Bathsheba to Jerusalem.


I am assuming that the land of Moriah takes us back to the general area of Mount Zion, where the Jebus were living.

Maps of the Land of Moriah

The Four Mountains

The City of Jerusalem

moriah-book3.jpg

 

mntmoriah.jpg

 

http://www.oxfordbiblechurch.co.uk/media/MOUNT%20MORIAH%20pics/moriah-book3.jpg

http://www.gilai.com/product_1044/Wilkinson-Map-of-Jerusalem-1807.-The-Land-of-Moriah-or-Jerusalem.#

To the left of Zion, on the left hand map, would be the location of Golgotha or Mount Calvary. It is my contention that this is the place where God will lead Abraham. However, we do not know that for a fact.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines

 

J. Vernon McGee: It is the belief of a great many that Moriah - that is, this particular part - is the place where the temple was built centuries later and also the place that the Lord Jesus was sacrificed - right outside the city walls. When I was in Jerusalem, I had the feeling that Golgotha and the temple area were not very far apart. They belong to the same ridge. A street has been cut through there, and the ridge has been breeched, but it is the same ridge, and it is called Moriah. Let's not say that the Lord Jesus died in the exact spot - we don't know - but certainly He died on the same ridge, the same mountain, on which Abraham offered Isaac.


Here is some information on Moriah, from two excellent sources:

ISBE and Smith on the Land of Moriah

Moriah, Land of

(המּריּה ארץ, 'erec ha-môrîyâh)[pronounced EH-rets hah moh-ree-YAW]; (εἰς τὴν γν τὴν ὑψηλήν, eis tên gên tên hupsêlên)


Abraham was directed by God to take his son Isaac, to go into the land of Moriah, and there to offer him for a burnt offering (Gen. 22:2) upon a mountain which God would show him. This land is mentioned only here, and there is little to guide us in trying to identify it. A late writer (2Chron. 3:1) applies the name of Moriah to the mount on which Solomon's Temple was built, possibly associating it with the sacrifice of Isaac. A similar association with this mountain may have been in the mind of the writer of Gen 22 (see Gen. 22:14), who, of course, wrote long after the events described (Driver). But in Gen. 22:2 no special mountain is indicated.


Abraham journeyed from the land of the Philistines, and on the 3rd day he saw the place afar off (Gen. 22:4). This naturally suggests some prominent mountain farther North than Jerusalem. The description could hardly apply to Jerusalem in any case, as it could not be seen “afar off” by one approaching either from the South or the West. The Samaritans lay the scene of sacrifice on Mt. Gerizim (which see).

As an aside, I disagree with this appraisal, because the area where Abraham walked was quite rugged, and he may have traveled originally in the northwesterly direction, and then cut back toward the east. Otherwise, much of his trip would have been through the Judæan foothills which turn into mountains. It would be more logical to travel along the valleys. Then he would have seen this mountains of Jerusalem from afar off.


genesis221.gif

Here is a photo of Jerusalem from a distance (photo). It is from the Nonviolent Ways Project; accessed September 3, 2014. This suggests that, from some directions (from the valleys to the west in particular), one can see Mount Moriah as a small mountain. My point being, the Moriah of this passage is not necessarily different from the Moriah that we are familiar with.

Instead of “Moriah” in this passage Peshitta reads “Amorites.” This suggests a possible emendation of the text, which, if it be accepted, furnishes a more definite ides of the land within which that memorable scene was enacted. Both Jerusalem and Gerizim, however, lay within the boundaries of the land of the Amorites. No doubt the enmity existing between the Jews and the Samaritans led them each to glorify their own holy places to the detriment of those of their rivals. Little stress can therefore be laid upon their identifications. With our present knowledge we must be content to leave the question open.

Moriah

Mori'ah. (chosen by Jehovah).

1. The land of Moriah. –– On "one of the mountains," in this district took place the sacrifice of Isaac. Gen. 22:2. Its position is doubtful, some thinking it to be Mount Moriah, others that Moreh, near Shechem, is meant. See Mount Moriah.


2. Mount Moriah. –– The elevation on which Solomon built the Temple, where God appeared to David, "in the threshing floor of Araunah, the Jebusite." it is the Eastern eminence of Jerusalem, separated from Mount Zion by the Tyropoeon valley. The top was leveled by Solomon, and immense walls were built around it, from the base, to enlarge the level surface for the Temple area.


A tradition which first appears in a definite shape in Josephus, and is now almost universally accepted, asserts that the "Mount Moriah" of the Chronicles is identical with the "mountain" in "the land of Moriah" of Genesis, and that the spot on which Jehovah appeared to David, and on which the Temple was built, was the very spot of the sacrifice of Isaac. (Smith, Stanley and Grove are, however, inclined to doubt this tradition).

Barnes adds: The land of Moriah comprehended within its range the population to which Melkizedec ministered as priest.

From: The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia; James Orr, Editor; ©1956 Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.; Ⓟ by Hendrickson Publishers; from E-Sword; Topic:  Moriah.

And: Dr. William Smith, Smith’s Bible Dictionary; 1894; from e-Sword, topic: Moriah.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Mount Moriah is where Solomon built the Temple (2Chron. 3:1–2); and the Temple represents Jesus Christ.


Peter Pett suggests that because the Jebusites live in Jerusalem, that this cannot be the same Moriah. There was a hostile relationship between King David and the Jebusites, and he conquered Jerusalem. However, Abraham got along with the people of the land of Canaan, including the Jebusites. Recall that this is where he met and communed with Melchizedek.


If there is some question about whether or not this is the Moriah upon which Jesus Christ was put on the cross, is there a problem with the Bible not being more specific at this juncture? There is no problem with that. As we will see, there are well over two-dozen parallels between the type (the offering of Isaac) and the anti-type (the offering of Jesus Christ for our sins). Angels will observe this and angels will be able to see that these are probably the same place.


Genesis 22:2f

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʿâlâh (עָלָה) [pronounced ģaw-LAWH]

to cause to go up [to ascend], to lead up, to take up, to bring up

2nd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperative; with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #5927 BDB #748

All of the BDB Hiphil definitions: to bring up, cause to ascend or climb, cause to go up; to bring up, bring against, take away; to bring up, draw up, train; to cause to ascend; to rouse, stir up (mentally); to offer, bring up (of gifts); to exalt; to cause to ascend, offer.

shâm (שָם) [pronounced shawm]

there; at that time, then; therein, in that thing

adverb

Strong’s #8033 BDB #1027

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

The meanings of the lâmed preposition broken down into groups: ➊ to, towards, unto; it is used both to turn one’s heart toward someone as well as to sin against someone; ➋ to, even to;  in this sense, it can be used with a number to indicate the upper limit which a multitude might approach (nearly). ➌ Lâmed can be equivalent to the Greek preposition eis (εἰς), meaning into, as in transforming into something else, changing into something else (Gen. 2:7). This use of lâmed after the verb hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW] (Strong’s #1961 BDB #224) is one thing becoming another (Gen. 2:7). ➍  Its fourth use is the mark of a dative, after verbs of giving, granting, delivering, pardoning, consulting, sending, etc. This type of dative is broken down into several categories, but one includes the translation by, which would be apropos here. ➎ With regards to, as to. Similar to the Greek preposition eis (εἰς) plus the dative. [Numbering from Gesenius]. ➏ On account of, because, propter, used of cause and reason (propter means because; Gesenius used it). ➐ Concerning, about, used of a person or thing made the object of discourse, after verbs of saying. ➑ On behalf of anyone, for anyone. ➒ As applied to a rule or standard, according to, according as, as though, as if. ➓ When associated with time, it refers to the point of time at which or in which anything is done; or it can refer to the space of time during which something is done (or occurs); at the time of.

ʿôlâh (עֹלָה) [pronounced ģo-LAW]

burnt offering, ascending offering

feminine singular noun

Strong #5930 BDB #750

This is the first occurrence of this word.


Translation: ...and cause him to ascend as though a burnt offering... We have another use of the lâmed preposition here; again, an unusual use, but a normal use nonetheless. God is asking Abraham to sacrifice up his son, as if he were a lamb or a sheep.


The word used here is ʿôlâh (עֹלָה) [pronounced ģo-LAW], which means burnt offering, ascending offering. It does not mean anything else; this cannot be interpreted in any other way. Strong #5930 BDB #750.


Now, here is what is amazing: there is no confusion here as to what this word mean, but this is the first time that we find this word in the Bible. So, the first reference to burnt offering in the Bible is to a man, and not to an animal. We know that animals have already been offered up to God; and, no doubt, this word has been used before by Abraham, Noah and others; but this is its first occurrence in the Word of God.

 

The Bible Illustrator: [This] command [from God] was contrary to everything that God had before required of him; it was contrary to what God had revealed in respect to human sacrifices; and it was contrary to all the natural instincts, inclinations, and feelings of the human heart. Nor is there any better reason to think that he was under the delusion of some evil spirit. We can by no means suppose that God would suffer such an excellent man as Abraham to be deluded in such an extraordinary case, by the great deceiver; nor that Satan would be disposed to tempt Abraham to do what he really thought would be for the glory of God. Nor can we suppose, if Satan viewed it as a criminal action, that he would have restrained him from committing the crime. But if Abraham was not led to think that God required him to sacrifice his son, by a wild imagination, nor by the delusion of an evil spirit, then we are constrained to conclude that he had clear and conclusive evidence of the command's coming from God.


Causing to ascend means that the sacrifice would be set fire to and the smoke would go up to God as a sweet savor. Although this could have simply referred to cooking the meat from the fire below the meat, there is the wonderful, sweet savor of beef or whatever being cooked on the grill. The sweet savior simply indicates that God finds this approach acceptable, and He accepts it. This does not mean that God is a meat-eater or that God loves steaks, but that the idea of a sacrifice is what is needed in order to satisfy His perfect justice.

 

Chuck Smith: Now Isaac did not have any children yet. He was not married yet. But Abraham knew that God"s word had to be fulfilled. He had that kind of confidence in the word of God. If God said it, God is going to do it. And having that confidence that God would keep His word, when God called upon him to make the sacrifice of his son, he knew that somehow Isaac would be raised from the dead, if necessary, because God"s word had to be fulfilled, "through Isaac shall thy seed be called." 


God has given Abraham unconditional promises, all of which revolved around Isaac. So, no matter what God asks Abraham to do, Abraham knows that he can depend upon God’s Word. Every time that Abraham begins to feel unsure about any of this, then he has to go back to the promises of God, which he has heard again and again; and he has to depend upon those promises.


Scofield’s notes are brilliant and concise.

Scofield on the Four Crises of Abraham

The spiritual experience of Abraham was marked by four great crises, each of which involved a surrender of something naturally most dear. These were:

(1)     Country and kindred (Gen. 12:1 Matt. 10:34–39 2Cor. 6:14–18).

(2)     His nephew, Lot; especially dear to Abraham by nature, as a possible heir and as a fellow believer (2Peter 2:7 2Peter 2:8 Gen. 13:1–18). The completeness of Abraham's separation from one who, though a believer, was a "vessel unto dishonour," is shown by; (Gen. 15:1–3 2Tim. 2:20 2Tim. 2:21 Acts 15:36–40).

(3)     His own plan about Ishmael (Gen. 17:17 Gen. 17:18 1Chron. 13:1–14 1Chron. 15:1–2).

(4)     Isaac, "your son, your only son Isaac, whom you love" (Gen. 22:1–19 Heb. 11:17 Heb. 11:18).

C. I. Scofield, Scofield Notes from the Scofield King James’ Bible; from e-Sword, Gen. 22:1.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Dr. Thomas Constable: God called on Abraham to make five great sacrifices: his native country, his extended family, his nephew Lot, his son Ishmael, and his son Isaac. Each sacrifice involved something naturally dear to Abraham, but each resulted in greater blessings from God.

The Sacrifices of Abraham Required by God

The Sacrifice

The Reward

His native country

The Land of Promise.

His extended family

Abraham would father a new race of mankind. Abraham was held back by his own father; and he could not lead, if his father was present.

His nephew Lot

Removing negative volition from his periphery. God made great promises to Abraham about the land his seed would own and the great number of his descendants after he separated from Lot (Gen. 13:14–17). The actions and prayers of Abraham would save Lot two times after they separated.

His son Ishmael

With Ishmael, there was sibling rivalry; and there had been problems with Sarah and Hagar. God had essentially place Abraham’s life on the shelf for 13 years because of Ishmael. Abraham could now focus on his son Isaac.

His son Isaac

Abraham is called a friend of God. We as believers are left with a tremendous type of Christ—perhaps the most wonderful in all Scripture.

Constable lists them in this way:

1.      Abraham left his homeland; God gave him a new one.

2.      Abraham left his extended family; God gave him a much larger family.

3.      Abraham offered the best of the land to Lot; God gave him more land.

4.      Abraham gave up the King of Sodom's reward; God gave Abraham more wealth.

5.      Abraham gave up Ishmael; God made Ishmael the father of a multitude of Abraham's posterity.

6.      Abraham was willing to give up Isaac; God allowed him to live and through him gave Abraham numerous seed.

Constable: In each case God gave Abraham a deeper relationship with Himself as well as more material prosperity. Note the closeness of this fellowship in Abraham's response to God's revelations: "Here I am" (Genesis 22:1, 11).

Constable observes: Sometimes God tests our faith by asking us to give back to Him what He has supernaturally and faithfully provided, not just what He has provided through regular channels.

Abraham being willing to offer up his son to God marks the climax of Abraham’s life.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Quite obviously, offering up a child as a human sacrifice is wrong.

When Critics Ask, How can God ask Abraham to sacrifice his own son?

Genesis 22:2 —Why did God tell Abraham to sacrifice his son when God condemned human sacrifice in Leviticus 18 and 20 ?

PROBLEM: In both Leviticus 18:21 and 20:2, God specifically denounced human sacrifice when He commanded Israel, “Do not give any of your children to be sacrificed to Molech” ( Lev. 18:21 ,NIV ), and “Any Israelite or any alien living in Israel, who gives any of his children to Molech, must be put to death; the people of the community are to stone him” ( Lev. 20:2 , NIV ). Yet, in Genesis 22:2 , God commanded Abraham to “Take now your son, your only son Isaac, whom you love, and go to the land of Moriah, and offer him there as a burnt offering on one of the mountains of which I shall tell you.” This appears to contradict His command not to offer human sacrifices.

SOLUTION: First, God was not interested, nor did He plan, that Abraham should actually kill his son. The fact that the angel of the Lord prevented Abraham from killing Isaac ( 22:12 ) demonstrates this. God’s purpose was to test Abraham’s faith by asking him to completely surrender his only son to God. The angel of the Lord declared that it was Abraham’s willingness to surrender his son, not the actual killing of him, that satisfied God’s expectations for Abraham. God said explicitly, “Do not stretch out your hand against the lad … for now I know that you fear God, since you have not withheld your son, your only son, from Me” ( Gen. 22:12 , NASB ).


Second, the prohibitions in both Leviticus 18:21 and 20:2 were specifically against the offering of one’s offspring to the pagan god Molech. So it is not strictly a contradiction for God to prohibit offering one’s offspring to Molech and yet asking Abraham to offer Isaac to Him, the only true God. After all, offering Isaac to the Lord is not offering one’s offspring to Molech, since the Lord is not Molech. God alone is sovereign over life ( Deut. 32:39 Job 1:21 ), and therefore He alone has the right to demand when it should be taken. Indeed, He has appointed the day of everyone’s death ( Ps. 90:10 ; Heb. 9:27 ).


Third, Abraham so trusted in God’s love and power that he willingly obeyed because he believed God would raise Isaac from the dead ( Heb. 11:17–19 ). This is implied in the fact that, though Abraham intended to kill Isaac, he told his servants, “I and the lad will go yonder; and we will worship and we will return to you” (Gen. 22:5 , NASB ).


Finally, it is not morally wrong for God to order the sacrifice of our sons. He offered His own Son on Calvary ( John 3:16 ). Indeed, even our governments sometimes call upon us to sacrifice our sons for our country. Certainly God has an even greater right to do so.

Norman Geisler and Thomas Howe, When Critics Ask; Victor Books; taken from e-Sword, Gen. 22:2.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines

 

J. Vernon McGee: "And offer him there for a burnt offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell you of." The burnt offering was the offering up until the time of Mosaic law; then a sin offering and a trespass offering were given. Here the burnt offering speaks of the person of Christ, who He is. This is an offer of a human sacrifice, and, frankly, it raises this moral question: Isn”t human sacrifice wrong? Yes, it is morally wrong. Had you met Abraham on that day when he was on his way with Isaac, you might have asked him, "Where are you going, Abraham?" He would have replied, "To offer Isaac as a sacrifice." And you would have then asked, "Don”t you know that that is wrong?" Abraham would have said, "Yes, I”ve been taught that it was wrong. I know that the heathen nations around here offer human sacrifice - the Philistines offer to Molech - but I have been taught otherwise." You would then question him further, "Then why are you doing it?" and he would explain, "All I know is that God has commanded it. I don”t understand it. But I”ve been walking with Him now for over fifty years. He has never failed me, nor has He asked me to do anything that did not prove to be the best thing. I don”t understand this, but I believe that if I go all the way with Him that God will raise Isaac from the dead. I believe that He will do that." 


So far, v. 2 reads: And God said, “Now take your son, Isaac, your only son, the son whom you have loved, and go for your sake to the land of Moriah and offer him up as a burnt offering. The actual burnt offering was to be Isaac. As we will find, Abraham was to slit open Isaac’s throat, let him bleed out, and then offer him up.


This chapter begins with God giving Abraham 3 commands (there are imperatives): Take...go...and offer up.


Given what has taken place in the past—such as, Noah having clean animals to offer up to God—this was to be a similar type sacrifice.


So that there is no confusion, God is not going to allow this to come to pass. God will not allow Abraham to kill his own son. God does this to illustrate our Lord’s death on the cross on our behalf. The fire represents judgment from God.

 

MacLaren on this very point: How could God command a father to kill his son? Is that in accordance with His character? ...First, the final issue; namely, Isaac's deliverance, was an integral part of the divine purpose from the beginning of the trial; so that the question really is, Was it accordant with the divine character to require readiness to sacrifice even a son at His command? 


Apparently, Muslims try to get in on this, and say this is Ishmael and not Isaac.

The Bible Query on, Did Abraham Offer Up Ishmael and not Isaac?

Q:     In Gen 22:1-18, could the boy who Abraham almost sacrificed be Ishmael, not Isaac, as Muslims claim? Otherwise, how could Isaac be Abram’s "only son"?

A:      It was Isaac who was sacrificed and not Ishmael for at least four reasons:

Even the Qur’an does not say it was Ishmael: Genesis 22:2 says it was Isaac. For Muslims, while the Muslim Qur’an discusses this in Sura 37:99-111, no where in the entire Qur’an does it say whether it was Ishmael or Isaac.

Only boy Abram had at the time: Ishmael was 14 when Isaac was born based on Genesis 17:25 and Genesis 18:10. Hagar and Ishmael were sent way to a different place the day Isaac was weaned in Genesis 21:8-10. Abraham was tested "a long time" after this in Genesis 21:34, and a "boy" was on the altar in Genesis 22:12.Only son in God’s eyes: God declared that is was through Isaac and not Ishmael that Abraham’s offspring would be reckoned in Genesis 21:12. Abraham did not have Ishmael because Ishmael and his mother were "gotten rid of" by being sent away according to Genesis 21:10-12.

Only heir in this world: Isaac was the only heir, and only son also means "beloved son". While the culture of the time accepted taking concubines for procreation, inheritance and the right of the firstborn would go to sons of actual wives, not the sons of concubines. See Bible Difficulties and Seeming Contradictions p.141 for more info.

Only son of promise: Genesis 21:12 says, "through Isaac your offspring shall be reckoned". Abraham had other sons too, but they were born after this. See When Critics Ask p.52 for more info.

From Bible Query March 2006 version. Copyright (c) Christian Debater(tm) 1997-2006. Accessed from E-sword; Gen. 22:1.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


An offering with fire refers to judgement.

 

J. Vernon McGee: "And offer him there for a burnt offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell you of." The burnt offering was the offering up until the time of Mosaic law; then a sin offering and a trespass offering were given. Here the burnt offering speaks of the person of Christ, who He is. This is an offer of a human sacrifice, and, frankly, it raises this moral question: Isn't human sacrifice wrong? Yes, it is morally wrong. Had you met Abraham on that day when he was on his way with Isaac, you might have asked him, "Where are you going, Abraham?" He would have replied, "To offer Isaac as a sacrifice." And you would have then asked, "Don't you know that that is wrong?" Abraham would have said, "Yes, I've been taught that it was wrong. I know that the heathen nations around here offer human sacrifice - the Philistines offer to Molech - but I have been taught otherwise." You would then question him further, "Then why are you doing it?" and he would explain, "All I know is that God has commanded it. I don't understand it. But I've been walking with Him now for over fifty years. He has never failed me, nor has He asked me to do anything that did not prove to be the best thing. I don't understand this, but I believe that if I go all the way with Him that God will raise Isaac from the dead. I believe that He will do that." 

 

From the Wycliffe Handbook: For family devotions, Martin Luther once read the account of Abraham offering Isaac on the altar in Genesis 22. His wife, Katie, said, "I do not believe it. God would not have treated his son like that!" "But, Katie," Luther replied, "He did."  


Genesis 22:2g

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

ʾechâd (אֶחָד) [pronounced eh-KHAWD]

one, first, certain, only; each, every; but it can also mean a composite unity; possibly particular; anyone

numeral adjective, construct form

Strong's #259 BDB #25

ʾEchâd can function like an indefinite article, and be rendered a certain [person, place or thing]. ʾEchâd can be used elliptically to mean one time, once.

har (הַר) [pronounced har]

mountains, hills

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #2022 (and #2042) BDB #249

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

1st person singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied); with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #413 BDB #39


Translation: ...on one of the mountains which I will say to you.” I have made the assumption that God will lead Abraham to Mount Golgotha, where our Lord was crucified. There is some disagreement as to exactly the location of Mount Golgotha, so, for the time being, we will simply locate it where it is traditionally thought to have been (see the maps above).


Genesis 22:2 And He said, “Take now your son, your only one, Isaac, whom you love. And go into the land of Moriah, and offer him there for a burnt offering upon one of the mountains which I will name to you.”


What God is going to ask Abraham to do will not take place in southern Israel. Not only does God want Abraham to sacrifice his only son (by Sarah), but this has to be done in a place which is far away from where Abraham is at this time. There is a right place and a right time.


A burnt offering always speaks of judgment. Fire is always associated with judgment in God’s plan.


Although we do not know for certain where the land of Moriah is, there is a Mount Moriah in Jerusalem (which is known as Salem at this time). Given the trip that Abraham will take (3 days), it is reasonable to assume that he actually went to Mount Moriah, which received its name, at that time, from the general land around there, which was called Moriah. One of the hills in this mountainous region is called Golgotha. Although the Bible does not specify that this is Mount Moriah that Abraham is going to, or Golgotha specifically, the time frame of a 3 day’s journey is reasonable—this would be the time required for Abraham to go from far southern Israel in the Beersheba area up to Jerusalem (then called Salem), given the rugged territory through which Abraham would have to travel. Obviously, the name Moriah suggests that this is the same place (ancient areas often retained a specific name for hundreds and even thousands of years). Furthermore, the simple fact that God would require Abraham to go on a 3-day journey would suggest that he was being led to a very particular place and not to some far-away random hill. Furthermore, God tells Abraham that He will specify to him where to offer up Isaac.


So Abraham is to take his only son, the son whom he loves, and sacrifice him at a place God would lead him to, which place is probably where our Lord would be sacrificed for us as well.


Genesis 22:2 And He said, “Take now your son, your only one, Isaac, whom you love. And go into the land of Moriah, and offer him there for a burnt offering upon one of the mountains which I will name to you.”


God is directing Abraham to a specific place, and when he arrives there, God will direct him specifically to one of the mountains, indicating that Abraham will be in a place where he can go up several different mountains. Again, this coincides with the four mountains near Jerusalem.


Okay, let’s just say for a moment that my theory here is correct, and this is Mount Golgotha that Abraham takes his son to—why isn’t this made a big deal of in Scripture? Why don’t we know that for a certainty?


Here is there reason why: we are not the only beings involved in the conflict of the ages. We are anthropocentric, and we want to make everything all about us, but imagine the angels, who are watching all of this unfold, on a very particular mountain—and then 2000 years later, Jesus is offered up to God by crucifixion from that very mountain. Angels are observing everything that occurs (not everything, per se—an angel can only be in one place at one time). They see God’s words fulfilled in the great drama that they are observing, aka human history.


Angels observe this in real time, in the spectacle of human history. They first observe that Abraham is willing to sacrifice his son Isaac to God, as a great act of obedience. And angels do not forget things, so they will remember everything that they have seen forever. Then, as they watch the drama of human history play out, 2000 years later, probably in the same place, they see the Son of God being offered as a man on the cross. This powerfully clicks with all angelic beings. They remember in vivid detail Abraham offering his own son to God; and now they view God offering up His Own Son for Abraham (and for all mankind). They learn from this the sovereignty of God, as well as the justice and righteousness of God.


Remember, that angels have a starting point to their existence. So, they don’t know what happened before their existence except whatever God tells them. They do not know Who God is, except that God either tells them or shows them. Here, we have an amazing thing—Abraham offering up his uniquely-born son on Mount Golgotha, a parallel to the offering of Jesus Christ, God’s uniquely-born Son on the same mount. This act informs the angels. By this, and millions of other things that they observe, the angels continue to learn about Who and What God is. For them to understand God and His righteousness is just as important as us understanding God and His perfect righteousness.


You will recall that, all of the dispersions which are cast upon God by Satan reference His perfect character and His relationship with mankind. All of the objections which Satan leveled against God before human history are all being dealt with, and this is one illustration of that.


This does not mean that the angels viewed this sacrifice with an understanding that God had Abraham reveal the cross in advance, and that it would take place right at this spot. I am of the opinion that neither man nor angels fully understood the cross prior to it occurring in time. I don’t believe that Satan, with all his genius, realized that the cross that he took Jesus to would be his own undoing—that this is how the Seed of the Woman would crush his head. I think that, after the fact, the angels put everything together; and, after the fact, so did the disciples (with Jesus’ help). I am suggesting that there is progressive revelation for angels just as there is for mankind. If Satan knew that the cross would be his ultimate undoing, then why would Satan taking every step to get Jesus to the cross?


God magnificently takes the rebellion of Satan and the sin of mankind and utilizes these to take Jesus to the cross, which is, simultaneously, the great proof of God’s perfect love, justice and righteousness.


I have made the analogy before that human history is like a giant morality play for angels. They observe all that goes on. God, as a great playwright, will foreshadow certain events, but He does not give away all of the plot points. So angels observe this great act of obedience by Abraham, not knowing that it also represents the great act of obedience of Jesus on the cross. They will find this out 2000 years later. They will then realize why God emphasized this particular scene in the life of Abraham. They will piece it altogether with great appreciation for God’s plan.


We have the same thing in many movies that we watch. There is some foreshadowing of future events in the movie; and as the movie progresses, these things come to pass, and we recall those scenes early on in the movie which told us what was coming, but we did not fully appreciate it until the conclusion of the movie.


What is amazing about this event is, we know that this was all laid out in the Word of God before Jesus walked on this earth. No matter how conservative or how liberal the interpretations of the Bible and the writing of the Bible, historically, the Old Testament had to be written before the New Testament because we have copies of the Old Testament from the Dead Sea Scrolls circa 100 b.c. The Greek translation of the Old Testament preceded Jesus by 100–200 years. And not only did Jesus and His disciples use the Old Testament as their Bible, but it was very well known to their audience already, as evidenced by, for instance, the many times that the scribes or pharisees attempted to trap Jesus with one of their theological questions.


Therefore, Abraham offering up his uniquely-born son as a sacrifice is exactly what it appears to be: a real historical incident which clearly foreshadows the offering of our Lord on the cross (just as Psalm 22 and Isa. 53 do).


The Angelic Conflict is of paramount importance—without it, there is no fall of man, there is no Satan, and the book of Job makes no sense. Therefore, there will be some things in Scripture which do not make complete sense apart from the Angelic Conflict.


Genesis 22:2 And He said, “Take now your son, your only one, Isaac, whom you love. And go into the land of Moriah, and offer him there for a burnt offering upon one of the mountains which I will name to you.”

 

McAuslane in the Bible Illustrator: (1) This test is wholly unexpected. For several years the patriarch has been the recipient of great and uninterrupted prosperity. Instead of going through the bleak and barren desert he has been walking in the garden, which is smiling with the flowers of richness, fertility, and hope. (2) This test is wholly unprecedented. Abraham is not a foreigner to suffering. He had been separated from his country and friends at the age of seventy-five. He had been driven by famine from the land of promise into a distant country...yet [no one had ever been asked to do was God asked Abraham to do. [Finally] (3) This test is an assault upon the object which the patriarch loves and values most. He loves and values his son Ishmael. He loves and values his wife Sarah. He loves and values his own life. Isaac, however, is the son of promise, the root from which the final blossom is to be the Messiah, and on this account he must love and value him most of all. To slay him with his own hand, this is the climax of trial to Abraham--it cannot ascend higher. A man can only have one such trial in his lifetime.


What God is asking of Abraham is a one-time thing. God is not going to ask Abraham to do this again; God is not going to ask Moses, or David, or Jeremiah to do this. This occurs one time in history and one time only. This represents the crucifixion; which is itself a one-time event in the history of mankind. What happens here is a type; the crucifixion will be the antitype. God has never asked anyone to sacrifice their son after this or before this; and God will never ask anyone to sacrifice their son in the future.


No matter what happens, God will not allow Abraham to actually harm Isaac in any way.


——————————


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


The Trip to Moriah


And so rises up early Abraham in the morning and so he binds his donkey and so he takes two of his youths with him and Isaac his son. And so he cuts sticks [for] a burnt offering and so he rises up and so he goes unto the place which said to him the Elohim [in the day the third].

Genesis

22:3

Therefore Abraham rose up early in the morning and he saddled his donkey and he took two of his youths with him along with [lit., and] Isaac his son. He cut the wood [for] a burnt offering and rose up and went toward the place which the Elohim had said to him.

Therefore, Abraham rose up early the next morning, saddles his donkey and took two youths with him, along with his son Isaac. He cut the word for a burnt offering, and they all rose up and went toward the place God had designated.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so rises up early Abraham in the morning and so he binds his donkey and so he takes two of his youths with him and Isaac his son. And so he cuts sticks [for] a burnt offering and so he rises up and so he goes unto the place which said to him the Elohim [in the day the third]. A portion of v. 4 is added in brackets and ought to be with v. 3.

Jerusalem targum                  And Abraham rose up in the morning and saddled his ass, and took two young men with him, Eliezer and Ishmael, and Izhak his son, and cut the small wood and the figs and the palm, which are provided for the whole burnt offering, and arose and went to the land of which the Lord had told him.

Latin Vulgate                          So Abraham rising up in the night, saddled his ass, and took with him two young men, and Isaac his son: and when he had cut wood for the holocaust, he went his way to the place which God had commanded him.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And Abraham rose up early in the morning and saddled his ass and took two of his young men with him and Isaac his son, and cut wood for the burnt offering and rose up and went to the place of which God had told him.

Septuagint (Greek)                And Abraham rose up in the morning and saddled his donkey, and he took with him two servants, and Isaac his son, and having split wood for a whole burnt offering, he arose and departed, and came to the place of which God spoke to him...

 

Significant differences:           The Jerusalem targum names the young men. The Latin has night instead of early in the morning. However, if you have ever done any fishing, often early in the morning is at night.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Abraham got up early in the morning, harnessed his donkey, and took two of his young men with him, together with his son Isaac. He split the wood for the entirely burned offering, set out, and went to the place God had described to him.

Contemporary English V.       So Abraham got up early the next morning and chopped wood for the fire. He put a saddle on his donkey and left with Isaac and two servants for the place where God had told him to go.

Easy English                          So Abraham got up early in the morning and he put a saddle on his *donkey. He took two young servants with him, and he took his son Isaac. He cut wood for the *burnt offering. Then he set out on his journey. And he went to the place that God had said.

Easy-to-Read Version            In the morning Abraham got up and saddled his donkey. Abraham took Isaac and two servants with him. Abraham cut the wood for the sacrifice. [119] Then they went to the place God told them to go.

Good News Bible (TEV)         Early the next morning Abraham cut some wood for the sacrifice, loaded his donkey, and took Isaac and two servants with him. They started out for the place that God had told him about.

The Message                         Abraham got up early in the morning and saddled his donkey. He took two of his young servants and his son Isaac. He had split wood for the burnt offering. He set out for the place God had directed him.

New Berkeley Version           Early next morning Abraham got up, saddle his donkey, selected two young men to go with him, as well as his son Isaac, split the wood for a burnt-offering, then started out for the location of which God had told him.

New Century Version             Abraham got up early in the morning and saddled his donkey. He took Isaac and two servants with him. After he cut the wood for the sacrifice, they went to the place God had told them to go.

New Life Bible                        So Abraham got up early in the morning and got his donkey ready. He took two of his young men with him and his son Isaac. He cut wood for the burnt gift. And he went to the place where God told him to go.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          So AbraHam got up in the morning, saddled his burro, and [prepared to] take two servants and his son IsaAc with him. Then, after splitting some wood for the offering, he got up and traveled toward the place that God had told him about.

Beck’s American Translation Early the next morning Abraham harnessed his donkey. He took two of his servants and his son Isaac with him. He cut the wood for the burnt offering. Then he started out for the place God told him about.

God’s Word                         Early the next morning Abraham saddled his donkey. He took with him two of his servants and his son Isaac. When he had cut the wood for the burnt offering, he set out for the place that God had told him about.

International Standard V        So Abraham got up early in the morning, saddled his donkey, and took two of his male servants [Or young men] with him, along with his son Isaac. He cut the wood for the burnt offering and set out to go to the place about which God had spoken to him.

Today’s NIV                          Early the next morning Abraham got up and loaded his donkey. He took with him two of his servants and his son Isaac. When he had cut enough wood for the burnt offering, he set out for the place God had told him about.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And Abraham got up early in the morning, and made ready his ass, and took with him two of his young men and Isaac, his son, and after the wood for the burned offering had been cut, he went on his way to the place of which God had given him word.

Conservapedia                       Abraham got up in the early morning, and saddled a donkey, and took two young men with him, along with his son Isaac. He split the wood for the ascent offering, and rose up and went to the place where God told him to go.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 When Abraham woke in the morning he saddles his ass, and took two youths along with him, and Isaac his son, and split up wood for a sacrifice; and they rose up and went to the place which God had told him.

HCSB                                     So early in the morning Abraham got up, saddled his donkey, and took with him two of his young men and his son Isaac. He split wood for a burnt offering and set out to go to the place God had told him about.

New Advent Bible                  So Abraham rising up in the night, saddled his ass, and took with him two young men, and Isaac his son: and when he had cut wood for the holocaust, he went his way to the place which God had commanded him.

NIV – UK                                Early the next morning Abraham got up and loaded his donkey. He took with him two of his servants and his son Isaac. When he had cut enough wood for the burnt offering, he set out for the place God had told him about.


Catholic Bibles (those having the imprimatur):

 

Heritage Bible                        And Abraham loaded up early in the dawn, and bound his donkey, and took two of his young men with him and Isaac, his son, and cut the wood for the burnt offering, and rose up, and walked to the place which God had said to him.

New American Bible              Early the next morning Abraham saddled his donkey, took with him two of his servants and his son Isaac, and after cutting the wood for the burnt offering, set out for the place of which God had told him.

New Jerusalem Bible             Early next morning Abraham saddled his donkey and took with him two of his servants and his son Isaac. He chopped wood for the burnt offering and started on his journey to the place which God had indicated to him.

Revised English Bible            Early in the morning Abraham saddled his donkey, and took with him two of his men and his son Isaac; and having split firewood for the sacrifice, he set out for the place of which God had spoken.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           Avraham got up early in the morning, saddled his donkey, and took two of his young men with him, together with Yitz'chak his son. He cut the wood for the burnt offering, departed and went toward the place God had told him about.

exeGeses companion Bible   And Abraham starts early in the morning

and harnesses his he burro

and takes two of his lads with him

and Yischaq his son;

and splits the timber for the holocaust

and rises and goes to the place Elohim told him.

Kaplan Translation                 Abraham got up early in the morning and saddled his donkey. He took his two men with him, along with his son Isaac. He cut wood for the offering, and set out, heading for the place that God had designated.


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

The Amplified Bible                So Abraham rose early in the morning, saddled his donkey, and took two of his young men with him and his son Isaac; and he split the wood for the burnt offering, and then began the trip to the place of which God had told him.

The Expanded Bible              Abraham got up early in the morning and saddled his donkey. He took Isaac and two ·servants [or young men] with him. After he cut the wood for the sacrifice, they went to the place God had told them to go.

Kretzmann’s Commentary    And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and saddled his ass, and took two of his young men with him, and Isaac, his son, and clave the wood for the burnt offering, and rose up and went unto the place of which God had told him. There is not a word about excitement or turmoil in the heart of Abraham. Quietly and deliberately he made his preparations for a literal fulfillment of God's command, girding the beast that was to bear the wood for the sacrifice and the food for the trip, ordering two of his young men, probably house-slaves, to accompany him, even splitting the wood which he would need for the sacrifice, and then setting out for Moriah. He did not consult with flesh and blood, for his faith was active in obedience.

Lexham English Bible            And Abraham rose up early in the morning and saddled his donkey. And he took two of his servants with him, and Isaac his son. And he chopped wood for a burnt offering. And he got up and went to the place which God had told him.

NET Bible®                             Early in the morning Abraham got up and saddled his donkey [Heb "Abraham rose up early in the morning and saddled his donkey."]. He took two of his young servants with him, along with his son Isaac. When he had cut the wood for the burnt offering, he started out [Heb "he arose and he went."] for the place God had spoken to him about.

Syndein                                  {Verses 3-10: O= Obeying}

And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and saddled his ass {used by kings at this time - men of great wealth used asses}, and took two of his young men with him, and Isaac his son, and {Abraham at 125 years} split the wood for the burnt offering, and moved out, and 'went with a good mental attitude' unto the place of which 'Elohiym/Godhead had told him.

Translation for Translators     So Abraham got up early the next morning, put a saddle on his donkey, and took with him two of his servants along with his son, Isaac. He also chopped some wood to kindle a fire for a burnt offering. Then they started traveling to the place God told him about.

The Voice                               Abraham did as he was told. Early in the morning he got up, saddled his donkey, and taking two of his trusted servants with him and his son Isaac, he cut the wood for the burnt offering and traveled to the place God had told him about.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And early in the morning is Abraham rising, and is saddling his ass, and is taking two of his lads with him, and Isaac, his son, and is rending the wood for the ascent offering. And rising is he and going, and came to the place of which the Elohim apprized him on the third day.

Emphasized Bible                  So Abraham rose early in the morning, and saddled his ass, and took his two young men with him, and Isaac his son, and clave the pieces of wood for an ascending-sacrifice, and mounted and went his way unto the place which God had named to him.

Green’s Literal Translation    And Abraham started up early in the morning and saddled his ass, and he took two of his youths with him, and his son Isaac. And he split wood for a burnt offering, and rose up and went to the place which God had said to him.

Young’s Updated LT             And Abraham rises early in the morning, and saddles his ass, and takes two of his young men with him, and Isaac his son, and he cleaves the wood of the burnt-offering, and rises and goes unto the place of which God has spoken to him.

 

The gist of this verse:          Abraham rises up early in the morning, saddles his ass, and goes out with two young men and Isaac. They cut up the wood for a burnt offering and they go to the place that God told him to go to.


Genesis 22:3a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

shâkam ( ָכַםש) [pronounced shaw-KAHM]

to start, to rise, to rise early, to make an early start; morning (in the Hiphil infinitive absolute)

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect

Strong’s #7925 BDB #1014

ʾAberâhâm (אַבְרָהָם) [pronounced ahbve-raw-HAWM]

father of a multitude, chief of a multitude; transliterated Abraham

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #85 BDB #4

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

bôqer (בֹּקֶר) [pronounced BOH-ker]

morning, daybreak, dawn; the next morning

masculine singular noun with a definite article

Strong’s #1242 BDB #133


Translation: Therefore Abraham rose up early in the morning... Abraham has a lot of things to prepare in order to obey God. And God is going to give him a long time to think about this. Where he is going to is a long journey, so he gets up early to get everything prepared.


I find this interesting....a great many people would look at a demand by God like this and not want to do it. Or, he might do it, but he might take his time about doing it. But not Abraham. He is up at the crack of dawn.


I want you to remember back to Lot, and the angels were there to get Lot out of Sodom before judgment was being brought down upon him. Do you remember what he did? He dawdled. The angels finally had to grab him and his family by the hands and haul them out of there. Abraham, when given an order by God, is up with the news sun.


Application: Everyday, whether repetitive or not, can be a great adventure for the growing believer. We do not know what is going to happen. He may encounter a life-change circumstance; we may interface with a very interesting person; we may have a great day at work or a purely crappy one—but every day is a day that God has given us, giving us experiences which are important to us and to our growth; and opportunities to apply doctrine.


Abraham was not always faithful in his responses to God. Remember when God told him to go to Canaan (“to a land which I will show you”) and to separate from his family, Abraham went about halfway there, with his family, and then he stopped in Haran (Charan). That is not a faithful response. Then he leaves Haran (after his father dies), but he takes Lot along with him. Again, not a completely faithful response.


In Gen. 22, God cannot have Abraham deviating from God’s plan. Abraham cannot decide to zig when God wants him to zag; God cannot have Abraham adding his own spin to the process. So, God has prepared Abraham for this; God has prepared Abraham to trust Him completely, so that when God told Abraham, “You will sacrifice your son to me and it will be on this mountain. Get going;” Abraham obeyed.


Abraham, throughout his life, would never fully appreciate what God is doing here. He does not know that his son, Isaac is a type; he does not know that all of this represents God the Father laying all of our sins upon God the Son. This is a chapter that will impact believers for centuries—and particularly in the Church Age, now that we are able to understand more completely just what this chapter is all about.


Too many commentaries concentrated upon Abraham and his reaching some sort of peak with his obedience—and that very well might be true. However, more important is the impact of what Abraham does on hundreds and hundreds of succeeding generations. God has an amazing plan; and sometimes, He accomplishes this plan without us fully appreciating what He is doing. Abraham did not know what God was doing. Abraham did not realize that God was establishing a type for the most important event of human history. Abraham just knew that God told him to offer up his son, and so, that is what he would do. And, for 2000 years, all those who read this narrative only understood that this is an act of great obedience—but God designed Abraham’s obedience to be far more meaningful than simple authority orientation.


Genesis 22:3b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

châbash (שחָבַ) [pronounced khaw-BAHSH]

to bind, to bind on [around, up]; to wrap [a turban, scarf] around; to bind [by allegiance; law, rule]; to join; to restrain; to saddle [up]; to bandage; to govern

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #2280 BDB #289

This is the first occurrence of this word in the Bible.

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

chămôwr (חֲמוֹר) [pronounced khuh-MOHR]

ass, male donkey, he-ass, burrow

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #2543 BDB #331


Translation: ...and he saddled his donkey... It is not clear whether Abraham will ride the donkey himself or if everyone will ride donkeys. Only one is spoken of here. This does not mean that one did not carry supplies and three others carried the rest of his entourage. At this point, we only know of one donkey.


The verb used here would allow the donkey to be used for provisions (as in 2Sam. 16:1).


Genesis 22:3c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

lâqach (לָקַח) [pronounced law-KAHKH]

to take, to take away, to take in marriage; to seize

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #3947 BDB #542

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

shenêy (שְנֵי) [pronounced shen-Ā]

two, two of, a pair of, a duo of

dual numeral construct

Strong’s #8147 BDB #1040

naʿar (נַעַר) [pronounced NAH-ģahr]

boy, youth, young man; personal attendant; slave-boy

masculine plural noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5288 & #5289 BDB #654

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

with, at, near, by, among, directly from

preposition (which is identical to the sign of the direct object) with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #854 BDB #85


Translation: ...and he took two of his youths with him... Abraham is around 110 or so. The two youths are going to do much of the heavy work.


Most of those who assign dates leave this blank. Reese and Klassen have this incident taking place 33 years after Isaac’s birth. The idea, of course, is that his age match up the age of our Lord when He went to the cross. There will be evidence in this chapter which makes Isaac quite a bit younger. I would guess between the ages of 7 and 10 (to be explained later).


There are so many different times when a number of servants accompany Abraham (and others) who are never mentioned. Abimelech came to see Abraham in the previous chapter. He is the king of Gerar. Surely he did not travel there with just one other man—the head of his army. He would have traveled there with a number of military men. However, we only know about the important ones. Abimelech and Phicol, his general. In a previous vignette, Abraham goes to Gerar with Sarah and lies about his relationship to her. Abraham would have arrived with his entire compound. There would have been a thousand other people with him. However, we only read about Abraham and Sarah (and of course, about a few people in Gerar).


Genesis 22:3d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Yisechâq (יִשְׂחָק) [pronounced yihse-KHAWK]

he laughs; laughing; transliterated Isaac

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #3327 & #3446 BDB #850

bên (בֵּן) [pronounced bane]

son, descendant

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119


Translation: ...along with [lit., and] Isaac his son. And, of course, Abraham takes his son Isaac. I have heard him presented as a youth as well as a young man. So far in this narrative, we have no clues as to his actual age.

 

L. M. Grant: The time comes when God gives to Abraham one of the most sever trials of faith possible. When He calls his name,...[and] says, "your only son Isaac whom you love, and go to the land of Moriah, and offer him there as a burn offering on one of the mountains of which I shall tell you." ...Yet on Abraham's part we read of no protest or no hesitation as to obeying the word of God. He rose early in the morning, saddled his donkey and split the wood for a burnt offering. Taking two of his servants with him as well as Isaac, he began the long journey of three days.


Genesis 22:3e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

bâqaʿ (בָּקַע) [pronounced baw-KAHĢ]

to separate, to divide, to cut [open or apart], to split; to tear apart, to tear into pieces (like a wild beast); to break forth, to break open, to burst out; to sit upon eggs [to hatch them]

3rd person masculine plural, Piel imperfect

Strong’s #1234 BDB #131

ʿêtsîym (עֵצִים) [pronounced ģay-TSEEM]

trees; trees felled for building (1Kings 5:20, 32), lumber (Gen. 6:14 2Kings 12:13), sticks or logs for fuel (Gen. 22:3 Lev. 1:7)

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #6086 BDB #781

ʿôlâh (עֹלָה) [pronounced ģo-LAW]

burnt offering, ascending offering

feminine singular noun

Strong #5930 BDB #750


Translation: He cut the wood [for] a burnt offering... I would have thought that his young servants would have cut the wood, but the verb is in the Piel imperfect, which is the intensive stem; it took awhile for him to cut that wood. The causal stem as not used. Abraham did the chopping himself.


All of this took time. Abraham and Isaac had a lot of time to think this over. Isaac could have run away while Abraham was out chopping wood and Abraham could have pulled a Jonah and took off in the opposite direction. Isaac did not know what was going to happen; Abraham did.


One thing which has interested me from the beginning of Genesis is who has tools and what sort of tools do they have. There is no reference to an ax, but one would assume that this is something which Abraham owned. However, for all I know, Abraham could have used rocks to smash the dried wood into smaller pieces. However, if he has a knife, it would make sense that he has additional tools as well.


Now, I do find it interesting that they cut up wood where they are for the burnt offering. They are going to be traveling for 3 days. Did Abraham think he would not see any wood again? Did God specifically direct him to cut wood before he left?


I have assumed that we are dealing with a series of consecutive actions. When a series of wâw consecutives are combined with imperfect verbs, we are generally speaking of a series of actions which take place one after the other. That means that, at some point, before the next verb (to rise up) this cutting of wood takes place.


Another thing is, we do not know if Abraham tells them all that he will be doing. Does he tell them that God spoke to him and he is going to offer up his son Isaac as a burnt offering? That latter piece of information does not appear to be given to his crew.


Genesis 22:3f

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

qûwm (קוּם) [pronounced koom]

to stand, to rise up, to get up; to establish, to establish a vow, to cause a vow to stand, to confirm or to fulfill a vow

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #6965 BDB #877


Translation: ...and rose up... This word to rise up can refer to a physical act; but it can also mean that Abraham is going to take care of business, so to speak. It indicates purpose and direction. This would suggest that everything was prepared and that this group of four would be setting off. Everything is given in terms of Abraham individually, although he has two young men and Isaac with him.


Genesis 22:3g

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâlake (הָלַךְ) [pronounced haw-LAHKe]

to go, to come, to depart, to walk; to advance

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #1980 (and #3212) BDB #229

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

mâqôwm (מָקוֹם) [pronounced maw-KOHM]

place, situated; for a soldier, it may mean where he is stationed; for people in general, it would be their place of abode (which could be their house or their town)

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4725 BDB #879

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong's #430 BDB #43


Translation: ...and went toward the place which the Elohim had said to him. Although I believe that Abraham recorded each and every time that God spoke with him, I don’t believe that we know everything that God tells him. After all, from what we have heard so far, if you were Abraham, would you know which direction to ride, what to look for, or how long the trip would take? We would not know any of these things. Therefore, God gave more information to Abraham to direct his journey, but God the Holy Spirit did not believe those details to be important for us to study.

 

L. M. Grant: God had reasons for this engrossing occasion far higher than Abraham could possibly know at the time, for it beautifully illustrates the wonder of the greatest sacrifice that could be possible, the sacrifice that God the Father was made in giving His own Son, to bear what Isaac could never bear the overwhelming burden of suffering for sins that were not His own, but ours.


And this is one of the many amazing parts of Scripture—Abraham will never know, during his entire life on this earth, what this was all about. To him, he was giving unquestioning obedience to his God, never to know why God asked him to do this thing, until he entered into eternity with God.


Genesis 22:3 And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and saddled his ass, and took two of his young men with him, and Isaac his son. And he split the wood for the burnt offering, and rose up and went to the place of which God had told him.


Abraham has offered up animal sacrifices many times in the past. When he cuts the wood to take with him, this is an indication that he will be offering up an animal sacrifice. This establishes purpose from the very beginning.


It is interesting that he is splitting wood and carrying wood with him. There are several possible explanations: (1) it is clear from the beginning that Abraham is going to offer up a sacrifice and (2) it is possible that he does not expect to find dry wood where he is going to. (3) To establish the clear purpose of this trip from the outset.


Abraham, Isaac and these servants will travel to the exact place that God has told them to go. Geography is an important consideration in the plan of God. There are times when God will want you in a particular place; and He is able to get you there.


——————————


...in the day the third. And so lifts up Abraham his [two] eyes and so he sees the place from a distance.

Genesis

22:4

On the third day, Abraham lifted up his eyes and he saw the place from afar off.

On the third day, Abraham looked up and saw the place from a distance.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        ...in the day the third. And so lifts up Abraham his [two] eyes and so he sees the place from a distance.

Targum of Onkelos                On the third day Abraham lifted up his eyes and beheld the cloud of glory fuming on the mount, and it was discerned by him afar off.

Latin Vulgate                          And on the third day, lifting up his eyes, he saw the place afar off.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And on the third day Abraham lifted up his eyes and saw the place afar off.

Septuagint (Greek)                ...on the third day; and Abraham, having lifted up his eyes, saw the place afar off.

 

Significant differences:           The targum has additional text.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       Three days later Abraham looked off in the distance and saw the place..

Easy English                          On the third day, Abraham looked up and he saw the place a long way away.

Easy-to-Read Version            After they traveled three days, Abraham looked up and in the distance, he saw the place they were going to.

Good News Bible (TEV)         On the third day Abraham saw the place in the distance.

New Life Bible                        Abraham looked up on the third day and saw the place far away.

New Living Translation           On the third day of their journey, Abraham looked up and saw the place in the distance.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          It was on the third day that AbraHam looked up and saw the place in the distance.

God’s Word                         Two days later Abraham saw the place in the distance.

International Standard V        On the third day he looked ahead and saw the place from a distance.

NIRV                                      On the third day Abraham looked up. He saw the place a long way off.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And on the third day, Abraham, lifting up his eyes, saw the place a long way off.

Conservapedia                       On the third day, Abraham lifted up his eyes, and could see the place from far away.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 On the third day, Abraham looked up, and saw the spot some distance off.

New Heart English Bible        On the third day Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw the place far off.


Catholic Bibles (those having the imprimatur):

 

Christian Community Bible     On the third day Abraham looked up and saw the place in the distance,...

New American Bible              On the third day Abraham caught sight of the place from a distance.

Revised English Bible            On the third day Abraham looked up and saw the shrine in the distance.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Kaplan Translation                 On the third day, Abraham looked up, and saw the place from afar.


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

The Amplified Bible                On the third day Abraham looked up and saw the place in the distance.

The Expanded Bible              On the third day Abraham ·looked up [Llifted his eyes] and saw the place in the distance.

Kretzmann’s Commentary    Then on the third day Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw the place a far off. The distance from Beersheba to Jerusalem was forty-five to fifty miles and therefore required about two and one-half days of steady traveling.

Lexham English Bible            On the third day Abraham lifted up his eyes, and he saw the place at a distance.

NET Bible®                             On the third day Abraham caught sight of [Heb "lifted up his eyes and saw."] the place in the distance.

Syndein                                  Then on the third day Abraham lifted up his eyes {same verb as used when Christ was lifted up on the cross and Abraham was looking at the very spot of the cross}, and saw the place afar off.

Translation for Translators     On the third day of their travels, Abraham looked up and saw in the distance the place where God wanted him to go.

The Voice                               On the third day of the journey, Abraham looked up and saw the place far in the distance.

Abraham leaves Beersheba as he left Haran many years earlier. God calls and he leaves. It is as simple as that. No map. No directions. Just an unwavering trust that God will lead him where he needs to go. Mount Moriah becomes one of the most important places in all of the promised land, the one place in the world set apart for the worship of the one True God. According to 2 Chronicles 3:1, Solomon builds his temple on Mount Moriah in Jerusalem, not far from where God tests Abraham.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And lifting up his eyes is Abraham and seeing the place from afar.

LTHB                                     And on the third day Abraham lifted up his eyes and saw the place from a distance.

Young’s Updated LT             On the third day—Abraham lifts up his eyes, and sees the place from afar.

 

The gist of this verse:          On the third day, Abraham is able to see the place that God told him to go to.


Genesis 22:4a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article); possibly immediately

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

shelishîy (שְלִישִי) [pronounced sheli-SHEE]

third, a third part, a third time; chambers [of the third story]

masculine/feminine adjective/ordinal numeral with the definite article

Strong’s #7992 BDB #1026

Owen does not mention the definite article, but it is there.


Translation: On the third day,... This first phrase is a little difficult. It is weird for it to be stated and then followed by a wâw consecutive, which would give us: On the third day, and so Abraham lifts up his eyes... For this reason, a few translators place this phrase at the end of v. 3 or extend it as a part of v. 3. This would give us: He cut the wood [for] a burnt offering and rose up and went toward [or, to] the place which the Elohim had said to him on the third day. The problem with this interpretation is, it throws off v. 4, where Abraham is not there at the place yet, but he is looking up and seeing it. Therefore, I will place on the third day with v. 4. In order to interpret it in this way, the wâw consecutive will be left out of the translation, which is not abnormal in the English translation from the Hebrew. Virtually every action in the Hebrew in a narrative begins with a wâw consecutive, and, in the English, we often do not translate those wâw consecutives.


Clarke, quoting Ainsworth, notes the many times three is found.

Clarke (and Ainsworth) “On the third day...”

1.      Three is a mystical number because of Christ’s rising from the dead the third day (Matt. 17:23; 1Cor. 15:4).

2.      He was crucified the third hour after noon (Mark 15:25)

3.      Isaac, as he was a figure of Christ, in being the only son of his father, and not spared but offered for a sacrifice (Rom. 8:32), so in sundry particulars he resembled our Lord: the third day Isaac was to be offered up.

4.      It was the third day in which Christ also was to be perfected, Luke 13:32.

5.      In the following remarkable cases this number also occurs. Moses desired to go three days’ journey in the wilderness to sacrifice (Ex. 5:3).

6.      They traveled three days in it before they found water (Ex. 15:22).

7.      Three days’ journey the ark of the covenant went before them, to search out a resting place (Num. 10:33).

8.      By the third day the people were to be ready to receive God’s law (Ex. 19:11).

9.      After three days to pass over Jordan into Canaan (Joshua 1:14).

10.    On the third day Esther put on the apparel of the kingdom (Esther 5:1).

11.    On the third day Hezekiah, being recovered from his illness, went up to the house of the Lord (2Kings 20:5).

12.    On the third day, the prophet said, God will raise us up and we shall live before him (Hosea 6:2).

13.    On the third day, as well as on the seventh, the unclean person was to purify himself (Num. 19:12).

14.    There are many other memorable things which the Scripture speaks concerning the third day, and not without mystery. See Gen. 40:12–13 42:17–18 Jonah 1:17 Joshua 2:16.

From Adam Clarke, Commentary on the Bible; from e-Sword, Gen. 22:4 (edited and numbered).

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


All of this is a very deliberative process. The preparations for this trip would have taken a few hours; the trip itself is the better part of 3 days. Abraham has a great deal of time to mull all of this over in his mind.


Genesis 22:4b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

It is often typical in the Hebrew for each sentence—in fact, each thought—to begin with a wâw consecutive (or a wâw conjunction). However, it is not necessary in an English translation to include a connective at every such juncture, as our language does not necessarily require that for successive thoughts or actions.

nâsâʾ (נָשָׂא) [pronounced naw-SAW]

to lift up, to bear, to carry

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #5375 (and #4984) BDB #669

ʾAberâhâm (אַבְרָהָם) [pronounced ahbve-raw-HAWM]

father of a multitude, chief of a multitude; transliterated Abraham

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #85 BDB #4

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʿêynayim (עֵינַיִם) [pronounced ģay-nah-YIM]

eyes, two eyes, literal eye(s), spiritual eyes; face, appearance, form; surface

feminine dual noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5869 (and #5871) BDB #744


Translation: ...Abraham lifted up his eyes... They are on the 3rd day of their journey and Abraham looks up. We do not have all of the details of what God told Abraham. However, it is very likely that either Abraham knew where he was going or he knew what to look for. So, as they traveled, Abraham would be looking up, off into the distance, to scope out any landmarks.


Abraham is the only one of this group to whom God had spoken. Therefore, he is the only one who knows what to look for.


Genesis 22:4c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

râʾâh (רָאָה) [pronounced raw-AWH]

to see, to look, to look at, to view, to behold; to observe; to perceive, to understand, to learn, to know

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #7200 BDB #906

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

mâqôwm (מָקוֹם) [pronounced maw-KOHM]

place, situated; for a soldier, it may mean where he is stationed; for people in general, it would be their place of abode (which could be their house or their town)

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4725 BDB #879

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

râchôwq (רָחוֹק) [pronounced raw-KHOHK]

distant, far; as a noun, it means distance (which can be a reference to time or space)

Noun/adjective

Strong’s #7350 BDB #935

Min + râchôwq mean from afar off, from an emotive distance.

This is the first occurrence of this word in Scripture.


Translation: ...and he saw the place from afar off. We do not know exactly what Abraham was looking for; however, he looks up and he sees the place that they are going to. Now, it is my understanding that there are four mountains surrounded by a valley. Whether that is how it looks to someone on the ground from a distance, I do not know. However, Abraham knew enough about this place that he recognized it.


Throughout, I will maintain that he is going to Golgotha. However, this is close to Jebus, and this city (the precursor of Jerusalem) is never mentioned. We know that Abraham knows this area, as he went to it to meet Melchizedek after his great victory in Gen. 14.


As an alternate theory, perhaps Abraham was traveling to Mount Sinai, where both the Law would be given and judgment revealed on the sacrifice that Abraham would offer up.


The young men were brought along to probably carry the chopped wood for the altar. Abraham would chop the wood; the young men would carry it; and Abraham would ride the ass. When they got to the mountain, the young men would wait below, the wood would be loaded onto Isaac, and Abraham would walk with his son Isaac up the mountain.


Given the length of this trip—2½ days—it is not unreasonable to suppose that Abraham and company have traveled all the way to Jerusalem, to the hill of Golgotha (there are several hills in the Jerusalem area). Now, do not presume that I have pulled this idea out of the air. They are in the land of Moriah (v. 2), which is where Solomon was said to have built the first Temple (2Chron. 3:1).


Genesis 22:4 Then on the third day, Abraham lifted up his eyes and saw the place afar off.


What is it that you can see afar off?  Generally speaking, you can see mountains from a distance. Unless Abraham is standing on top of a mountain looking down into a valley (which is not suggested at all in this context), if he sees something afar off, it is very likely that, he is looking at a mountainous region. V. 2 tells us that God is going to indicate to Abraham one of the mountains to go up.

 

The Pulpit Commentary: Mount Moriah cannot be seen by the traveler from Beersheba till within a distance of three miles.


As mentioned before, it would be about a 3-day trip, in the era, to go from the southernmost area of Israel (then under the control of the Philistines) to Mount Moriah, in the Jerusalem area.


——————————


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Abraham and Isaac Go to Worship Alone


And so says Abraham unto his young men, “You [all] remain to you [all] here with the donkey and I and the lad might go as far as here and we will worship and we might return unto you [all].”

Genesis

22:5

Then Abraham said to his young men, “You all remain by yourselves [lit., to you (all)] here with the donkey and let I and the lad go yonder and worship; and we should return unto you [all].”

Then Abraham said to his young men, “Both of you remain with the donkey and let the lad and I go over there to worship. We should return shortly.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so says Abraham unto his young men, “You [all] remain to you [all] here with the donkey and I and the lad might go as far as here and we will worship and we might return unto you [all].”

Targum of Onkelos                And Abraham said to his young men, Wait you here with the ass, and I and the young man will proceed yonder, to prove if that which was promised shall be established:--So shall be thy sons:--and we will worship the Lord of the world, and return to you.

Latin Vulgate                          And he said to his young men: Stay you here with the ass; I and the boy will go with speed as far as yonder, and after we have worshipped, will return to you.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And he said to his young men, You stay here with the ass, and I and the boy will go yonder to worship and return to you.

Septuagint (Greek)                And Abraham said to his servants, Sit here with the donkey, and I and the lad will proceed thus far, and having worshipped, we will return to you.

Brenton’s updated LXX         And Abraam said to his servants, Sit you here with the ass, and I and the lad will proceed thus far, and having worshipped we will return to you.

 

Significant differences:           The targum has a lot of additional verbiage.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Abraham said to his servants, "Stay here with the donkey. The boy and I will walk up there, worship, and then come back to you."

Contemporary English V.       He told his servants, "Stay here with the donkey, while my son and I go over there to worship. We will come back."

Easy-to-Read Version            Then Abraham said to his servants, “Stay here with the donkey. I will take my son and go to that place and worship. Then we will come back to you later.”

The Message                         Abraham told his two young servants, "Stay here with the donkey. The boy and I are going over there to worship; then we'll come back to you."

New Berkeley Version           Abraham said to his young men, “Stay here by yourselves with the donkey; while I and the lad go yonder; so we may worship and return to you.” He knew they would both return.

New Century Version             He said to his servants, "Stay here with the donkey. My son and I will go over there and worship, and then we will come back to you."

New Life Bible                        He said to his young men, "Stay here with the donkey. I and the boy will go to that place and worship, and return to you."

New Living Translation           "Stay here with the donkey," Abraham told the servants. "The boy and I will travel a little farther. We will worship there, and then we will come right back."


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Then AbraHam told his servants, 'Stay here with the burro. For my son and I will go over there, and after we bow low [before God], we will return to you.

God’s Word                         Then Abraham said to his servants, "You stay here with the donkey while the boy and I go over there. We'll worship. After that we'll come back to you."

International Standard V        Abraham ordered his two servants [Or young men], "Both of you are to stay here with the donkey. Now as for the youth and me, we'll go up there, we'll worship, and then we'll return to you."


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      Abraham said to his lads, "You dwell here with the ass. The lad and I will go unto thus to bow, and return to you."

Bible in Basic English             Then he said to his young men, Keep here with the ass; and I and the boy will go on and give worship and come back again to you.

Conservapedia                       Abraham told his young men, "Sit here with the donkey; my son and I will go further on and worship, and return to you."

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 Then Abraham said to his attendants, “Stay here by yourselves, with the ass, and the lad and I will go and worship, and will return to you.”

New Advent Bible                  And he said to his young men: Stay you here with the ass; I and the boy will go with speed as far as yonder, and after we have worshipped, will return to you.


Catholic Bibles (those having the imprimatur):

 

Heritage Bible                        And Abraham said to his young men, You sit down here with the donkey, and I and the youth will walk yonder, and prostrate ourselves, and turn back to you.

New American Bible              Abraham said to his servants: "Stay here with the donkey, while the boy and I go on over there. We will worship and then come back to you."


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

exeGeses companion Bible   and Abraham says to his lads,

Sit here with the he burro;

and I and the lad go thus and prostrate

and return to you.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               Then Abraham said to his servants, “You stay here with the ass. The boy and I will go up there; we will worship and we will return to you.”

Kaplan Translation                 Abraham said to his young men, 'Stay here with the donkey. The boy and I will go to that place. We will worship [Literally, 'prostrate ourselves.'] and then return to you.'


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

The Amplified Bible                And Abraham said to his servants, Settle down and stay here with the donkey, and I and the young man will go yonder and worship and come again to you. Abraham was not lying to his servants or trying to deceive them. He believed God, Who had promised him that this young man's posterity was to inherit the promises made to Abraham (Gen. 12:2, 3).

The Expanded Bible              He said to his ·servants [or young men], "Stay here with the donkey. My son and I will go over there and worship, and then we will come back to you."

Kretzmann’s Commentary    And Abraham said unto his young men, Abide ye here with the ass, and I and the lad will go yonder and worship, and come again to you. Although the servants of Abraham were devoted to him, they were hardly prepared to witness the scene which would be enacted on the mountain that lay before them. In spite of the fact that the outcome of his act of worship was hidden from Abraham, his faith clung to the promise of the Lord, accounting that God was able to raise up Isaac, even from the dead, Heb. 11:17-19. For that reason he confidently says: We shall return to you. True faith trusts in God even when He seems harsh and angry, when the believer feels only His displeasure in his heart; for it is an easy matter for God to replace everything that He sees fit to take away, to bring back even that which was lost.

Lexham English Bible            And Abraham said to his servants, "You stay here with the donkey, and I and the boy will go up there. We will worship, then we will return to you."

NET Bible®                             So he [Heb "And Abraham." The proper name has been replaced in the translation by the pronoun ("he") for stylistic reasons.] said to his servants, "You two stay [The Hebrew verb is masculine plural, referring to the two young servants who accompanied Abraham and Isaac on the journey.] here with the donkey while [The disjunctive clause (with the compound subject preceding the verb) may be circumstantial and temporal.] the boy and I go up there. We will worship [This Hebrew word literally means "to bow oneself close to the ground." It often means "to worship."] and then return to you." It is impossible to know what Abraham was thinking when he said, "we will.return to you." When he went he knew (1) that he was to sacrifice Isaac, and (2) that God intended to fulfill his earlier promises through Isaac. How he reconciled those facts is not clear in the text. Heb 11:17-19 suggests that Abraham believed God could restore Isaac to him through resurrection.

Syndein                                  And Abraham said unto his young men, "Stay here with the ass! I and the lad {teenager at least}, we will go {again with a good mental attitude} and we will worship {very unusual form of verb-is doubled- which means Both will worship. Isaac is not only the sacrifice, but will also worship} and we shall return to you! {Note: Doctrine is more real to Abraham than what he sees or hears. God has promised his seed would multiply greatly through Isaac. So, if he is to sacrifice his precious son, Abraham is very willing to do so. He knows God would then resurrect/resuscitate him! So 'we' WILL return!}.

Translation for Translators     Abraham said to his servants, "You two stay here with the donkey while the boy and I go over there. We will worship God there, and then we will come back to you."

The Voice                               Abraham (to his servants): 5 Stay here with the donkey. The boy and I will go over there. We will worship, and then we will come back to meet you here.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And saying is Abraham to his lads, "Sit you here with the ass, and I and the lad will go, meanwhile, and we will worship and return to you.

Context Group Version          And Abraham said to his young men, You { pl } stay here with the donkey, and I and the lad will go over there; and we will bow down in deference [ to God ], and come again to you { pl }.

Emphasized Bible                  And Abraham said unto his young men—Tarry by yourselves here with the ass, but I and the young man must go yonder,—that we may bow ourselves down and return unto you.

English Standard V. – UK       Then Abraham said to his young men, "Stay here with the donkey; I and the boy [Or young man; also verse 12] will go over there and worship and come again to you.".

Green’s Literal Translation    And Abraham said to his young men, You stay here with the ass. I and the boy will go over there that we may worship and may return to you.

A Voice in the Wilderness      And Abraham said to his young men, Stay here with the donkey; and the lad and I will go over there and do homage, and we will come back to you.

World English Bible                Abraham said to his young men, "Stay here with the donkey. The boy and I will go yonder. We will worship, and come back to you.

Young’s Updated LT             And Abraham says unto his young men, “Remain by yourselves here with the ass, and I and the youth go yonder and worship, and turn back unto you.”

 

The gist of this verse:          Abraham tells his young men to stay at some intermediary point (probably at the foot of the mountain) and he would go with the lad a ways and worship and then come back to them.


Genesis 22:5a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

ʾAberâhâm (אַבְרָהָם) [pronounced ahbve-raw-HAWM]

father of a multitude, chief of a multitude; transliterated Abraham

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #85 BDB #4

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

naʿar (נַעַר) [pronounced NAH-ģahr]

boy, youth, young man; personal attendant; slave-boy

masculine plural noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5288 & #5289 BDB #654


Translation: Then Abraham said to his young men,... Abraham speaks respectfully to these two young men who have accompanied them.


As a minor point of grammar, we know that there are two young men here, but the Bible just uses the normal plural and not the dual to refer to them.


The Hebrew word used for young men is naʿar (נַעַר) [pronounced NAH-ģahr] allows a great deal of latitude with the age—anywhere from an infant (3 years old; Ex. 2:6) to an adolescent (17 years old; Gen. 37:2). These young men are probably older than that.


Genesis 22:5b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

yâshab (יָשַב) [pronounced yaw-SHAHBV]

to remain, to stay; to dwell, to live, to inhabit; to sit

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperative

Strong's #3427 BDB #442

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

The meanings of the lâmed preposition broken down into groups: ➊ to, towards, unto; it is used both to turn one’s heart toward someone as well as to sin against someone; ➋ to, even to;  in this sense, it can be used with a number to indicate the upper limit which a multitude might approach (nearly). ➌ Lâmed can be equivalent to the Greek preposition eis (εἰς), meaning into, as in transforming into something else, changing into something else (Gen. 2:7). This use of lâmed after the verb hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW] (Strong’s #1961 BDB #224) is one thing becoming another (Gen. 2:7). ➍  Its fourth use is the mark of a dative, after verbs of giving, granting, delivering, pardoning, consulting, sending, etc. This type of dative is broken down into several categories, but one includes the translation by, which would be apropos here. ➎ With regards to, as to. Similar to the Greek preposition eis (εἰς) plus the dative. [Numbering from Gesenius]. ➏ On account of, because, propter, used of cause and reason (propter means because; Gesenius used it). ➐ Concerning, about, used of a person or thing made the object of discourse, after verbs of saying. ➑ On behalf of anyone, for anyone. ➒ As applied to a rule or standard, according to, according as, as though, as if. ➓ When associated with time, it refers to the point of time at which or in which anything is done; or it can refer to the space of time during which something is done (or occurs); at the time of.

pôh (פֹּה) [pronounced poe]

here, in this place

adverb

Strong’s #6311 BDB #805

ʿîm (עִם) [pronounced ģeem]

with, at, by, near; like; from

preposition of nearness and vicinity

Strong’s #5973 BDB #767

chămôwr (חֲמוֹר) [pronounced khuh-MOHR]

ass, male donkey, he-ass, burrow

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #2543 BDB #331


Translation:...“You all remain by yourselves [lit., to you (all)] here with the donkey... This phrasing is difficult to translate. Abraham is saying, literally, “Remain, to you [all], here with the donkey.” Only three of the translations above attempt to translate this phrase, and they translate it by yourselves. It is unclear to me whether that is the meaning that Abraham was conveying here.


In any case, Abraham was telling them to stay with the donkey, which suggests that only one donkey was brought along, which suggests that everyone walked this distance and the donkey was used for the wood and provisions.


What seems to be the consensus opinion is, the two young men are left behind, lest they stop Abraham if he goes to bind Isaac.


Furthermore, there will only be two human witnesses to this event: Abraham and Isaac. However, it is likely that much of angelic creation will view this.


Genesis 22:5c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾânîy (אָנִי) [pronounced aw-NEE]

I, me; in answer to a question, it means I am, it is I

1st person singular, personal pronoun

Strong’s #589 BDB #58

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

naʿar (נַעַר) [pronounced NAH-ģahr]

boy, youth, young man; personal attendant; slave-boy

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #5288 & #5289 BDB #654

hâlake (הָלַךְ) [pronounced haw-LAHKe]

to go, to come, to depart, to walk; to advance

1st person plural, Qal imperfect with the cohortative hê

Strong’s #1980 (and #3212) BDB #229

The hê at the end is called a cohortative hê and is what a 1st person verb is called with the addition of the hê. We often add a word like let, may, might, ought, should.

ʿad (עַד) [pronounced ģahd]

as far as, even to, up to, until

preposition

Strong’s #5704 BDB #723

kôh (כֹּה) [pronounced koh]

so, thus, here, hence; now; in the meantime

adverb

Strong’s #3541 BDB #462

Together, these two particles mean as far as here, yonder; hitherto, until now, until then; meanwhile.

This is the first time kôh and this particle combination occur in the Bible.


Translation: ...and let I and the lad go yonder... There are phrases which could have been used that would be translated up there. So it is likely that, if they went up a hill or a mountain, they did it together. And then, at the top or near the top of the mountain, Abraham instructed his two employees to wait with the donkey.


The words used here and translated yonder probably indicate where Abraham is pointing to. My guess is, it would be out of the sight of the two young men.


As far as here is a pronoun coupled with an adverb and the implication is that Abraham is pointing toward a particular mountain.


Genesis 22:5d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

shâchah (שָחַה) [pronounced shaw-KHAW]

to bow down, to prostrate oneself, to do obeisance to; to honor [with prayers]; to do homage to, to submit to

1st person plural, Hithpael imperfect

Strong’s #7812 BDB #1005


Translation: ...and worship;... Worship often meant an animal sacrifice, which is going to be obvious as we go further along in this chapter. Abraham and wood that he brought on this 3 day journey to burn the sacrifice.


Worship is the Hithpael imperfect of the Hebrew word shâchah (שָחַה) [pronounced shaw-KHAW] and it means to bow down, to prostrate oneself. The Hithpael is the intensive reflexive stem. 99% of the time this word is found in the Hithpael in the Bible. Abraham and Isaac will act upon themselves to worship God; literally, to prostrate themselves before God. As we will see, this is not a physical action of the body, but a state of the soul. Isaac will be tied to an altar and Abraham will stand above him with a sacrificial knife in his hand. There is no physical bowing here; the respect and prostrating themselves occurs in their souls in their obedience to God.

 

J. Vernon McGee: The transaction that is going to take place is between the father and the son, between Abraham and Isaac. And actually, God shut man out at the cross. At the time of the darkness at high noon, man was shut out. The night had come when no man could work, and during those last three hours, that cross became an altar on which the Lamb of God who taketh away the sin of the world was offered. The transaction was between the Father and the Son on that cross. Man was outside and was not participating at all. The picture is the same here: it is Abraham and Isaac alone.

 

Coffman: This is a classical definition of worship. Worship does not mean feelings of ecstasy, for Abraham's heart was breaking. Worship does not mean "communion with God." Worship is not some kind of a subjective attitude. Worship is DOING what God commands.


Genesis 22:5e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

shûwb (שוּב) [pronounced shoobv]

to return, to turn, to turn back, to reminisce, to restore something, to bring back something, to revive, to recover something, to make restitution

1st person plural, Qal imperfect; with the cohortative hê

Strong's #7725 BDB #996

The hê at the end is called a cohortative hê and is what a 1st person verb is called with the addition of the hê. We often add a word like let, may, might, ought, should.

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied) with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #413 BDB #39


Translation: ...and we should return unto you [all].” Although Abraham says, “We will return to you;” he throws in a cohortative hê, indicating that “we should return to you.” We are in brand new territory for Abraham. He has been assured of the promises to his line through Isaac, and yet God now wants Abraham to sacrifice his son. That is a pretty tall order for something that is so unprecedented.


We know from Heb. 11:17–19 that Abraham expected that God would raise Isaac from the dead, after he was sacrificed. This shows incredible faith, as no one had been raised from the dead up to that point in human history. Yet, Abraham, fully expecting to offer up his son to God, also tells his servants that we will return to you.


Three days is a long time. There would have been some talking. The two servants and Isaac were not aware that it was Isaac who was to be offered yet. Abraham recognizes that God has promised him the land and an uncountable number of ancestors through Isaac, so he is not afraid for Isaac. He knows that these things must be fulfilled somehow through Isaac. He doesn't know how, but guesses that God will resurrect Isaac or do something to keep Isaac alive after the sacrifice. The verbs go, worship and come are all in the 1st person plural. This means that Abraham fully expects for both of them to go, to worship and to return. Abraham has offered hundreds of sacrifices to God and not once has an animal ever gotten up and walked away after being offered on the altar. Still, Abraham is fully convinced that both he and Isaac will return.


Genesis 22:5 And Abraham said to his young men, “You stay here with the ass. And I and the boy will go on to this way and worship, and come again to you.”


Something which is hidden in many translations is the morphology of the final 3 Hebrew verbs. They are all 1st person plural, imperfect verbs. Abraham is saying, “I and the boy will go this way and we will worship and we will return unto you.” The imperfect tense is used for successive, continuous and/or future action. The plural means that, both he and his son will do these things, which includes the final phrase, we will return to you.

 

Clarke speaks of this in great detail: How could Abraham consistently with truth say this, when he knew he was going to make his son a burnt–offering? The apostle answers for him: By faith Abraham, when he was tried, offered up Isaac – accounting that God was able to raise him up even from the dead, from whence also he received him in a figure (Heb. 11:17, 19). He knew that previously to the birth of Isaac both he and his wife were dead to all the purposes of procreation; that his birth was a kind of life from the dead; that the promise of God was most positive, In Isaac shall thy seed be called, Gen. 21:12; that this promise could not fail; that it was his duty to obey the command of his Maker; and that it was as easy for God to restore him to life after he had been a burnt–offering, as it was for him to give him life in the beginning. Therefore he went fully purposed to offer his son, and yet confidently expecting to have him restored to life again.


Abraham knows what God has asked him to do. God has told Abraham to offer up his son to God as a sacrifice. This is quite difficult, because, up until this point in time, apart from heathen religion, there are no human sacrifices. Abraham is holding two things in his mind, even though they may seem to be contradictory: God has told him to sacrifice his son and this young man, Isaac, is the son through whom all of the promises will be fulfilled. God has done nothing but, year after year, come to Abraham and say, “You are going to be father of many nations; I am going to give your descendants this land; and in Isaac, will your seed be called.” So there is no question as to what God has planned for Abraham and his seed—this particular young man, Isaac. And, remember that Isaac was born to Abraham under very unusual circumstances, at a point where he and his wife would not have been able to give birth another time. So, Isaac is the one and the only one through whom these promises from God could be fulfilled. We could call Isaac, Abraham’s uniquely-born son, because he was born to Abraham and Sarah long after they were physically able to have children. Despite their age, God promised them Isaac, and God brought this to pass. So, Abraham knows, no matter what happens, God has made a series of promises to him and those promises will be brought to fruition through his son Isaac. Abraham knows We need to have patience in our faith, so that when you have done the will of God you may receive what is promised (Heb. 10:36).


——————————


And so takes Abraham sticks of the burnt offering and so he places it upon Isaac his son. And so he takes in his hand the fire and the knife and so they go two of them together.

Genesis

22:6

So Abraham took the wood [for] the burnt offering and he placed it upon [the back of] Isaac, his son. Then he took the fire and the knife in his hand and they went both of them together.

So Abraham took the wood for the burnt offering and he placed it upon the back of Isaac his son. Then he took the fire and the knife and they left together.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so takes Abraham sticks of the burnt offering and so he places it upon Isaac his son. And so he takes in his hand the fire and the knife and so they go two of them together.

Targum of Onkelos                And Abraham took the wood of the offering and laid it upon Izhak his son, and in his hand he took the fire and the knife; and they went both of them together.

Latin Vulgate                          And he took the wood for the holocaust, and laid it upon Isaac his son; and he himself carried in his hands fire and a sword. And as they two went on together.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And Abraham took the wood for the burnt offering and laid it upon Isaac his son, and he took the fire in a container and a knife in his hand, and they went both of them together.

Septuagint (Greek)                And Abraham took the wood of the whole burnt offering, and laid it on Isaac his son, and he took into his hands both the fire and the knife, and the two went together.

 

Significant differences:           None.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Abraham took the wood for the entirely burned offering and laid it on his son Isaac. He took the fire and the knife in his hand, and the two of them walked on together.

Contemporary English V.       Abraham put the wood on Isaac's shoulder, but he carried the hot coals and the knife. As the two of them walked along,...

Easy English                          Abraham then took the wood for the fire and he put it on his son Isaac. Abraham himself carried the fire and the knife. So they both went together.

Easy-to-Read Version            Abraham took the wood for the sacrifice [120] and put it on his son’s {shoulder}. Abraham took the special knife and fire. Then both Abraham and his son went together to the place for worship.

Good News Bible (TEV)         Abraham made Isaac carry the wood for the sacrifice, and he himself carried a knife and live coals for starting the fire. As they walked along together,...

The Message                         Abraham took the wood for the burnt offering and gave it to Isaac his son to carry. He carried the flint and the knife. The two of them went off together..

New Berkeley Version           Abraham took the wood for the burnt-offering and laid it on Isaac [The son was physically stronger than the father.], his son, while he carried in his hand the torch and a knife; so the two walked together.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          So, AbraHam took the wood for the offering and laid it on his son IsaAc's [shoulders]; and the two went off together, as he carried both the fire and the knife in his own hands.

Beck’s American Translation Abraham took the wood for the burnt offering and laid it on his son Isaac while he took the fire and the knife in his hands. And both were walking together.

God’s Word                         Then Abraham took the wood for the burnt offering and gave it to his son Isaac. Abraham carried the burning coals and the knife. The two of them went on together.

International Standard V        Then Abraham took the wood for the burnt offering and placed it on his son Isaac. Abraham [Lit. He] carried the fire and the knife. And so the two of them went on together.

NIRV                                      Abraham put the wood for the burnt offering on his son Isaac. He himself carried the fire and the knife. The two of them walked on together.

New Simplified Bible              Abraham made Isaac carry the wood for the sacrifice. Abraham carried a knife and live coals for starting the fire. As they walked along together,...

Today’s NIV                          Abraham took the wood for the burnt offering and placed it on his son Isaac, and he himself carried the fire and the knife. As the two of them went on together,...


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And Abraham put the wood for the burned offering on his son's back, and he himself took the fire and the knife in his hand, and the two of them went on together.

Conservapedia                       Abraham took the wood he had prepared for the ascent offering, and placed it on the shoulders of his son Isaac. He took the fire in his hand, and a knife, and they were both going together.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 Abraham accordingly took the wood for the sacrifice and placed it upon Isaac his son, and took in his own hand the fire and the knife, and the two went together.

HCSB                                     Abraham took the wood for the burnt offering and laid it on his son Isaac. In his hand he took the fire and the sacrificial knife, and the two of them walked on together.

New Advent Bible                  And he took the wood for the holocaust, and laid it upon Isaac his son; and he himself carried in his hands fire and a sword. And as they two went on together...

NIV, ©2011                             Abraham took the wood for the burnt offering and placed it on his son Isaac, and he himself carried the fire and the knife. As the two of them went on together,...


Catholic Bibles (those having the imprimatur):

 

Heritage Bible                        And Abraham took the wood of the burnt offering, and put it upon Isaac his son; and he took the fire in his hand and a knife, and they walked, the two of them together.

New American Bible              So Abraham took the wood for the burnt offering and laid it on his son Isaac, while he himself carried the fire and the knife. As the two walked on together,...

New Jerusalem Bible             Abraham took the wood for the burnt offering, loaded it on Isaac, and carried in his own hands the fire and the knife. Then the two of them set out together.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               Abraham took the wood for the burnt offering and put it on his son Isaac. He himself took the firestone [Lit. “fire.”] and the knife; and the two walked off together.

Kaplan Translation                 Abraham took the offering wood and placed it on [the shoulders of] his son Isaac. He himself took the fire [Either a fire bucket or flints for making fire.] and the slaughter knife, and the two of them went together.


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

The Amplified Bible                Then Abraham took the wood for the burnt offering and laid it on [the shoulders of] Isaac his son, and he took the fire (the firepot) in his own hand, and a knife; and the two of them went on together.

The Expanded Bible              Abraham took the wood for the ·sacrifice [Lwhole burnt offering] and ·gave it to his son to carry [Lplaced it on his son], but he himself took the knife and the ·fire [or tinder]. So he and his son went on together.

Kretzmann’s Commentary    And Abraham took the wood of the burnt offering, and laid it upon Isaac, his son; and he took the fire in his hand and a knife; and they went both of them together. Abraham personally carried the knife for the slaughter and the fire, a glimmering coal or a bit of tinder wood in a kettle, while he laid the wood on Isaac, who thus became the type of the immeasurably greater sacrifice, Jesus Christ, who likewise bore the wood of His cross willingly and patiently and bore our sins in His body on the cross.

Lexham English Bible            And Abraham took the wood of the burnt offering and placed [it] on Isaac his son. And he took the fire in his hand and the knife, and the two of them went together.

NET Bible®                             Abraham took the wood for the burnt offering and put it on his son Isaac. Then he took the fire and the knife in his hand [He took the fire and the knife in his hand. These details anticipate the sacrifice that lies ahead.], and the two of them walked on together.

Syndein                                  And Abraham took the wood of the burnt offering, and laid it upon Isaac his son {Isaac carried the wood up the hill and Abraham carried the matches and knife}.

Translation for Translators     Then Abraham took the wood to kindle a fire for the burnt offering and placed it on his son Isaac, for him to carry. Abraham carried in his hand a pan containing burning coals to start a fire, and a knife, and the two of them walked along together.

The Voice                               Abraham took the wood for the burnt offering and set it on the shoulders of his son Isaac to carry. Abraham himself carried the fire and the knife. The two of them walked on together.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And taking is Abraham the wood for the ascent offering and is placing it on Isaac, his son. And taking is he in his hand the fire and the knife. And going are they two together.

Context Group Version          And Abraham took the wood of the ascension [ offering ], and laid it on Isaac his son. And he took in his hand the fire and the knife. And they went both of them together. And, he took the fire in his hand, and a knife; and they went both of them together.

World English Bible                Abraham took the wood of the burnt offering and laid it on Isaac his son. He took in his hand the fire and the knife. They both went together.

Young’s Updated LT             And Abraham takes the wood of the burnt-offering, and places [it] on Isaac his son, and he takes in his hand the fire, and the knife; and they go on both of them together.

 

The gist of this verse:          Isaac carries the wood for the burnt offering; Abraham carries the knife and the fire; and they both go together for the sacrifice.


Genesis 22:6a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

lâqach (לָקַח) [pronounced law-KAHKH]

to take, to take away, to take in marriage; to seize

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #3947 BDB #542

ʾAberâhâm (אַבְרָהָם) [pronounced ahbve-raw-HAWM]

father of a multitude, chief of a multitude; transliterated Abraham

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #85 BDB #4

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʿêtsîym (עֵצִים) [pronounced ģay-TSEEM]

trees; trees felled for building (1Kings 5:20, 32), lumber (Gen. 6:14 2Kings 12:13), sticks or logs for fuel (Gen. 22:3 Lev. 1:7)

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #6086 BDB #781

ʿôlâh (עֹלָה) [pronounced ģo-LAW]

burnt offering, ascending offering

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong #5930 BDB #750


Translation: So Abraham took the wood [for] the burnt offering... We have surmised that the wood for the burnt offering is on the back of the donkey. Abraham takes that off. Now, it is also reasonable that Abraham directs the young men to take off the wood as well. It is common in the Hebrew for the subject of the verb to actually be the person who directs others to perform the action of the verb.


Genesis 22:6b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

sîym (שִׂים) [pronounced seem]; also spelled sûwm (שׂוּם) [pronounced soom]

to put, to place, to set; to make; to appoint

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #7760 BDB #962

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

Yisechâq (יִשְׂחָק) [pronounced yihse-KHAWK]

he laughs; laughing; transliterated Isaac

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #3327 & #3446 BDB #850

bên (בֵּן) [pronounced bane]

son, descendant

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119


Translation: ...and he placed it upon [the back of] Isaac, his son. We do not know exactly how Isaac carried the wood. He may have simple stretched out his two arms to take it.


In any case, the wâw consecutives followed by the imperfect verbs indicates that we are not far enough in this narrative for Isaac to be the sacrifice himself. Wâw consecutives followed by imperfect verbs indicates the order of the action taking place without reference to the duration of the individual acts. Not knowing this simple fact confused Hebrew scholars and theologians for centuries. In fact, they came up with the wâw conversative to explain it.


The wood represents the sins of the world.


Genesis 22:6c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

lâqach (לָקַח) [pronounced law-KAHKH]

to take, to take away, to take in marriage; to seize

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #3947 BDB #542

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

yâd (יָד) [pronounced yawd]

generally translated hand

feminine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #3027 BDB #388

This combination of the bêyth preposition and hand means in his hand; with him; through him, by him, by means of him; at his hand [i.e., before him, in his sight]. Here, this simply means in his hand.

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʾesh (אֶש) [pronounced aysh]

fire, lightning, supernatural fire; presence of Yehowah, the attendance of a theophany

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #784 BDB #77

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

maʾăkeleth (מַאֲכֶלֶת) [pronounced mah-uh-KEH-leth]

knife

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3979 BDB #38

This word is only found in four places in Scripture: Gen. 22:6, 10 (where Abraham was to sacrifice Isaac; it was the knife the Abraham took to cut Isaac’s throat), Judges 19:29, and Prov. 30:14.


Translation: Then he took the fire and the knife in his hand... We do not know the form of fire that Abraham had. Many translation suggest that these are coals, or something along these lines. My guess is, the previous night, a fire had been started and coals from that fire were used.


We also do not know the level of craftsmanship for the tools which we either find or are suggested by a passage. For all we know, this could have been a sharpened stone with a good grip. However, as we have studied back in Gen. 4, even Cain and Abel had such a knife for sacrificial offerings.


Although this is all real; it is also typical. That is, Abraham is the father; and, he is carrying the fire (which represents the judgment of God) and the knife, which would be the means by which an animal would be killed

genesis222.gif

before offering it up. The fire and the knife refer to judgment—which is with Abraham, the father. The wood, which will be burned up, is with Isaac, the son.


Abraham and Isaac Walking Toward the Mountain; a graphic by Jim Padgett; from Wikimedia Commons; accessed December 12, 2014. The sins of the world (the wood) is placed upon Isaac’s back; Abraham is carrying the fire, which represents judgement; the knife will be the execution of God’s judgment.


So far, v. 6 reads: So Abraham took the wood [for] the burnt offering and he placed it upon [the back of] Isaac, his son. Then he took the fire and the knife in his hand... Now note how the parallels all fit together. Isaac, the son, is associated with the wood—the sins of the world. Abraham the father is associated with the fire and the knife, which represent the judgment of God to be applied to his son. Just as God the Father will pour out upon God the Son all of our sins and then God the Father will judge those sins in His Son, so that we might be the righteousness of God in Him.


Genesis 22:6d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâlake (הָלַךְ) [pronounced haw-LAHKe]

to go, to come, to depart, to walk; to advance

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #1980 (and #3212) BDB #229

shenêy (שְנֵי) [pronounced shen-Ā]

two, two of, a pair of, a duo of

dual numeral with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong’s #8147 BDB #1040

yachad (יַחַד) [pronounced YAHKH-ahd]

union, joined together, unitedness, together, in unity

masculine singular noun/adverb

Strong’s #3162 BDB #403


Translation: ...and they went both of them together. The idea is, Abraham and Isaac are completely separating from the two young men. Abraham and Isaac will go off in the distance. If they are on a mountain or a hill, there are no words which describe them ascending this mountain or hill. However, with the bare-bones narrative that we have here, it is possible that they were on a mountain or a plateau at this very time.


As I have suggested, I believe that they are on Golgotha, and that Isaac will be offered up where Jesus was offered up for our sins. However, there is nothing in this chapter, so far, which would confirm this (apart from the 3-day trip, which indicates that God did not want Abraham just to step out his front door and obey this order).


People who do not have the full picture object to this passage. They see this as a meaningless ritual in which Abraham almost kills his son in the name of religion just to prove himself to God. When the Law is given, it will be clear that child sacrifice is strictly forbidden (Lev. 18 20). God will not require Abraham to kill Isaac and Abraham believes God to the point to where he knows that Isaac will somehow return with him after his sacrifice. All of God’s promises to Abraham are based upon Isaac and the line of Abraham through Isaac. So God must preserve Isaac’s line.


Although this is a no-brainer, let me lay out the Scripture for you.

Child Sacrifice

1.      It should be clear that child sacrifice is wrong, and that the Bible does not encourage it. Leviticus 18:21 Deuteronomy 12:31 Psalms 106:37-38 2Kings 16:3 21:6 Isaiah 57:5 Ezekiel 16:20-21 20:26

2.      The Mosaic Law clearly forbids this practice. Leviticus 18:21 Deuteronomy 12:31

3.      Anyone who practiced this should be put to death. Lev. 20:2

4.      One of the reason that the peoples of Canaan were utterly destroyed were because they practiced child sacrifice (not in the time of Abraham but in the time of Moses). Leviticus 18:21 Deuteronomy 12:31 18:9–12

5.      Prophets who encouraged such things were to be executed. Moses set the bar at, if they prophesied about something to happen, but it does not, they would be executed. However, this is in the context of other nations practicing child sacrifice as a religious rite. Deut. 18:20–22

6.      The worst kings of Judah and Israel practiced child sacrifice. 2Kings 16:2–3 (Ahaz) 21:1, 6 (Manasseh)

7.      One of the reasons that God disciplined Judah and Israel is because they practiced child sacrifice. In fact, Israel (the northern kingdom) was put under the fifth stage of national discipline in part because they practiced this abomination. 2Kings 17:13–18 Psalm 106:32–41 Jer. 32:30–36 Ezek. 16:20–21

8.      The Bible is, therefore, unequivocal at this point.

Abraham lived before the Mosaic Law; and he was not aware of any groups of people who practiced child sacrifice.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


So, how do we excuse Abraham in this area?

Abraham and Child Sacrifice

1.      Abraham lived before the Mosaic Law.

2.      Throughout Genesis, we have seen the various Canaanite groups to be quite civilized and honorable, with the exception of those in Sodom and Gomorrah. They did not practice child sacrifice (insofar as we know), but they did rape and kill innocent strangers who came into Sodom (we do not know if Gomorrah’s sins were of the same type).

3.      So, we do not have the association of pagan religion and child sacrifice in the regions where Abraham lives.

4.      Therefore, we cannot associate Abraham with this practice.

5.      Therefore, this type must take place before the giving of the Law. God cannot ask Abraham to do something which is in opposition to the Mosaic Law if Abraham is under the Mosaic Law.

6.      Furthermore, God is telling Abraham directly to do this thing. In our era, God does not speak to us individually, but through His Word.

7.      We must not confuse Abraham’s obedience to God (which included his willingness to offer up his child as a sacrifice to God) with the actual act of sacrificing up Isaac to God. There is a difference between being willing to do anything that God asks and actually committing a heinous sin.

8.      So there is no confusion, this happened one time in human history. God will never in any way ask another person to offer up their son to Him. For the tiny percentage of people who think God is asking them to do this, they are demon-influenced or possessed.

9.      God required the unquestioning obedience of Abraham; and this is how the events of Gen. 22 were viewed in the Age of Israel.

10.    You must also remember that all of God’s promises to Abraham would be fulfilled through Isaac. Abraham knew that God had to preserve Isaac in some manner, otherwise all of the promises which God made to Abraham could not be fulfilled.

11.    However, when Jesus Christ was sacrificed on the cross, dying for our sins, it became clear that Gen. 22 portrayed Isaac as a type of Christ; and this offering as a type of Jesus being offered on the cross. This is why God asked one man, one time only, to do this.

12.    Isaac was never harmed throughout this offering.

13.    Abraham expected that God could and would raise Isaac from the dead. Heb. 11:19

14.    Abraham knew, far more than you or I, that he could trust God in all things.

God did this in order to set up a type. Isaac was the type; Jesus was the antitype; the offering of Isaac was a type; the offering of Jesus Christ is the antitype.

There are people who are negative toward the Word of God; and they will never be convinced that Abraham’s willingness in this chapter is fundamentally different from actual child sacrifice.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


The spiritual purpose here is a picture of God offering his only-born son on our behalf as a sacrifice. It is a picture of God the son's obedience to His father. Isaac readily takes the wood and agrees to his father's plan. For the Jew who knows the Old Testament, when he observes our Lord on the cross and reads this passage, it should suddenly come to him that this portion of Scripture, these actions of faith by Abraham, are a foreshadowing of the good things to come. This is a one-time command by God made only to Abraham to sacrifice his only son to God. God has never again before or after required anyone to sacrifice their son.


Genesis 22:6 And Abraham took the wood of the burnt offering and laid it on Isaac his son. And he took the fire in his hand, and a knife. And they both went together.


Given that Isaac carries the wood, we can assume he is probably more than 7 or 8 years old. This would make Abraham 107 or 108.

 

There are a boatload of estimations when it comes to Isaac’s age. What Gill writes here consider as entertainment, rather than as informational: Gill: [A]ccording to the Talmudists (b), the following affair was transacted quickly after the weaning of Isaac, when he was about five years old, which is the opinion of some, as Aben Ezra on Gen. 22:4; makes mention of; but that is an age when it can hardly be thought he should be able to carry such a load of wood as was sufficient to make a fire to consume a burnt offering, Gen. 22:6; the age of thirteen, which he fixes upon, is more likely: Josephus (c) says, that Isaac was twenty five years of age; and in this year of his age Bishop Usher (d) places this transaction, twenty years after the weaning of him, in A. M. 2133, and before Christ 1871; and near to this is the computation of a Jewish chronologer (e), who makes Isaac to be at this time twenty six years of age; but some make him much older: according to the Targum of Jonathan, he was at this time thirty six years old; and it is the more generally received opinion of the Jewish writers (f) that he was and with whom the Arabic writers (g) agree: so that this affair, after related, was thirty years after the weaning of Isaac and the expulsion of Ishmael, supposing Isaac to be then five years old.

 

From Thomas Coke: Abraham took the wood, and laid it upon Isaac- Hence it appears, among other circumstances, that Isaac must have been full-grown at this time. Josephus reports him to have been twenty-five. It appears probable that he was more: there were about thirty-seven years from his birth to the death of Sarah; so that it is not unlikely, that in age, as well as in bearing the wood, on which he was to be sacrificed, he represented Christ, who bore his own cross, and was above thirty years old. Josephus, a Jewish historian, says that Isaac is 25. Coke somehow concludes that, since Isaac is carrying the wood that he must be full-grown. Because Isaac represents Christ on the cross, this seems to be the strongest argument for Isaac being around 30.


We will come to a reasonable estimation of Isaac’s age—and pretty much none of these estimates are correct. First clue is, Isaac carries enough wood to burn a sacrifice. So, that makes him at least 7 or 8 years old. Isaac in this chapter makes a 3 day hike with his father and two young servants. Again, this suggests that he is at least 7 or 8 years old. I put this at the absolute youngest that Isaac could be—I am not suggesting that he is 7 or 8.


abrahamisaacmountaingen22.jpg

Abraham had gathered the wood from where he was and brought it to this place. Wood is needed to burn for a burnt offering, but the wood is also representative—it represents the cross (in the Greek, Jesus is said to be offered up on the wood). The wood also represents our sins, which are the fuel for the fire. It is our sins that are judged.


Abraham and his son begin their trek up the mountain, with all that is needed for a burnt offering. There was wood, a stick of fire and a knife, which would be used to slit the throat of the sacrifice. The blood of a sacrifice represents the spiritual death of Jesus Christ, which is called the blood of Christ.


Abraham and Isaac Ascending the Mountain (a graphic) from Roots of Faith; accessed December 12, 2014.


——————————


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


God Will Provide the Burnt Offering


And so says Isaac unto Abraham his father, and so he says, “My father.” And so he says, “Behold me, my son.” And so he says, “Behold the fire and the sticks and where [is] the lamb for a burnt offering?”

Genesis

22:7

Then Isaac spoke to his father, saying, “My father.” And he answered, “Behold, I [am listening], my son.” And he asked, “Behold the fire and the wood, but where [is] the lamb for the burnt offering?”

Then Isaac spoke to his father, saying, “My father.” And Abraham answered, “I am listening, my son.” And he asked, “I see the fire and the wood but where is the lamb for the burnt offering?”


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so says Isaac unto Abraham his father, and so he says, “My father.” And so he says, “Behold me, my son.” And so he says, “Behold the fire and the sticks and where [is] the lamb for a burnt offering?”

Targum of Onkelos                And Izhak spake to Abraham his father and said, My Father! And he said, I am. And he said, Behold the fire and the wood: where is the lamb for the offering?

Latin Vulgate                          Isaac said to his father: My father. And he answered: What wilt you, son? Behold, says he, fire and wood: where is the victim for the holocaust?

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And Isaac spoke to Abraham his father and said, My father. And he answered. Here I am, my son. And Isaac said, Behold the fire and the wood: but where is the lamb for a burnt offering?

Septuagint (Greek)                And Isaac said to Abraham his father, Father. And he said, What is it, son? And he said, Behold the fire and the wood, but where is the sheep for a whole burnt offering?

 

Significant differences:           There are two different words used for to speak, to say; the Latin and Greek both lack one of those words. Abraham’s answer is not conveyed exactly in the Latin, Greek or targum. The Syriac is close.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Isaac said to his father Abraham, "My father?"

Abraham said, "I'm here, my son."

Isaac said, "Here is the fire and the wood, but where is the lamb for the entirely burned offering?"

Contemporary English V.       Isaac said, "Father, we have the coals and the wood, but where is the lamb for the sacrifice?" "My son," Abraham answered, "God will provide the lamb." The two of them walked on, and...

Easy-to-Read Version            Isaac said to his father Abraham, “Father!”

Good News Bible (TEV)         Isaac spoke up, "Father!" He answered, "Yes, my son?" Isaac asked, "I see that you have the coals and the wood, but where is the lamb for the sacrifice?"

The Message                         Isaac said to Abraham his father, "Father?" "Yes, my son." "We have flint and wood, but where's the sheep for the burnt offering?"


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Then IsaAc called to his father AbraHam: 'Father!'

And he replied, 'What is it, son?'

And [IsaAc] continued: 'Look; [we have the] the fire and the wood, but where is the sheep for the offering?'

God’s Word                         Isaac spoke up and said, "Father?" "Yes, Son?" Abraham answered. Isaac asked, "We have the burning coals and the wood, but where is the lamb for the burnt offering?"

International Standard V        Abraham Answers Isaac's Question

Isaac addressed his father Abraham: "My father!"

"I'm here, my son," Abraham replied.

Isaac asked, "The fire and the wood are here, but where's the lamb for the burnt offering?"


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             Then Isaac said to Abraham, My father; and he said, Here am I, my son. And he said, We have wood and fire here, but where is the lamb for the burned offering?

Conservapedia                       Isaac said to his father Abraham, "Father," and he said, "Behold me, my son." And he said, "Here's the fire and the wood. but where is the flockling for an ascent offering?"


Catholic Bibles (those having the imprimatur):

 

Christian Community Bible     Isaac spoke to Abraham, his father, “Father!” And Abraham replied, “Yes, my son?” Isaac said, “The fire and the wood are here, but where is the lamb for the sacrifice?” For some reason the CCB had this as vv. 7–8a.

Heritage Bible                        And Isaac spoke to Abraham, his father, and said, My father; and he said, Behold, my son. And he said, See, the fire, and the wood, and where is the lamb for a burnt offering?


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               Then Isaac said to his father Abraham, “Father!” And he answered, “Yes, my son.” And he said, “Here are the firestone and the wood; but where is the sheep for the burnt offering?”

Kaplan Translation                 Isaac spoke up to Abraham.

'Father.'

'Yes, my son.'

'Here is the fire and the wood. But where is the lamb for the offering?'


Expanded/Embellished Bibles:

 

The Expanded Bible              Isaac said to his father Abraham, "Father!"

Abraham answered, "Yes, my son."

Isaac said, "We have the ·fire [or tinder] and the wood, but where is the ·lamb [sheep] ·we will burn as a sacrifice [Lfor the whole burnt offering]?"

Kretzmann’s Commentary    And Isaac spake unto Abraham, his father, and said, My father; and he said, Here am I, my son. And he said, Behold the fire and the wood, but where is the lamb for a burnt offering? Isaac broke the oppressive silence with a question of childish curiosity. He had noted that everything else had been provided, but the absence of a sheep, a lamb, or a kid which was to serve for the sacrifice caused him to ask. Naturally, the innocent question must have increased the distress of Abraham considerably; but with unwavering steadfastness he walked on.

Lexham English Bible            And Isaac said to Abraham his father, "My father!" And he said, "Here I [am], my son." And he said, "Here is the fire and the wood, but where is the lamb for a burnt offering?"

NET Bible®                             Isaac said to his father Abraham [The Hebrew text adds "and said." This is redundant and has not been translated for stylistic reasons.], "My father?" "What is it [Heb "Here I am" (cf. Gen 22:1).], my son?" he replied. "Here is the fire and the wood," Isaac said [Heb "and he said, `Here is the fire and the wood.'" The referent (Isaac) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here and in the following verse the order of the introductory clauses and the direct discourse has been rearranged in the translation for stylistic reasons.], "but where is the lamb for the burnt offering?"

Syndein                                   And Isaac spoke to Abraham his father, and said, "My father". And he said, "Behold me {idiom - you may speak}, my son." And he said, "{I see} the fire and the wood, but where is the lamb for a burnt offering?"

Translation for Translators     Then Isaac spoke to his father Abraham, saying, "My father!" Abraham replied, "Yes, my son, I'm here!" Isaac said, "Look, we have wood and coals to light a fire, but where is the lamb for the burnt offering?"

The Voice                               Isaac (to Abraham): Father!

Abraham: I am right here, Son.

Isaac: Look, we have the fire and the wood, but where is the lamb for the burnt offering?


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And speaking is Isaac to Abraham, his father, and saying, "My father!"And saying is he, "Behold me, my son. And saying is he, "Behold the fire and the wood, yet where is the flockling for the ascent offering?

Context Group Version          And Isaac spoke to Abraham his father, and said, My father. And he said, Here I am, my son. And he said, Look, the fire and the wood. But where is the lamb for an ascension [ offering ]?

Darby Translation                  And Isaac spoke to Abraham his father, and said, My father! And he said, Here am I, my son. And he said, Behold the fire and the wood; but where is the sheep for a burnt-offering?

Emphasized Bible                  Then said Isaac unto Abraham his father, then said he; My father! And he said, Behold me, my son, And he said, Behold the fire, and the pieces of wood,—but where is the lamb, for an ascending-sacrifice?

LTHB                                     And Isaac spoke to his father Abraham and said, My father. And he said, Behold me. And he said, Behold, the fire and the wood! But where is the lamb for a burnt offering?

Young’s Updated LT             And Isaac speaks unto Abraham his father, and says, “My father,” and he says, “Here am I, my son.” And he says, “Lo, the fire and the wood, and where the lamb for a burnt-offering?”

 

The gist of this verse:          Isaac asks where is the sheep (or lamb) for the burnt offering.


Genesis 22:7a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

Yisechâq (יִשְׂחָק) [pronounced yihse-KHAWK]

he laughs; laughing; transliterated Isaac

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #3327 & #3446 BDB #850

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

ʾAberâhâm (אַבְרָהָם) [pronounced ahbve-raw-HAWM]

father of a multitude, chief of a multitude; transliterated Abraham

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #85 BDB #4

ʾâb (אָב)[pronounced awbv]

father, both as the head of a household, clan or tribe; founder, civil leader, military leader

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix