2Samuel 22

 

2Samuel 22:1–51

A Royal Psalm of Thanksgiving


These studies are designed for believers in Jesus Christ only. If you have exercised faith in Christ, then you are in the right place. If you have not, then you need to heed the words of our Lord, Who said, “For God so loved the world that He gave His only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son, so that every [one] believing [or, trusting] in Him shall not perish, but shall be have eternal life! For God did not send His Son into the world so that He should judge the world, but so that the world shall be saved through Him. The one believing [or, trusting] in Him is not judged, but the one not believing has already been judged, because he has not believed in the Name of the only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son of God.” (John 3:16–18). “I am the Way and the Truth and the Life! No one comes to the Father except through [or, by means of] Me!” (John 14:6).


Every study of the Word of God ought to be preceded by a naming of your sins to God. This restores you to fellowship with God (1John 1:8–10). If there are people around, you would name these sins silently. If there is no one around, then it does not matter if you name them silently or whether you speak aloud.


These exegetical studies are not designed for you to read each and every word. For instance, the Hebrew exegesis is put into greyish tables, so that if you want to skip over them, that is fine. If you question a translation, you can always refer back to the appropriate Hebrew tables to sort it all out.

 

The intent is to make this particular study the most complete and most accurate examination of 2Samuel 22 which is available in writing. The idea is to make every phrase, verse and passage understandable; and to make application of all that is studied.

 

Besides teaching you the doctrinal principles related to this chapter, this commentary is also to help bring this narrative to life, so that you can understand the various characters, their motivations, and the choices that they make. Ideally, you will be able to visualize the peoples and armies as they move across the landscape of the Land of Promise.


2Samuel 22:2–3 “Jehovah is my Rock-cliff and my fortress; and He is my Deliverer.

He is the God of my Rock and I take refuge in Him.

He is both my shield and the horn of my salvation;

He is my stronghold and my refuge;

furthermore, He is my Savior.

 

J. Vernon McGee: God has brought you up to this moment, friend; why in the world do you think he is going to let you down now? God's loving care for David in the past gives him confidence in the future. Footnote

 

Kukis: As a believer in Jesus Christ, once you have begun to mature, you will see a variety of changes which take place in your life, and you will see how God, through His Word, has guided you through your life. There may be nothing by way of a miraculous nature in your life; but, if you are a growing believer, the clear hand of God should be something that you can see and recognize.

 

L. M. Grant: This chapter presents David's song of triumph after God had subdued all his enemies under him. Footnote

 

Peter Pett: [This] section [of Samuel] now focuses in on the God of Deliverance Himself. Its purpose is to make clear that the background to all that has been described in the book of Samuel has been that of God acting invisibly but effectively in deliverance. It is that fact that has been the secret of David's outwitting of Saul, and it that fact that has been the secret of all his victories over his enemies. Thus in the Psalm that now follows we are given an insider's view of the effective, invisible activity of God working on David's behalf. Footnote

 

Youngblood: "It has long been recognized that 2Samuel 22 is not only one of the oldest major poems in the OT but also that, because Psalms 18 parallels it almost verbatim, it is a key passage for the theory and practice of OT textual criticism." Footnote

 

Dr. Thomas Constable: This is a psalm of declarative praise for what God had done for David. It reflects David's rich spiritual life. While David focused attention on the Lord more than on himself, his emphasis was on the blessings Yahweh had bestowed on him. Footnote

 

The Expositor's Bible Commentary: It is quite like David; at the conclusion of his military enterprises, to cast his eye gratefully over the whole, and acknowledge the goodness and mercy that had followed him all along. Unlike many, he was as careful to thank God for mercies past and present as to entreat Him for mercies to come. Footnote

 

The Expositor's Bible Commentary: [David’s] sufferings and deliverances are indicated, but they are but prophetic of Jesus Christ, whose sufferings and whose victory are foreshadowed in David's life and experience. The great deliverance psalm includes therefore prophetically the story of David's greater Son, our Lord Jesus Chris. Footnote

 

Therefore, I celebrate You, O Jehovah, before the nations and I sing praises regarding Your name.

He gives salvation to His king

and He manufactures grace to His anointed,

to David and to his seed forever.” (2Sam. 22:50–51)


Outline of Chapter 22: Footnote

 

Introduction

 

         vv.     1–2a         Prose setup

         vv.    2b–4           God is David’s Strength and Salvation

         vv.     5–7           David Calling for God When in Personal Disaster

         vv.     8–13         God Comes Down from Heaven to Execute Judgment

         vv.    14–16         God’s Judgments Upon the Earth

         vv.    17–20         God Delivers David

         vv.    21–25         David’s Fidelity to the Ways of God

         vv.    26–28         God’s Interaction with Mankind

         vv.    29–31         God Shows David the Way

         vv.    32–35         God Directly Impacts David’s Life

         vv.    36–37         God Preserves and Protects David

         vv.    38–43         David Destroys His Enemies with God’s Power

         vv.    44–46         David Rules Under God’s Power

         vv.    47–49         It is God Who Makes David who he is

         vv.    50–51         Gratitude and Praise to God from the Psalmist

 

Addendum


Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines:

 

         Introduction         The Principals of 2Samuel 22

         Introduction         The Prequel of 2Samuel 22

         Introduction         The Abbreviated Davidic Timeline

         Introduction         A Synopsis of 2Samuel 22

         Introduction         Dr. Thomas Constable’s Epigrammatic Outline for 2Samuel 22

         Introduction         Arno Gaebelein’s Outline of 2Samuel 22

         Introduction         Two Views of the Differences Between 2Samuel 22 and Psalm 18

 

         v.       1              Why There Is 2Samuel 22 AND Psalm 18 in the Bible

         v.       2              The Abbreviated Doctrine of the Rock in the Old Testament

         v.       2              2Samuel 22:2 Graphic

         v.       3              Contrasting the Hebrew Words for “Rock”

         v.       3              2Samuel 22:2–3a Graphic

         v.       3              2Samuel 22:2–3 Graphic

         v.       3              Summarizing 2Samuel 22:2–3

         v.       7              The Trinity in the Old Testament (the Abbreviated Version)

         v.       7              The Doctrine of Omnipresence of God

         v.       7              2Samuel 22:7 Graphic

         v.       8              The Dual Authorship of the Holy Scriptures

         v.       8              David and the Key to 2Samuel 22

         v.      13              2Samuel 22:8–13 Expressed as a Chiasmos

         v.      17              2Samuel 22:17 Graphic

         v.      20              L. J. Hooge Presents 2Samuel 22:1–20 as a Chiasmos

         v.      21              2Samuel 22:21 Graphic

         v.      23              The Meaning of Mishemereth

         v.      23              The Ordinances or Statutes of God

         v.      23              Explaining 2Samuel 22:23 in the Light of David’s Sin Nature

         v.      24              Understanding Tâmîym in the Context of 2Samuel 22:24

         v.      24              The Abbreviated Doctrine of Rebound (Confession of Personal Sin)

         v.      25              2Samuel 22:21–25: A Short Chiasmos

         v.      29              God and Light

         v.      29              2Samuel 22:29 Graphic

         v.      30              2Samuel 22:30 Graphic

         v.      31              2Samuel 22:31a Graphic

         v.      31              2Samuel 22:31 Graphic

         v.      32              A Chart of the Transliterated Names of God

         v.      33              2Samuel 22:33 Graphic

         v.      34              2Samuel 22:34 Graphic

         v.      37              2Samuel 22:37 Graphic

         v.      40              2Samuel 22:40 Graphic

         v.      43              2Samuel 22:43 Graphic

         v.      45              2Samuel 22:45 Graphic

         v.      47              2Samuel 22:47 Graphic

         v.      50              The Divine Attributes

 

         Addendum          Why 2Samuel 22 is in the Word of God

         Addendum          What We Learn from 2Samuel 22

         Addendum          An Alternate Chiasmos for 2Samuel 22

         Addendum          Peter Pett’s Chiasmos Organization of 2Samuel 22

         Addendum          Parallels Between 2Samuel 22 and Hannah’s Song

         Addendum          Josephus’ History of this Time Period

         Addendum          A Complete Translation of 2Samuel 22

         Addendum          Word Cloud from a Reasonably Literal Paraphrase of 2Samuel 22

         Addendum          Word Cloud from Exegesis of 2Samuel 22


Chapter Outline

 

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines

Beginning of Document

Doctrines Covered and Alluded to

Chapters of the Bible Alluded to or Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Definition of Terms

Introduction

Addendum

www.kukis.org

 

Exegetical Studies in Samuel


Doctrines Covered

Doctrines Alluded To

The Essence of God

 

 

 

The Omnipresence of God

Old Testament Names for God

The Trinity in the Old Testament

 


Chapters of the Bible Alluded To or Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

1Samuel 17

 

 

 

Psalm 18

Psalm 22

Psalm 51

Psalm 110


Many who read and study this chapter are 1st or 2nd generation students of R. B. Thieme, Jr., so that much of this vocabulary is second nature. One of Bob’s contributions to theology is a fresh vocabulary along with a number of concepts which are theologically new or reworked, yet still orthodox. Therefore, if you are unfamiliar with his work, the definitions below will help you to fully understand all that is being said. In addition to this, I will use a number of other more traditional technical theological terms which will be used and therefore defined as well.

Definition of Terms

Angelic Conflict

The Angelic Conflict is an invisible war which is taking place which involves God, the elect angels and the fallen angels. Man was created to resolve the Angelic Conflict. See the Angelic Conflict (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Client nation

The client nation is a nation where there are a lot of believers and a lot of mature and growing believers. This nation is known for its evangelization, for its Bible teaching, its Bible scholarship, and missionary activity. The government and leaders may or may not be supportive of such activity. However, generally speaking, such activity is allowed within the national entity. It is this activity which preserves such a national entity. Doctrine of the Client Nation (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Laws of Divine Establishment

Since the world appears to be made up of mostly unbelievers, God must have some kind of plan for the unbelievers while they are alive. These are called the laws of divine establishment, and they are applicable to both believers and unbelievers. These are the laws which protect the freedom of a nation, and allow for evangelism and for the teaching of the Word of God. See the Laws of Divine Establishment (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Maturity Adjustment to the Justice of God

This simply means that we mature as believers as our lives continue. The emphasis here is upon the standards of God, which we learn to adhere to as we mature.

Progressive Revelation

Progressive revelation simply means that God reveals Himself progressively. As we read about God and His decree in the Bible, it is not revealed to us all at once. Although we find suggestions of the Trinity in Gen. 1, it is not until the New Testament that the concept of the Trinity is revealed well enough to more fully comprehend it. God’s grace and judgment, and what He would do about sin, is first mentioned in Gen. 3; further elaborated on when God asked Abraham to sacrifice his firstborn (by Sarah); and fulfilled by the incarnation of Jesus Christ.

Rebound (Restoration to fellowship with God)

In the New Testament, this is naming your sins to God, so that you are both restored to temporal fellowship with God and are then filled with the Spirit of God. In the Old Testament, naming your sins to God would result in a restoration of fellowship and, in some cases, the empowerment of the Holy Spirit once again (the Holy Spirit was not given to all Old Testament believers). The Doctrine of Rebound (HTML) (PDF).

Salvation Adjustment to the Justice of God

As human beings, we are sinners and therefore rejected by the justice of God. However, if we believe in Jesus Christ, Who took upon Himself our sins, we have His justice imputed to us and stand blameless before God. That is salvation adjustment to the justice of God.

Some of these definitions are taken from

http://gracebiblechurchwichita.org/?page_id=1556

http://www.bibledoctrinechurch.org/?subpages/GLOSSARY.shtml

http://rickhughesministries.org/content/Biblical-Terms.pdf

http://www.gbible.org/index.php?proc=d4d

http://www.wordoftruthministries.org/termsanddefs.htm

http://www.realtime.net/~wdoud/topics.html

http://www.theopedia.com/


——————————


An Introduction to 2Samuel 22


I ntroduction: 2Sam. 22 is a psalm written by David, clearly after he had become king (and probably had become king over all Israel, as he speak of foreigners obeying him in 2Sam. 22:44–46). David may have begun this psalm in his mind after several deliverances from Saul (in the first verse, David speaks of being delivered out of the hands of his enemies and out from the hand of Saul). As time went on, David returned to this psalm and continued to work on it. The defeat of many gentiles and the reference to the Davidic Covenant at the very end, suggests that David took over 20 years to write this psalm, completing it about halfway through the book of 2Samuel. In the book of Psalms, it is the 3rd longest psalm (2Sam. 22 = Psalm 18).


Briefly, David takes a look back over his life—we do not know when this occurs—and he recognizes just how much God has done on his behalf. He can see, from hindsight, how much God’s hand has been in his life, protecting him from his many enemies.


Application: As a believer in Jesus Christ, once you have begun to mature, you will see a variety of changes which take place in your life, and you will see how God, through His Word, has guided you through your life. There may be nothing by way of a miraculous nature in your life; but, if you are a growing believer, the clear hand of God should be something that you can see and recognize.


Ron Daniel Footnote places this after 2Sam. 8, which is as good a place as any. Dummelow Footnote suggests 2Sam. 7. Many psalms are not really given a clear time frame, as the principles of the psalm are generally timeless. It certainly helps in the interpretation to know when a psalm was written, so that we can integrate with the historical narratives; but the principles found in any psalm ought to be timeless.

 

The Expositor's Bible Commentary: The date of this song is not to be determined by the place which it occupies in the history. We have already seen that the last few chapters of Samuel consist of supplementary narratives, not introduced at their regular places, but needful to give completeness to the history. It is likely that this psalm was written considerably before the end of David's reign. Two considerations make it all but certain that its date is earlier than Absalom's rebellion. In the first place, the mention of the name of Saul in the first verse - "in the day when God delivered him out of the hand of all his enemies and out of the hand of Saul" - would seem to imply that the deliverance from Saul was somewhat recent, certainly not so remote as it would have been at the end of David's reign. And secondly, while the affirmation of David's sincerity and honesty in serving God might doubtless have been made at any period of his life, yet some of his expressions would not have been likely to be used after his deplorable fall. Footnote There is no little legalism applied when determining the date of this psalm. Those who mention David’s clean hands often assume this cannot have been written after his sin with Bathsheba. However, David confessed this sin [Psalm 51 (HTML) (PDF) (WPD)] and God dealt with David’s foray into the interlocking systems of arrogance. Furthermore, we may reasonably surmise that David’s silent years were made up of the time that he schooled his 4 sons by Bathsheba in Bible doctrine. Solomon’s love of wisdom did not just happen; David had to engender this in him. Much of the writing of the book of Proverbs and possibly the completion of many of David’s psalms occurred at this time. The legalism of the Expositor’s Bible Commentary is clear when they ask this question: Even with this explanation, some of the expressions may seem too strong. How could he speak of the cleanness of his hands, and of his not having wickedly departed from his God? Granting that the song was written before his sin in the case of Uriah, yet remembering how he had lied at Nob and equivocated at Gath, might he not have used less sweeping words? But it is not the way of burning, enthusiastic minds to be forever weighing their words, and guarding against misunderstandings. Enthusiasm sweeps along in a rapid current. And David correctly describes the prevailing features of his public endeavours. Footnote The key to David’s purity is rebound (naming one’s sins to God). Footnote


David had a complicated relationship to Saul, to say the least, and his attitude toward Saul is to be a guide to us today when it comes to submission to the governmental authorities over us. Although Christians are often more oriented to authority than unbelievers, this does not mean that we simply obey every damn law there is and bow and scrape before every person in authority over us. However, even when it was clear that Saul had partially lost his mind and even when it was clear that David had enough supporters to become king in Saul’s stead, David, on at least two occasions, chose not to kill Saul, even though he had the chance to do so. And, by not killing Saul, David knew that his problems with Saul would continue.


Most Christians today (I write this in 2014) recognize what a train wreck the current presidency is under Barack Obama (who I believe is the worst president in my lifetime, which is saying quite a bit). Furthermore, he is treating his presidency as an imperial presidency. Since he has no ability to meet any opposition halfway, our president runs around the country blaming Bush and the Republicans for everything that is wrong, and does everything he can to run the country in his own way, ignoring some laws and enforcing others. Quite frankly, there are a lot of people who would love to see this man gone; but he is our ruler. He is the ruler over us; and just as David respected the office of Saul and respect that God placed Saul over Israel, so we must do that same when it comes to Barack Obama.


God did eventually grant David reprieve from the constant attacks of Saul—for which he thanks God in this psalm—but Saul’s death was not by David’s hand, nor did David pull any strings behind the scenes to rid Israel of King Saul. Therefore, even though this psalm represents a celebration of God delivering David from the hand of Saul and from the hand of his enemies, don’t think for even a minute that David could have treated Saul the same way he treated Israel’s enemies.


When it comes to Israel’s enemies, this is a whole different thing. Israel represented God on earth. Just as believers represent Jesus on earth during the Church Age (a shaky proposition in itself), so nation Israel represented God on earth during the Age of Israel. Therefore, the attitude of this or that nation toward Israel was indicative of the attitude of that people toward God.


We have the same thing today. If you are a confused Christian, listen carefully: if a nation is in opposition to the United States or if a nation is in opposition to nation Israel, then that nation is out of line and an enemy of God. I don’t say this simply because I am an egotistical American; America, because it is a client nation to God, represents Jesus Christ to the world. The Jews are God’s people, and even though they are God’s people from another dispensation, God is not through with them yet. Therefore, if you are a believer in Jesus Christ, then you ought to support the United States and the nation Israel; and you ought to be against those who are against either country.

 

Jamieson, Fausset and Brown: The song contained in this chapter is the same as the eighteenth Psalm, where the full commentary will be given [see on Psalm 18:1, &c.]. It may be sufficient simply to remark that Jewish writers have noticed a great number of very minute variations in the language of the song as recorded here, from that embodied in the Book of Psalms––which may be accounted for by the fact that this, the first copy of the poem, was carefully revised and altered by David afterwards, when it was set to the music of the tabernacle. This inspired ode was manifestly the effusion of a mind glowing with the highest fervor of piety and gratitude, and it is full of the noblest imagery that is to be found within the range even of sacred poetry. It is David's grand tribute of thanksgiving for deliverance from his numerous and powerful enemies, and establishing him in the power and glory of the kingdom. Footnote

 

Matthew Henry has very much the same opinion: This chapter is a psalm, a psalm of praise; we find it afterwards inserted among David's psalms (Ps. 18) with some little variation. We have it here as it was first composed for his own closed and his own harp; but there we have it as it was afterwards delivered to the chief musician for the service of the church, a second edition with some amendments; for, though it was calculated primarily for David's case, yet it might indifferently serve the devotion of others, in giving thanks for their deliverances; or it was intended that his people should thus join with him in his thanksgivings, because, being a public person, his deliverances were to be accounted public blessings and called for public acknowledgments. Footnote


Whether or not 2Sam. 22 is the first draft of David’s psalm, which he later revised for public use as Psalm 18 (HTML) (PDF) (WPD), I cannot say; but there will be clear differences between the psalm as found in both places. Bear in mind that when these manuscripts were copied and recopied, they would have been on separate scrolls. Rex the Scribe might have worked on the Book of Samuel in February, but not begun work on the Psalms until May. So it is possible that distinct errors crept into the text of both chapters. Furthermore, the book of Samuel is one of the most poorly preserved of the Old Testament books. Therefore, we are going to come across a lot of alternate readings. Do not let this greatly concern you—when it comes to the analysis and interpretation, these alternate readings have very little substantive impact. In fact, this is generally the case for the Scriptures. Whereas the studies that we do, which are often word-by-word which include references to other ancient translations, do not have serious doctrinal differences which turn on this or that disputed passage. That is, I don’t read the passage one way; a Catholic has another translation which changes the meaning; and a Jehovah’s Witness has another reading which is read in a third way.


This psalm is clearly stated as being written by David. Although some authors discuss this in detail, Footnote I see little reason to do so.


Summing up, this psalm speaks of God’s guidance, protection and deliverance of David in the face of his enemies. David gives thanks for being related to such a God.


Also, unlike the previous two chapters, there are many memorable verses which come from 2Samuel 22. There were very few graphics available for the previous two chapters. There was an absolute plethora of graphics for this chapter of the Word of God. Verses 2–3 have easily 10 or more graphics for those two verses alone.


We need to know who the people are who populate this chapter.

The Principals of 2Samuel 22

Characters

Biographical Material

King David

King David is the author of this psalm and probably king over Israel when he wrote this psalm.

King Saul

King Saul is the first king of Israel, and the nemesis of David for much of David’s early life. He is only mentioned in the first verse as one of those whom David was delivered from.

David’s enemies

These enemies are not specified. Most of the context suggests that we are speaking of Israel’s national enemies.

This psalm is mostly principles and does not recall specific historic incidents.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


It is important to understand what has gone before.

The Prequel of 2Samuel 22

David quickly rose to be Saul’s lead general and equal in rank to Saul’s son Jonathan. However, Saul got both jealous and a little crazy concerning David, and for many years, attempted to kill David. David, meanwhile, would not harm the Lord’s anointed, who is Saul. This made for a very unusual decade in David’s life—having opportunity to end the life of the man who wanted to kill him, but never pulling that trigger.


David prior to becoming Saul’s enemies had a great many military enemies; and then when he became king, he faced many of these enemies again as national enemies of Israel. These he speaks of in general in 2Sam. 22:1 David spoke to Yehowah the words of this song to Jehovah when Yehowah had delivered him from the hand of his enemies and from the hand of Saul.

We do not know when David finished composing this psalm.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


This timeline is simply a shortened version of the David Timeline (HTML) (PDF), with a few principle events of David’s life recorded, along with the events of this chapter. Bracketed dates are derived from the Scripture, based upon author’s original premises.

The Abbreviated David Timeline

Fenton-Farrar

(F. L. Smith)

Reese’s Chronology Bible

Gerrit Verkuyl

(Bible Truth 4U)

Scripture

Narrative

[1085 b.c.]

(1055 b.c.)

[1040 b.c.]

Ruth 4:22

David is born.

1062 b.c.

1029 b.c.

 

1Sam. 17

David defeats Goliath.

1060 b.c.

 

 

1Sam. 18:10–16

Saul’s attempts to kill a young David.

1060 b.c.

 

 

1Sam. 18:17–28

Saul persuades David to war against the Philistines.

1059 b.c.

 

 

1Sam. 19

Saul sends soldiers to David’s house to kill him; David escapes and leaves Gibeah.

1056 b.c.

 

 

1Sam. 24

Saul continues to pursue David; David chooses not to kill Saul.

1054 b.c.

 

 

1Sam. 26

David again spares Saul’s life.

1054 b.c.

(c. 1011 b.c.)

1025 b.c.

1010 b.c.

1Sam. 31:1–10

1Chron. 10:1–12

The deaths of Jonathan and Saul (at ages 58 and 80, respectively Footnote ); the Philistines defeat the Israelites. 2Sam. 4:4 And Jonathan, Saul's son, had a son who was lame in his feet. He was 5 years old when the news of Saul and Jonathan came out of Jezreel, and his nurse took him up and fled. And as she made haste to flee he fell and became lame. And his name was Mephibosheth.

1055 b.c.

(c. 1010 b.c.)

1010 b.c.

1025 b.c.

2Sam. 2:1–4

David becomes king over Judah (the southern kingdom). David is 30. 2Sam. 5:4 David was 30 years old when he began to reign. He reigned 40 years.

1048 b.c.

(c. 1004 b.c.)

1003 b.c.

1018 b.c.

2Sam. 5:1–3

1Chron. 11:1–3

David becomes king over all Israel. He is still ruling from Hebron. David is approximately 37 years old, according to Bible Truth 4U.

1047 b.c.

 

 

2Sam. 5:17–25

1Chron. 14:8–17

Wars with the Philistines.

1040 b.c.

1010 b.c.

1002–995 b.c.

2Sam. 8

1Chron. 18

David defeats Moab, Hadadezer the Aramæans at Damascus, Edom and Hamath.

1037 b.c.

1006 b.c.

c. 995 b.c.

2Sam. 10:1–14

1Chron. 19:1–15

Conflict with the Ammonites.

 

 

994 b.c.

2Sam. 21:15–22

1Chron. 20:4–8

Philistine wars.

1037 b.c.

 

 

2Sam. 10:15–19

1Chron. 19:16–19

David defeats the Aramæans.

1035 b.c.

 

c. 994 b.c.

2Sam. 11:1

1Chron. 20:1a

Conflict with Ammonites is resumed. 1Chron. 20:1 And it happened after the year had ended, at the time kings go forth, Joab led out the power of the army and wasted the country of the sons of Ammon. And he came and besieged Rabbah. But David stayed at Jerusalem. And Joab struck Rabbah and destroyed it.

You will note that we are concentrating on the enemies of David here.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Because this psalm is quite long, it will be summarized in groups of verses.

A Synopsis of 2Samuel 22

David proclaims Yehowah as his Rock and Deliverer. 2Sam. 22:1–4

David is surround by his enemies and by destruction. 2Sam. 22:5–6

He calls upon God and God answers him with great judgments against David’s enemies. 2Sam. 22:7–16

God pulls David out of there, bringing him to safety. 2Sam. 22:18–20

God rewards those according to the doctrine in their souls and according to their being in fellowship. 2Sam. 22:21–28

God leads David, God strengthens David, and God protects David. 2Sam. 22:29–37

David pursues and destroys his enemies. 2Sam. 22:38–43

David is delivered from the strivings of his own people; and he rules over gentile nations. 2Sam. 22:44–46

David ends the psalm by praising God once again for His deliverance and for His essence. 2Sam. 22:47–51

Poole gives this psalm the brief and accurate description: [It is] A Psalm of thanksgiving for God’s powerful deliverance and manifold blessings. Footnote


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Dr. Thomas Constable: We can divide the passage into four sections:... Footnote

Dr. Thomas Constable’s Epigrammatic Outline for 2Samuel 22

The Lord's exaltation (2 Samuel 22:1-4)

The Lord's exploits (2 Samuel 22:5-20)

The Lord's equity (2 Samuel 22:21-30)

The Lord's excellence (2 Samuel 22:31-51)

Some commentators apparently adore alliteration.


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Gaebelein is not too different from my outline; just more abbreviated.

Arno Gaebelein’s Outline of 2Samuel 22

David's Song of Deliverance

CHAPTER 22

1. The praise of Jehovah (2 Samuel 22:1-4)

2. The sorrows of the past (2 Samuel 22:5-7)

3. God's presence and intervention (2 Samuel 22:8-20)

4. Reward and approval (2 Samuel 22:21-28)

5. The judgment of the enemies (2 Samuel 22:29-43)

6. The exaltation above the adversaries (2 Samuel 22:44-49)

7. The praise of Jehovah (2 Samuel 22:50-51)

From http://www.studylight.org/com/gab/view.cgi?bk=9&ch=22 accessed April 4, 2014.


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Other outlines and organizations of this chapter can be found at the end of this study.

 

Peter Pett: The whole point of the Psalm in context is in order to bring out that everything which was good that has happened to David he owes to YHWH, and that he is where he now is because of YHWH's constantly revealed power, and because of His constant watch over him. Footnote


You may have had some slight frustration concerning previous chapters and an odd word here or there which was difficult to understand or the reading was questionable; and you had hoped it might be solved by the Dead Sea Scrolls, but most of the time, it was not. In this chapter, beginning with v. 30, there are several verses which are readable in the Dead Sea Scrolls, but, as you will find out, these ancient manuscripts rarely sort out a particular reading as well as you might like. So that this does not make you more frustrated, in most cases, the difference in the translation does not have a great deal of affect on the overall interpretation.


2Sam. 22 and Psalm 18 are the same psalms, but there are a few differences between them.

Two Views of the Differences Between 2Samuel 22 and Psalm 18

1.      These were originally identical psalms, but, because they are preserved separately or at different times, errors crept into both manuscripts, accounting for the differences of text.

2.      2Sam. 22 was David’s first draft of this psalm; he made some changes in it so that it would be more suitable for public worship and public recitation or singing.

I lean toward the first explanation, as these manuscripts were preserved over a period of 2000+ years. These appear to have originally been scrolls, so that the scroll of Samuel did not also contain the Psalms. Therefore, when these manuscripts were copied, even if done by the same scribal hand, they would have been done at different times.

Keil and Delitzsch list many of these differences (simpler and more common forms have been substituted in that of the Psalms; e.g., in v. 5, מות משבּרי instead of מות fo d חבלי; in v. 8, השּמים מוסדות (the foundations of the heavens) for הרים מוסדי (the foundations of the hills); in v. 12, השרת־מים for חשכת־מים; in v. 16, ים אפיקי for מים אפיקי; in v. 28, תּשפּיל על־רמים ועניך for תּשפּיל רמות וענים; in v. 33, דּרכּו תמים ויּתּר for דּרכּי תמים ויּתּן; and in v. 44, לראש תּשמרני for לראש תּשׂימני, and several others). Footnote It ought to be clear that this is a relatively short list for a psalm of 50 verses. It would not be impossible that these are either minor revisions or mistakes made by scribes over the period of 2000 years. What is far more remarkable is the consistency of the two texts, whether their differences are intentional or accidental.


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Unlike the previous couple chapters, 2Sam. 22 does tend to be a favorite of Christians. There are many quotable quotes from this chapter; but also, David states unequivocally that God trains his hands for war. There are a lot of believers who have trouble with that statement, primarily because they are disoriented to the plan of God and their place in it.


As a personal note: I do the translation and the basic exegesis of each chapter first followed by an examination of what other commentators have written. Sometimes these are helpful and sometimes they are not. However, in the case of 2Sam. 22, most commentators filed their remarks with Psalm 18 rather than with this chapter. For that reason, there will be fewer references to Barnes, Clarke and others. About the only commentator who dealt with this chapter and had many important observations to make was Peter Pett, who is one of the better commentators around.


Many psalms have a key which unlocks them. Often, that key is in the way that they are organized, so that once you understand the organization, you are able to say, “Oh, this is what the psalm is all about.” Although there is certainly an organization to 2Sam. 22, I am not sure that I have seen anyone every put it all together before. But, there still is a key. When we get to v. 8, we will discuss the key to this psalm.


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Prose setup


Kukis slavishly literal:

 

Kukis moderately literal:

And so speaks David to Yehowah words of the song the this in a day has delivered Yehowah him from a hand of his enemies and from a hand of Saul.

2Samuel

22:1

David spoke to Yehowah the words of this song in the day that Yehowah had delivered him from the hand of his enemies and from the hand of Saul.

Kukis not so literal:

David spoke the words of this song to Jehovah when Jehovah had delivered him out from the hand of his enemies and out from the hand of Saul.


Here is how others have translated this verse:

 

Ancient texts:                       Note: I compare the Hebrew text to English translations of the Latin, Syriac and Greek texts, using the Douay-Rheims translation Footnote ; George Lamsa’s translation, and Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton’s translation as revised and edited by Paul W. Esposito, respectively. I often update these texts with non-substantive changes (e.g., you for thou, etc.). I often use the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible instead of Brenton’s translation, because it updates the English text.

 

The Septuagint was the earliest known translation of a book (circa 200 b.c.). Since this translation was made before the textual criticism had been developed into a science and because different books appear to be translated by different men, the Greek translation can sometimes be very uneven.

 

When there are serious disparities between my translation and Brenton’s (or the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible), I look at the Greek text of the Septuagint (the LXX) to see if a substantive difference actually exists (and I reflect these changes in the English rendering of the Greek text). I use the Greek LXX with Strong’s numbers and morphology available for e-sword. The only problem with this resource (which is a problem for similar resources) is, there is no way to further explore Greek verbs which are not found in the New Testament. Although I usually quote the Complete Apostles’ Bible here, I have begun to make changes in the translation when their translation conflicts with the Greek and note what those changes are.

 

The Masoretic text is the Hebrew text with all of the vowels (vowel points) inserted (the original Hebrew text lacked vowels). We take the Masoretic text to be the text closest to the original. However, differences between the Masoretic text and the Greek, Latin and Syriac are worth noting and, once in a great while, represent a more accurate text possessed by those other ancient translators.

 

In general, the Latin text is an outstanding translation from the Hebrew text into Latin and very trustworthy (I say this as a non-Catholic). Unfortunately, I do not read Latin—apart from some very obvious words—so I am dependent upon the English translation of the Latin (principally, the Douay-Rheims translation).

 

Underlined words indicate differences in the text.

 

Bracketed portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls are words, letters and phrases lost in the scroll due to various types of damage. Underlined words or phrases are those in the Dead Sea Scrolls but not in the Masoretic text.

 

I will only list the translation from the Dead Sea Scrolls if it exists and if it is different from the Masoretic text.


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          And David spoke to the Lord the words of this canticle, in the day that the Lord delivered him out of the hand of all his enemies, and out of the hand of Saul.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so speaks David to Yehowah words of the song the this in a day has delivered Yehowah him from a hand of his enemies and from a hand of Saul.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    AND David spoke to the LORD the words of this song on the day that the LORD had delivered him out of the hand of all his enemies and out of the hand of Saul;...

Septuagint (Greek)                And David spoke to the Lord the words of this song, in the day in which the Lord rescued him out of the hand of all his enemies, and out of the hand of Saul.

 

Significant differences:           None.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           David's thanksgiving psalm

David spoke the words of this song to the Lord after the Lord delivered him from the power of all his enemies and from Saul. This poem also occurs in Psalm 18 with some variations.

Contemporary English V.       David sang a song to the LORD after the LORD had rescued him from his enemies, especially Saul. These are the words to David's song:... This would be vv. 1–2.

Easy English                          David praises the *Lord

The *Lord had saved David from Saul and all his other enemies. So David sang this song to the *Lord.

Easy-to-Read Version            David sang this song at the time the Lord saved him from Saul and all his other enemies. Chapter 22 This song is also found in Ps. 18.

The Message                         David prayed to GOD the words of this song after GOD saved him from all his enemies and from Saul.

New Berkeley Version           David spoke the words of this song to the Lord at the time when the Lord delivered him out of the power of all his enemies, including the power of Saul. This song therefore goes with ch. 7; see v. 1, written shortly after Nathan’s Messianic promise to David; compare v. 51 with 2Sam. 7:16. The king subsequently made slight changes in it, so it would be better adapted to public use and included it as Psalm 18 of the Psalms.

New Century Version             David sang this song to the Lord when the Lord saved him from Saul and all his other enemies.

New Life Bible                        David spoke the words of this song to the Lord on the day the Lord saved him from all who hated him, and from Saul.

New Living Translation           David's Song of Praise

David sang this song to the Lord on the day the Lord rescued him from all his enemies and from Saul.

The Voice                               David composed the following song of praise to the Eternal because He delivered him from all of his enemies and especially from Saul.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Well, after the Lord had rescued David from the hands of Saul and all his enemies, he sang this song to Jehovah: ...

Beck’s American Translation A Royal Thanksgiving Psalm

David sang this song to the LORD when the LORD had rescued him from all his enemies and from Saul.

Christian Community Bible     David’s song of praise

David sang this song to Yahweh on the day Yahweh delivered him from his enemies and from Saul.

New Advent (Knox)Bible        And this was David's song of thanksgiving when he found that the Lord had rescued him from the power of Saul, and from his other enemies:...

New American Bible (2002)   David sang the words of this song to the LORD when the LORD had rescued him from the grasp of all his enemies and from the hand of Saul.

New American Bible (2011) Footnote              Song of Thanksgiving.*

David proclaimed the words of this song to the LORD when the LORD had rescued him from the grasp of all his enemies and from the grasp of Saul [Ps 18:1]. This psalm of thanksgiving also appears in the Psalter, with a few small variants, as Ps 18. In both places it is attributed to David. Two main sections can be distinguished. In the first part, after an introductory stanza of praise to God (vv. 2-4), the writer describes the peril he was in (vv. 5-7), and then poetically depicts, under the form of a theophany, God's intervention in his behalf (vv. 8-20), concluding with an acknowledgment of God's justice (vv. 21-31). In the second part, God is praised for having prepared the psalmist for war (vv. 32-35), given him victory over his enemies (vv. 36-39), whom he put to flight (vv. 40-43), and bestowed on him dominion over many peoples (vv. 44-46). The entire song ends with an expression of grateful praise (vv. 47-51).

NIRV                                      David Sings Praises to the Lord

David sang the words of this song to the Lord. He sang them when the Lord saved him from the powerful hand of all of his enemies and of Saul.

New Jerusalem Bible             David addressed the words of this song to Yahweh, when Yahweh had delivered him from the clutches of all his enemies and from the clutches of Saul.

Revised English Bible            These are the words of the song David sang to the Lord on the day when the Lord delivered him from the power of all his enemies and from the power of Saul.

Today’s NIV                          David's Song of Praise

22:1-51pp -- Ps 18:1-50

David sang to the LORD the words of this song when the LORD delivered him from the hand of all his enemies and from the hand of Saul.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      David spoke to Yahweh the words of this song in the day Yahweh delivered him from the palm of all his enemies, and from the palm of Saul:...

Bible in Basic English             And David made a song to the Lord in these words, on the day when the Lord made him free from the hands of all his haters, and from the hand of Saul:...

The Expanded Bible              David's Song of Praise 22:1-51; Ps. 18:1-50

David sang [Lthe words of] this song [Csee the close parallel to the following song in Psalm 18] to the Lord when the Lord ·saved [rescued; Tdelivered] him from Saul and all his other enemies.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 (b.c. 1018) David’s Song of Thanks

David recited the words of this song to the Ever-living, when the Ever-living had delivered him from the hand of all his enemies and from the hand of Saul.

NET Bible®                             David Sings to the Lord

David sang [Heb "spoke."] to the Lord the words of this song when [Heb "in the day," or "at the time."] the Lord rescued him from the power [Heb "hand."] of all his enemies, including Saul [Heb "and from the hand of Saul."]. In this long song of thanks, David affirms that God is his faithful protector. He recalls in highly poetic fashion how God intervened in awesome power and delivered him from death. His experience demonstrates that God vindicates those who are blameless and remain loyal to him. True to his promises, God gives the king victory on the battlefield and enables him to subdue nations. A parallel version of the song appears in Ps 18. When it comes to making an actual material change to the text, the NET Bible® is pretty good about indicating this. Since most of these corrections will be clear in the more literal translations below and within the Hebrew exegesis itself, I will not continue to list every NET Bible® footnote.

NIV, ©2011                             David's Song of Praise(A)

David sang(B) to the Lord the words of this song when the Lord delivered him from the hand of all his enemies and from the hand of Saul.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           David said the words of this song to ADONAI on the day ADONAI delivered him from the power of all his enemies and from the power of Sha'ul.

exeGeses companion Bible   THE SONG OF HALAL OF DAVID

And David words the words of this song

to Yah Veh

the day Yah Veh rescues him

from the palm of all his enemies

and from the palm of Shaul:...

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               David addressed the words of this song to the Lord, after the Lord had saved him from the hands of all his enemies and from the hands of Saul. This poem occurs again as Psalm 18, with a number of variations, some of which are cited in the following notes.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           And Dovid spoke unto Hashem the devarim of this shirah (song) in the day that Hashem had delivered him out of the palm of all his oyevim (enemies) and out of the palm of Sha'ul:...

The Scriptures 1998              Then Dawi spoke to יהוה the words of this song, on the day when יהוה had delivered him from the hand of all his enemies, and from the hand of Shaʼul.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

English Standard Version      And David spoke to the LORD the words of this song on the day when the LORD delivered him from the hand of all his enemies, and from the hand of Saul.

The Geneva Bible                  And David spake unto the LORD the words of this song [In token of the wonderful benefits that he received from God.] in the day [that] the LORD had delivered him out of the hand of all his enemies, and out of the hand of Saul:...

Kretzmann’s Commentary    Gratitude for Deliverance in the Past

And David spake unto the Lord the words of this song, which is simply another version of Psalms 18, from which it is distinguished only by slight deviations, in the day that the Lord had delivered him out of the hand of all his enemies and out of the hand of Saul.

NASB                                     David's Psalm of Deliverance

And David spoke the words [Ex 15:1; Deut 31:30] of this song to the Lord in the day that the Lord delivered him from the hand [Lit palm] of all his enemies and from the hand [Lit palm] of Saul. Ps 18:2-50

New King James Version       Praise for God's Deliverance

Then David spoke to the Lord the words of this song, on the day when the Lord had delivered him from the hand of all his enemies, and from the hand of Saul.

World English Bible                David spoke to Yahweh the words of this song in the day that Yahweh delivered him out of the hand of all his enemies, and out of the hand of Saul: ...

Young’s Updated LT             And David speaks to Jehovah the words of this song in the day Jehovah has delivered him out of the hand of all his enemies, and out of the hand of Saul,...

 

The gist of this verse:          This chapter of 2samuel is a song composed by David to Yehowah, praising Him for delivering David out of the hand of all his enemies.


2Samuel 22:1a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

dâbar (דָּבַר) [pronounced dawb-VAHR]

to speak, to talk [and back with action], to give an opinion, to expound, to make a formal speech, to speak out, to promise, to propose, to speak kindly of, to declare, to proclaim, to announce

3rd person masculine singular, Piel imperfect

Strong’s #1696 BDB #180

The Piel stem is intensive, making dâbar is stronger. It can carry with it the idea of providing guidance and direction, if not a set of mandates (and this would be determined by context). The kind of intensification is determined by context. The Piel may call for talk, backed with action; give your opinion; expound; make a formal speech; speak out; talk it around, to give a somber and tragic report.

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

debârîym (דְּבָרִים) [pronounced dawb-vawr-EEM]

words, sayings, doctrines, commands; things, matters, affairs; reports

masculine plural construct

Strong's #1697 BDB #182

shîyr (שִיר) [pronounced sheer]

song, singing; music

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #7892 BDB #1010

zeh (זֶה) [pronounced zeh]

here, this, this one; thus; possibly another

masculine singular demonstrative adjective with a definite article

Strong’s #2088, 2090 (& 2063) BDB #260


Translation: David spoke to Yehowah the words of this song... We are still in the addendum to David’s life, and, at some point, he penned this psalm (song). This is equivalent to Psalm 18 (there are some minor differences).


Since 2Samuel 22 is nearly identical to Psalm 18, why did God the Holy Spirit think it necessary to include both chapters in the Word of God?

Why There Is 2Samuel 22 AND Psalm 18 in the Bible

1.      These two chapters are nearly identical. Why did God the Holy Spirit have both of them in the Bible?

2.      These chapters were composed at the exact same time; one remained with the historical addendum to the book of Samuel and the other was placed with the worship psalms.

3.      Exactly what the mechanics were is not given to us, but David, or someone else, probably copied David’s words and placed that copy with the rest of the psalms.

4.      It is not unusual that a psalm would be placed into the psalm, and used subsequently to sing or during particular worship times.

5.      Once this psalm has been copied into book of psalms, then both 2Sam. 22 and Psalm 18 would have both been preserved as two separate documents.

6.      We can only make educated guesses as to how the original Old Testament was preserved over the years. However, we can look at these two chapters, compare, and see the care that was given to preserving these exact words (and the book of Samuel is very poorly preserved by comparison to the other Old Testament books—or so I have read).

7.      There was no Bible as we think of one—this one volume, cohesive unit. For over 1000 years, the Bible was a collection of scrolls. Some libraries may have had every single scroll; and some preservation companies may have had every single one of the Old Testament books; but, in general, wherever these scrolls existed, a library or an individual (like a king of Israel) would have most of the books, but not necessarily all of them.

8.      What we do not find—which is alleged continually by anti-Bible critics—is, neither of these chapters have been changed to reflect a peculiar theological viewpoint. There are people out there who actually believe that the Catholic church first developed their doctrines and then changed the Bible all at once to support their beliefs. That has to be one of the goofiest ideas of all time. By the time the Catholic church came along, around a.d. 350 (or so), there were thousands—even tens of thousands—of Old and New Testament manuscripts out there being preserved by various and sundry groups, some of whom were in theological opposition to each other. The Jews preserved the Old Testament; the Christians preserved the Old and New Testaments; and they quite obviously disagreed about the central character of human history—Jesus Christ. Different groups preserved these testaments simultaneously; and different groups even preserved these in different languages. So, nothing could be more foolish than to assert that the Catholics somehow took a hold of the Bible, made all of the changes to it, and suddenly, there was a “Catholic Bible with approved Catholic doctrines. The only thing which the Catholics did do was decide that the Apocrypha were inspired books, which allows for some of the odd doctrines that Catholics have (e.g., purgatory, prayers for the dead).

         1)      I have heard something even more ridiculous. I read one person’s thoughts that the Bible was essentially developed by King James.

9.      Because these two manuscripts would have been copied at different times, we may study both 2Sam. 22 and Psalm 18 and see, therefore, the consistency of the preservation of these books. These chapters would have been preserved at different times and possibly by different people as time went on.

10.    However, this does not mean that the differences between these two chapters are all attributable to copyist errors. There is a possibility that someone took the Davidic psalm and made changes to it to make it more suitable for public worship.

11.    This would have been, to ancient scribes, an interior check. They are trying to determine which books ought to be preserved and revered, and the book of Samuel and the book of Psalms (many scrolls for each of these) both contain essentially the same chapter. This suggests that, if the book of Psalms is seen as inspired by God, then the book of Samuel is probably to be understood in the same way.

12.    Despite the differences of the texts, there are not one set of doctrines taught in Samuel and a different set taught in the Psalms. So, whether the differences were intentional or accidental, the meaning of the Word of God still stands.

This is somewhat different from the reasons why there are four gospels.

I did a chart called Jesus Christ in the Old and New Testaments. This treatise took specific doctrines, and showed that they could be found in the Law, in the book of Job, in the Psalms and in the Prophets. Then the fulfillments of these doctrines related to Jesus in the Old Testament were matched up with parallel verses in the New Testament. (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).


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2Samuel 22:1b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today or this day (with a definite article); possibly immediately

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

nâtsal (נָצַל) [pronounced naw-TSAHL]

to snatch away, to deliver, to rescue, to snatch out of danger, to preserve, to recover

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil perfect

Strong’s #5337 BDB #664

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

him, it; untranslated mark of a direct object; occasionally to him, toward him

sign of the direct object affixed to a 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #853 BDB #84

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

kaph (כַּף) [pronounced kaf]

palm, hollow or flat of the hand, sole of the foot; bowl, spoon

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #3709 BDB #496

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

with a plural noun, it is rendered all of, all; any of

masculine singular construct with a masculine plural noun

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

ʾâyab (אָיַב) [pronounced aw-YABV]

enemies, those being at enmity with you; those with enmity, those with hostility

masculine plural, Qal active participle with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #340 & #341 BDB #33


Translation: ...in the day that Yehowah had delivered him from the hand of his enemies... It has that David did this in the day that Jehovah had delivered him from the hand of his enemies; but that occurred on many days. This simply means that, at some point, David fully recognized God’s hand in his life, and the many times that God had delivered him; and he wrote this song to commemorate that.


2Samuel 22:1c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

kaph (כַּף) [pronounced kaf]

palm, hollow or flat of the hand, sole of the foot; bowl, spoon

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #3709 BDB #496

Shâʾûwl (שָאוּל) [pronounced shaw-OOL]

which is transliterated Saul; it means asked for

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #7586 BDB #982


Translation: ...and from the hand of Saul. The fact that we are speaking about Saul suggests that David wrote this psalm as far back in the time of 1Samuel. There are some verses which suggest that David is king, which would place him in the early part of 2Samuel. Obviously, this is not a great revelation, that David wrote this psalm sometime after he was persecuted by Saul and sometime while he was king of Israel. The fact that Saul is named suggests that David still thought about this; therefore, I would place this before his first meeting with Mephibosheth and possibly before his dedication to Saul and Jonathan (in 2Sam. 1). However, throughout David’s career, he was always facing great military and national powers, which he, through God, defeated.


There is even the possibility that David began writing this psalm during the time of 1Samuel, but did not complete it until years later. Few men have had as many enemies in this life as David had. Vv. 44–46 read: You also delivered me from the strivings of my people. You kept me as the head of the nations; a people I have not known serve me. Sons of foreigners cower before me; when they hear with the ear, they obey me. Sons of foreigners fade away, and are afraid in their holes. Barnes mentions Footnote the Philistines, Moabites, Syrians, Ammonites, and Edomites. So the end date here is difficult to set. It probably occurred before David’s men suggested that he retire from warfare (2Sam. 21:17) and before he hooked up with Bathsheba (2Sam. 11). After that, he had a great many other things on his mind, which he also wrote psalms about (e.g., Psalm 51).


Because of the extensive references to gentiles near the end of this psalm and because David appears to reference the Davidic Covenant at the end, this psalm was probably completed after 2Sam. 7 (where God gives David the Davidic Covenant); and after some of the chapters where David defeats gentile enemies.


This psalm also makes a good summary of my life psalm as well. I don’t find anything within the psalm to clearly limit the time period during which it was written. Therefore, I think that the reference to Saul and the references to him being surefooted in the mountains, indicates that David began this psalm early on, when he was running from Saul, often taking refuge in the hill country of Judah. However, the references to absolute victories over gentile nations and the possible mention of the Davidic Covenant takes us perhaps halfway through the book of 2Samuel. So, this is probably a psalm that David worked on for a long time—over a period of 2 decades or more.


So far, this psalm reads: David spoke the words of this song to Jehovah when Jehovah had delivered him out from the hand of his enemies and out from the hand of Saul. This pulls together 1Samuel and 2Samuel, which are two books in the English, but one book in the Hebrew. Although the division between the two halves of these books is reasonable, they still form one literary unit.


Although David’s love of God and of Bible doctrine is clear throughout the book of Samuel, that his deliverances from Saul and other enemies as being the result of God’s hand is not quite as clearly stated. Therefore, for the record, David clearly acknowledges that it was God Who delivered him.


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Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


God is David's Strength and Salvation


And so he says, “Yehowah [is] my cliff and my fortress and my deliverer to me;

Elohim of my rock, I take refuge in Him.

My shield and a horn of my salvation, my stronghold and my refuge;

my Savior—from violence you save me.

2Samuel

22:2–3

He said, “Yehowah [is] my Rock-cliff and my fortress; and [He is] my Deliverer.

[He is] the Elohim of my Rock; I take refuge in Him.

[He is] my shield and the horn [= strength, power] of my salvation;

[He is] my stronghold and my refuge,

[and He is] my Savior; You save me from violence.

He said, “Jehovah is my Rock-cliff and my fortress; and He is my Deliverer.

He is the God of my Rock and I take refuge in Him.

He is both my shield and the horn of my salvation;

He is my stronghold and my refuge; furthermore, He is my Savior.

You save me from great violence.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          And he said: The Lord is my rock, and my strength, and my saviour. God is my strong one, in him will I trust: my shield, and the horn of my salvation: he lifts me up, and is my refuge: my saviour, you will deliver me from iniquity.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so he says, “Yehowah [is] my rock and my fortress and my deliverer to me;

Elohim of my rock, I take refuge in Him.

My shield and a horn of my salvation, my stronghold and my refuge;

my Savior—from violence you save me.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    ...And he said: I will love thee, O LORD my strength and my trust; the LORD is my strength and my fortress and my deliverer, The mighty God in whom I trust; he is my succor and the horn of my salvation, my refuge who delivered me from the wicked men, my glorious Saviour.

Septuagint (Greek)                And the song was thus: O Lord, my rock, and my fortress, and my deliverer, my God; He shall be to me my guard, I will trust in Him: He is my protector, and the horn of my salvation, my helper, and my sure refuge; You shall save me from the unjust man.

 

Significant differences:           The Greek appears to begin with something other than and so he said. The Syriac has an additional first line in this psalm. The Latin and Syriac appear to be missing that God is associated with rock in the 2nd line of the psalm. It is not clear that we have David taking refuge in God in any of the languages other than Hebrew.

 

There are 4 things which God is in the 3rd line; and one or more of those things is different in the Syriac, Greek and Latin.

 

In the final line, David is saved from men of violence in the Hebrew, but something else again in the other ancient versions.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           He said:

The Lord is my solid rock, my fortress, my rescuer.

My God is my rock-I take refuge in him!-

he's my shield and my salvation's strength,

my place of safety and my shelter.

My savior! Save me from violence!

Contemporary English V.       Our LORD and our God, you are my mighty rock, my fortress, my protector. You are the rock where I am safe. You are my shield, my powerful weapon, and my place of shelter. You rescue me and keep me from being hurt.

Easy English                          David said,

`The *Lord gives me security.

So, he is like my rock and my strong place.

He saves me.

My God is like a rock to me.

I can run to him and be safe.

He is like my *shield. He keeps me safe and he makes me strong.

He is like my *stronghold and my place of safety.

The *Lord saves me from cruel men.

Easy-to-Read Version            The Lord is my Rock [A name for God. It shows he is like a fortress or a strong place of safety.],

my Fortress [A building or city with tall, strong walls for protection.],

my Place of Safety.

He is my God,

the Rock I run to for protection.

God is my shield.

His power saves me [Literally, "He is the horn of my salvation."].

The Lord is my hiding place,

my place of safety,

high in the hills.

He saves me from the cruel enemy.

The Message                         GOD is bedrock under my feet, the castle in which I live, my rescuing knight. My God--the high crag where I run for dear life, hiding behind the boulders, safe in the granite hideout; My mountaintop refuge, he saves me from ruthless men.

New Berkeley Version           He said:

The Lord is my Rock, and my Fortress,

insuring deliverance for me,

the God of my rock, whom I trust,

my Shield, saving Horn [The source of strength and defense, as in horned animals, compare 1Sam. 2:1.], and my Fort;

my Refuge, and Savior from harm.

New Life Bible                        He said, "The Lord is my rock, my strong place, and the One Who sets me free. 3 He is my God, my rock, where I go to be safe. He is my covering and the horn that saves me, my strong place where I go to be safe. You save me from being hurt.

The Voice

At last the day comes when David has conquered-at least, temporarily-all his enemies, and he marks this day by rejoicing. In the same way that he composed songs to lament Saul's and Jonathan's deaths, David composes a psalm of joy to the Lord who is his strong fortress and his security. He gives God the credit, but he also claims-and rightly, of course, in spite of his occasional transgressions-that he has tried to do what God asked him to do, has tried to keep the ways of God.

 

David: The Eternal is my rock, my fortress, and my savior;

He is my True God, my stronghold in whom I take refuge,

My strong shield, my horn that calls forth rescue,

my tall-walled tower and strong refuge,

My savior from violence.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          ...he sang this song to Jehovah:

'Jehovah's my rock and my fortress;

He's the One who comes to my rescue.

My God is a guard that's before me,

So, upon Him, I will lean. A portion of v. 1 was included.

Beck’s American Translation The LORD, my Rock and my Fortress, is the One who rescued me.

I found shelter in God who is my Rock, my Shield, the mighty One who saved me; my mountain Retreat, my Refuge, my Savior who delivered me from violence.

Christian Community Bible     He said,

The Lord is my rock, my rampart,

my deliverer and my God,

the rock in whom I take refuge.

He is my shield, my salvation,

my stronghold and my refuge,

my Savior; you save me from violence.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       The Lord is my rock-fastness, my bulwark, my rescuer. It is my God that brings me aid, and gives me confidence; he is my shield, my weapon of deliverance, my protector, my stronghold; he it is that preserves me and frees me from wrong.

New American Bible (2002)   This is what he sang: I "O LORD, my rock, my fortress, my deliverer,

my God, my rock of refuge! My shield, the horn of my salvation [The horn of my salvation: my strong savior. The horn, the dreadful weapon of an enraged bull, was a symbol of strength; cf ⇒ Luke 1:69.], my stronghold, my refuge, my savior, from violence you keep me safe.

New American Bible (2011)   He said [2Sam. 22:2-51 = Ps 18:3-51.]:

O LORD, my rock, my fortress, my deliverer,

my God, my rock of refuge!

My shield, my saving horn [My saving horn: my strong savior. The horn, such as that of an enraged bull, was a symbol of strength; cf. Lk 1:69.],

my stronghold, my refuge,

my savior, from violence you keep me safe. 1 Sm 2:1-2.

NIRV                                      He said,

"The Lord is my rock and my fort. He is the One who saves me.

My God is my rock. I go to him for safety.

He is like a shield to me. He's the power that saves me.

He's my place of safety. I go to him for help. He's my Savior.

He saves me from those who want to hurt me.

New Jerusalem Bible             He said: Yahweh is my rock and my fortress,

my deliverer is my God. I take refuge in him, my rock, my shield, my saving strength, my stronghold, my place of refuge. My Saviour, you have saved me from violence;...

Revised English Bible            The Lord is my lofty crag,

my fortress, my champion,

my God, my rock in whom I find shelter,

my shield and sure defender, my strong tower,

my refuge, my deliverer who saves me from violence.

Today’s NIV                          He said: "The LORD is my rock, my fortress and my deliverer; my God is my rock, in whom I take refuge, my shield and the horn of my salvation. He is my stronghold, my refuge and my savior-- from violent people you save me.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      He said, "Yahweh is my cliff, my stronghold, and my rescuer!

God, my rock! In him I take-refuge! My shield, and the horn of my salvation! My high-tower, my hideout, my savior! You saved me from violence.

Bible in Basic English             And he said, The Lord is my Rock, my walled town, and my saviour, even mine; My God, my Rock, in him will I put my faith; my breastplate, and the horn of my salvation, my high tower, and my safe place; my saviour, who keeps me safe from the violent man.

 

nglish Jubilee 2000                And he said, The LORD is my rock, my fortress, and my deliverer. God is my Strong One; in him will I trust: he is my shield and the horn of my saving health; my defence and my refuge; my saviour, who shall save me from violence.

The Expanded Bible              He said:

"The Lord is my rock, my fortress, my ·Savior [rescuer; Tdeliverer].

My God is my rock.

·I can run to him for safety [LIn whom I find protection/take refuge].

He is my shield and ·my saving strength [Lthe horn of my salvation; Csymbolizes strength based on an animal lifting its head triumphantly],

my ·defender [stronghold] and my ·place of safety [refuge].

The Lord saves me from ·those who want to harm me [Lviolence].

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 SONG OF THANKS

...and said; ‘The LORD was a Rock, and Fortress, and Refuge to me, GOD is my Fort,·--I will trust in Him l My shield and buckler, my tower and hold, My Saviour Who saved from oppression!

NET Bible®                             He said:

"The Lord is my high ridge [Traditionally "is my rock"; CEV "mighty rock"; TEV "is my protector." This metaphor pictures God as a rocky, relatively inaccessible summit, where one would be able to find protection from enemies. See 1 Sam 23:25, 28.], my stronghold [Traditionally "my fortress"; TEV "my strong fortress"; NCV "my protection."] [My stronghold. David often found safety in such strongholds. See 1 Sam 22:4-5; 24:22; 2 Sam 5:9, 17; 23:14.], my deliverer.

My God [The translation (along with many English versions, e.g., NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT) follows the Septuagint (LXX) in reading אֱלֹהִי ('elohi, "my God") rather than Masoretic Text (MT)'s אֱלֹהֵי ('elohe, "the God of"). See Psalm 18:2.] is my rocky summit where I take shelter [Or "in whom."],

my shield, the horn that saves me [Heb "the horn of my salvation," or "my saving horn."] [Though some see "horn" as referring to a horn–shaped peak of a hill, or to the "horns" of an altar where one could find refuge, it is more likely that the horn of an ox underlies the metaphor (see Deut. 33:17; 1Kings 22:11; Psalm 92:10). The horn of the wild ox is frequently a metaphor for military strength; the idiom "exalt the horn" signifies military victory (see 1Sam. 2:10; Psalm 89:17; Psalm 89:24; Psalm 92:10; Lam. 2:17). In the ancient Near East powerful warrior–kings would sometimes compare themselves to a goring bull that uses its horns to kill its enemies. For examples, see P. Miller, "El the Warrior," HTR 60 (1967): 422–25, and R. B. Chisholm, "An Exegetical and Theological Study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22" (Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983), 135–36. 2Sam. 22:3 uses the metaphor of the horn in a slightly different manner. Here the Lord himself is compared to a horn. He is to the psalmist what the horn is to the ox, a source of defense and victory.], my stronghold,

my refuge, my savior. You save me from violence! The parallel version of the song in Ps 18 does not include this last line.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           He said: "ADONAI is my Rock, my fortress and deliverer, the God who is my Rock, in whom I find shelter, my shield, the power that saves me, my stronghold and my refuge. My savior, you have saved me from violence.

exeGeses companion Bible   ...and he says,

Yah Veh is my rock

and my stronghold and my escape;

the Elohim of my rock

- in him I seek refuge:

my buckler and the horn of my salvation;

my secure loft and my retreat;

my saviour - you save me from violence.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               He said:

O Lord, my crag, my fastness, my deliverer!

O God, the rock [Lit., “the God of my rock”; Psalm 18:3 “My God, my rock.”] wherein I take shelter:

My shield, my mighty champion [Lit., “horn of rescue.”], my fortress and refuges!

My savior, You who rescue me from violence!

Orthodox Jewish Bible           And he said, Hashem is my rock, and my matzadah, and my deliverer;

The Elohei (G-d of) my Tzur; in Him will I trust; He is my mogen, and the keren of my Salvation, my stronghold, and my refuge, my Moshia; Thou savest me from chamas.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                He said: The Lord is my Rock [of escape from Saul] and my Fortress [in the wilderness] and my Deliverer [I Sam. 23:14, 25, 28.];

My God, my Rock, in Him will I take refuge; my Shield and the Horn of my salvation; my Stronghold and my Refuge, my Savior-You save me from violence. Gen. 15:1.

Concordant Literal Version    ...and he said:`Yahweh [is] my rock, And my bulwark, and a deliverer to me, My Elohim [is] my rock--I take refuge in Him; My shield, and the horn of my salvation, My high tower, and my refuge! My Saviour, from violence You save me!"

Context Group Version          ...and he said, YHWH is my rock, and my fortress, and my deliverer, even mine;

God, my rock, in him I will take refuge; My shield, and the horn of my rescue, my high tower, and my refuge; My rescuer, you rescue me from violence.

Emphasized Bible                  ...and he said,—Yahweh, was my mountain crag and my stronghold, and my deliverer—mine; My God, was my rock, I sought refuge in him,—My shield, and my horn of salvation, my high tower, and my refuge, My Saviour! from violence, thou didst save me.

Kretzmann’s Commentary    And he said, The Lord is my Rock and my Fortress, in whom he may confidently trust, and my Deliverer;

v. 3. the God of my rock, Deut. 32:4, with reference to His unchangeable faithfulness; in Him will I trust. He is my Shield, covering him against the attacks of his enemies, and: the Horn of my salvation, yielding help and strength in overcoming the enemies, my high Tower, the inaccessible and safe stronghold, and my Refuge, my Savior; Thou savest me from violence. This is said of God by way of a general introduction.

Modern KJV                           And he said, Jehovah is my Rock, and my Fortress, and my Deliverer. The God who is my Rock, in Him will I trust. He is my Shield, and the Horn of my salvation, my High Tower, and my Refuge, my Savior. You save me from violence.

NASB                                     He said,

"The Lord is my rock [1Sam 23:25; 24:2; Ps 31:3; 71:3] [Lit crag] and my fortress and my deliverer;

My God [Deut 32:4, 37; 1 Sam 2:2], my rock [Lit God of my rock], in whom I take refuge,

My shield [Gen 15:1; Deut 33:29] and the horn [Luke 1:69] of my salvation, my stronghold and my refuge [Ps 9:9];

My savior, You save me from violence.

New RSV                               He said:

The Lord is my rock, my fortress, and my deliverer,

my God, my rock, in whom I take refuge,

my shield and the horn of my salvation,

my stronghold and my refuge,

my saviour; you save me from violence.

Webster’s Bible Translation  And he said, The LORD [is] my rock, and my fortress, and my deliverer;

The God of my rock; in him will I trust: [he is] my shield, and the horn of my salvation, my high tower, and my refuge, my preserver; thou savest me from violence.

Young’s Updated LT             And he says: “Jehovah is my rock, And my bulwark, and a deliverer to me, My God is my rock—I take refuge in Him; My shield, and the horn of my salvation, My high tower, and my refuge! My Saviour, from violence You save me!

 

The gist of this verse:          David begins this psalm by praising God, as his Rock, his protection, his deliverer, his refuge, his shield, the horn of his salvation, he high tower and his refuge. David has clearly been protected from many acts of violence in his life.


2Samuel 22:2a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend; to decide; to answer

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

çelaʿ (סֶלַע) [pronounced SEH-lahģ]

rock, cliff, jagged cliff, split, cleft, crag, stone

masculine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #5553 BDB #700


Translation: He said, “Yehowah [is] my rock-cliff... Rocks denote stability and things which have been in the same place for a very long time. We are not thinking here of a rock that you can pick up and hurl; this is the much larger version. This is a rock cliff, where you might stand and observe your enemy.


Much of what we find in this psalm is related to war and God’s deliverance of David during war.


Just in case you do not go to the full doctrine (which differs primarily in that most of these passages are written out), here is the abbreviated version.

The Abbreviated Doctrine of the Rock in the Old Testament

1.      The Rock of Israel is associated with God from the very beginning. Gen. 49:24–25 Deut. 32:2–4

2.      The No-Water Incidents and how the Rock is related to Jehovah. In the first no-water incident, Moses was to strike the Rock with his staff, indicating judgment. The second time the Jews came into the no-water test (this is the 2nd generation), Moses was only to speak to the Rock, as it had already been judged. Because Moses struck the Rock twice, thus confusing the Type, God did not allow him to go into the land with the rest of Israel. Ex. 17:1–6 Num. 20:2–12 Psalm 78:15–20 105:41 114:7–8 Isa. 48:12 John 4:9–15 7:37–40 1Cor. 10:4

3.      Hiding in the Cleft of the Rock is Related to Salvation. Ex. 33:20–23 Isa. 2:10

4.      Much of Moses’ Song about the Rock of Israel. Gen. 32:12–40

5.      Gideon’s sacrifice associates the Rock (Jesus Christ) with judgment (fire). Judges 6:19–22

6.      Jehovah Elohim is called the Rock. 1Sam. 2:2 22:2–3 Psalm 18:31 19:14 28:1

7.      The Trinity in the Old Testament is Partially Established by the use of the term the Rock of Israel. 1Sam. 23:1–4 Psalm 78:35 89:25–27 Isa. 17:9–10 Habak. 1:12

8.      Blessings, Safety and Strength are Associated with the Rock. Job 29:2–6 39:27–28 Psalm 18:2 27:5 31:1–4 81:16

9.      Safety cannot be found in just any rock (that is, in any human viewpoint solution. Isa. 22:16–18 Obad. 1:3

10.    The Rock of God can also be a Stone of Stumbling. Ex. 19:5–6 Isa. 8:13–15 Isa. 8:14 Rom. 9:31–33 1Peter 2:7–9

11.    There is Deliverance through Trust in the Rock. Psalm 71:1–3

12.    There is no other Rock besides Jehovah. Isa. 44:6–8

See The Doctrine of the Rock in the Old Testament (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).


Chapter Outline

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2Samuel 22:2b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

mâtsûwd (מָצוּד) [pronounced maw-TZOOD]

net; capture; fortress, castle, stronghold; defense

masculine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #4686 BDB #845


Translation: ...and my fortress;... God is also David’s fortress. More important and safer than castle Zion is the fact that God is David’s fortress.


In a way, this foreshadows what is to come. David, in God, is as if in a fortress, in complete safety. We, in the Church Age, are in Christ, as if in a fortress, and in complete safety.

 

L. M. Grant: Appropriately David begins his song with a number of the wonderful aspects of God's nature and character. Jehovah is his rock, the symbol of unchanging stability. 1 Corinthians 10:4 tells us "That Rock was Christ, for He is God over all, blessed forever." "My fortress" speaks of the place of impregnable defense. David, in his time of exile, learned how valuable a fortress was. Footnote


A minor note of punctuation: so far, we have: He said, “Yehowah [is] my rock-cliff... I know that it is right and proper to begin each paragraph with quotation marks, but I am not going to do that. I will begin and end this psalm with quotation marks only.


2Samuel 22:2c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

pâlaţ (פָּלַט) [pronounced paw-LAHT]

a deliverer; one who causes you to escape

Piel participle with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #6403 BDB #812

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 1st person singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510


Translation: ...and [He is] my Deliverer. David has been in many a scrape; he has been in many fights; his life has been in danger multiple times. He knows that God has delivered him out of every problem. Remember that David is not a big guy; but he fully understands that God is his deliverer; God has caused David, on many occasions, to escape without injury the battle he finds himself in.



2-samuel-22-2-hands-reaching-picture.jpg

2Samuel 22:2 Graphic; from Tohh Bible Verses; accessed April 5, 2014.


V. 2 reads “Yehowah [is] my Rock-cliff and my fortress; and [He is] my Deliverer. The rock speaks of stability as well as a place to hide from one’s enemies. The fortress is the place where a king could go to be relative safe from the outside armies. Also, Yehowah is presented as David’s deliverer, which is mostly a temporal notion; but is taken in the New Testament to refer to eternal salvation.


Chapter Outline

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This is common in the Old Testament, where the human author uses a word in one way; but the Divine Author uses the same word in a different way. David, the human author, understands the Piel participle of pâlaţ (פָּלַט) [pronounced paw-LAHT] to refer to a deliverer. David would be in a battle and God would deliver David—preserve and protect him. However, God the Holy Spirit takes this same word and looks forward to our eternal deliverance where God eternally preserves and protects us.


2Samuel 22:3a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural construct

Strong's #430 BDB #43

tsûwr (צוּר) [pronounced tzoor]

rock, pebble; cliff; edge, sharpness; form

masculine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #6697 BDB #849

châçâh (חָסָה) [pronounced khaw-SAW]

to take (seek) refuge; to flee for protection; and hence to trust [put confidence, have hope] [in]

1st person singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #2620 BDB #340

When followed by the bêyth preposition, the place of refuge is then noted.

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #88


Translation: [He is] the Elohim of my Rock; I take refuge in Him. We have a different word for rock here.


God the Father is the God of David’s Rock, Who is God the Son. David takes refuge in the Revealed God, Who we know as Jesus Christ.

 

J. Vernon McGee: A rock is a place upon which to rest. Christ is the rock of our salvation - He is the foundation. We rest on Him. Footnote


There are several words in the Hebrew which are translated rock; however, two of them are prominent, and both of these words are found in this verse.

Contrasting the Hebrew Words for “Rock”

Çelaʿ (סֶלַע) [pronounced SEH-lahģ]

Tsûwr (צוּר) [pronounced tzoor]

Strong’s #5553 occurring about 61 times.

Strong’s #6697 occurring about 79 times.

BDB Definitions: 1) crag, cliff, rock; 1a) crag, cliff; 1b) as stronghold of Jehovah, of security (figuratively).

BDB Definitions: 1) rock, cliff (noun masculine); 1a) rocky wall, cliff; 1b) rock (with flat surface); 1c) block of stone, boulder; 1d) rock (specific); 1e) rock (of God); 1f) rock (of heathen gods); 1g) Rock (noun proper deity).

Precept Austin: Çela' more frequently suggests a larger, more massive rock structure such as a crag (a steep rugged rock - eg, Job 39:28 uses çela' to describe a safe, resting place for the eagle "upon the rocky crag [çela'], an inaccessible place"), a cliff or a mountainside.1

Precept Austin: Tsur on the other hand refers to smaller rock structures such as a boulder, but these distinctions are not absolute and there is overlap.1

Then Moses and Aaron went from the presence of the assembly to the entrance of the tent of meeting and fell on their faces. And the glory of the LORD appeared to them, and the LORD spoke to Moses, saying, "Take the staff, and assemble the congregation, you and Aaron your brother, and tell the rock before their eyes to yield its water. So you shall bring water out of the rock for them and give drink to the congregation and their cattle." And Moses took the staff from before the LORD, as he commanded him. Then Moses and Aaron gathered the assembly together before the rock, and he said to them, "Hear now, you rebels: shall we bring water for you out of this rock?" (Num. 20:6–10; ESV)

And the LORD said to Moses, "Pass on before the people, taking with you some of the elders of Israel, and take in your hand the staff with which you struck the Nile, and go. Behold, I will stand before you there on the rock at Horeb, and you shall strike the rock, and water shall come out of it, and the people will drink." And Moses did so, in the sight of the elders of Israel. And he called the name of the place Massah and Meribah, because of the quarreling of the people of Israel, and because they tested the LORD by saying, "Is the LORD among us or not?" (Ex. 17:5–7; ESV)

After Jesus died for our sins, we then speak to the Rock of God and make known to Him our needs. In both cases water was fetched from the rock.

The actions of Ex. 17 occurred before those in Numbers. This is where God told Moses to strike the rock—which rock represents Christ on the cross Who died for out sins by being struck by God.

The difference between this incidents is; in the case of Ex. 17, Jesus Christ can only die one time for our sins, so Moses was to strike the rock but once. By the time of Numbers, God had been with Israel for a very long time, and He knows of our needs. We only need speak to Him to tell Him what it is that we need. The rock is not struck a second time in Num. 20 because His death on the cross had already been illustrated in Ex. 17. Moses great sin was not to obey God, because, in his disobedience, he confused the parallels of what he and the Israelites endured and the provisions of Jesus Christ for us.


Because Moses did not do what God instructed him to do, he was not allowed to enter into the Land of Promise; his wrongdoing was fundamental to the parallel being set up by God.

In this second instance, God is our Rock, providing for us every imaginable provision. Our relationship with Him is permanent and solid.

In this first case of tsur, Jesus is our Rock, the foundation upon which we stand; the basis of our salvation.

Precept Austin: Çela' more frequently suggests a larger, more massive rock structure such as a crag (a steep rugged rock - eg, Job 39:28 uses çela' to describe a safe, resting place for the eagle "upon the rocky crag [çela'], an inaccessible place"), a cliff or a mountainside.1

Precept Austin: Tsur on the other hand refers to smaller rock structures such as a boulder, but these distinctions are not absolute and there is overlap.1

Taking this, along with their respective uses with Moses, tsur describes Jesus as we first meet Him, as our Savior from sin; but as çelaʿ, we find that He is so much more than we realize; that He is far greater than we first understood Him to be.

And so he says, “Yehowah [is] my cliff and my fortress and my deliverer to me; Elohim of my rock, I take refuge in Him. My shield and a horn of my salvation, my stronghold and my refuge; my Savior—from violence you save me. (Kukis ultra-literal translation) Çelaʿ is in bold.

He said, “Yehowah [is] my Rock-cliff and my fortress; and [He is] my Deliverer. [He is] the Elohim of my Rock; I take refuge in Him. [He is] my shield and the horn of my salvation; [He is] my stronghold and my refuge, [and He is] my Savior; You save me from violence. (Kukis literal translation) Tsûwr is in bold.

Precept Austin: Çela' often speaks of rock faces especially cliffs (Isa. 2:21), where eagles (Job 39:28) and hyraxes (rock badgers Pr 30:26) live. People are thrown off sela' (Ps 141:6). Mountain goats is literally "goats of the sela'" (Job 39:1). Çela' is sometimes used as a proper noun: "the rock of Etam" (Jdg 15:8), David's "Rock of Escape" (1Sa 23:28), two rock crags, " name of the one was Bozez, and the name of the other Seneh" (1Sa 14:4). "Clefts of the rock" in Obadiah 1:3 may refer to Sela, an Edomite fortress city. Çela' is associated with crevices and clefts (Jer 13:4; 49:16), also with fortresses (Isa 33:16). The destruction of Tyre prophesied by God would become like a bare rock (Ezek 26:14). Crypts were carved in sela' (Isa. 22:16). Çela' occasionally occurs with tsur the other Hebrew word for rock (Dt 32:13 Psalm 18:2 71:3 Isa. 2:21).2



Precept Austin: Rock is a common metaphor used for God (Jesus) in the Psalter, and stresses several aspects of His protective care for the person who trusts in Him. For example, God as our Rock provides a firm, unshakeable foundation ("On Christ the Solid Rock I stand, all other ground is sinking sand") for those who rely on Him. In other OT uses, the picture of Christ our Rock is that of a high, inaccessible rocky crag or mountain hideaway. David had experienced such literal places of protection (eg, cave at Adullam - 1Chr 11:15) by God as Saul and others sought his life. The literal rocks that were David's hiding place were a faint picture of Christ his spiritual Rock in Whom the beleaguered psalmist found safe haven and rest for his soul. In view of the emphasis of Jehovah as our Rock, the One who protects our soul, you might take a moment and sing praises to your Rock. Tsur is translated a number of times (but not all) in the Septuagint with the Greek word petra. Tsur can refer to a secure, elevated location (cp Pr 18:10-note where the righteous will be lifted up, even though the battle may still be raging!) 1

Precept Austin: The Septuagint sometimes translates çela' (Isa. 42:11) as Petra, perhaps corresponding to Petra in Jordan.


Metaphorically, çela' is used in a bad sense to describe spiritual obstinacy (Jer 5:3). It describes God's destruction of Babylon (Jer 51:25).2

Precept Austin: Tsur speaks of inaccessibility (by one's adversaries as in Ps 27:5) God as a Rock speaks of His provision of a firm, unshakeable foundation for all who trust in Him. It speaks of the stability and protect provided by Yahweh.1

1 From http://preceptaustin.org/christ_our_rock.htm#rock accessed March 9, 2014.

2 From http://preceptaustin.org/christ_our_rock.htm#roc accessed March 9, 2014.

In order to maintain some consistency, selaʿ was rewritten as çelaʿ.


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2sam22_2-3.jpg

 

The Pulpit Commentary: the allusions to "rock," "high tower," and "fortress" remind us of the time when David’s life was such that he climbed the craggy cliff or hid himself in the inaccessible clefts of the rocks. Footnote This was God acting as David’s fortress.


2Samuel 22:2–3a Graphic; from the Life and Breath and Everything Else blogspot. Accessed April 5, 2014.


We are to understand Jesus as the Rock in two ways: (1) He is our Savior, our foundation, the One on whom our salvation is based; and (2) He is our protector and our fortress in life. So, when Moses struck the rock the first time, that represented God’s judgment of our sins in Jesus Christ. However, when Moses was to speak to the Rock in the second instance (in Numbers), this is Jesus our fortress, our rock, our place of safety.


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2Samuel 22:3b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

mâgên (מָגֵן) [pronounced maw-GAYN]

shield, smaller shield; protection

masculine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #4043 BDB #171

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

qeren (קֶרֶן) [pronounced KEH-ren]

horn; [used figuratively] of strength; flask (container for oil); horn (as musical instrument); horn (of horn-like projections on the altar); of rays of light; hill

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #7161 BDB #901

yêshaʿ (יֵשַע) [pronounced YAY-shahģ]

deliverance; aid; salvation; safety, welfare

masculine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #3468 BDB #447


Translation: [He is] my shield and the horn [= strength, power] of my salvation;... The shield speaks of protection in battle. In the midst of battle, a shield is what wards off deadly blows from a sword and stops an arrow from finding its mark. David knows in all of his confrontations, God was there protecting him.


The horn indicates guidance as well as power. When we are saved, we do receive both guidance and power, but not in some mystical way. Our guidance is based upon the filling of the Holy Spirit and the full knowledge of Bible doctrine. Although we have a supernatural power by means of the filling of the Holy Spirit, this does not mean that we are Penn and Teller, and can make things appear, disappear, or move unseen from hither to yon. You may give the gospel to someone, and, you can tell, something clicked; you can tell that it reached them. That is the power of the Holy Spirit. Whenever you exercise your spiritual gift, that is the power of the Holy Spirit. The power of the Holy Spirit is true power, because this makes changes which last forever.


Application: Early on in my Christian life, I witnessed to someone—a clear delineation of the gospel—and I could tell that he understood. Since then, whatever Christian influence I have had on others has not been nearly as clear. I have to take it on faith, based upon my study of Scripture, and based upon my understanding of my spiritual gift, that what I am doing is God’s plan for my life. You, as a believer, have to know the Word of God; and then be able to apply Bible doctrine to your own life. You may not get feedback for what you do in this life or for what your spiritual gift is. For some people, your spiritual gift is prayer for others—and there may be absolutely no clear linkage between the prayers you offer to God and the answers God gives to your prayers. Or, to provide a wider application—you may not see the results of the function of your spiritual gift; you may not get feedback on the function of your spiritual gift. Therefore, you have to simply know and understand God’s Word; and then apply it while you are filled with the Holy Spirit. God will sort out all of the rest.


Let me see if I can provide you with a clear parallel. Abraham, for 25 years, was being given promises from God, but these promises were all based upon having a son—and he did not have a son for 25 years. Now, despite a few direct meetings with God, there is nothing to indicate that God did anything spectacular before Abraham. There are no signs or wonders that Abraham observed. He simply heard promises from God and he believed these promises, despite all of them being dependent upon him having a son which, for 25 years, he did not have. This is all described in Heb. 11:8–12 By faith, Abraham, when he was called, obeyed to go out to the place which he was to receive for an inheritance. He went out, not knowing where he went. By faith, he lived as an alien in the land of promise, as in a land not his own, dwelling in tents, with Isaac and Jacob, the heirs with him of the same promise. For he looked for the city which has the foundations, whose builder and maker is God. By faith, even Sarah herself received power to conceive, and she bore a child when she was past age, since she counted Him faithful who had promised. Therefore as many as the stars of the sky in multitude, and as innumerable as the sand which is by the sea shore, were fathered by one man, and him as good as dead. (WEB; capitalized)


When God tests us and we pass, this is a confirmation of our faith.

Application: My point is, you may go for long periods of time in your life without feedback or clear confirmation that you are doing what you are supposed to be doing. Don’t expect to be walking along some evening, and then, right above you, there is this great burst of light with a cloud making a thumb’s up sign.


Since you do not have this constant feedback in your life (like an evangelist or a pastor has), do you understand the point of testing a little better? When God tests us and we pass, this is a confirmation of our faith.


2Samuel 22:3c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

misgâb (מִשׂגָב) [pronounced mis-GABV]

height, secure height, retreat; a high place; a stronghold; a rock; hence a refuge, secure place

masculine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #4869 BDB #960

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

mânôwç (מָנוֹס) [pronounced maw-NOHSS]

flight, a place of escape, refuge

masculine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #4498 BDB #631


Translation: ...[He is] my stronghold and my refuge,... The stronghold is a secure place for David, a place where the outside world cannot touch him. The second word refers to the place to where he would flee when under attack. God is David’s stronghold and his refuge; because of his relationship to God, David was made safe in the most difficult situations.


2Samuel 22:3d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

yâshaʿ (יָשַע) [pronounced yaw-SHAHĢ]

deliverer, savior, saving; less literally, redeemer, rescuer, lifesaver, liberator

masculine singular, Hiphil participle with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #3467 BDB #446

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

châmâç (חָמָס) [pronounced khaw-MAWS]

violence, wrong, cruelty, oppression; that which is gained by violence and wrongdoing

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #2555 BDB #329

yâshaʿ (יָשַע) [pronounced yaw-SHAHĢ]

to deliver, to save; to set free, to preserve; to aid, to give relief, to give help to

2nd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #3467 BDB #446


Translation: ...[and He is] my Savior; You save me from violence. David recognizes God as his Savior; as the One who has many times in the past delivered him from violence and oppression.


We know of the word savior being used in two different, but related ways. David here speaks of savior as referring to being saved or delivered from this or that scrape. It is the person in desperate straights, but then he hears the bugle of the cavalry charge. Footnote It is the man at war, and he is in desperate straights, but his reenforcements arrive; his buddies.


2samuel22_2-3.jpg

This same word has an eternal and spiritual connotation, and this is perhaps how God the Holy Spirit uses this word here—this refers to our eternal Savior, Jesus Christ, Who will save us from the last judgment and deliver us away from our sin natures.


2Samuel 22:2–3 Graphic from 4Catholic Educators; accessed April 5, 2014.


Vv. 2–3 read as follows:

“Jehovah is my Rock-cliff and my fortress; and He is my Deliverer.

He is the God of my Rock and I take refuge in Him.

He is both my shield and the horn of my salvation;

He is my stronghold and my refuge; furthermore, He is my Savior.

You save me from great violence. This will be summarized below:


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Sometimes when the explanation for a verse is spread out over many pages, we lose the flow of the passage.

Summarizing 2Samuel 22:2–3

Scripture

Text/Commentary

“Jehovah is my Rock-cliff and my fortress;...

A rock-cliff denotes safety and being inaccessible to your enemies; like a fortress. David spent a lot of time using natural fortresses when escaping Saul.

...and He is my deliverer.

God delivered David a number of times, from Saul and from his other enemies.

He is the God of my Rock and I take refuge in Him.

Here, God is distinguished from David’s Rock, in Whom David takes refuge.

He is both my shield and the horn of my salvation;...

The shield protects David from swords and arrows; the horn denotes power and direction.

...He is my stronghold and my refuge;...

David is always safe in God.

...furthermore, He is my Savior.

God is presented as a Savior in the Old Testament primarily as bringing a person out of a difficult situation. However, there is the spiritual side to this, which is emphasized in the New Testament.

You save me from great violence.

The violence referred to here is the violence of warfare and persecution; however, there is also great violence in being judged by God. Jesus delivers us from that.

Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge is filled with references to this passage:

in him: Heb. 2:13

shield: Gen. 15:1; Deut. 33:29 Psalm 3:3  5:12 28:7 84:9, 11 115:9–11 Prov. 30:5

the horn: 1Sam. 2:1 Luke 1:69

my high: 2Sam. 22:51 Psalm 61:3 144:2 Prov. 18:10

my refuge: Psalm 9:9 14:6 18:2 27:5 32:7, Psalm 46:1 46:7, 11 59:16 71:7 142:4 Isa. 32:2 Jer. 16:9

my saviour: Isa. 12:2 45:21 Luke 1:47, Luke 1:71 Tit. 3:4, Titus 3:6

thou savest: 2Sam. 22:49 Psalm 55:9 72:14 86:14 140:1, 4, 11


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——————————


Being praised I call Yehowah and from my enemies I am saved.

2Samuel

22:4

I proclaim Yehowah [worthy of] praise and I am delivered from my enemies.

I proclaim that Jehovah is worthy of praise, and I am delivered from my enemies.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          I will call on the Lord who is worthy to be praised: and I shall be saved from my enemies.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        Being praised I call Yehowah and from my enemies I am saved.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    I will call upon the LORD, and I shall be saved from my enemies.

Septuagint (Greek)                I will call upon the Lord, who is worthy to be praised, and I shall be saved from my enemies.

 

Significant differences:           The Syriac leaves out the word praised. The Greek and Latin appear to add a few words to indicate that praised is applied to God.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Because he is praiseworthy [Heb uncertain],

I cried out to the Lord,

and I was saved from my enemies.

Contemporary English V.       I praise you, our LORD! I prayed to you, and you rescued me from my enemies.

Easy English                          I must praise the *Lord.

I call to the *Lord and he saves me from my enemies.

Easy-to-Read Version            They made fun of me.

But I called to the Lord for help,

and I was saved from my enemies!

The Message                         I sing to GOD the Praise-Lofty, and find myself safe and saved.

New Berkeley Version           I call on my praiseworthy Lord,

and I shall be saved from my foes!

New Life Bible                        I call upon the Lord, Who should be praised. I am saved from those who hate me.

The Voice                               I call on the Eternal, who is worthy to be praised,

and I have been rescued from my enemies.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          'He is the One that defends me;

He's the trumpet of my salvation.

My shield and my refuge from the unrighteous.

Because You will save me, You deserve all the praise;

So, I'll call on the Lord and be saved.

Beck’s American Translation I cry to the LORD, who deserves to be praised, and I’m saved from my enemies.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       Praised be the Lord! When I invoke him I am secure from my enemies.

New American Bible (2011)   Praised be the LORD, I exclaim!

I have been delivered from my enemies.

New Jerusalem Bible             I call to Yahweh, who is worthy of praise, and I am saved from my foes.

Revised English Bible            I shall call to the Lord to whom all praise is due,

then I shall be made safe from my enemies.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      Praise! I call Yahweh to save me from my enemies!

Bible in Basic English             I will send up my cry to the Lord, who is to be praised; so will I be made safe from those who are against me.

The Expanded Bible              I ·will call to [call upon] the Lord, who is worthy of praise,

and I ·will be [or am] saved from my enemies.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 In despair I will cry to the LORD, And I shall be saved from my foemen.

NET Bible®                             I called [In this song of thanksgiving, where David recalls how the Lord delivered him, the prefixed verbal form is best understood as a preterite indicating past tense (cf. CEV "I prayed"), not an imperfect (as in many English versions).] to the Lord, who is worthy of praise [Heb “worthy of praise, I cried out [to] the Lord.” Some take מְהֻלָּל (mÿhullal, “worthy of praise”) with what precedes and translate, “the praiseworthy one,” or “praiseworthy.” However, the various epithets in vv. 1-2 have the first person pronominal suffix, unlike מְהֻלָּל. If one follows the traditional verse division and takes מְהֻלָּל with what follows, it is best understood as substantival and as appositional to יְהוָה (yÿhvah, “Yahweh”), resulting in “[to the] praiseworthy one I cried out, [to the] Lord.”],

and I was delivered from my enemies.

NIV – UK                                `I called to the Lord, who is worthy of praise,

and have been saved from my enemies.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           I call on ADONAI, who is worthy of praise; and I am saved from my enemies.

exeGeses companion Bible   I call on Yah Veh - the halaled:

and I am saved from my enemies.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               All praise! I called on the Lord, [Construction of (this) Hebrew (phrase) uncertain.]

And I was delivered from my enemies.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           I will call on Hashem, Who is worthy to be praised; so shall I be saved from my oyevim.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    The Praised One, I call Yahweh: And from mine enemies I am saved.

Context Group Version          I will call on YHWH, who is worthy to be praised: So I shall be rescued from my enemies.

Emphasized Bible                  As one worthy to be praised, called I on Yahweh,—And, from my foes, was I saved.

Green’s Literal Translation    I call on Jehovah, the One to be praised; and I shall be saved from my enemies.

Kretzmann’s Commentary    I will call on the Lord, who is worthy to be praised, or, upon Him whom I praised, who is the Praised One, I will call; so shall I be saved from mine enemies. The application is now made to David's own case.

New King James Version       I will call upon the Lord, who is worthy to be praised;

So shall I be saved from my enemies.

World English Bible                I will call on Yahweh, who is worthy to be praised: So shall I be saved from my enemies.

Young’s Updated LT             The Praised One, I call Jehovah: And from mine enemies I am saved.

 

The gist of this verse:          Yehowah is the One worthy of praise; Who saved David from his enemies.


2Samuel 22:4a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

hâlal (הָלַל) [pronounced haw-LAHL]

praised, celebrated; one who is praised; one who is celebrated

Pual participle

Strong’s #1984 BDB #237

qârâʾ (קָרָא) [pronounced kaw-RAW]

to call, to proclaim, to read, to call to, to call out to, to assemble, to summon; to call, to name [when followed by a lâmed]

1st person singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #7121 BDB #894

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217


Translation: I proclaim Yehowah [worthy of] praise... David calls or proclaims that Jehovah is praised and celebrated.


2Samuel 22:4b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʾâyab (אָיַב) [pronounced aw-YABV]

enemies, those being at enmity with you; those with enmity, those with hostility

masculine plural, Qal active participle with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #340 & #341 BDB #33

yâshaʿ (יָשַע) [pronounced yaw-SHAHĢ]

to be delivered, to saved; to be freed, to be preserved; to be helped; to conquer

1st person singular, Niphal imperfect

Strong’s #3467 BDB #446


Translation: ...and I am delivered from my enemies. The use of and here could even suggest a result; with the result that I am saved from my enemies.


David was first on a fast-track toward leading Israel, first militarily, and later, politically; and, as a result, he had many enemies.


Application: If you know a little bit about history, you know that the enemies of Ronald Reagan, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama are legion. Any person with political power, no matter which side of the aisle he is on, will have a vast number of enemies. These enemies will slander them and make up stories about them.


Add to this the fact that King David ruled over a nation of God; Satan would have roused up enemies from all over the land surrounding Israel.


Vv. 2–4 verses read: He said, “Jehovah is my Rock-cliff and my fortress; and He is my Deliverer.

He is the God of my Rock and I take refuge in Him.

He is both my shield and the horn of my salvation;

He is my stronghold and my refuge; furthermore, He is my Savior.

You save me from great violence.

I proclaim that Jehovah is worthy of praise, and I am delivered from my enemies. This does sum up much of the psalm; and sets the reader (listener) up for all of it. This psalm focuses upon the primacy, protection and guidance of Yehowah, the God of David. God is worthy of being praised; and He protects and delivers David from his enemies. David expands on these concepts throughout the remainder of this psalm.

 

Keil and Delitzsch write: This introduction contains the sum and substance of the whole psalm, inasmuch as David groups the many experiences of divine deliverance in his agitated life into a long series of predicates, in all of which he extols God as his defence, refuge, and deliverer. Footnote

 

Peter Pett: [David] was ever conscious of how unworthy he was that YHWH should be so good to him. The emphasis is on the fact that he is firmly established and totally safe. He is founded on YHWH as his Rock, he is safe in YHWH as his heavenly mountain fortress, and he looks to YHWH as his own personal Deliverer. Furthermore YHWH is the Rock in which he finds refuge, is his Shield and Protector, and is the One Whose mighty strength (horn) constantly saves him. He is his High Tower and Refuge. How could he possibly have been safer? Then Pett adds: Note also the emphasis on salvation. `Refuge', `salvation', `Saviour', `save me', `so will I be saved'. His whole dependence for deliverance is in his God who saves him from violence and from his enemies and from all that he has to face. That is why He is worthy to be praised. The idea underlines the whole Psalm. Footnote


What Pett says here is absolutely correct. However, David writes of temporal deliverance while God the Holy Spirit is promising us and all who read David’s psalm eternal deliverance.


Vv. 5–6 stand in stark contrast to vv. 2–4:


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Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


David Calling for God When in Personal Disaster


For surround me, waves of death,

torrents of Belial fall upon me;

cords of Sheol encompass me,

go before me snares of death.

2Samuel

22:5–6

For the waves of death surround me,

[while] the rushing waters of Belial [or, ruin] fall upon me;

the cords of Sheol encompass me,

[and] the snares of death precede me.

The waves of death surround me, while the rushing waters of Belial fall upon me;

the cords of Sheol are all around me and the snares of death are in my pathway.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          For the pangs of death have surrounded me: the floods of Belial have made me afraid. The cords of hell compassed me: the snares of death prevented [= go before] me.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        For surround me, waves of death,

torrents of Belial fall upon me;

cords of Sheol encompass me,

go before me snares of death.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    For the pangs of death have compassed me, the torrents of ungodly men made me afraid; The pangs of Sheol compassed me about; the snares of death lay ahead of me;...

Septuagint (Greek)                For the troubles of death compassed me, the floods of iniquity amazed me; the pangs of death surrounded me, the agonies of death prevented [= go before] me.

 

Significant differences:           Pangs, which is found in the Latin and the Syriac, does not appear to match the Hebrew of this verse. The second verb in the Latin and Syriac does not match the second verb in the Hebrew.

 

The second occurrence of pangs in the Syriac does not match the Hebrew. The verb prevented in the old English means to go before.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Death's waves were all around me;

rivers of wickedness terrified me.

The cords of the grave [Heb Sheol] surrounded me;

death's traps held me tight.

Contemporary English V.       Death, like ocean waves, surrounded me, and I was almost swallowed by its flooding waters. Ropes from the world of the dead had coiled around me, and death had set a trap in my path.

Easy English                          Death seemed to be like waves that surrounded me.

Wicked men seemed like a flood that came over me.

They made me afraid.

It was as if Sheol (or the grave) was all round me.

Death tried to get me.

Easy-to-Read Version            {My enemies were trying to kill me!}

Waves of death were crashing around me.

I was caught in a flood

carrying me to that place of death [Or, "the place of no return, the grave."].

Ropes of the grave were all around me.

Traps of death lay before me.

Good News Bible (TEV)         The waves of death were all around me; the waves of destruction rolled over me.

The danger of death was around me, and the grave set its trap for me.

The Message                         The waves of death crashed over me, devil waters rushed over me.

Hell's ropes cinched me tight; death traps barred every exit.

New Berkeley Version           When breakers oave swept me toward death

and floods of the wicked dismayed,

when cords of the grave closed me in and snares holding death blocked my way,...

New Century Version             "The waves of death came around me;

the deadly rivers overwhelmed me.

The ropes of death wrapped around me.

The traps of death were before me.

New Life Bible                        "For the waves of death were all around me. The storm that destroys made me afraid. The cords of the grave were around me. The nets of death came against me.

New Living Translation           "The waves of death overwhelmed me;

floods of destruction swept over me.

The grave [Hebrew Sheol.] wrapped its ropes around me;

death laid a trap in my path.

The Voice                               The waves of death surrounded me;

the torrents of terror tugged at me.

The sorrows of the grave [Hebrew, sheol] tightly tangled me;

the snares of death met me.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          'For, I was surrounded by death-dealing conflicts,

And by lawless dry streams, I was upset.

By fear of dying, I was surrounded,

And I awaited the harshness of death.

Beck’s American Translation The waves of earth surrounded me, and the torrents of Belial suddenly attacked me.

The grave closed all around me to catch me; death came toward me to trap me.

Christian Community Bible     Waters of death carried me along,

torrents of destruction terrified me.

Caught as by the cords of the grave,

I was utterly helpless before the snares of death.

God’s Word                         The waves of death had surrounded me. The torrents of destruction had overwhelmed me.

The ropes of the grave had surrounded me. The clutches of death had confronted me.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       Death's terrors were near at hand, deep flowed the tide of wickedness, to daunt me; the toils of the grave were all about me, deadly snares had trapped my feet.

New American Bible (2002)   "The breakers of death surged round about me, the floods of perdition overwhelmed me;

The cords of the nether world enmeshed me, the snares of death overtook me. These verses are to be understood figuratively.

New American Bible (2011)   The breakers of death surged round about me,

the menacing floods [Breakers.floods: traditional Old Testament imagery for lethal danger, from which the Lord is uniquely able to rescue; cf. Ps 69:2, 15-16; 89:10-11; Jon 2:3-6.] terrified me;

The cords of Sheol tightened;

the snares of death lay in wait for me.

NIRV                                      "The waves of death were all around me.

A destroying flood swept over me.

The ropes of the grave were tight around me.

Death set its trap in front of me.

New Jerusalem Bible             With Death's breakers closing in on me, Belial's torrents ready to swallow me,

Sheol's snares on every side of me, Death's traps lying ahead of me,...

New Simplified Bible              »The waves of death had surrounded me. The torrents of destruction had overwhelmed me.

»The danger of death was around me. The grave set its trap for me.

Revised English Bible            When the waves of death encompassed me

and destructive torrents overtook me,

the bonds of Sheol tightened about me,

the snares of death were set to catch me.

Today’s NIV                          The waves of death swirled about me; the torrents of destruction overwhelmed me. The cords of the grave coiled around me; the snares of death confronted me.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      For the breakers of death compassed me, and the worthless riverbeds frightened me.

The ropes of Sheol surrounded me and the snares of death preceded me.

Bible in Basic English             For the waves of death came round me, and the seas of evil put me in fear;

The cords of hell were round me: the nets of death came on me.

English Jubilee 2000              When the waves of death compassed me, the floods of Belial made me afraid; when the cords of Sheol compassed me about; the snares of death came before me;...

The Expanded Bible              "The waves of death ·came around [swirled about; encompassed] me;

the ·deadly rivers [floods/torrents of destruction] overwhelmed me.

The ·ropes of death [cords of the grave/Sheol] ·wrapped around [entangled; coiled around] me.

The ·traps [snares] of death ·were before [confronted; lay ahead of] me.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 When Death's waves enclosed, And wild torrents sucked in, The Grave's ropes entangling, And fearing Death's traps, In my trouble I cried to the LORD,... A portion of v. 7 is included for context.

HCSB                                     For the waves of death engulfed me; the torrents of destruction terrified me.

The ropes of Sheol entangled me; the snares of death confronted me.

NET Bible®                             The waves of death engulfed me;

the currents [The noun נַחַל (nakhal) usually refers to a river or stream, but in this context the plural form likely refers to the currents of the sea (see vv. 15-16).] of chaos [The noun בְלִיַּעַל (bÿliyya’al) is used here as an epithet for death. Elsewhere it is a common noun meaning “wickedness, uselessness” (see HALOT 133-34 s.v. בְּלִיַּעַל). It is often associated with rebellion against authority and other crimes that result in societal disorder and anarchy. The phrase “man/son of wickedness” refers to one who opposes God and the order he has established. The term becomes an appropriate title for death, which, through human forces, launches an attack against God’s chosen servant.] overwhelmed me [In this poetic narrative context the prefixed verbal form is best understood as a preterite indicating past tense, not an imperfect. (Note the perfect verbal form in the parallel/preceding line.) The verb בָּעַת (ba’at) sometimes by metonymy carries the nuance “frighten,” but the parallelism (note “engulfed” in the preceding line) favors the meaning “overwhelm” here.].

The ropes of Sheol ["Sheol," personified here as David's enemy, is the underworld, place of the dead in primitive Hebrew cosmology.] tightened around me [Heb "surrounded me."];

the snares of death trapped me [Heb "confronted me."].

New Heart English Bible        For the waves of death surrounded me. The floods of ungodliness made me afraid. The cords of Sheol were around me. The snares of death caught me.

NIV, ©2011                             The waves [Ps 69:14-15; Jnh 2:3] of death swirled about me;

the torrents of destruction overwhelmed me.

The cords of the grave [Ps 116:3; Ac 2:24] coiled around me;

the snares of death confronted me.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           "For death's breakers were closing over me, the floods of B'liya'al terrified me, the ropes of Sh'ol were wrapped around me, the snares of death lay there before me.

exeGeses companion Bible   The waves of death surround me;

the wadies of Beli Yaal frighten me;

the cords of sheol surround me;

the snares of death confront me:...

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               For the breakers of Death encompassed me,

The torrents of Belial [I.e., the netherworld, like “Death” and “Sheol.”] terrified me;

The snares of Sheol encircled me,

The toils of Death engulfed me.

Judaica Press Complete T.    For the pains of death have encompassed me; streams of scoundrels would affright me.

Bands of those that shall inherit the nether world have surrounded me; the snares of death confronted me.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           When the waves of mavet (death) compassed me, the floods of scoundrels overwhelm me;

The chevlei Sheol (cords of Sheol) encompassed me; the snares of mavet confronted me;...

The Scriptures 1998              “For the waves of death surrounded me, Floods of Beliyaʽal made me afraid,

“The cords of the grave were all around me; The snares of death were before me.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                For the waves of death enveloped me; the torrents of destruction made me afraid.

The cords of Sheol were entangling me; I encountered the snares of death.

Concordant Literal Version    When the breakers of death compassed me, The streams of the worthless terrify me,

The cords of Sheol have surrounded me, Before me have been the snares of death.

Context Group Version          For the waves of death encompassed me; The floods of ungodliness made me afraid:

The cords of the place of death { or grave, Heb. "Sheol" } were round about me; The snares of death came on me.

Emphasized Bible                  When the breakers of death had encompassed me,—the torrents of perdition, made me afraid,—

the meshes of hades, had surrounded me,—the snares of death had confronted me,...

Kretzmann’s Commentary    When the waves of death compassed me, they came upon him from all sides like breakers on the shore of the ocean, the floods of ungodly men, the streams of destruction, made me afraid. The sorrows of hell compassed me about, like sudden pangs of pain, or like ropes which threatened to throttle him; the snares of death prevented me, fell on him in a treacherous attack, especially during the persecutions of Saul.

Modern KJV                           When the waves of death encircled me, the floods of ungodly men made me afraid.

The sorrows of hell hemmed me in. The snares of death went in front of me.

New RSV                               For the waves of death encompassed me,

the torrents of perdition assailed me;

the cords of Sheol entangled me,

the snares of death confronted me.

Webster’s Bible Translation  When the waves of death compassed me, the floods of ungodly-men made me afraid;

The sorrows of hell encompassed me; the snares of death seized me;...

Young’s Updated LT             When the breakers of death compassed me, The streams of the worthless terrify me, The cords of Sheol have surrounded me, Before me have been the snares of death.

 

The gist of this verse:          David has faced death on many occasions, but has been delivered out from it.

 

What follows in the next 2 verses has this form:                   verb masculine plural construct noun

masculine plural construct noun verb

masculine plural construct noun verb

verb masculine plural construct noun

And the final nouns in the first and last line are the same.

It should be obvious that this stands by itself as a unit.


This also suggests that this psalm might be very highly organized. I am not sure that I will be able to discover this organization.


In any case, v. 5 changes the tenor of this psalm.


2Samuel 22:5a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

ʾâphaph (אָפַף) [pronounced aw-FAHF]

to surround, to encompass

3rd person plural, Qal imperfect with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #661 BDB #67

mishebârîym (מִשְבָרִים) [pronounced mihsh-bawr-EEM]

waves, breakers [of a sea]; metaphorically for calamities, disasters

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #4867 BDB #991

mâveth (מָוֶת) [pronounced MAW-veth]

death, death [as opposed to life], death by violence, a state of death, a place of death

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #4194 BDB #560


Translation: For the waves of death surround me,... David was at war for much of his life, and all around him were men dying (usually, those of the opposition army). However, David knew that this could have just as easily been him.


There is nothing more profound than a man of war to see carnage for much of his life; and to survive it all.


Clarke reasonably suggests that this speaks of the Messiah. Although he says, Footnote Though in a primary sense many of these things belong to David, yet generally and fully they belong to the Messiah alone; There is nothing which prevents this as being both David’s recollections of his many years at war and a reference to the life of Jesus. Throughout Jesus’ very short, public ministry, He was continually threatened with death.


We have a parallel running throughout this psalm, which parallel I will summarize at the end. David writes this psalm about himself, about the life he has led; but God the Holy Spirit writes this about the Messiah to come, about the Jesus Who is surrounded by death, but has come to deliver us.


2Samuel 22:5b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

nachal (נַחַל) [pronounced NAHKH-al]

brook, torrent; valley

masculine plural construct

Strong's #5158 BDB #636

belîyyaʾal (בְּלִיַּעַל) [pronounced belee-YAH-ģahl]

without value, lacking character, worthless, ruin, good-for-nothing, useless, without fruit; wicked or ungodly [men]; transliterated Belial

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #1100 BDB #116

bâʿath (בָּעַת) [pronounced baw-ĢAHTH]

to fall upon, to fall upon suddenly and therefore to startle, to terrify due to the surprise

3rd person masculine plural, Piel imperfect with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #1204 BDB #129


Translation: ...[while] the rushing waters of Belial [or, ruin] fall upon me;... When at war, all around David were ungodly men, rushing him, bringing with them ruin—potential ruin for David.


War appeared to be a flood to David. Waters coming at him from all directions; often with no salvation in sight.


It is fascinating that there is a great deal of flood imagery in Scripture (Psalm 18:4 69:14, 15 93:3, 4 Isa. 59:19 Jer. 46:7, 8). It has often been my contention that the weather in the Palestine area was, at one time, much different than it is today. I believe that they had a great deal more water, which sometimes meant flooding.


2Samuel 22:6a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

chebel (חֶבֶל) [pronounced KHEB-vel]

rope, cord, bands; a measuring rope; a territory, lot, portion; a group [of things]

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #2256 BDB #286

Sheʾôl (שְאוֹל) [pronounced Sheol]

Hades, hell; underworld, grave; [properly] a hollowed out place; transliterated Sheol;

proper singular feminine noun

Strong’s #7585 BDB #982

Sheol is the underworld, for the unseen world of souls which have passed away and it is a reference to the underworld for both believers and unbelievers

çâbab (סָבַב) [pronounced sawb-VAHBV]

to turn oneself, to go around, to surround, to encompass

3rd person plural, Qal perfect with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #5437 BDB #685


Translation: ...the cords of Sheol encompass me,... When at war, David faced the cords of Sheol, or the grave. It was as if the grave was trying to put a rope around him and pull him down to the ground. There were no doubt numerous occasions where David’s life appeared to be under deadly attack.


2Samuel 22:6b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

qâdam (קָדַם) [pronounced kaw-DAHM]

to precede, to go before; to get before; to anticipate; to do before; to rush on; to meet, to go to meet anyone; to bring when followed by a bêyth preposition

3rd person plural, Piel perfect with a 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #6923 BDB #869

If you use a KJV, to prevent is no longer a correct rendering for this verb. At one time, to prevent meant to go before, to precede; it no longer means this.

môwqêsh (מוֹקֵש) [pronounced moh-KAYSH]

properly the bait or lure for a trap; figuratively trap, snare

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #4170 BDB #430

mâveth (מָוֶת) [pronounced MAW-veth]

death, death [as opposed to life], death by violence, a state of death, a place of death

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #4194 BDB #560


Translation:...[and] the snares of death precede me. And everywhere David stepped, it is as if there had be traps laid for him; snares of death, intent on bringing him down to Sheol.

 

The Geneva Bible: As David (who was the figure of Christ) was by Gods power delivered from all dangers: so Christ and his Church will overcome most grievous dangers, tyranny and death. Footnote

 

L. M. Grant: Beginning with verse 5 the language goes beyond what was true of David. While he may have felt deeply the sorrows of which he speaks, yet only the Lord Jesus can speak these words as being fully true of His own sufferings and sorrows. "When the waves of death encompassed Me, the floods of ungodliness made me afraid. The sorrows of Sheol surrounded Me, the snares of death confronted Me." In the case of the Lord Jesus "the waves of death" were infinitely worse than David or we have ever experienced, for this went far beyond the sufferings with which ungodly men abused Him. He "endured the cross, despising the shame" (Hebrews 12:2). Men's contempt was nothing to Him compared to the agony of His being forsaken by God on account of our sins. Footnote


Vv. 5–6 read: The waves of death surround me, while the rushing waters of Belial fall upon me;

the cords of Sheol are all around me and the snares of death are in my pathway.


David spent a significant portion of his life where his very life was in danger. Few of us have faced anything like the life that David had. Even from his youngest age, he fought against a lion and a bear (1Sam. 17:34–37); and his first fight against a man was against the giant Goliath. However, in that fight, we find that David’s focus was accurate and upon God. See 1Samuel 17 (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).


——————————


In the distress to me I called Yehowah and to Elohim I called; and so He hears from His Temple my voice and my outcry in His ears.

2Samuel

22:7

When I [am] distressed, I call to Yehowah and I call to Elohim; He hears my voice from His Temple and my cry [for help travels] to His ears.

When distressed, I call out to Jehovah and to God; He hears my voice from His Temple my cry for help reaches his ears.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          In my distress I will call upon the Lord, and I will cry to my God: and he will hear my voice out of his temple, and my cry shall come to his ears.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        In the distress to me I called Yehowah and to Elohim I called; and so He hears from His Temple my voice and my outcry in His ears.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    In my distress I called upon the LORD and cried to my God; and he did hear my voice out of his temple, and my cry did enter into his ears.

Septuagint (Greek)                When I am afflicted I will call upon the Lord, and will cry to my God, and He shall hear my voice out of His temple, and my cry shall come into His ears.

 

Significant differences:           Being afflicted (Greek) is close to being distressed (Hebrew).


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       I was in terrible trouble when I called out to you, but from your temple you heard me and answered my prayer.

Easy English                          In my trouble I called to the *Lord.

Yes, I shouted to my God.

From his *temple, he heard my voice.

He listened to me when I called for help.

Easy-to-Read Version            Trapped, I called to the Lord for help.

Yes, I called to my God.

The Message                         A hostile world! I called to GOD, to my God I cried out. From his palace he heard me call; my cry brought me right into his presence-- a private audience!

New Berkeley Version           ...in anguish I creid to the Lord,

and unto my God I appealed.

My voice from His temple [As in Psalm 11:4, meaning “heaven,” for note the description of His descent from it like a storm in vv. 8–17. Such a manifestation of God took place in a storm at Mt. Sinai (Ex. 19:16–20) and was taken up in the later poetry; compare Deut. 33:2 Judges 5:2–5 etc., though here it is symbolical for God’s deliverance of David by less spectacular means.] He heard;

my shouts carried into His ears.

New Life Bible                        In my trouble I called upon the Lord. Yes, I cried to my God. From His house He heard my voice. My cry for help came into His ears.

The Voice                               In my time of need I called upon the Eternal One;

I called to my True God for help.

He heard my voice from His temple,

and my cry came to His ears.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          'But, in my pain, I called on Jehovah;

Yes, I yelled to my God,

And from His great Temple, He Heard me.

My voice and my cries reached His ears.

Christian Community Bible     But I called upon the Lord in my distress,

to my God I cried for help;

and from his temple he heard my voice,

my cry of grief reached his ears.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       One cry to the Lord, in my affliction, one word of summons to my God, and he, from his sanctuary, listens to my voice; the complaint I make before him finds a hearing.

New American Bible (2011)   In my distress I called out: LORD!

I cried out to my God;

From his temple [his heavenly abode.] he heard my voice,

my cry reached his ears.

New Jerusalem Bible             I called to Yahweh in my anguish, I cried for help to my God, from his Temple he heard my voice, my cry came to his ears!

Revised English Bible            When in anguish of heart I cried to the Lord

and called to my God,

he heard me from his temple,

and my cry reached his ears.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      In my persecution I called Yahweh, calling to my God. He heard my voice from his temple, with my appeal in his ears.

Bible in Basic English             In my trouble my voice went up to the Lord, and my cry to my God: my voice came to his hearing in his holy Temple, and my prayer came to his ears.

The Expanded Bible              In my ·trouble [distress; anguish] I ·called [cried out] to the Lord;

I ·cried out [called] to my God.

From his ·temple [sanctuary] he heard my voice;

my ·call for help [cry] reached his ears.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 ...In my trouble I cried to the LORD, And cried out aloud to my GOD; And my voice from His Temple He heard, And my shouts reached His ears.

NET Bible®                             In my distress I called to the Lord;

I called to my God [In this poetic narrative the two prefixed verbal forms in v. 7a are best understood as preterites indicating past tense, not imperfects. Note the use of the vav consecutive with the prefixed verbal form that follows in v. 7b.].

From his heavenly temple [Heb "from his temple." Verse 10, which pictures God descending from the sky, indicates that the heavenly, not earthly, temple is in view.] he heard my voice;

he listened to my cry for help [Heb "and my cry for help [entered] his ears."].


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           In my distress I called to ADONAI; yes, I called to my God. Out of his temple he heard my voice, and my cry entered his ears.

exeGeses companion Bible   ...in my tribulation I call on Yah Veh

and cry to my Elohim.

He hears my voice from his manse

and my cry is in his ears:...

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               In my anguish I called on the Lord,

Cried out to my God;

In His Abode [Lit., “Temple.”] He heard my voice,

My cry entered His ears.

Judaica Press Complete T.    When I am in distress, I call upon the Lord, yes I call upon my God: and out of His abode He hears my voice, and my cry enters His ears.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           In my distress I called upon Hashem, and cried to Elohai; and He did hear my voice out of His Heikhal, and my cry did enter into His oznayim.

The Scriptures 1998              “In my distress I called upon יהוה, And to my Elohim I cried. And from His Hĕal He heard my voice, And my cry was in His ears.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    In mine adversity I call Yahweh, And unto my Elohim I call, And He hears from His temple my voice, And my cry [is] in His ears,...

Green’s Literal Translation    In my distress I called on Jehovah, and I called to my God. And He heard my voice from His temple, and my cry was in His ears.

Kretzmann’s Commentary    In my distress I called upon the Lord, and cried to my God; and he did hear my voice out of His temple, out of the palace of His heavenly dwelling, and my cry did enter into His ears. The Lord's deliverance is next pictured.

NASB                                     "In my distress [Ps 116:4; 120:1] I called upon the Lord,

Yes, I cried [Or called] to my God;

And from His temple He heard my voice,

And my cry for help came into His ears.

Webster’s Bible Translation  In my distress I called upon the LORD, and cried to my God: and he heard my voice out of his temple, and my cry [entered] into his ears.

World English Bible                In my distress I called on Yahweh; Yes, I called to my God: He heard my voice out of his temple, My cry came into his ears.

Young’s Updated LT             In my adversity I call Jehovah, And unto my God I call, And He hears from His temple my voice, And my cry is in His ears.

 

The gist of this verse:          David called to God during adverse circumstances, and God heard Him.


2Samuel 22:7a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

tsar (צַר) [pronounced tsar]

an adversary, an enemy; narrow, tight and therefore, distress, affliction, intense distress [caused by an adversary]

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #6862 BDB #865

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 1st person singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

qârâʾ (קָרָא) [pronounced kaw-RAW]

to call, to proclaim, to read, to call to, to call out to, to assemble, to summon; to call, to name [when followed by a lâmed]

1st person singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #7121 BDB #894

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun

Strong's #430 BDB #43

qârâʾ (קָרָא) [pronounced kaw-RAW]

to call, to proclaim, to read, to call to, to call out to, to assemble, to summon; to call, to name [when followed by a lâmed]

1st person singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #7121 BDB #894


Translation: When I [am] distressed, I call to Yehowah and I call to Elohim;... David, throughout his life, faced many distressing and difficult situations, many of which we do not fully understand, such as, what he wrote about in Psalm 22 Footnote (HTML) (PDF) (WPD). Footnote


Throughout the Old Testament, we have interesting situations where it appears that men like David appear to be contacting 2 members of the Trinity. He calls Jehovah and he calls to Elohim. Many times, if this were one and the same person, then we would have the same preposition used or the same preposition apply to both; but we have the same verb, but one has a preposition and the other does not.


This does not mean that David realized that he was speaking to more than one member of the Trinity; but we can see that, in fact, he is. Well, not David, but God the Holy Spirit is speaking of the Trinity.


It is my opinion that, the Trinity is clearly taught in the Old Testament; but, even writers like David, did not fully comprehend the Trinity or even that there was one.


And just in case you don’t look it up, here are a few Old Testament verses where the Trinity is clearly proclaimed:

The Trinity in the Old Testament (the Abbreviated Version)

1.      The 4th word of Gen. 1:1 is Elohim, which can be translated God or gods. The -im ending is the plural ending in the Hebrew. This word takes on a masculine singular verb here, and for that reason, some have called this the plural of excellence, indicating that God is so excellent that, this could only be expressed with a plural noun. Although I am not saying this is wrong, at the same time, always bear in mind that the first title used for God is a plural word.

2.      Before we go further, we should make a quick stop at Deut. 6:4: Listen, O Israel, Jehovah is our God [Elohim] Jehovah is one. I have carefully maintained the order of the Hebrew words, and note two things: the parallelism and the italicized words. The italicized words are inserted, and every translator inserts them; sometimes the nouns are mixed around a bit (e.g., Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD or Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God, the LORD is one). You will note that Jehovah occurs twice and suggests a parallelism. In the Hebrew, the subject is not necessarily found first, but the parallelism suggests that Jehovah is either the subject both times or it is the predicate nominative both times. So Moses could be saying, “Listen, O Israel, our God is Jehovah, One is Jehovah;” or, “Listen, O Israel, Jehovah is our God [and] Jehovah is one.” The latter makes the most sense to me, as the numeral one is found more often as a modifier than as a noun. However, the numeral one is not necessarily one in number but it is used for something which represents a unity, as in, a man and a woman shall leave their parents and they will become one flesh. Even in marriage and sexual union, a man and a woman are still two distinct people; however, what they form is a union. So, Moses was not making the point that Jehovah God is a single God, although Christians do believe in one God; but that Jehovah is our Elohim (plural) and Jehovah is one, indicating unity rather than number. This does not mean that Moses necessarily understood them completely. Many things of Christian doctrine are built upon the foundation of the Old Testament.

3.      Now let’s return to creation. Although it is clear that God created all that is, with and through Jesus Christ (John 1:1–14), we are going to restrict ourselves to the Old Testament. On the 6th day, God created man. we read: God [plural noun] said [masculine singular verb], "Let Us make [plural verb] man in Our image, after Our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the sky, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth" (Gen. 1:26). Up until now, even though we had the plural noun Elohim, we would always find a masculine singular verb; however, this time, the verb to make is a plural verb. This is followed by two words which plural suffixes (our). When God designed man, there is apparently a different approach to man than God creating even the heavens and the earth. Up until the creation of man, the verbs have all been masculine singular; now, the verb to make is in the plural. Man will be created trichotomous and, apparently, with a greater complexity than what God had already created. We can attest to this complexity, as we can usually recognize human life, but giving it greater definition than that eludes even those in the medical profession. For instance, just how alive is a person who is hooked up to medical machinery which, for instance, breathes for him? Just how alive is the fetus in the womb? These are almost more moral questions than they are medical, as medicine and science cannot say with complete certainty what these lives are. Science, in most cases, is able to sustain these lives or to destroy these lives, but giving them further definition, beyond a guess as to how viable these examples are, is outside of medicine’s ability. So, when God created a body with a soul and a spirit, this is a creation which man to this day does not fully apprehend. Scientists may tell us that we are 98% identical to chimps (I have forgotten the exact percentage here), in terms of DNA, but people with an IQ above room temperature don’t have any problems distinguishing their fellow human beings from chimps. So, as a result, we have a large percentage of scientists who believe that we evolved from primates, as our DNA is so similar; yet there are a significant number of scientists who do not believe that such an evolution occurred. As a result, there are scientists out there who want to create life in order to harvest portions of it to attempt to cure this or that disease; and there are even some who would want to try human cloning; and there are many out there who view these things as morally repugnant, and in different amounts. It is because, we do not know exactly what the soul is, how it is connected to the body, and we medically don’t know what the soul is doing or where it can be found with respect to fetuses, lobodomized patients or comatose patients. Some think that the key to life is the EEG (electroencephlograph) readings of the brain (which is what we use, essentially, to determine if someone is dead). However, a 3 week old fetus has EEG readings; and who knows before that? My only point in all of this is, we are wonderfully made, put together with a variety of elements, that, in and of themselves, are clearly not alive; and that, somehow (by the breath of God), we are made alive. And so, when God made man, all 3 members of the Trinity were involved.

4.      The building of a house can be likened to the function of the Trinity. You have the plans for a house, which is God the Father, who many never be seen by anyone directly associated with the house. We know these as the divine decrees. You have the workmen who show up, are seen, and actually do the work—that is God the Son. Jesus Christ fulfilled the prophecies of the Old Testament; He kept the Law of Moses, and He died on the cross for our sins. This is the work that man saw. And then you have the power for the power tools—also unseen—and that is God the Holy Spirit. God the Holy Spirit gives us the power and ability to do the plan of God.

5.      Isa. 48 is spoken by God, although we may not, at first understand which member of the Trinity is speaking. However, generally speaking, the revealed member of the Trinity is Jesus Christ. In Isa. 48:3, we read: “I have declared the former things from then; and they went out of My mouth; and I made them hear; suddenly I acted, and they came about.” This is clearly God and not Isaiah speaking, because Isaiah did not act in order to make his own words come to pass. He speaks of His wrath in v. 9, He speaks of refining Israel in v. 10, and of His name being profaned in v. 11. Then He says (vv. 12–13): “Listen to Me, O Jacob, and Israel My called: I am He; I am the First; surely I am the Last. My hand surely founded earth, and My right hand has stretched out the heavens; I called to them, they stood up together.” Clearly this is God Who is speaking, and, as we will find out, God the Son, the Revealed Member of the Trinity (John 1:1–3, 14). Isa. 48:16: “Come near to Me, hear this; I have not spoken in secret from the beginning. From its being, I was there; and now the Lord Jehovah, and His Spirit, has sent Me.” The Lord Jehovah refers to God the Father; His Spirit, of course, is the Holy Spirit. The One speaking is Jesus Christ, the revealed member of the Trinity. The singular verb here is sometimes used, even with a plural subject, when that subject is split up, as it is here. it is also possible that this should read ...the Lord Jehovah has sent Me and His Spirit. The exact understanding can be cleared up at a later date; that we find the Trinity here is clear.

6.      In Daniel 7:13, we have two members of the Trinity: I was looking in the night visions. And behold! One like the Son of Man came with the clouds of the heavens. And He came to the Ancient of Days. And they brought Him near before Him. God the Son comes to God the Father. And to Him was given dominion and glory and a kingdom, that all peoples, nations, and languages should serve Him; His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and His kingdom one that shall not be destroyed (Daniel 7:14). God the Father gives to God the Son an everlasting kingdom.

7.      We find God the Father and God the Son in Hosea 1:4–7 as well: Yahweh said to him, "Call his name Jezreel; for yet a little while, and I will avenge the blood of Jezreel on the house of Jehu, and will cause the kingdom of the house of Israel to cease. It will happen in that day that I will break the bow of Israel in the valley of Jezreel." She conceived again, and bore a daughter. Then he said to him, "Call her name Lo-Ruhamah; for I will no longer have mercy on the house of Israel, that I should in any way pardon them. But I will have mercy on the house of Judah, and I will save them by Yahweh their God, and will not save them by bow, nor by sword, nor by battle, by horses, nor by horsemen."

I strongly recommend reading the complete Doctrine of the Trinity in the Old Testament (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


2Samuel 22:7b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

shâmaʿ (שָמַע) [pronounced shaw-MAHĢ]

to listen [intently], to hear, to listen and obey, [or, and act upon, give heed to, take note of], to hearken to, to be attentive to, to listen and be cognizant of

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #8085 BDB #1033

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

hêychâl (הֵיחָל) [pronounced hay-SHAWL]

a large, magnificent building; a palace, a palace of [Jehovah]; a temple, a portion of the Temple

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #1964 BDB #228

qôwl (קוֹל) [pronounced kohl]

sound, voice, noise; loud noise, thundering

masculine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #6963 BDB #876

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

shaveʿâh (שַוְעָה) [pronounced shahve-ĢAW]

an outcry, a crying out, a cry for help

feminine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #7775 BDB #1003

ʾôzen (אֹזֶן) [pronounced OH-zen]

ears; metaphorically for hearing

feminine plural noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #241 BDB #23


Translation: ...He hears my voice from His Temple and my cry [for help travels] to His ears. David pictures God as having some permanent structure in which to live, which he refers to as His Temple. This does not mean that David wrote this after he thought about building a Temple for God. He simply understood that God had place where He lives. This does not mean that God is not omnipresent. It simply means that God allows for Himself to be manifested in one particular place for the convenience of men and angels.


The word omnipresent is not a word found in the KJV of the Bible, but is a doctrine which has been developed through study of the Word of God (like the word Trinity). The lion’s portion of this doctrine was taken from the sources credited at the end of this doctrine.

All Bible quotations come out of The Voice of the Wilderness, unless otherwise specified.

The Doctrine of Omnipresence of God

1.      Definition:

         1)      Omnipresence means that God is present everywhere at the same time. All created beings, including angels, can only be in one place at one time. Material things occupy some specific part of space, but do not occupy all space. Space is defined as the infinite extension of the three-dimensional field in which all matter exists or the expanse in which the solar system, stars, and galaxies exist, otherwise known as the universe. God created this universe and is therefore not subject to it nor limited by it according to 1 Kings 8:27 (But will God truly dwell on the earth? Behold, the heavens and the Heaven of heavens cannot contain You. How much less this house which I have built! —VW) and Acts 17:24 (God, who made the world and everything in it, since He is Lord of Heaven and earth, does not dwell in temples made with hands.).

         2)      GOD is eternally, wholly; personally and simultaneously present everywhere. Where can I go from Your Spirit? Or where can I flee from Your presence? If I ascend into the heavens, You are there; if I make my bed in Sheol, behold, You are there. (Psalm 139:7–8) See also Deut. 4:39 Acts 17:27

         3)      Because God is omnipresent, He knows all that is going on in all places. The eyes of Jehovah are in every place, keeping watch over the evil and the good. (Proverbs 15:3) His knowledge, vision and Presence extends into the greatest darkness. If I say, Surely the darkness shall fall upon me, even the night shall be light round about me; yea, the darkness shall not hide from You, but the night shines as the day; the darkness and the light are both alike to You. (Psalm 139:11–12)

         4)      God is the totality of His presence—without diffusion, expansion, multiplication, or division. He penetrates and fills the entire universe and everything beyond the universe to infinity. Psalm 139:7 Isa. 66:1 Jer. 23:23–24 Acts 17:27

         5)      Omnipresence does not imply that God is spread out or diffused throughout the universe in that only part of Him is everywhere. This is erroneous thinking. God is wholly present as fully as if He were in only one place. God completely fills the entire universe and all aspects of it without diffusion, expansion, multiplication, or division.

         6)      It is God Who is omnipresent. It is more than simply His power and authority. See also 1Kings 8:27 2Chron. 2:6

         7)      The Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are fully present in every minute part of His infinite dominion. This is known as God's immanence. God is everywhere and in all things simultaneously in His totality and with all of His perfect attributes.

         8)      Immanence refers to philosophical and metaphysical theories of divine presence in which the divine is seen to be manifested in or encompassing the material world. It is often contrasted with theories of transcendence, in which the divine is seen to be outside the material world.1

2.      Omnipresence describes space in relation to God. Immensity describes God in relation to space.

3.      If space is that outer boundary of the universe, then God's presence exceeds this boundary by infinity. This aspect of God's omnipresence or infinite presence is called transcendence. God is transcendent which means He is infinitely above all of his creatures, the universe, and the heavens which He created. The fact that God is both immanent and transcendent is taught in Jeremiah 23:23-24 and Acts 17:27.

         1)      This is called immensity and means that God surpasses all of His creation and extends beyond without end. The heavens cannot contain God. He was present outside the universe when He created it.

         2)      Am I a God near by, says Jehovah, and not a God afar off? Can anyone hide himself in secret places so that I shall not see him? says Jehovah. Do I not fill the heavens and earth? says Jehovah. (Jeremiah 23:23-24)

         3)      And He has made from one blood every nation of men to dwell everywhere on the face of the earth, and has determined their preappointed times and the boundaries of their dwellings, so that they should seek the Lord, in the hope that they might grope for Him and find Him, though He is not far from each one of us; for in Him we live and move and exist. (Acts 17:26–28a)

         4)      It is not reasonable for the human finite mind to suppose that it can fully comprehend the omnipresence of God according to Psalm 139:6 and Psalm 73:23-24. Such knowledge is incomprehensible to me; it is high, I am not able to reach it. (Psalm 139:6) Nevertheless I am continually with You; You have held me by my right hand. You will lead me with Your counsel, and afterward receive me to glory. (Psalm 73:23-24)

4.      God is free to be local while at the same time existing throughout all space and beyond space. And Mount Sinai was completely in smoke, because Jehovah had descended upon it in fire. Its smoke ascended like the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mountain quaked greatly. And when the sound of the shofar continued its sound and became exceedingly loud, Moses spoke, and God answered him by voice. And Jehovah came down upon Mount Sinai, on the top of the mountain. And Jehovah called Moses to the top of the mountain, and Moses went up. (Exodus 19:18-20) And Jehovah spoke to Moses after the death of the two sons of Aaron, when they drew near before Jehovah, and died; and Jehovah said to Moses: Speak to Aaron your brother that he not come at all times into the Holy Place inside the veil, before the mercy seat which is on the ark, that he not die; for I will appear in the cloud above the mercy seat. (Lev. 16:1–2)

5.      God is not subject to the laws of space. As He did with time, God invented and created space. Space is large, but not as large as God. God cannot be more or less than He is. We cannot measure God.

6.      God is the Cause of space –He put order into space. Space is one of the boundaries God has given to us, the other being time. We cannot escape time or space—our entire orientation in life is tied up to time and space.

7.      God invented both time and space; but God is not subject to either time or space.

8.      God fills all of space and every moment of time as is passes with His presence. God also sustains everything and gives it purpose and value. God is the Lord of both time and history. God does not negate time, but fulfills it.

9.      In relation to space, God is immanent in space and transcendent outside space. Since God is the Creator, the Cause of space –God would exceed those boundaries to infinity.

10.    God has the ability to construct time and space and is inside them as well outside them. Knowing this, we have no cause for worry on our personal or national problems.

11.    God may be Self-limited regarding His Presence:

         1)      The Incarnate Person of Jesus Christ in hypostatic union confines Himself to one place as we are (kenosis). Philippians 2:7

         2)      All 3 Members of the Trinity indwell the believer. Psalm 139:7–12

         3)      God revealed a special Presence in the Tabernacle and later in the Temple.

12.    God’s infinity is intensive rather than extensive—that is, God is not to be thought of merely as extending infinity beyond time and space but as possessing within Him infinite resources. God is the perfect Person who passes beyond all phenomena and constitutes the basis for them, as possessing within Himself a boundless supply of the infinite energy of His spiritual life and personality.

13.    Omnipresence means that God is personally present, knowing firsthand our sins, problems, circumstances, because He is available to help, able to protect or provide our needs.

14.    God exists beyond spatial limitations. He is immanent and transcendent.

         1)      Immanence means His entire essence is always present everywhere in nature, in history, in all the affairs of mankind. Jer. 23:23–24, Acts 17:27–28

         2)      Transcendence means He is totally independent of the created universe so that no particular place exclusively contains Him. Psalm 113:5-6 Isaiah 55:8-9 John 8:23

         3)      Immanence and transcendence exist in balance, so that the whole earth is full of His glory. Isaiah 6:3

15.    His whole being is present in every point in the universe, while at the same time He is holy and exalted infinitely beyond the universe (Isaiah 6:1,3). He pervades the universe while at the same time He is free to be in specific location.

16.    Omnipresence assures us that no believer will ever be alone in any given time anywhere in the world or beyond.

17.    The Father fills heaven and earth (Jeremiah. 23:23-24). Jesus Christ promises not to leave the believers without the Comforter while in the world (Matthew 28:20). The Holy Spirit permanently resides and indwells the believer (1Corinthians 6:19).

18.    God is not in time or space but time and space is in God. In relation to doing the will of God—He has to provide us with the means of complying with His order. He gives us time and space so that we could be at the right place at the right time doing the right thing.

19.    Application Of God's Omnipresence To The Believer:

         1)      There is nowhere where we can be without God. Where can I go from Your Spirit? Or where can I flee from Your presence? If I ascend into the heavens, You are there; if I make my bed in Sheol, behold, You are there. If I take the wings of the dawn, and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea, even there Your hand shall lead me, and Your right hand shall take hold of me. If I say, Surely the darkness shall fall upon me, even the night shall be light round about me; yea, the darkness shall not hide from You, but the night shines as the day; the darkness and the light are both alike to You. (Psalm 139:7–12)

         2)      The Christian can take great comfort in the omnipresence of God. His continual presence in all things should be abundant consolation to believers. The following verses speaks of God's promises to Israel and to each of us. They also speak of the mental attitude of confidence we should have in God's ability to keep His promises. He has said that he is present when two or more assemble for the intake of Bible Doctrine. God has promised that He will always be with us in every possible situation. There is no greater encouragement for the believer under testing. Behold, I am with you and will keep you wherever you go, and will bring you back to this land; for I am not forsaking you until I have done what I have spoken to you. (Genesis 28:15) And He said, My Presence will go with you, and I will give you rest. (Exodus 33:14) He will not allow your foot to slip; He who keeps you will not slumber. Behold, He who keeps Israel shall neither slumber nor sleep. (Psalm 121:3–4)

         3)      God is with the believer at all times. Have I not commanded you? Be strong and of good courage; do not be afraid, nor be dismayed, for Jehovah your God is with you wherever you go. (Joshua 1:9) Let your conduct be without covetousness; be content with such things as you have. For He Himself has said, By no means will I ever leave you nor ever forsake you. (Heb. 13:5)

         4)      God is with the believer at very specific times: For where two or three are gathered together in My name, I am there in the midst of them. (Matthew 18:20) And Jesus came and spoke to them, saying, All authority is given to Me in Heaven and on earth. Go therefore and instruct all the nations, immersing them into the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all things whatever I have commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the age. Amen. (Matthew 28:18–20)

         5)      Man cannot escape the presence of God. If you think you can run from God, you don't know Him. For His eyes are on the ways of man, and He sees all his steps. There is no darkness nor shadow of death where the workers of iniquity may hide themselves. (Job 34:21–22) The eyes of Jehovah are in every place, keeping watch over the evil and the good. (Proverbs 15:3)

         6)      Some people think that if they get out of line and do something wrong, it won't be so bad if they do it in another area, so as not to damage their credibility at work or at home. They might be able to hide it from other people, but you can't hide it from God. Psalm 139:7–12 makes this perspicuous. The pastor might not see you, loved ones might not see you, friends might not see you, but God is right on the scene. One of the beautiful things about growing spiritually is you develop virtue, strength of character. D.L. Moody said, "Character is what a person is in the dark." Dark and light are all alike to God. He's on the scene. Where can I go from Your Spirit? Or where can I flee from Your presence? If I ascend into the heavens, You are there; if I make my bed in Sheol, behold, You are there. If I take the wings of the dawn, and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea, even there Your hand shall lead me, and Your right hand shall take hold of me. If I say, Surely the darkness shall fall upon me, even the night shall be light round about me; yea, the darkness shall not hide from You, but the night shines as the day; the darkness and the light are both alike to You. (Psalm 139:7–12)

         7)      Whether it is atmosphere, stratosphere, ionosphere, or throughout space, God is there. No matter how far you go out in space or even into heaven, God is there. God is in His heaven, God is throughout space, God is throughout our stratosphere, our ionosphere, atmosphere, God is everywhere, even in the depths of the ocean and in the depths of the earth. You cannot hide from God and God never hides from any of us.

         8)      God’s omnipresence is a wonderful comfort. The omnipresence of God should not only sober us up and realize that you can't get away with anything. That God knew your life's entire history (with all of the sordid details) in eternity past. He knows all about you. As in Psalm 31:3 (For You are my rock and my fortress; therefore for Your great name lead me and guide me.), it's encouraging and great comfort knowing God will guide you.

Taken from:

Lewis Sperry Chafer, D.D., Litt. D., The. D.; Systematic Theology; Kregel Publications; ©1976 Dallas Theological Seminary; Vol. VII, pp. 243–244.

http://gracebiblechurchwichita.org/?page_id=1954 (Possibly from R. B. Thieme, Jr. originally) and

http://dikaosune.com/documents/OMNIPRESENCE.pdf (From Cherreguine Bible Doctrine Ministries).

There is very little original work from me in this doctrine.

1 From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immanence accessed March 26, 2014.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


v. 7 reads: When distressed, I call out to Jehovah and to God;

He hears my voice from His Temple my cry for help reaches his ears.

 

2samuel22_7-001.jpg

L. M. Grant: the Lord Jesus...called upon God in His deep distress in the garden of Gethsemane, before His suffering. Knowing well all that He would have to bear, "having offered up both supplications and entreaties to Him who was able to save Him out of death, with strong crying and tears; (and having been heard for His piety)" (Hebrews 5:7). He was not saved from dying, but was saved "out of death" because God had heard Him even before He suffered and died. Footnote



2Samuel 22:7 Graphic from my-heart- song’s website. Accessed April 5, 2014.


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vv. 5–7 read: The waves of death surround me, while the rushing waters of Belial fall upon me;

the cords of Sheol are all around me and the snares of death are in my pathway.

When distressed, I call out to Jehovah and to God;

He hears my voice from His Temple my cry for help reaches his ears.


David was so clearly in the plan of God that he was in danger nearly constantly. He was king over God’s nation Israel, which people represented God to the world. He was in the royal line of the Messiah, with incredible promises made to him directly from God (2Sam. 7 and Psalm 89). He could not have been more in the line of fire in the Angelic Conflict. Satan and his demons would have loved to destroy David; and God preserved David until he was an old man, despite his many enemies and despite his own personal failings.

 

Peter Pett: And he had needed YHWH's protection because of the horrors that he had had to face, the waves of Death trying to drown him, the floods of the Ungodly/the Unworthy (Saul and his warriors/the hosts of Aram) filling him with fear, the cords of the Grave wrapping round him and binding him as he looked death in the face, and the snares of Death entangling him as he felt himself being slowly drawn in. He had felt as though he was constantly in danger of being both engulfed and ensnared. The description is vivid. It is the picture of a man fighting for his very existence, with death a hairsbreadth away. Footnote


Therefore, David writes, in v. 7: When distressed, I call out to Jehovah and to God; He hears my voice from His Temple my cry for help reaches his ears. In the next verse, we get God’s response.


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God Comes Down from Heaven to Execute Judgment


And so shakes and so trembles the earth;

foundations of the [two] heavens are agitated and so they shake,

for He is angry towards him.

2Samuel

22:8

The earth trembles and shakes,

[while] the foundations of the heavens are disquieted and shake,

for He is angry towards him [my enemy].

The earth both trembles and shakes,

while the very foundations of heaven are shaken up,

for He is angry towards him (my enemy).


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          The earth shook and trembled, the foundations of the mountains were moved, and shaken, because he was angry with them.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so shakes and so trembles the earth;

foundations of the [two] heavens are agitated and so they shake,

for He is angry towards him.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    Then the earth shook and trembled; the foundations of the mountains quaked and burst asunder, because he was angry at them.

Septuagint (Greek)                And the earth was troubled and quaked, and the foundations of heaven were confounded and torn asunder, because the Lord was angry with them.

 

Significant differences:           In the Hebrew, in the second line, we have the foundations of heaven; in the Latin and Syriac, we have the foundations of the mountains. In the final line, the Hebrew has for He is angry towards him. The Latin, Greek and Syriac all have them and the Greek has the Lord instead of He.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       Earth shook and shivered! The columns supporting the sky rocked back and forth. You were angry...

Easy English                          It was as if the earth shook. The earth seemed to tremble.

The foundation of heaven seemed to shake.

They were shaking because God was angry.

Good News Bible (TEV)         Then the earth trembled and shook; the foundations of the sky rocked and quivered because God was angry!

The Message                         Earth wobbled and lurched; the very heavens shook like leaves, Quaked like aspen leaves because of his rage.

New Life Bible                        "Then the earth shook. The mountains were shaking. They shook because He was angry.

The Voice                               Because of His great anger,

the earth shook and staggered;

the foundations of the heavens trembled and quaked.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          'Then the ground started to tremble,

And the sky was disturbed by His anger.

Beck’s American Translation Then the earth swayed and shook, the foundations of the heavens trembled; they were shaken because He was angry.

Christian Community Bible     Then the earth reeled and rocked;

the foundations of the heavens shook;

they trembled in his fury.

God’s Word                         Then the earth shook and quaked. Even the foundations of the heavens trembled. They shook violently because he was angry.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       Earth shivered and shook, the very foundations of the hills quailed and quaked before his anger; smoke went up before his indignant presence, and a consuming fire; burning coals were kindled as he went. V. 9 is included for context.

New American Bible (2002)   "The earth swayed and quaked; the foundations of the heavens trembled and shook when his wrath flared up. [8-10] God's intervention is graphically portrayed under the figures of an earthquake (⇒ 2 Sam 22:8, ⇒ 16) and a thunderstorm (⇒ 2 Sam 22:9-15); cf ⇒ Judges 5:4-5; Psalm 29; ⇒ Psalm 97:2-6; Hebrews 3

New American Bible (2011)   The earth rocked and shook;*

the foundations of the heavens trembled;

they shook as his wrath flared up. Vv. 8–10: The Lord's coming is depicted by means of a storm theophany, including earthquake (vv. 8, 16) and thunderstorm (vv. 9-15); cf. Jgs 5:4-5; Ps 29; 97:2-6; Hb 3.

NIRV                                      "The earth trembled and shook.

The pillars of the heavens rocked back and forth.

They trembled because the Lord was angry.

New Jerusalem Bible             Then the earth quaked and rocked, the heavens' foundations shuddered, they quaked at his blazing anger.

New Simplified Bible              »Earth shook and shivered! The columns supporting the sky rocked back and forth. You were angry.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      The ground ||tossed||, agitating and tremoring the cornerstone of heaven, for he flared.

Bible in Basic English             Then the earth was moved with a violent shock; the bases of heaven were moved and shaking, because he was angry.

The Expanded Bible              "The earth ·trembled [reeled; quaked] and ·shook [rocked].

The foundations of heaven began to ·shake [shudder].

They ·trembled [reeled; quaked] because the Lord was angry.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 Then the earth trembled and quaked, The supports of the heavens were shaken, And quivered because of His wrath.

HCSB                                     Then the earth shook and quaked; the foundations of the heavens trembled; they shook because He burned with anger.

NET Bible®                             The earth heaved and shook [The earth heaved and shook. The imagery pictures an earthquake, in which the earth's surface rises and falls. The earthquake motif is common in Old Testament theophanies of God as warrior and in ancient Near eastern literary descriptions of warring gods and kings. See R. B. Chisholm, "An Exegetical and Theological Study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22" (Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983), 160-62.];

the foundations of the sky [Ps 18:7 reads "the roots of the mountains."] trembled [In this poetic narrative context the prefixed verbal form is best understood as a preterite indicating past tense, not an imperfect. Note the three prefixed verbal forms with vav consecutive in the verse.].

They heaved because he was angry.

NIV, ©2011                             The earth [Jdg 5:4; Ps 97:4] trembled and quaked [S Ex 19:18; S Jdg 5:4; Ps 68:8; 77:18; Jer 10:10],

the foundations [Job 9:6; 26:11; Ps 75:3] of the heavens [Hebrew; Vulgate and Syriac (see also Psalm 18:7) mountains] shook;

they trembled because he was angry.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

exeGeses companion Bible   ...then the earth shakes and quakes;

the foundations of the heavens quake and shake

because he inflames.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               Then the earth rocked and quaked,

The foundations of heaven shook—

Rocked by His indignation.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           Then ha'aretz shook and trembled; the mosedot (foundations) of Shomayim moved and shook, because He was in wrath.

The Scriptures 1998              “And the earth shook and trembled, The foundations of the heavens were troubled, Because He was wroth.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And shake and tremble does the earth, Foundations of the heavens are troubled, And are shaken, for He has wrath!"

Context Group Version          Then the land { or earth } shook and trembled, The foundations of the skies { or heavens } quaked And were shaken, because he was angry.

Emphasized Bible                  Then did the earth shake and quake, the foundations of the heavens, were deeply moved,—yea they did shake, because he was angry,...

English Standard Version      "Then the earth reeled and rocked; the foundations of the heavens trembled and quaked, because he was angry.

Green’s Literal Translation    And the earth shook and trembled, the foundations of the heavens were troubled, and were shaken; for He was angry.

Kretzmann’s Commentary    Then the earth shook and trembled, quaking to its very center; the foundations of heaven moved and shook because He was wroth, as when a terrible storm, with an accompanying earthquake, sweeps over the earth, sent by the wrath of His indignation.

Young’s Updated LT             And shake and tremble does the earth, Foundations of the heavens are troubled, And are shaken, for He has wrath!

 

The gist of this verse:          Suddenly, David begins speaking of the earth shaking, and the heavens (or mountains) shaking because of God’s wrath.


2Samuel 22:8a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

gâʿash (שגָעַ) [pronounced gaw-ĢAHSH]

to shake, to quake

3rd person feminine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #1607 BDB #172

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

râʿash (רָעַש) [pronounced raw-ĢAHSH]

to quake, to tremble, to shake; to be moved [shaken]

3rd person feminine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #7493 BDB #950

Note the similarity of the two Qal verbs: gâʿash (שגָעַ) [pronounced gaw-ĢAHSH] and râʿash (רָעַש) [pronounced raw-ĢAHSH]. Whedon suggests Footnote that the translation quakes and shakes carries this into English with the similarity of sounds still intact.

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: The earth trembles and shakes,... The idea is, all the earth is in a commotion. David has suddenly changed the direction of this psalm, although it is not completely clear why the earth is trembling and shaking. It appears that all of this trembling and shaking is because the Lord is angry.


2Samuel 22:8b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

môwçâdôwth (מּוֹסָדוֹת) [pronounced moh-saw-DOTH]

foundations

feminine plural construct

Strong’s #4146(&#4145) BDB #414

shâmayîm (שָמַיִם) [pronounced shaw-MAH-yim]

heaven, heavens, skies; the visible heavens, as in as abode of the stars or as the visible universe, the sky, atmosphere, etc.; Heaven (as the abode of God)

masculine dual noun with the definite article

Strong’s #8064 BDB #1029

The Latin and the Syriac have mountains instead. So does the parallel passage in Psalm 18:7.

râgaz (רָגַז) [pronounced rawg-GAHZ]

to be agitated, to quiver, to quake, to become excited, perturbed, disquieted

3rd person plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #7264 BDB #919

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

gaʿash (שגָּחַ) [pronounced gaw-ĢAHSH]

to shake, to quake

3rd person plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #1607 BDB #172


Translation:...[while] the foundations of the heavens are disquieted and shake,... Even the heavens themselves are shaking. In the parallel passage and in the Latin and Syriac, it is the mountains which are shaking.


Again, like the previous portion of this verse, we do not know exactly what is going on. David has entered into the part of the psalm suddenly.

 

L. M. Grant: "The earth shook and trembled: the foundations of heaven moved and shook." Then the Lord died there was and earthquake (Matthew 27:51) and again when He rose from the grave (Matthew 28:2). Yet the greatest of all earthquakes is foretold in Revelation 16:18. In each case God shakes the earth because of His anger against men for having rejected and crucified His Son. Smoke and devouring fire are particularly connected with the judgment, but the resurrection of Christ is itself a warning of coming judgment (John 16:9-11). Footnote


2Samuel 22:8c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

chârâh (חָרָה) [pronounced khaw-RAWH]

to burn, to kindle, to become angry, to burn with anger; to evoke great emotion

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #2734 BDB #354

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510


Translation: ...for He is angry towards him [my enemy]. This is all related to God’s anger. However, we are not told why God is angry or who exactly God is angry towards. David is speaking in general of his enemies (which would require a 3rd person masculine plural suffix). It is not clear whether God is angry toward a specific enemy of David or whether God is angry with Sheol or death for coming too close to David. God cannot be angry with the earth, since that is a feminine singular noun. Now and again—and this is quite rare—we come across an unexpected gender and number, where we expect something different. So, this drives me to several possible conclusions: (1) God is angry with a particular enemy of David—not named, as David has called to God on many occasions; (2) God is angry with Sheol, death, or Satan, as David’s ultimate enemies; (3) God is angry with the earth, which means that there is an unexpected suffix here (in terms of gender); or (4) God is angry with David’s enemies, which means the suffix is unexpected in terms of number.


In the previous section, David was clearly in trouble, fearing for his life. He called out to God because The waves of death surround me, while the rushing waters of Belial fall upon me; the cords of Sheol are all around me and the snares of death are in my pathway.

 

Keil and Delitzsch make an important point, which applies to the verses which follow: It is true that the deliverance of David was not actually attended by any such extraordinary natural phenomena; but the saving hand of God from heaven was so obviously manifested, that the deliverance experienced by him could be poetically described as a miraculous interposition on the part of God. Footnote


Therefore, David is using very colorful language to describe the actions of God, even though at no time do we have David actually observing such miraculous acts. So, what this suggests is, David is (1) speaking metaphorically of God’s response to his many prayers given when in battle; and (2) this refers to a different event in the future.


Psalm 22 clearing looks forward to the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. However, it is possible that David wrote only of the things which were personally happening to him and understood that psalm as speaking of his own personal sufferings, not necessarily connecting them in his own mind to the sufferings of the Messiah a thousand years hence. There are two authors of Scripture: the human author, who, generally speaking, tells of his own experiences; and the Holy Spirit, Who knows the end from the beginning. We have previously studied in various places where a passage may have two sets of meanings—one intended by the human author and one intended by the Divine Author. Psalm 22 and Isa. 53 are good examples of this. Therefore, let’s take a look at:


There are 2 authors for any passage of Scripture: the human author and the Divine Author, God the Holy Spirit. For this reason, it is not a great leap to reason that, there are times when the human author has one thing in mind when he writes, but God the Holy Spirit has something entirely different in mind.

The Dual Authorship of the Holy Scriptures

1.      The Bible is clearly a book written by man. These authors often affixed their names to what they wrote: Prov. 1:1 2Trim. 1:1–2 Rev. 1:1–2

         1)      There are times when we are fairly certain of the authorship of this or that person, e.g., Luke for the book of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles or Moses for the books of Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers. However, in those books, we do not find a phrase like, “I, Luke, wrote this history of Jesus Christ.”

         2)      There are some books whose authorship is unknown, like the book of Hebrews or the book of Ruth. However, we have accepted these books as canonical.

                  (1)     As an aside, I suspect that the book of Hebrews was written by a gentile, and therefore, his name was not affixed to the book; and that the bulk of Ruth was written by Ruth (apart from the genealogy at the end) and her name was not given because, men had a difficult time with female authorship.

2.      The other author of Holy Writ is the Holy Spirit. The prophets did not think these things up on their own, but they were guided by the Spirit of God (2Peter 1:21; Contemporary English Version). It was never man's impulse, after all, that gave us prophecy; men gave it utterance, but they were men whom God had sanctified, carried away, as they spoke, by the Holy Spirit (2Peter 1:21; Knox NT). No prophecy ever originated from humans. Instead, it was given by the Holy Spirit as humans spoke under God's direction (2Peter 1:21; God’s Word).

         1)      See the Short Doctrine of Inspiration (HTML) (PDF).

         2)      See the Study of Inspiration (HTML) (PDF).

         3)      The Doctrine of Inspiration (HTML) (PDF).

3.      When an author writes something, he often has a purpose for writing. This may not be some high and lofty purpose—it may be for money or for propaganda—but he has a reason for writing what he does.

         1)      In Gen. 22, where Abraham nearly offers up his son Isaac as a human sacrifice to God, this incident is recorded either by Abraham or by Isaac, and they were simply presenting the historical event of Abraham’s obedience to God in offering up his uniquely-born son to God.

         2)      However, God the Holy Spirit writes this passage with the intention of teaching the gospel and providing a shadow image of Jesus dying on the cross for our sins.

4.      Therefore, when we study Scripture—particularly the Old Testament—we must be mindful that, the human author is often saying one thing, whereas the Divine Author is teaching us something else.

5.      As a result, human authors, like David, could write Psalm 22, about a very difficult and painful period in his life, and yet not realize that, this foreshadowed His Savior on the cross.

6.      Related to this is the idea that, David here can demand God’s forgiveness and a complete washing away of his sins, yet not fully understand the basis for God’s ability for forgive him.

7.      These are doctrines which are built up and progressively revealed throughout the Bible. Again, progressive revelation builds truth upon truth; each additional truth builds upon, expands, and better explains that which was already taught. New revelation does not supersede, replace or nullify previous revelation, but is founded upon that which is past and upon that which is foundational.

8.      This is one reason that dual authorship is so important. Abraham and David, in Gen. 22 and in Psalm 22, respectively, did not fully realize what it was that they were teaching. They were recording events in their own lives. God the Holy Spirit, Who knows the end from the beginning, understood the big picture, and uses these passages to reveal to us our Lord on the cross.

9.      Therefore, not every believer in the Old Testament understood soteriology in its entirety. What they did not know or understand, God the Holy Spirit was still able to reveal.

10.    In fact, this information is revealed so well in Gen. 22, Psalm 22 and Isa. 53, that few theologians look at these passages critically and realize that the authors of these passages did not understand fully and completely what they were saying—they understood one aspect of their writing (for instance, Abraham fully understood the historical circumstances which took place in Gen. 22 and he recorded them accurately)—but they did not realize, necessarily, that they were writing about the Savior Who would die for their sins.

11.    God the Holy Spirit understands the historical incidents and the spiritual information of all of these passages. As God, the Holy Spirit exists outside of time; therefore, what He reveals to us is based upon knowing the end from the beginning; it is based upon omniscience. Yet the Holy Spirit is able to take finite man, with finite experiences at some point in time, and translate that into eternal truth which stands for all time.

12.    Therefore, we, as Church Age believers, can read from these 3 chapters and have a greater understanding of what these chapters mean because we are guided by the Divine Author, God the Holy Spirit (and, ideally speaking, we are guided by a pastor who has studied and is able to properly teach these passages).

13.    Progressive revelation is quite persuasive in this way: those who lay the foundation for these doctrines which we learn, did not fully understand those doctrines themselves. The examples I gave—the writers of Gen. 22, Psalm 22 and Isa. 53 did not fully understand all that they were writing. They did not have a complete Christology in their thinking as they wrote those words. Yet, what they wrote was so completely and thoroughly integrated with Christology that, we have a greater understanding of what occurred while Jesus was on the cross from these 3 chapters than we have in the New Testament. Now, how is it that someone living 700 years before the cross, writes about the cross? How is it that someone living 1000 years before the cross writes about the cross? How is it that someone living 2000 years before our Lord, writes about the cross? How is this even possible? This is the power of God the Holy Spirit, Who inspired and guided these writers. What is even more amazing is, how do these men write about the cross of our Lord and yet they themselves do not fully understand it?

14.    Let me give you an analogy. How is it possible for one crew of workers to come in and lay a foundation for a house and then for a completely different set or workers—who do not know the first set of workers—to come in, a few days later, and build a house upon that foundation? They have to all be working from the same set of plans. If they have the exact same set of plans, then this is easy. Any crew can do it. They don’t ever have to meet or know one another. One crew of 5 can be followed by another crew of 10, so that there is no overlap, no common foreman, and yet, the house which is built perfectly matches the foundation. That is what we have in the Bible. The unifying factor in building a house is, of course, the house plans. The various contractors must have a copy of the house plans and they work based upon those plans. In the writing of the Bible, the unifying factor is God the Father, who planned this all out, and God the Holy Spirit who guided the writers of Scripture. According to the grace of God given to me, like a skilled master builder I laid a foundation, and someone else is building upon it. Let each one take care how he builds upon it (1Cor. 3:10).

15.    Let me continue with this analogy. Those workmen who lay the foundation for the house do not need to know what the house actually looks like. Their concern is the foundation and seeing to it that whatever wiring and plumbing that is needed is laid in the foundation. If you have an island kitchen then, very likely, you have electricity built into that island kitchen, which wiring comes up through the foundation. This had to be placed there by those who laid the foundation. They do not have to visualize the island kitchen in order to lay the foundation for it.

16.    A foundation crew might lay a dozen foundations over a week’s time. They would be unable to determine, without looking at the rest of the plans, just how the final product will look. They don’t know if the style of the house will be Victorian or Old English or Contemporary. 12 months later, they might drive down the street where they laid out a foundation, and not even be able to pick out the house that they laid the foundation for.

17.    So this is with David, who wrote this Psalm 51. He knows that he can demand that God thoroughly cleanse him. He knows that God is abundant in mercy and graciousness. However, David does not fully understand why God is able to do this. David can reasonably understand the essence of God, that He is righteous, just, eternal, gracious, truth and love. However, exactly how all of these attributes interrelate and interact with respect to the sins that David has committed—David doesn’t know all of that.

18.    At salvation, you had a lot of ideas about God, most of which were probably wrong. However, in time, you learned Who God is and why He is able to forgive you. You are able to see what the finished house looks like. David just laid the foundation. He knew some of the basic information about God, but he did not knew enough to put it altogether.

19.    The unifying factor in all of this is God the Holy Spirit, Who is just as much an Author of this psalm as is David. The Holy Spirit has these plans from God the Father, so the Holy Spirit is able to properly guide those who laid the foundation for our faith. Therefore, you [gentiles] are no longer strangers and aliens, but you are fellow citizens with the saints and members of the household of God, built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the cornerstone, in whom the whole structure, being joined together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord. In Him you also are being built together into a dwelling place for God by the Spirit (Eph. 2:19–22).

The more you understand the intricacies of progressive revelation and dual authorship, the greater will be your appreciation for the Word of God.

See the entire Doctrine of The Dual Authorship of Scripture (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Let me suggest to you that this is what is happening. That tiny little masculine singular suffix at the end of this verse grabs our attention and makes us ask, what the heck? We further realize that, we do not have events like those described herein as a response to David’s many prayers during battle. In fact, there is very little supernatural in the life of David. He does not live a life filled with miracles; he did not commune face to face with God on a regular basis (he probably never heard the voice of God or saw a human manifestation of God). Therefore, David may be speaking of somewhat of a metaphorical response of God to David’s prayers; but the Holy Spirit is teaching us about something else. Therefore, let me suggest that, we are prophetically at the end of the Tribulation. God’s people, the saved Jews, are in all kinds of trouble, facing all sorts of persecution, and this is God’s actual response to the attacks against His people.


There is a lot going on in this psalm, and we have progressed to a point where we can understand what is happening in this psalm.

David and the Key to 2Samuel 22

1.      What is remarkable about David’s life is the lack of the supernatural. Actually, this is not remarkable, because there is no reason for there to be a series of supernatural events attending to his being king over all Israel. Supernatural events have reasons for them to occur. They do not just happen because God decides, “I’m God, this is My universe, and now I am going to put on a show for the humans on earth.”

2.      When Moses led his people out of Egypt, there was a dramatic historical act which was unique in human history. God was calling out His people and taking them to the Land of Promise; and because nation Israel was a dramatic new thing on this earth, the exodus was accompanied by a number of miracles. There was no nation on earth like Israel.

3.      When Jesus had His earthly ministry, He needed to be set apart from all other men who had come before Him; so He performed a plethora of miracles which could not be denied. There was no man like Jesus.

4.      However, David has simply become king over Israel. He is not the first king; this is not the beginning of a dispensation. David is certainly not our savior. So, there is no reason for God to attend David’s life with miracles. There is no new dispensation being begun.

5.      However, the language of this psalm is quite remarkable. Vv. 6–9:

6.      The waves of death surround me, while the rushing waters of Belial fall upon me;

the cords of Sheol are all around me and the snares of death are in my pathway.

When distressed, I call out to Jehovah and to God;

He hears my voice from His Temple my cry for help reaches his ears.

The earth both trembles and shakes,

while the very foundations of heaven are shaken up,

for He is angry towards him.

Smoke ascends in His anger,

while the fire from His mouth devours everything in its path;

fiery coals sent from Him continue to burn.

7.      We certainly understand that David faced death on many occasions, and on these many occasions, he has called out to God. However, at no time do we have God coming to David, shaking the very foundations of the earth and heaven to answer David’s prayers. We have studied the many battles which David has been in, and when there was enough information, we studied the strategy and tactics of the battles. We did not have God coming down at every battle David was in and miraculously saving David with fire and earthquakes.

8.      Therefore, David is speaking metaphorically of God’s answering his prayers. David was delivered again and again from very difficult and life-threatening circumstances, as if with great and miraculous acts from God, even though none of this dramatic, miraculous stuff is actually occurring.

9.      This leads us to the conclusion that David is speaking about something else. Now, he may not be fully aware that he is speaking of something else. He may be inspired to write here what he writes, but we do not know that David fully understands what he is writing about.

10.    Given all of this, let me suggest that David, in at least portions of this psalm, is prophetically speaking of the end of the Great Tribulation, the suffering saints of God facing persecution, and God coming out of the heavens to deliver His people.

11.    At the same time, David does not necessarily know that he is writing about the 2nd advent and the Great Tribulation. He is taking the experiences of his life and expressing them poetically.

12.    God the Holy Spirit knows the end from the beginning, so He uses David’s experiences to tell us about things yet to come.

In many ways, David’s life is very much like our own, as believers in the Church Age. We don’t see miracles; we don’t see God face to face. We don’t wander into the nearest hospital and touch people, and they are miraculously healed. We lead normal, day-to-day lives. Now and again, there are things which occur in our periphery which may seem possibly miraculous—and some may be (R. B. Thieme III mentioned someone at Berachah who had cancer and then all traces of it disappeared). But our own lives are nothing like the lives of the disciples who, for 3–4, they walked beside Jesus and saw incredible miracles by His hand. However, we, as believers in the Church Age, do not require a plethora of miracles to attend our daily procession through life, as we have the complete Word of God given to us, which power is greater than any series of miracles.

The Pulpit Commentary understood that David’s language was metaphorical: the poetic vigour of David’s imagination intensities the imagery, and makes it more grand and startling. Not merely is there the earthquake and the volcano and the storm cloud, but the dim form of the Almighty is present, with the smoke of just anger at unrighteousness ascending from his nostrils, and the lightnings flashing forth to execute his wrath. But David certainly intended that these metaphors should remain ideal. Footnote


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


There are several passages in the Bible which speak of the shaking of the earth: Judges 5:4 Job. 26:11 Psalm 18:7 77:18 97:4 Nahum 1:5 Habbak. 3:6–11 Matt. 27:51 28:2 Acts 4:31. Footnote


——————————


Goes up smoke in His nostril,

and fire from His mouth devours.

Coals burn from Him.

2Samuel

22:9

Smoke ascends in His anger,

and fire from His mouth devours [all];

fiery coals from Him are burning.

Smoke ascends in His anger,

while the fire from His mouth devours everything in its path;

fiery coals sent from Him continue to burn.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          A smoke went up from his nostrils, and a devouring fire out of his mouth: coals were kindled by it.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        Goes up smoke in His nostril,

and fire from His mouth devours.

Coals burn from Him.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    There went up a smoke because of his anger, and fire kindled out of his face; and coals were kindled by it.

Septuagint (Greek)                There went up a smoke in His wrath, and fire out of His mouth devours; coals were kindled at it.

 

Significant differences:           The word nostril often refers to anger, wrath. In the second phrase, the Syriac appears to have face rather than mouth. There is no neuter in the Hebrew, so the it at the end of the Latin, Greek and Syriac is valid.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Smoke went up from God's nostrils;

out of his mouth came a devouring fire;

flaming coals blazed out in front of him!.

Contemporary English V.       The columns supporting the sky rocked back and forth. You were angry and breathed out smoke. Scorching heat and fiery flames spewed from your mouth. A portion of v. 8 is included for context.

Easy English                          Smoke came out of his nose.

Fire came out of his mouth,

and this fire made coals burn.

Easy-to-Read Version            Smoke came from God’s nose.

Burning flames came from his mouth,

Burning sparks flew from him.

The Message                         His nostrils flared, billowing smoke; his mouth spit fire. Tongues of fire darted in and out; he lowered the sky. A portion of v. 10 is included for context.

New Berkeley Version           The smoke from His nostrils arose,

and first from His mouth did consume;

live coals issued from Him in flame!

New Life Bible                        Smoke went up from His nose. Fire that destroyed came from His mouth. Burnt pieces of wood were set on fire by it.

New Living Translation           Smoke poured from his nostrils;

fierce flames leaped from his mouth.

Glowing coals blazed forth from him.

The Voice                               Smoke billowed out from His nostrils

and devouring fire from His mouth;

glowing coals flamed from Him.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Smoke ascended, because of His rage;

And the fire from His mouth was consuming,

For, even the coals burned away.

Christian Community Bible     From his nostrils smoke rose,

from his mouth a devouring fire

throwing off live embers.

God’s Word                         Smoke went up from his nostrils, and a raging fire came out of his mouth. Glowing coals flared up from it.

New Jerusalem Bible             Smoke rose from his nostrils, from his mouth devouring fire (coals were kindled at it).

New Simplified Bible              »You breathed out smoke. Scorching heat and fiery flames spewed from your mouth.

Revised English Bible            Smoke went up from his nostrils,

devouring fire from his mouth,

glowing coals and searing heat.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      Smoke ascended from his nose, and the fire from his mouth ate the coals ignited by it.

Bible in Basic English             There went up a smoke from his nose, and a fire of destruction from his mouth: coals were lighted by it.

The Expanded Bible              Smoke ·came out of his nose [poured/rose from his nostrils],

and ·burning [devouring] fire came out of his mouth.

Burning coals ·went before [blazed/flamed out from] him.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 A cloud was sent forth by His breath, And devouring fire from his mouth, Before him fierce coals were inflamed.

NET Bible®                             Smoke ascended from [Heb “within” or “[from] within.” For a discussion of the use of the preposition בְּ (bet) here, see R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological Study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” (Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983), 163-64.] his nose [Or “in his anger.” The noun אַף? (’af) can carry the abstract meaning “anger,” but the parallelism (note “from his mouth”) suggests the more concrete meaning “nose” here (most English versions, “nostrils”). See also v. 16, “the powerful breath of your nose.”];

fire devoured as it came from his mouth [Heb "fire from his mouth devoured." In this poetic narrative the prefixed verbal form is best understood as a preterite indicating past tense, not an imperfect. Note the two perfect verbal forms in the verse.] [For other examples of fire as a weapon in Old Testament theophanies and ancient Near Eastern portrayals of warring gods and kings, see R. B. Chisholm, "An Exegetical and Theological Study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22" (Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983), 165-67.];

he hurled down fiery coals [Heb "coals burned from him." Perhaps the psalmist pictures God's fiery breath igniting coals (see Job 41:21), which he then hurls as weapons (see Ps 120:4).].

NIV, ©2011                             Smoke rose from his nostrils;

consuming fire [Ps 50:3; 97:3; Heb 12:29; S Rev 11:5] came from his mouth,

burning coals [Isa 6:6; Eze 1:13; 10:2] blazed out of it.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           "Then the earth quaked and shook, the foundations of heaven trembled. They were shaken because he was angry.

exeGeses companion Bible   Smoke from his nostrils ascend

and fire from his mouth consumes:

coals burn away by it.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               Smoke went up from His nostrils,

From His mouth came devouring fire;

Live coals blazed forth from Him.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           There went up an ashan (smoke) out of His nostrils, and eish out of His peh (mouth) devoured; coals were kindled by it.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    Gone up has smoke by His nostrils. And fire from His mouth devours, Brands have been kindled by it.

English Standard V. – UK       Smoke went up from his nostrils [Or in his wrath], and devouring fire from his mouth; glowing coals [ver. 13] flamed forth from him.

The Geneva Bible                  There went up a smoke [That is, clouds, and vapours. ] out of his nostrils, and fire [Lightening and thundering.] out of his mouth devoured: coals were kindled by it.

Green’s Literal Translation    Smoke rose up in His nostrils, and fire devoured out of His mouth; coals were kindled by it.

Kretzmann’s Commentary    There went up a smoke out of His nostrils, the snorting being a sign of His anger, and fire out of His mouth devoured, like a fire ready to consume everything that comes into its path; coals were kindled by it, glowing coals burned out of Him. The picture is that of the rising of a storm-cloud and the flaming of the sheet-lightning which announces the storm.

New RSV                               Smoke went up from his nostrils,

and devouring fire from his mouth;

glowing coals flamed forth from him.

World English Bible                There went up a smoke out of his nostrils, Fire out of his mouth devoured: Coals were kindled by it.

Young’s Updated LT             Gone up has smoke by His nostrils. And fire from His mouth devours, Brands have been kindled by it.

 

The gist of this verse:          Smoke come out from God’s nostrils (His nostrils represents His anger; anger suggest judgment). Fire from His mouth devours, starting fires all over.


2Samuel 22:9a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʿâlâh (עָלָה) [pronounced ģaw-LAWH]

to go up, to ascend, to come up, to rise, to climb

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #5927 BDB #748

ʿâshân (עָשָן) [pronounced ģaw-SHAWN]

smoke; vapor, dust; anger

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #6227 BDB #798

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʾaph (חּאַף) [pronounced ahf]

nose, nostril, but is also translated face, brow, anger, wrath

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #639 BDB #60


Translation: Smoke ascends in His anger,... These are different ways of describing God’s anger. The first appears to be smoke ascending, suggesting destruction on earth.


When we are speaking of God’s anger, this means, then, that we are speaking of judgment. God judged both David’s enemies and He will judge those who seek the lives of His people in the end times.


2Samuel 22:9b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾesh (אֶש) [pronounced aysh]

fire, lightning, supernatural fire; presence of Yehowah, the attendance of a theophany

feminine singular noun

Strong's #784 BDB #77

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

peh (פֶּה) [pronounced peh]

mouth [of man, animal; as an organ of speech]; opening, orifice [of a river, well, etc.]; edge; extremity, end

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #6310 BDB #804

ʾâkal (אָכַל) [pronounced aw-KAHL]

to eat; to devour, to consume, to destroy

3rd person feminine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #398 BDB #37


Translation: ...and fire from His mouth devours [all];... God’s mouth is from where He pronounces judgement; and fire represents the judgement which God has pronounced. All that is judged is devoured by fire (fire represents judgment and is the final judgment for the lost).


2Samuel 22:9c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

gacheleth (גַּחֶלֶת) [pronounced gah-KHEH-leth]

coal, burning coal; fiery (or, hot) coals, embers

feminine plural noun

Strong’s #1513 BDB #160

bâʿar (בָּעַר) [pronounced baw-ĢAHR]

to burn, to begin to burn, to kindle; to be burning; to consume

3rd person plural, Qal perfect

Strong’s #1197 BDB #128

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #4480 BDB #577


Translation: ...fiery coals from Him are burning. This suggests that perhaps God’s judgement goes further than temporal pain, but that there is possibly an eternal judgment involved here.


God brings His judgment against all the enemies of His people.

 

Keil and Delitzsch: When the Lord rises up from His heavenly temple to come down upon the earth to judgment, the whole world trembles at the fierceness of His wrath. Not only does the earth tremble, but the foundations of the heavens shake: the whole universe is moved. Footnote


The Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge lists a number of verses which associate fire and flame with God’s judgment: Ex. 15:7, Ex. 15:8 19:18 24:17 Deut. 32:22 2Sam. 22:16 Job. 4:9 41:20, 21 Psalm 18:8, 15 97:3–5 Isa. 30:27, 33 Jer. 5:14 15:14 Heb. 12:29. Footnote


——————————


And He stretched out heavens

and so He came down

and a dark cloud [was] under His feet.

2Samuel

22:10

He spread apart the heavens

and came down,

but a dark cloud [was] under His feet.

He opens up the heavens and comes down; but under His feet was a dark cloud.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          He bowed the heavens, and came down: and darkness was under his feet.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And He stretched out heavens

and so He came down

and a dark cloud [was] under His feet.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    He bowed the heavens and came down; and darkness was under his feet.

Septuagint (Greek)                And He bowed the heavens, and came down, and there was darkness under His feet.

 

Significant differences:           Bowed is one of the translations of the Hebrew verb found here.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       You opened the heavens like curtains, and you came down with storm clouds under your feet.

Easy-to-Read Version            The Lord tore open the sky

and came down!

He stood on a thick, dark cloud!

Good News Bible (TEV)         He tore the sky open and came down, with a dark cloud under his feet.

The Message                         ...he lowered the sky. He stepped down; under his feet an abyss opened up.

New Life Bible                        He tore open the heavens and came down, with darkness under His feet.

New Living Translation           He opened the heavens and came down;

dark storm clouds were beneath his feet.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          'He leaned on the sky and it fell,

So, darkness was under His feet.

God’s Word                         He spread apart the heavens and came down with a dark cloud under his feet.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       He bade heaven stoop, and came down to earth, with mist at his feet;...

New American Bible (2011)   He parted the heavens and came down,

a dark cloud under his feet. Ps 144:5.

NIRV                                      He opened the heavens and came down.

Dark clouds were under his feet.

New Jerusalem Bible             He parted the heavens and came down, a storm-cloud underneath his feet;...

New Simplified Bible              »You opened the heavens like curtains. You came down with storm clouds under your feet.

Today’s NIV                          He parted the heavens and came down; dark clouds were under his feet.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      He fixed the heavens, and descended with a mist under his feet.

Bible in Basic English             The heavens were bent, so that he might come down; and it was dark under his feet.

The Expanded Bible              He ·tore open [parted; bowed] the ·sky [heavens] and came down

with ·dark clouds [storm clouds; thick darkness] under his feet.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 And He bent down the skies and descended, And darkness was under His feet!

NET Bible®                             He made the sky sink [The verb נָטָה (natah) can carry the sense “[to cause to] bend; [to cause to] bow down” (see HALOT 693 s.v. נָטָה). For example, Gen 49:15 pictures Issachar as a donkey that “bends” its shoulder or back under a burden (cf. KJV, NASB, NRSV “He bowed the heavens”; NAB “He inclined the heavens”). Here the Lord causes the sky, pictured as a dome or vault, to bend or sink down as he descends in the storm.] as he descended;

a thick cloud was under his feet.

NIV – UK                                He parted the heavens and came down;

dark clouds were under his feet.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           He lowered heaven and came down with thick darkness under his feet.

exeGeses companion Bible   He spreads the heavens and descends;

and dripping darkness is under his feet:...

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               He bent the sky and came down,

Thick cloud beneath His feet.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           He bowed HaShomayim also, and came down; and a dark cloud was under His raglayim.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And He inclines heaven, and comes down, And thick darkness [is] under His feet.

Context Group Version          He bowed the skies { or heavens } also, and came down; And thick darkness was under his feet.

The Geneva Bible                  He bowed the heavens [So it seems when the air is dark.] also, and came down; and darkness [was] under his feet.

Kretzmann’s Commentary    He bowed the heavens also, for the lowering storm-clouds seem to draw the heaven down to the earth, and came down; and darkness was under His feet, a symbol of the terror struck by God's wrath, as He hides His face in darkness.

New King James Version       He bowed the heavens also, and came down

With darkness under His feet.

World English Bible                He bowed the heavens also, and came down; Thick darkness was under his feet.

Young’s Updated LT             And He inclines heaven, and comes down, And thick darkness is under His feet.

 

The gist of this verse:          God opened up or spread the heavens apart; and then He came down, with a thick darkness under His feet.


We continue with God bringing judgment to this earth.


2Samuel 22:10a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

nâţâh (נָטָה) [pronounced naw-TAWH]

to stretch out, to spread out, to reach out; to pitch [a tent]; to bow, to extend, to incline, to turn

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #5186 BDB #639

shâmayîm (שָמַיִם) [pronounced shaw-MAH-yim]

heaven, heavens, skies; the visible heavens, as in as abode of the stars or as the visible universe, the sky, atmosphere, etc.; Heaven (as the abode of God)

masculine dual noun

Strong’s #8064 BDB #1029


Translation: He spread apart the heavens... I think the sense here is not that God spread out the heavens, but that He spread them apart, allowing for His entry onto the earth. Quite a number of other translators seem to agree with this. This is simply a visual, but not necessarily exactly what happened.


2Samuel 22:10b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

yârad (יָרַד) [pronounced yaw-RAHD]

to descend, to come down, to go down

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #3381 BDB #432


Translation: ...and came down,... And God came down to the earth. Jesus will have two advents—future to this psalm. The 1st advent, He comes and dies for our sins; in the 2nd advent, he brings judgment upon the earth.


Now, God does not have to come down to earth in order to judge earth. God is omnipresent. This is what it appears to be to those on earth.


As discussed under the omnipresence of God, God will manifest Himself in various places in various forms.


2Samuel 22:10c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʿărâphel (עֲרָפֶל) [pronounced ģur-aw-FELL]

cloud, heavy or dark cloud, darkness, gross darkness, thick darkness

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #6205 BDB #791

tachath (תַּחַת) [pronounced TAH-khahth]

underneath, below, under, beneath; instead of, in lieu of; in the place [in which one stands]; in exchange for; on the basis of

preposition of location or foundation

Strong’s #8478 BDB #1065

regel (רֶגֶל) [pronounced REH-gel]

foot, feet

feminine dual noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #7272 BDB #919

Not sure if this is a plural (as per Owen) or a dual.


Translation: ...but a dark cloud [was] under His feet. The dark cloud under His feet speaks of judgment.

 

Keil and Delitzsch write: “He separated the heavens” to come down. ערפל, which is frequently connected with ענן, signifies cloudy darkness, or dark clouds. The substratum of this description is the fact that in a severe storm the heavens seem to sink down upon the earth with their dark clouds. The Lord draws near riding upon black thunder-clouds, “that the wicked may not behold His serene countenance, but only the terrible signs of His fierce wrath and punishment” (J. H. Michaelis). Footnote


Clouds and thick darkness are also associated with judgment from God: Ex. 20:21 Deut. 4:11 1Kings 8:12 Psalm 97:2 104:3 Matt. 27:45 Luke 23:44, 45. Footnote


——————————


And so He rides upon a cherub

and so He flies

and so He is seen upon wings of the wind.

2Samuel

22:11

He rides upon a cherub

and flies [above the earth];

He is seen [carried by] the wings of the wind.

He rides upon a cherub and flies above the earth; He is seen carried along by the wings of the wind.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          And he rode upon the cherubims, and flew: and slid upon the wings of the wind.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so He rides upon a cherub

and so He flies

and so He is seen upon wings of the wind.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And he rode upon a cherub, and did fly; he flew mightily upon the wings of the wind.

Septuagint (Greek)                And He rode upon the cherubim and flew, and was seen upon the wings of the wind.

 

Significant differences:           The Latin appears to have the plural of cherub here instead.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           God mounted the heavenly creatures and flew;

he was seen on the wind's wings.

Contemporary English V.       You rode on the backs of flying creatures. You appeared with the wind as wings.

Easy English                          He rode and flew on a cherub (type of *angel who had wings).

He flew quickly on the wings of the wind.

Easy-to-Read Version            He was flying,

riding on the flying Cherub angels,

riding on the wind.

Good News Bible (TEV)         He flew swiftly on his winged creature; he traveled on the wings of the wind.

The Message                         He rode a winged creature, swift on wind-wings.

New Berkeley Version           He rode on a cherub [Cherubim are angelic beings, appearing in human form bu also having wings (Ezek. 1:5 compare 10:1). God’s “riding upon” one may have been taken from the fact of His glory appearing between the cherubim on the ark (see 2Sam. 6:2 Ex. 25:20–21)] and flew,

appearing on sings of the wind.

New Century Version             He rode a creature with wings and flew.

He raced on the wings of the wind.

New Living Translation           Mounted on a mighty angelic being [Hebrew a cherub.], he flew,

soaring [As in some Hebrew manuscripts (see also Ps 18:10); other Hebrew manuscripts read appearing.] on the wings of the wind.

The Voice                               He rode upon a heavenly creature [Hebrew, cherub], flying;

He soared swiftly on the wings of the wind.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          He mounted a cherub upon its spread wings,

And He was seen on the wings of the winds.

Beck’s American Translation He rode on a cherub and flew,

darting on the wings of the wind.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       ...he came, mounted on the cherubim, borne up on the wings of the wind,...

New American Bible (2002)   He mounted a cherub and flew, borne on the wings of the wind. He mounted a cherub: since God makes the winds his messengers, or "angels" (⇒ Psalm 104:4), he is spoken of poetically as riding on the clouds, or on the angelic creatures called "cherubim." His earthly throne above the ark of the covenant was likewise associated with two winged cherubim; cf ⇒ Exodus 37:7-9. In both senses the Lord is enthroned upon the cherubim; cf ⇒ Psalm 79:2; ⇒ 99:1.

New American Bible (2011)   Mounted on a cherub [Mounted on a cherub: in the traditional storm theophany, as here, the Lord appears with thunder, lightning, earthquake, rain, darkness, cloud, and wind. Sometimes these are represented as his retinue; sometimes he is said to ride upon the clouds or "the wings of the wind" (Ps 104:3). The parallelism in v. 11 suggests that the winged creatures called cherubim are imagined as bearing the Lord aloft. In the iconography of the ark of the covenant, the Lord was "enthroned upon the cherubim"; cf. Ex 37:7-9; 1 Sm 4:4; 2 Sm 6:2; 2 Kgs 19:15; Ps 80:2; 99:1.] he flew,

borne along on the wings of the wind. Ex 25:18-22.

NIRV                                      He got on the cherubim and flew.

The wings of the wind lifted him up.

New Jerusalem Bible             ...riding one of the winged creatures, he flew, soaring on the wings of the wind.

New Simplified Bible              »You rode on the angels as you flew. You soared on the wings of the wind.

Revised English Bible            He flew on the back of a cherub,

he swooped on the sings of the wind.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      He rode over a cherub, and flew, seen over the wings of the spirit-wind.

Bible in Basic English             And he went through the air, seated on a storm-cloud: going quickly on the wings of the wind.

The Expanded Bible              He rode a ·creature with wings [cherub; Ca mighty spiritual being/angel; Ezek. 1] and flew.

·He raced [.soaring] on the wings of the wind.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 And He rode on the whirlwind and dew, And was seen on the wings of the wind.;...

NET Bible®                             He mounted [Or "rode upon."] a winged angel [Heb "a cherub" (so KJV, NAB, NRSV); NIV "the cherubim" (plural); TEV "his winged creature"; CEV "flying creatures."] [A winged angel. Cherubs, as depicted in the Old Testament, possess both human and animal (lion, ox, and eagle) characteristics (see Ezek 1:10; 10:14, 21; 41:18). They are pictured as winged creatures (Exod 25:20; 37:9; 1 Kgs 6:24-27; Ezek 10:8, 19) and serve as the very throne of God when the ark of the covenant is in view (Pss 80:1; 99:1; see Num 7:89; 1 Sam 4:4; 2 Sam 6:2; 2 Kgs 19:15). The picture of the Lord seated on the cherubs suggests they might be used by him as a vehicle, a function they carry out in Ezek 1:22-28 (the "living creatures" mentioned here are identified as cherubs in Ezek 10:20). In Ps 18:10 the image of a cherub serves to personify the wind (see the next line).] and flew;

he glided [The translation follows very many medieval Hebrew mss in reading וַיֵּדֶא (vayyÿde’, “and he glided”; cf. NIV “soared”; NCV “raced”) rather than MT וַיֵּרָא (vayyera’, “and he appeared,” so NASB, CEV). See as well the Syriac Peshitta, Targum, Vulgate, and the parallel version in Ps 18:10, which preserves the original reading (see the note there).] on the wings of the wind [The wings of the wind. Verse 10 may depict the Lord mounting a cherub, which is in turn propelled by the wind current. Another option is that two different vehicles (a cherub and the wind) are envisioned. A third option is that the wind is personified as a cherub. For a discussion of ancient Near Eastern parallels to the imagery in v. 10, see M. Weinfeld, "`Rider of the Clouds' and `Gatherer of the Clouds'," JANESCU 5 (1973): 422-24.].

NIV, ©2011                             He mounted the cherubim [S Ge 3:24; S Ex 25:22] and flew;

he soared [Many Hebrew manuscripts (see also Psalm 18:10); most Hebrew manuscripts appeared] on the wings of the wind [Ps 104:3].


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           He rode on a keruv and flew, he was seen on the wings of the wind.

exeGeses companion Bible   ...and he rides on a cherub and flies

- and is seen on the wings of the spirit/wind:...

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               He mounted a cherub and flew,

He was seen [Psalm 18:11 “Gliding.”] on the wings of the wind.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           He bowed HaShomayim also, and came down; and a dark cloud was under His raglayim.

The Scriptures 1998              “And He rode upon a keru, and flew, And was seen upon the wings of the wind.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Context Group Version          And he rode on a cherub, and flew; Yes, he was seen on the wings of the wind.

English Standard Version      He rode on a cherub and flew; he was seen on the wings of the wind.

The Geneva Bible                  And he rode upon a cherub [To fly in a moment through the world. ], and did fly: and he was seen upon the wings of the wind.

Kretzmann’s Commentary    And He rode upon a cherub, as a bearer of the divine majesty and glory, and did fly; and He was seen upon the wings of the wind, as the bearers of the appearance of His glory.

NASB                                     "And He rode [2 Sam 6:2] on a cherub and flew;

And He appeared [Many mss read sped] on the wings of the wind [Ps 104:3].

New King James Version       He rode upon a cherub, and flew;

And He was seen [Following Masoretic Text and Septuagint; many Hebrew manuscripts, Syriac, and Vulgate read He flew (compare Psalm 18:10); Targum reads He spoke with power.] upon the wings of the wind.

World English Bible                He rode on a cherub, and did fly; Yes, he was seen on the wings of the wind.

Young’s Updated LT             And He rides on a cherub, and He does fly, And is seen on the wings of the wind.

 

The gist of this verse:          God rides upon a cherub; flying. He is held aloft by the wings of the wind.


2Samuel 22:11a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

râkab (רָכַב) [pronounced raw-KAHBV]

to mount, to mount and ride [sit], to ride; to ride in a chariot

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #7392 BDB #938

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of relative proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

kerûwb (כְּרוּב) [pronounced keroobv]

transliterated cherub; and means angel [and perhaps a particular group of them]

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #3742 (and #3743) BDB #500


Translation: He rides upon a cherub... This is interesting imagery, simply because God is omnipresent and has no need of being upheld by some other force. However, Jesus, in His humanity, might be borne by angels.


We find similar imagery in other places in Scripture: Jehovah reigns; let the peoples tremble. He sits between the cherubs; let the earth quake. (Psalm 99:1; MKJV). And I looked, and behold! In the expanse over the head of the cherubs was seen the appearance of the form of a throne, like a sapphire stone, above them. And He spoke to the man clothed with linen, and said, Go in among the wheels, under the cherub, and fill your hands with coals of fire from between the cherubs, and scatter them on the city. And he went in before me. And the cherubs were standing on the right side of the house when the man went in; and the cloud filled the inner court. And the glory of Jehovah rose from the cherub, over the threshold of the house. And the house was filled with the cloud, and the court was full of the brightness of Jehovah's glory. And the sound of the cherubs' wings was heard over the outer court, as the voice of the Almighty God when He speaks. (Ezek. 10:1–5; MKJV) But to which of the angels, did He say at any time, "Sit on My right hand until I make Your enemies Your footstool?" Are they not all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for those who shall be heirs of salvation? (Heb. 1:13–14; MKJV) We find this same imagery in Ezek. 1.


Jesus has always been the Revealed God; He is seen by angels and He has allowed Himself to be seen by men.


Although there are few descriptions of the Revealed God, when made manifest to men, most of the time, He appears to reveal Himself as a man. We find this in Gen. 18:1–2. As a man, He might allow Himself to be carried by a winged angel.


God is clearly omnipotent (Gen. 17:1 Psalm 33:9 Isa. 46:9–10 Jer. 27:5 Heb. 1:3 Rev. 19:6), so, why are angels transporting Him from point A to point B? Let me offer two reasons. A great king might be carried around on his throne throughout the city in, say, a parade, or as part of a military victory. The king himself may have even participated in the military attack and is clearly able to walk on his own. However, being carried on the shoulders of 10 men is more of a testimony of the king’s royalty and position in that society. Secondly, as a part of the Angelic Conflict, when God requires a host of angels to carry Him from point A to point B, that must mean that something remarkable is going on. We do not know exactly what angels do all of the time, but my guess is, they don’t just sit around wishing they had something to do. Now, much of their time might be in observation, but when the Revealed God calls upon a convocation to transport Him, then where God is going is a place worthy of observation (and that will be by both fallen and elect angels).


2Samuel 22:11b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʿûph (עוּף) [pronounced ģoopf]

to flutter; it is translated both to fly [away, to] (Job 5:7 Isa. 11:14) and to be in a deep sleep; to be weary (Judges 4:21 1Sam. 14:25 2Sam. 21:15)

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #5774 BDB #733


Translation: ...and flies [above the earth];... God appears to be flying in the heavens above. He rides upon a cherub. Although little is said of God’s appearance when meeting Abraham, most of the time, He apparently revealed Himself as a man (again, Gen. 18:1–2).


2Samuel 22:11c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s&