2Samuel 24

 

2Samuel 24:1–25

David Orders a Military Census


These studies are designed for believers in Jesus Christ only. If you have exercised faith in Christ, then you are in the right place. If you have not, then you need to heed the words of our Lord, Who said, “For God so loved the world that He gave His only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son, so that every [one] believing [or, trusting] in Him shall not perish, but shall be have eternal life! For God did not send His Son into the world so that He should judge the world, but so that the world shall be saved through Him. The one believing [or, trusting] in Him is not judged, but the one not believing has already been judged, because he has not believed in the Name of the only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son of God.” (John 3:16–18). “I am the Way and the Truth and the Life! No one comes to the Father except through [or, by means of] Me!” (John 14:6).


Every study of the Word of God ought to be preceded by a naming of your sins to God. This restores you to fellowship with God (1John 1:8–10). If there are people around, you would name these sins silently. If there is no one around, then it does not matter if you name them silently or whether you speak aloud.


These exegetical studies are not designed for you to read each and every word. For instance, the Hebrew exegesis is put into greyish tables, so that if you want to skip over them, that is fine. If you question a translation, you can always refer back to the appropriate Hebrew tables to sort it all out.

 

The intent is to make this particular study the most complete and most accurate examination of 2Samuel 24 which is available in writing. The idea is to make every phrase, verse and passage understandable; and to make application of all that is studied.

 

Besides teaching you the doctrinal principles related to this chapter, this commentary is also to help bring this narrative to life, so that you can understand the various characters, their motivations, and the choices that they make. Ideally, you will be able to visualize the peoples and armies as they move across the landscape of the Land of Promise.


Ralph Waldo Emerson: 'Tis pedantry to estimate nations by the census, or by square miles of land, or other than by their importance to the mind of the time.

 

Andy Rooney: I hope all of you are going to fill out your census form when it comes in the mail next month. If you don't return the form the area you live in might get less government money and you wouldn't want that to happen, would you.

 

Michele Bachmann: If we look at American history, between 1942 and 1947, the data that was collected by the Census Bureau was handed over to the FBI and other organizations at the request of President Roosevelt, and that's how the Japanese were rounded up and put into the internment camps.

 

Tom G. Palmer: The reason the government sells the census as your ticket to getting goodies - rather than as your civic duty - is that distributing goodies is now all the government does. Footnote

 

Nisbet: It was very clear what David had an eye to in numbering the people. It was one of those steps which the kings of the nations around were accustomed to take from time to time when they wanted to know how strong they were and what wars they could carry on, what countries they could invade and what cities they could take. This was the way of the heathen world, whom the Israelites were specially bidden not to imitate. Footnote

 

Saturday Evening Post Graphic; The Census Taker by Norman Rockwell. From The Best Norman Rockwell Art, accessed May 25, 2014.

satevepostcensus.jpg

 

Peter Pett: History results from sinful man's random actions, is regularly prompted by Satan, but underneath is finally controlled by an omnipotent God. So when David was prompted by Satan, and took his own rational and sinful decision, behind it all could be seen YHWH's purpose of punishing Israel for its sinfulness. Footnote

 

Peter Pett: For David to number the people would be like the church counting up its converts so that it could rule them and pride itself in its achievements. Footnote

 

1Cor. 3:6–7 I [Paul] planted, Apollos watered, but God gave the growth. So then neither the one who plants nor the one who waters is anything, but only God who gives the growth. (HCSB)

 

J. Vernon McGee: Friend, faith is not a leap in the dark. It is not a gamble. Faith is not even a "hope so." Faith is a sure thing. God never asks you to believe something that is not true. Faith rests upon a rock, a sure foundation. The Lord Jesus Christ is the foundation. Faith, therefore, is not just leaping out into space.

 

McGee continues: However, there is a time in your life, my friend, when you need to live and move by faith and to recognize that you cannot live by your own effort or by numbers. Unfortunately, the church today has not learned to trust God. As a result, at the congregational meetings the spiritual victories are never mentioned. The things that are mentioned are how much we have in the treasury, how many we baptized this year, and how many members we took in. If the figures look pretty good, we consider that it is a great spiritual victory. Actually, it might have been the worst thing in the world that could have happened in that church. Footnote

 

Kukis: I would go so far as to say, based upon this passage, that Satan is the father of useless paperwork.

 

Kukis: There would be two reasons why God speaks to King David through an intermediary: (1) David is the king of Israel; the law of the land, as it were; and he needs to know that he is under God’s authority. Therefore, what better than a man of God to come to David, periodically, and let him know what’s what. (2) God uses an intermediary to look forward to Jesus Christ. We have no relationship with God apart from an intermediary.

 

Kukis: This chapter, as well as 2Sam. 12, sets up a precedence for much of the history of Israel. Although God allowed Israel to have kings, these kings were subject to the Law of Moses and to the Word of God as given by the prophets of God. David accepted the authority of the prophets Gad and Nathan. Therefore, this was to be the pattern for all subsequent kings of Israel.


Outline of Chapter 24:

 

Introduction

 

         vv.     1–9           David Sends his Army to Take a Census of Potential Warriors

         vv.    10–17         The Consequences of that Sin

         vv.    18–25         David Builds an Altar, Ending the Plague

 

Addendum


Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines:

 

         Preface               Quotations

         Preface               Saturday Evening Post Graphic; The Census Taker by Norman Rockwell

 

         Introduction         The Principals of 2Samuel 24

         Introduction         The Prequel of 2Samuel 24

         Introduction         The Abbreviated Davidic Timeline

         Introduction         Clarke’s Synopsis of 2Samuel 24

         Introduction         Matthew Henry’s Alternative Outline of 2Samuel 24

 

         v.       1              2Samuel 21–24 as a Chiasmos

         v.       1              Chart of the 2Samuel Addendum

         v.       1              The Anger of God

         v.       1              When Critics Ask on 2Samuel 24:1

         v.       1              God and Satan seemingly act in concert

         v.       2              A Condensed View of Joab

         v.       2              Theories as to why this census was a sin

         v.       2              What do we unequivocally know about David ordering this census?

         v.       2              Related Commentary to 2Samuel 24:1–2

         v.       2              What is wrong with David taking a census?

         v.       5              Map of Aroer

         v.       5              The Two Cities of Aroer

         v.       7              Easton on Tyre

         v.       7              Gill on Tyre

         v.       7              R. Totten on the prophecies concerning Tyre

         v.       7              Fausset on Beersheba

         v.       7              Map of the Empire of David and Solomon

         v.       8              2Samuel 24:8 Graphic

         v.       9              When Critics Ask on the Discrepancy of the Numbers

         v.      10              Peter Pett’s Chiasmos for 2Samuel 24:1–10

         v.      10              The Abbreviated Doctrine of Rebound (Confession of Personal Sin)

         v.      10              The Stages of Divine Discipline

         v.      10              2Samuel 24:10 Graphic

         v.      13              Logically, what can God do?

         v.      13              Grace Notes on “The Believer's Undeserved Suffering is Intended for Blessing”

         v.      13              David and Gad (a graphic)

         v.      14              Grace Bible Church’s “Doctrine of Authority”

         v.      14              Links to Doctrines of Authority

         v.      15              Peter Pett’s Chiasmatic Organization of 2Samuel 24:11–15

         v.      16              God and Repentance

         v.      16              The Abbreviated Doctrine of the Angel of Jehovah

         v.      16              ISBE on the Threshing Floor

         v.      16              Barnes on the Threshing Floor

         v.      18              Mount Moriah/The Threshing Floor of Araunah (Ornan)

         v.      18              ISBE on Events Related to the Threshing Floor

         v.      20              Araunah the Jebusite comes out to King David (graphic)

         v.      22              Araunah offers David whatever he needs to sacrifice to God (a graphic)

         v.      23              Angel Prophet Gad King David Altar Offering by De Jode-De Vos-1643

         v.      24              The Doctrine of Araunah

         v.      24              Isn’t Salvation Free?

         v.      24              2Samuel 24:24 Graphic

         v.      24              2Samuel 24:24 Graphic 2

         v.      25              The Abbreviated Doctrine of the Altar

         v.      25              The Bronze Altar (a graphic)

         v.      25              The Altar of Incense (a graphic)

         v.      25              Peter Pett’s Chiasmos of 2Samuel 24:16–25

         v.      25              The Final Parallel

         v.      25              Peter Pett’s Summary Notions of 2Samuel 24

         v.      25              Summary of the Remaining Chapters of Chronicles

 

         Addendum          Hajime Murai’s Chiasmos of 2Samuel 24

         Addendum          Chart of the 2Samuel Addendum

         Addendum          Robert L. (Bob) Deffinbaugh’s Lessons from Samuel

         Addendum          Why 2Samuel 24 is in the Word of God

         Addendum          What We Learn from 2Samuel 24

         Addendum          Josephus’ History of this Time Period

         Addendum          Edersheim Summarizes 2Samuel 24

         Addendum          A Complete Translation of 2Samuel 24

         Addendum          Word Cloud from a Reasonably Literal Paraphrase of 2Samuel 24

         Addendum          Word Cloud from Exegesis of 2Samuel 24

 

The End of the Book of Samuel


Chapter Outline

 

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines

Beginning of Document

Doctrines Covered and Alluded to

Chapters of the Bible Alluded to or Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Definition of Terms

Introduction

Addendum

www.kukis.org

 

Exegetical Studies in Samuel


Doctrines Covered

Doctrines Alluded To

Authority

 

Joab

Laws of Divine Establishment

 

Offering of Isaac

Revolution

 


Chapters of the Bible Alluded To or Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Genesis 22

1Samuel 9

1Chronicles 11

1Chronicles 21


Many who read and study this chapter are 1st or 2nd generation students of R. B. Thieme, Jr., so that much of this vocabulary is second nature. One of Bob’s contributions to theology is a fresh vocabulary along with a number of concepts which are theologically new or reworked, yet still orthodox. Therefore, if you are unfamiliar with his work, the definitions below will help you to fully understand all that is being said. In addition to this, I will use a number of other more traditional technical theological terms which will be used and therefore defined as well.

Definition of Terms

Angelic Conflict

During human history, there is another conflict being played out and tied to human history, which is call the Angelic Conflict. This began with the fall of Satan and has flowed into our own lives since Satan tempted the first woman to sin against God. The two primary objectives of Satan with respect to man are (1) to keep people from believing in Jesus Christ and (2) to keep believers from growing spiritually and participating in the production of divine good. See the Angelic Conflict (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Anthropopathism

This is the assignment of human feelings, passions or characteristics to God, attributing to Him feelings or characteristics which He does not possess. This often helps to explain God’s actions in human terms. For more information, see Bible Doctrine Resource.

Chiasmos

A chiasmos (also spelled chiasmus) is the way that some portions of the Bible are organized. It takes its name from the Greek letter chi (χ). The first section matches with the last, the second with the second-to-the-last, etc. It is called a chiasmos, because the inverted parallelism looks like a chi (actually, half a chi) when one looks at it from its organizational standpoint.

Pivot

In nearly any nation, there will be believers and there will be mature believers (which is called a pivot. If these groups are large enough, a nation will be preserved and, in most cases, greatly prospered. If the pivot is small, or if there are very few mature believers in this pivot, then that nation will go down. The concept of a pivot of believers preserving a nation is found in Gen. 18:22–33 Matt. 5:13. For more information, see Bible Doctrine Resource or R. B. Thieme, Jr. (these appear to be identical).

Rebound (Restoration to fellowship with God)

In the New Testament, this is naming your sins to God, so that you are both restored to temporal fellowship with God and are then filled with the Spirit of God. In the Old Testament, naming your sins to God would result in a restoration of fellowship and, in some cases, the empowerment of the Holy Spirit once again (the Holy Spirit was not given to all Old Testament believers). The Doctrine of Rebound (HTML) (PDF).

Type

Persons and events often foreshadow future persons and events. The real person or event in the past is called a type; and that which follows it as an historical parallel is it antitype. See Typology (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Some of these definitions are taken from

http://gracebiblechurchwichita.org/?page_id=1556

http://www.bibledoctrinechurch.org/?subpages/GLOSSARY.shtml

http://rickhughesministries.org/content/Biblical-Terms.pdf

http://www.gbible.org/index.php?proc=d4d

http://www.wordoftruthministries.org/termsanddefs.htm

http://www.realtime.net/~wdoud/topics.html

http://www.theopedia.com/


——————————


An Introduction to 2Samuel 24


I ntroduction: 2Sam. 24 is both the end of the appendix to the book of Samuel and the end of the book of Samuel itself. With the first verse, you will see how we know that this appendix is a literary unit. That is, one person added this appendix to the end of the book of Samuel.


We also see in the first verse that there is apparently a problem with the people of Israel, although the nature of that problem is not stated (although we can certainly speculate). Furthermore, it appears that God has David take the census, but in 1Chron. 21, it is Satan who motivates David to take a potential military census of the people. When David fully realizes that this is a sin, and confesses it to God, there are still consequences, and David is given a choice of 3 consequences.


The consequence which David chooses involves a plague over the land, which appears to move toward Jerusalem. God requires David to build an altar to stop the plague at the altar.


This also leads us into a theological question: how can God present 3 options to David? That is, let’s say that David chose a different option than option #3—how does God keep option #3 from occurring, and cause the other option to occur?


Like many of the narratives of the life of David, there is an overriding theme related to Jesus Christ and His sacrifice for our salvation, which will be made clear as we move further into this chapter.


Chronicles has a parallel passage in 1Chron. 21 (HTML) (PDF) (WPD). However, there are a great many more details in Chronicles than are found here.


Although there is no specific time assigned to this incident, it probably occurred late in David’s reign, as there are no battles or wars for his army to deal with.


We need to know who the people are who populate this chapter.

The Principals of 2Samuel 24

Characters

Biographical Material

Jehovah Elohim

This is God, who speaks to David through Gad the prophet.

The Angel of Yehowah

Also called the Messenger of the Lord; this appears to be Jesus Christ in a preincarnate form.

David

King David, ruler of Israel, and one of the principal character of the 2nd book of Samuel.

Gad

Gad is called a seer; he is a prophet who speaks for God to King David.

Joab

The head of David’s army who opposes taking the census, but will do so, under David’s insistence.

Araunah

Araunah is a Jebusite who lives outside of Jerusalem. There are a number of theories about his background. David will go to him, buy his oxen and some wood in order to make an offering to God, to stop the plague.

Very often, it is Yehowah Elohim is the way that we refer to Jesus in the Old Testament; however, here, it is a reference to God the Father.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


It is important to understand what has gone before.

The Prequel of 2Samuel 24

This incident appears to be fairly self-contained. This probably takes place after David stopped going out to war, accompanying his army. Therefore, this is probably during the latter half of David’s reign as king. This appears to be a time when there is no war going on, so David decides to use his army to take a census.

Sometimes, these prequels are quite short.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


This timeline is simply a shortened version of the David Timeline (HTML) (PDF), with a few principle events of David’s life recorded, along with the events of this chapter. Bracketed dates are derived from the Scripture, based upon author’s original premises.

The Abbreviated David Timeline

Fenton-Farrar

(F. L. Smith)

Reese’s Chronology Bible

Gerrit Verkuyl

(Bible Truth 4U)

Scripture

Narrative

[1085 b.c.]

(1055 b.c.)

[1040 b.c.]

Ruth 4:22

David is born.

1048 b.c.

(c. 1004 b.c.)

1018 b.c.

1003 b.c.

(1003 b.c.)

2Sam. 5:1–3

1Chron. 11:1–3

David becomes king over all Israel. He is still ruling from Hebron. David is approximately 37 years old, according to Bible Truth 4U.

 

 

 

2Sam. 5:4–5

 2Sam. 5:4–5 David was thirty years old when he began to reign. He reigned forty years. In Hebron he reigned over Judah 7 years and 6 months, and in Jerusalem he reigned 33 years over all Israel and Judah.

 

 

c. 994 b.c.

2Sam. 12:26–31

1Chron. 20:1b–3

Conflict with Ammonites is concluded.

1018 b.c.

988 b.c.

1005–995 b.c.

2Sam. 21:15–22

1Chron. 20:4–8

[Final?] Wars against the Philistines. And it happened after this [after the defeat of the Ammonites at Rabbah], that there stood a battle again with the Philistines in Gezer; then Sibbechai the Hushathite killed Sippai of the children of the giant, and they were humbled. (1Chron. 20:4; Green’s LT) 4 of the giants are listed in 2Sam. 21 and 3 of them in 1Chron. 20.

You will notice several problems with the dates above. The text of 1Chron. 20:4 clearly associates the taking of Rabbah with coming before this battle against the Philistines. F. F. and Reese place 2Sam. 21 as if it is chronological in the book of Samuel, when it is not. Gerrit Verkuyl (the New Berkeley Bible) recognizes that this battle (these battles) occurred much earlier—however, the clear text of the Bible places these battles after the taking of Rabbah (which conflicts with Verkuyl’s dating). I listed this set of events twice in this timeline, because of the disagreement about the dates.

1032 b.c.

1002 b.c.

c. 990 b.c.

(990 b.c.)

2Sam. 13:1–22

David’s son, Amnon, rapes David’s daughter, Tamar.

1030 b.c.


1001–999 b.c. 998 b.c. (Klassen – date was changed; typo in Reese)

[990–985 b.c.]

 2Sam. 13:23–39

David’s son Absalom kills Amnon and flees. 2Sam. 13:23 And it happened after 2 full years Absalom had sheepshearers in Baal-hazor, beside Ephraim. And Absalom invited all the king's sons. 2Sam. 13:38 And Absalom fled and went to Geshur, and was there 3 years.

1024 b.c.

994–993 b.c.

983–979 b.c.

(979–961 b.c.) (?)

2Sam. 15

Absalom rebels against David and David goes into exile. 2Sam. 15:6–10 And in this way Absalom did to all Israel that came to the king for judgment. And Absalom stole the hearts of the men of Israel. And it happened at the end of 40 (4?) years, Absalom said to the king, Please let me go and pay my vow which I have vowed to Jehovah in Hebron. For your servant vowed a vow while I lived at Geshur in Syria, saying, If Jehovah will indeed bring me again to Jerusalem, then I will serve Jehovah. And the king said to him, Go in peace. And he arose and went to Hebron. But Absalom sent spies throughout all the tribes of Israel, saying, As soon as you hear the sound of the ram's horn, then you shall say, Absalom reigns in Hebron! Many have said that this reading is corrupt and ought to be 4 years. Footnote

1023 b.c.

992 b.c.

c. 979 b.c.

2Sam. 17:24–18:18

David’s army defeats Absalom’s army in battle and Absalom is subsequently killed. Absalom is approximately 30 years old (Reese). According to Reese, David would be 63 years old and according to Fenton-Farrar, he would be 62 years old.

1023 b.c.

 

c. 979 b.c.

2Sam. 19:9–20

David returns to Jerusalem.

 

 

c. 979 b.c.

2Sam. 20:1–3

David returns to Jerusalem; Sheba ben Bichri prepares to revolt against David.

1022 b.c.

 

c. 979 b.c.

2Sam. 20:4–13

Joab kills Amasa.

 

 

c. 979 b.c.

2Sam. 20:14–22

Joab puts down Sheba’s rebellion.

From this point forward, there is a problem. These final chapters of 2Samuel did not occur in this sort of chronological order, and yet, these sources treat them as if they did. These final few chapters form an appendix to 2Samuel, not a continuation of it. Therefore, I have gone back and added Verkuyl, a source who understands this to be the case. The other sources simply treat these final chapters as if they are in chronological order, which they are not.

1021 b.c.

991–989 b.c.

992–900 b.c.

(Klassen)

c. 990 b.c.

(976–964 b.c.) (?)

2Sam. 21:1

Famine in Israel. 2Sam. 21:1 And there was a famine in the days of David 3 years, year after year. And David inquired of Jehovah. And Jehovah answered, For Saul, and for his bloody house, because he killed the Gibeonites.

[1021–1023 b.c.]

991–989 b.c.

992–900 b.c.

(Klassen)

c. 990 b.c.

(976–964 b.c.) (?)

2Sam. 21:2–9

Wrongs against Gibeonites corrected.

1018 b.c.

988 b.c.

1005–995 b.c.

2Sam. 21:15–22

1Chron. 20:4–8

[Final?] Wars against the Philistines. And it happened after this [after the defeat of the Ammonites at Rabah], that there stood a battle again with the Philistines in Gezer; then Sibbechai the Hushathite killed Sippai of the children of the giant, and they were humbled. (1Chron. 20:4; Green’s LT)

1018 b.c.

 

 

2Sam. 22:1–51

David’s song of thanksgiving.

1018 b.c.

 

970 b.c.

2Sam. 23:1–39

David’s roll call of military heroes.

1017 b.c.

988 b.c.

c. 995 b.c.

c. 975 b.c. Footnote

(975–965 b.c.) (?)

2Sam. 24:1–25

1Chron. 21:1–30

David is inspired by Satan to take a census and is disciplined by God. 2Sam. 24:13 And Gad came to David, and told him, and said to him, Shall 7 years of famine come upon you and on your land? Or will you flee three months before your enemies while they pursue you? Or shall there be three days' plague in your land? And advise, and see what answer I shall return to Him who sent me. 1Chron. 21:11–12 And Gad came to David and said to him, So says Jehovah, Choose for yourself: either 3 years of famine, or 3 months to be swept away before your foes, while the sword of your enemies overtake you, or else 3 days of the sword of Jehovah, even the plague in the land, and the angel of Jehovah destroying throughout all the border of Israel. And now say what word I shall bring again to Him who sent me.

1017 b.c.

 

975 b.c.

2Sam. 24

David numbers the people and God brings a plague upon Israel for discipline.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge dates this chapter as 1017 b.c. Footnote The Berkeley Bible and Dr. Thomas Constable Footnote have this as 975 b.c.


I will let Clarke do the heavy lifting here:

Clarke’s Synopsis of 2Samuel 24

David is tempted by Satan to number Israel and Judah (2Sam. 24:1). Joab remonstrates against it, but the king determines that it shall be done; and Joab and the captains accomplish the work, and bring the sum total to the king: viz.: eight hundred thousand warriors in Israel, and five hundred thousand in Judah (2Sam. 24:2–9).

David is convinced that he has done wrong; and the prophet Gad is sent to him, to give him his choice of three judgments, one of which God is determined to inflict upon the nation (2Sam. 24:10–13). David humbles himself before God; and a pestilence is sent, which destroys seventy thousand men (2Sam. 24:14–15).

The angel of the Lord being about to destroy Jerusalem, David makes intercession, and the plague is stayed (2Sam. 24:16–17). Gad directs him to build an altar to the Lord on the threshing–floor of Araunah, where the plague was stayed (2Sam. 24:18). He purchases this place for the purpose, and offers burnt–offerings and peace–offerings (2Sam. 24:19–25).

From Adam Clarke, Commentary on the Bible; from e-Sword, 2Sam. 24 chapter comments.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Here is an alternate outline to this chapter.

Matthew Henry’s Alternative Outline of 2Samuel 24

I.       David’s sin, which was numbering the people in the pride of his heart (2Sam. 24:1–9).

II.      His conviction of the sin, and repentance for it (2Sam. 24:10).

III.     The judgment inflicted upon him for it (2Sam. 24:11–15).

IV.     The staying of the judgment (2Sam. 24:16, 2Sam. 24:17).

V.      The erecting of an altar in token of God's reconciliation to him and his people (2Sam. 24:18–25).

From Matthew Henry, Commentary on the Whole Bible; from e-Sword, 2Sam. 24 chapter comments.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


There is an important observation in this chapter, which I believe has not found its way into any other commentary yet. God, by utilizing Nathan and Gad, the prophets, and David, the king obedient to God’s Word, God is setting up a pattern which will continue throughout much of Israel’s history. There is a king, and that king rules over all Israel. However, kings are subject to the Law of Moses and they are subject to the Word of God. Therefore, when prophets came to the kings after David, kings understood that they needed to listen to these prophets. Kings needed to recognize that these prophets represented the highest authority of the land, because they spoke the Word of God. Every king and every citizen of Israel knew this pattern, clearly established in the time of David; and only their great negative volition would reject a prophet of God (which would result in discipline for the king or for the people).

 

Charles Simeon: Sins, punishments, humiliations, forgivenesses, succeed each other in a melancholy train throughout the Bible, even as clouds after rain in the material world. Even the most pious characters have their faults and blemishes, which call forth the divine chastisements on themselves and others. We have here an account of David numbering the people, and bringing a heavy judgment on the whole land. Footnote


With this chapter, I add the International Standard Version to the translations which I consider. Although it is not word-for-word literal, it does have a unique voice, and is a great translation for reading. The footnotes seem to be pretty good as well.


——————————


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


David Sends his Army to Take a Census of Potential Warriors

1Chronicles 21:1–6


Kukis slavishly literal:

 

Kukis moderately literal:

And so adds a nostril of Yehowah to burn against Israel. And so he incites David against them, to say, “Go, number Israel and Judah.”

2Samuel

24:1

The anger of Yehowah again burned against Israel. [Satan] incited David against them, saying, “Go [and] number Israel and Judah.”

Kukis not so literal:

Again, the anger of Jehovah burned against Israel. Satan had incited David against them, saying, “Go and take a census of the people in Israel and in Judah.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:

 

Ancient texts:                       Note: I compare the Hebrew text to English translations of the Latin, Syriac and Greek texts, using the Douay-Rheims translation Footnote ; George Lamsa’s translation, and Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton’s translation as revised and edited by Paul W. Esposito, respectively. I often update these texts with non-substantive changes (e.g., you for thou, etc.). I often use the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible instead of Brenton’s translation, because it updates the English text.

 

The Septuagint was the earliest known translation of a book (circa 200 b.c.). Since this translation was made before the textual criticism had been developed into a science and because different books appear to be translated by different men, the Greek translation can sometimes be very uneven.

 

When there are serious disparities between my translation and Brenton’s (or the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible), I look at the Greek text of the Septuagint (the LXX) to see if a substantive difference actually exists (and I reflect these changes in the English rendering of the Greek text). I use the Greek LXX with Strong’s numbers and morphology available for e-sword. The only problem with this resource (which is a problem for similar resources) is, there is no way to further explore Greek verbs which are not found in the New Testament. Although I usually quote the Complete Apostles’ Bible here, I have begun to make changes in the translation when their translation conflicts with the Greek and note what those changes are.

 

The Masoretic text is the Hebrew text with all of the vowels (vowel points) inserted (the original Hebrew text lacked vowels). We take the Masoretic text to be the text closest to the original. However, differences between the Masoretic text and the Greek, Latin and Syriac are worth noting and, once in a great while, represent a more accurate text possessed by those other ancient translators.

 

In general, the Latin text is an outstanding translation from the Hebrew text into Latin and very trustworthy (I say this as a non-Catholic). Unfortunately, I do not read Latin—apart from some very obvious words—so I am dependent upon the English translation of the Latin (principally, the Douay-Rheims translation).

 

Underlined words indicate differences in the text.

 

Bracketed portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls are words, letters and phrases lost in the scroll due to various types of damage. Underlined words or phrases are those in the Dead Sea Scrolls but not in the Masoretic text.

 

I will only list the translation from the Dead Sea Scrolls if it exists and if it is different from the Masoretic text.

 

Included with the ancient translations will be the text of 1Chron. 21, the parallel passage. It is clear from the very beginning that these two passages were never identical. Once and awhile, there might be something in 1Chron. 21 which helps to explain the Samuel text. For this reason, there will be no underlining of the Chronicles text. Generally speaking, there is less in the Chronicles text than in the Samuel text.


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          And the anger of the Lord was again kindled against Israel, and stirred up David among them, saying: Go, number Israel and Juda.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so adds a nostril of Yehowah to burn against Israel. And so he incites David against them, to say, “Go, number Israel and Judah.”

Peshitta (Syriac)                    AND again the anger of the LORD was kindled against Israel, and he incited David against them and said to him, Go, number Israel and Judah.

Septuagint (Greek)                And the Lord caused His anger to burn forth again in Israel, and Satan stirred up David against them, saying, Go, number Israel and Judah.

1Chron. 21:1 (VW)                 Now Satan stood up against Israel, and moved David to number Israel.

 

Significant differences:           The word nostril is often translated anger. The Greek text has Satan. Although the Latin text has among and I have translated that word against, it is ultimately from the same Hebrew word.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       The LORD was angry at Israel again, and he made David think it would be a good idea to count the people in Israel and Judah.

Easy English                          David counts the *Israelites

Again the *Lord was angry with *Israel. He made David cause trouble for the *Israelites. He said to David, `Go and count the people of *Israel and *Judah.'

Easy-to-Read Version            The Lord was angry against Israel again. The Lord caused David to turn against the Israelites. {David} said, “Go count the people of Israel and Judah.”

Good News Bible (TEV)         On another occasion the LORD was angry with Israel, and he made David bring trouble on them. The LORD said to him, "Go and count the people of Israel and Judah."

The Message                         Once again GOD's anger blazed out against Israel. He tested David by telling him, "Go and take a census of Israel and Judah."

New Berkeley Version           But the Lord’s anger was again inflamed against Israel [The former instance was the famine described in ch. 21, about 990 b.c. Israel’s sin in this case seems to be their participation in the successive revolts of Absalom and Sheba against David, the Lord’s anointed. The parallel record in 1Chron. 21 adds that Satan was used by God to accomplish His purpose. Compare Job 1:6–12 and 1Kings 22:20–22.], and one aroused David against them, saying, Go, number Israel and Judah.

New Century Version             David Counts His Army

The Lord was angry with Israel again, and he caused David to turn against the Israelites. He said, "Go, count the people of Israel and Judah."

New Living Translation           The Census and the Plague

1Chronicles 21:1–17 Footnote

Once again the anger of the Lord burned against Israel, and he caused David to harm them by taking a census. "Go and count the people of Israel and Judah," the Lord told him.

The Voice                               Once again the Eternal grew angry with Israel; so He used David against them, telling the king to go and count the people of Israel and Judah.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Well, the anger of Jehovah started to burn in IsraEl, because David was moved to say, 'Go and take a census of IsraEl and Judah!'

Beck’s American Translation David Counts the People

Again the LORD got angry with Israel, and He moved David against them, “Go,” he said, “count Israel and Judah.”

Christian Community Bible     The census

Again the anger of Yahweh blazed out against Israel. So he let David harm them in this way, “Count the people of Israel and Judah.” The kingdom has grown very much in territory, animals and wealth. Israel is a numerous people and so David is tempted to count them and orders a census. The census in itself is not bad. What is bad is to feel greater because one has so many people or soldiers, or to have an obsession for quantity, for numbers, forgetting the essential which is quality. David forgets that he is the administrator and deputy of God in Israel: the sheep do not belong to him. At all levels of life, people like to count their animals, or recall their accomplishments. There are many ways of feeling oneself Here, the author presents the pestilence as God’s intervention to punish the king. People of that time easily accepted an intervention of Yahweh to kill the Israelites even if they were not responsible for the sin of their king. It seems more accurate for us to say that God intervened by sending the prophet Gad a few days before the pestilence broke out, a pestilence which, of course, was not miraculous in nature. Thus he wanted to impart to David a lesson and a sign of the gravity of his sin, using a language he could understand. See what is said about collective punishment in Joshua 7, and about the Angel of Yahweh in Genesis 16. 2Sam. 21:1-5 Num 25:3 Judges 2:14 2Kings 13:3.

God’s Word                         The LORD became angry with Israel again, so he provoked David to turn against Israel. He said, "Go, count Israel and Judah."

International Standard V        David Takes a Census of Israel

(1 Chronicles 21:1-6)

Later, God's anger blazed forth against Israel, so he incited David to move against them by telling him, "Go take a census of Israel and Judah.".

New Advent (Knox)Bible        But still the Lord's vengeance threatened Israel; and now it was through David he disturbed their peace, with a design for registering Israel and Juda. Here, as often, the Old Testament record describes God's dealings with mankind in strictly human terms. By a somewhat violent metaphor, he is compared to a human ruler who is anxious to pick a quarrel with his neighbours, and employs an agent provocateur to give him a pretext for interference. In I Par. 21.1 the same course of events is described in theological terms, and we are told that Satan tempted David to register the people.

New American Bible (2002)   The LORD'S anger against Israel flared again, and he incited David against the Israelites by prompting him to number Israel and Judah. This story was probably joined at one time to ⇒ 2 Sam 21:1-14.

New American Bible (2011) Footnote              David's Census; the Plague. 1Chr 21:1-27.

The LORD's anger against Israel flared again, and he incited David against them: "Go, take a census of Israel and Judah."

NIRV                                      David Counts His Fighting Men

The Lord's anger burned against Israel. He stirred up David against them. He said, "Go! Count the men of Israel and Judah."

New Jerusalem Bible             Again, Yahweh's anger was aroused against Israel, and he incited David against them. 'Go,' he said, 'take a census of Israel and Judah.'

New Simplified Bible              Jehovah became angry at Israel again. He provoked David to turn against Israel. He said: »Go count the people of Israel and Judah.«

Revised English Bible            Once again the Israelites felt the Lord’s anger, when he incited David against thewm and instructed him to take a census of Israel and Judah.

Today’s NIV                          David Enrolls the Fighting Men

24:1-17pp -- 1Ch 21:1-17

Again the anger of the LORD burned against Israel, and he incited David against them, saying, "Go and take a census of Israel and Judah.".


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      Yahweh's emotion flared more at Israel, for David persuaded them saying, "Go, enumerate Israel and Judah."

Bible in Basic English             Again the wrath of the Lord was burning against Israel, and moving David against them, he said, Go, take the number of Israel and Judah.

The Expanded Bible              David Counts His Army 2Samuel 24:1 : 24:1-25; 1Chr. 21:1-22:1

The ·Lord was angry with [Langer of the Lord burned against; Ccompare 1 Chr. 21:1] Israel again, and he ·caused [incited] David to turn against the Israelites. He said, "Go, ·count [number; take a census of] the people of Israel and Judah."

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 David orders a Conscription, and the Result (b.c. 1017)

The Ever-living, however, was again angry with Israel, when David turned, and commanded to go and make a Conscription of Israel and Judah,...

HCSB                                     The LORD's anger burned against Israel again, and it stirred up David against them to say: "Go, count the people of Israel and Judah."

NET Bible®                             David Displeases the Lord by Taking a Census

The Lord's anger again raged against Israel, and he incited David against them, saying, "Go count Israel and Judah." The parallel text in 1 Chr 21:1 says, "An adversary opposed Israel, inciting David to count how many warriors Israel had." The Samuel version gives an underlying theological perspective, while the Chronicler simply describes what happened from a human perspective. The adversary in 1 Chr 21:1 is likely a human enemy, probably a nearby nation whose hostility against Israel pressured David into numbering the people so he could assess his military strength. See the note at 1 Chr 21:1. [When it comes to making an actual material change to the text, the NET Bible® is pretty good about indicating this. Since most of these corrections will be clear in the more literal translations below and within the Hebrew exegesis itself, I will not continue to list every NET Bible® footnote.]

NIV – UK                                David enrols the fighting men

Again the anger of the Lord burned against Israel, and he incited David against them, saying, `Go and take a census of Israel and Judah.'


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           The anger of ADONAI blazed up against Isra'el, so he moved David to act against them by saying, "Go, take a census of Isra'el and Y'hudah."

exeGeses companion Bible   DAVID MUSTERS YISRA EL

And Yah Veh

adds to kindle his wrath against Yisra El;

and he goads David against them to say,

Go, number Yisra El and Yah Hudah.

Hebrew Names Version         Again the anger of the LORD was kindled against Yisra'el, and he moved David against them, saying, Go, number Yisra'el and Yehudah.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           And again the Af Hashem was kindled against Yisroel, and He incited Dovid against them to say, Go, number Yisroel and Yehudah.

The Scriptures 1998              And again the displeasure of יהוה burned against Yisraʼĕl, and moved Dawid? against them to say, “Go, number Yisraʼĕl and Yehuah.”


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And the anger of Yahweh adds to burn against Israel, and [an adversary] moves David about them, saying, `Go, number Israel and Judah.’

Emphasized Bible                  And again was the anger of Yahweh kindled against Israel,—so that he suffered David to be moved against them, saying, Go, count Israel and Judah.

English Standard V. – UK       David's Census [For ver. 1-25, see 1Chr. 21:1-28]

Again [1Chr. 21:1] the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel, and he incited David against them, saying, "Go, number Israel and Judah [1Chr. 27:23, 24]."

The Geneva Bible                  And again [Before they were plagued with famine, ( 2 Samuel 21:1 )] the anger of the LORD was kindled against Israel, and he [The Lord permitted Satan, as in (1Chronicles 21:2 ).] moved David against them to say, Go, number Israel and Judah.

Kretzmann’s Commentary    The People Numbered

And again the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel, as in the former famine, 2Sam. 21:1-14, and He moved David against them, namely, the members of the nation, by giving Satan leeway to tempt David, to say, Go, number Israel and Judah, by taking a census chiefly for military purposes.

NASB                                     The Census Taken

Now [1Chr 21:1] again [2Sam 21:1, 2] the anger of the Lord burned against Israel, and it incited David against them to say, "Go, number [1Chr 27:23, 24] Israel and Judah."

New King James Version       David's Census of Israel and Judah

Again the anger of the Lord was aroused against Israel, and He moved David against them to say, "Go, number Israel and Judah."

New RSV                               Again the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel, and he incited David against them, saying, `Go, count the people of Israel and Judah.'

Third Millennium Bible            And again the anger of the LORD was kindled against Israel, and he [Satan] moved David against them to say, "Go, number Israel and Judah."

World English Bible                Again the anger of Yahweh was kindled against Israel, and he moved David against them, saying, Go, number Israel and Judah.

Young’s Updated LT             And the anger of Jehovah adds to burn against Israel, and an adversary moves David about them, saying, “Go, number Israel and Judah.”

 

The gist of this verse:          God’s anger flares up again against Israel, and David is moved to take a military census.


2Samuel 24:1a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

yâçaph (יָסַף) [pronounced yaw-SAHPH]

to add, to augment, to increase, to multiply; to add to do = to do again; to continue to

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect

Strong's #3254 BDB #414

ʾaph (חּאַף) [pronounced ahf]

nose, nostril, but is also translated face, brow, anger, wrath

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #639 BDB #60

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

chârâh (חָרָה) [pronounced khaw-RAWH]

to burn, to kindle, to become angry, to burn with anger; to evoke great emotion

Qal infinitive construct

Strong's #2734 BDB #354

The lâmed with an infinitive construct generally expresses purpose or result, although it can have three other common uses with the infinitive: (1) It can have a gerundial or adverbial sense to explain the circumstances of a previous action; (2) it can act as a periphrastic future in nominal clauses; and, (3)  Comment it can behave as a gerund, in the sense of is to be, must be, ought to be. Footnote (4) Lâmed with the infinitive can connote shall or must. Footnote

The preposition which follows this verb often determines or colors its meaning. Footnote

When followed by the bêyth preposition, this means to burn with anger against [someone]. If following by in his eyes, the emphasis is upon the gaze of the person who is angered. Similarly used, but found less often, ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl] and ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl].

The lâmed preposition would be used to indicate toward whom the anger is directed or for whom the anger is kindled.

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

Yiserâʾêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

God prevails; contender; soldier of God; transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 & #3479 BDB #975


Translation: The anger of Yehowah again burned against Israel. The relationship between God and a nation; and between God and the individuals of that nation can be quite complex. We have to take it on faith that God deals with individuals and with nations in justice and righteousness.


Application: Certainly, a good example of this is the United States, which is the most blessed nation in human history, thus far. We have far greater conveniences and blessings, unparalleled in human history, enjoyed by some of those in the most humble of circumstances. Personally, if I chose to, I could stop doing any work right now and spend most of the rest of my life entertaining myself with books, music and DVD’s. We have many baby boomers in my situation who, with 10 or 20 or 30 years yet to live, can retire with great material blessings.


Application: However, it is clear that in these United States, there has been a sharp left turn toward debauchery, self-indulgence and hedonism, along with a strong dose of anti-authoritarianism (except for many on the left, who would willingly place themselves under great government authority, if it was a socialist government). Now, how does God deal with that, recognizing that, at the same time, at least half of the United States believes in His Son? Furthermore, there is certainly a pivot of growing believers, in these United States, albeit a small one.


Application: God is able, despite having a nation in decline and a nation populated by believers and growing believers, to deal with individuals and with the nation as a whole. Now, in some extreme cases—for instance, what is happening in the Middle East—Christians are harassed, tortured, kidnaped and killed. The United States has been greatly blessed, whereas Christians might be disrespected by some, very little else harmful happens here. There is a constant war against Christians even here (hence, the wars against Christmas, Easter; the attempts to stifle free speech when it involves Jesus Christ); but we do not pay much of a price in the U.S. for being believers. Elsewhere, that is not the case. It is quite sobering to realize what other Christians in the Middle East must do in order to get through each day.

 

So far, this verse reads: The anger of Yehowah again burned against Israel. Peter Pett writes: David's action and its punishment was not just the result of his own sinfulness, it was as a consequence of the sin of the whole people. `The anger of YHWH was kindled against Israel.' It was Israel as a whole who had sinned. The nature of Israel's sin is not described, but it can probably be summed up [as]...widespread disobedience to the covenant Law and growing idolatry (compare Judges 2:11-15, 17, 19 3:7-8), something that had been brought out by the two rebellions as the people had rebelled against `the Anointed of YHWH'. Thus David's numbering of Israel, and its consequences, were actually originally brought about as a result of the people's sinfulness and disobedience. Israel would suffer for their own sins. Footnote


Note the word again: The anger of Yehowah again burned against Israel. We have the word again found here, and this ties together this 4-chapter addendum to David. There was a famine for three years in a row during David's rule. David asked the Lord about this, and the Lord said, "It is caused by Saul and his household, who are guilty of bloodshed because he killed the people of Gibeon." So the king called for the Gibeonites and spoke to them. (Now the Gibeonites weren't Israelites but were survivors of the Amorites. The Israelites had sworn a solemn pledge to spare them, but Saul tried to eliminate them in his enthusiasm for the people of Israel and Judah.) (2Sam. 21:1–2; CEB).


A single author who is adding these 4 chapters to the book of Samuel has essentially decided, you cannot really have a full appreciation for the reign of David apart from knowing these things. We know that this is a single author simply by this one word again. If Yehowah is angry with Israel again, when was He angry with Israel before? And that takes us back to 2Sam. 21, which is the beginning of this 4 chapter addendum. There is also an organizational integrity which binds these final 4 chapters together, which we looked at in 2Sam. 21, but should be brought up again:


A chiasmos (also spelled chiasmus) is the way that some portions of the Bible are organized. It takes its name from the Greek letter chi (χ). The first section matches with the last, the second with the second-to-the-last, etc. It is called a chiasmos, because the inverted parallelism looks like a chi (actually, half a chi) when one looks at it from its organizational standpoint.

2Samuel 21–24 as a Chiasmos

Brief Description

Scripture

A       God’s wrath against Israel because of Saul and David taking steps to do the right thing.

2Sam. 21:1–14

         B       Military exploits of David’s soldiers against the Philistine giants (short).

2Sam. 21:15–22

                  C      David’s psalm celebrating the victories which God has given him over his enemies (long).

2Sam. 22:1–51

                  C      David’s last words, a celebration of his relationship to the God of the Universe (short).

2Sam. 23:1–7

         B       The great military men in David’s army (long).

2Sam. 23:8–39

A       God’s wrath against Israel because of David and David taking steps to do the right thing.

2Sam. 24:1–24

The organization above is important; it suggests that this entire appendix was added to the book of Samuel as a single unit. That is, someone did not add this portion on at one time; and then someone else came along and appended his own remembrances from the Davidic reign—but that this was all done at one time and added all at once.

At least two sources suggested this. This kind of composition is common throughout Scripture. The NIV Study Bible was so persuasive that I finally included this in the exegesis of this chapter. The NIV Study Bible; ©1995 by The Zondervan Corporation; p. 451 (footnote). Many times, a chiasmos allows a person to remember and memorize a lengthy passage.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


This does make me wonder—how intentional is the chiasmatic organization? Such an organization obviously makes a section of a book easier to memorize, as you begin with an overall structure. If Genesis and Job were first memorized and preserved, perhaps this way of thinking and organizing information was almost second nature to the Hebrews during Old Testament times? So, for an ancient writer, does he think, “I really need to include this; now what should I balance it out with on the other side?”


I am of the opinion that man’s brain in that era was greater, so that it might have been normal for a writer to think in terms of chiasmos.


2sam20-24.jpg

Another way to look at this is a Chart of the 2Samuel Addendum from Bible.org, accessed May 23, 2014. You will see a clear organization to this addendum. There are the sins of Saul’s administration and David’s administration with a righteous resolution being brought to both of them. These two things bookend this addendum.


Secondly, we have the exploits of a few great soldiers; and second- to-last, we have the list of the great soldiers who served under King David.


Then, in the middle of the addendum, there are two psalms—a Davidic psalm of deliverance, which appears to span most of David’s life. That psalm is equivalent to Psalm 18. Secondly, there is the last psalm which David writes—a much shorter psalm—at the end of his life.


Peter Pett describes the middle in this way: Central to the summary, and at its core, is a vivid portrayal of the invisible power of the living God at work, presented in poetic form, which is assumed to have been active during all the incidents described in the book. Footnote


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Therefore, this appendix is understood to be information pulled together probably by a single person, for two reasons: (1) its organization and (2) the use of the simple word again. That word connects the first section of the appendix to the final section of the appendix.


So far, we have: The anger of Yehowah again burned against Israel. God is said to be angry with Israel here and not with David (although David will be motivated to take a census, which will anger God). Although we do not know what God is angry with Israel, this helps to explain why this judgment falls upon all Israel.


What does the Bible mean by the anger of God?

The Anger of God

1.      The Lord is said to have anger, or to be angry, in several places in the Bible. The word "anger" is used as an anthropopathism, a word or phrase that ascribes human characteristics or feelings to God, who is not human. God never reacts emotionally. He is never surprised, shocked, or outraged. But He does have an attitude of wrath or anger against some things.

2.      As a mental attitude sin, anger expresses antagonism, hatred, exasperation, resentment and irrationality. It can be mental or emotional or both.

3.      Anger is a mental attitude sin and is used as an anthropopathism related to divine judgment, anger in man is a sin. In God it expresses a change of policy in terms of human frame of reference.

4.      Similarly, when the Bible says that God is slow to anger, that is also an anthropopathism. Psalm 145:8 The LORD is gracious, and full of compassion; slow to anger, and of great mercy.

5.      The phrase "the anger of the Lord" is used in the following passages: Num. 25:4 32:14 Deut. 29:20 Judges 3:8 10:7 2:14, 20 2 Kings 24:20 Lam. 4:16 Jer. 4:8,25,37 30:24 51:45 52:3 Zeph. 2:2,3 Psalm 2:5.

6.      The phrase "the wrath of God" is used in the following: 2 Chron. 28:11 Ezra 10:14 Psalm 78:31 John 3:36 Rom. 1:18 Eph. 5:6 Col. 3:6 Rev. 14:10,19 15:1,7 16:1 19:15.

7.      Righteous Indignation.

         1)      There is such a thing as righteous indignation, but it is not anger as an emotion. Rather it is a clear understanding of a bad situation. Righteous indignation is response to unfair treatment by concentration on our relationship with God, while reaction leads to anger and sin. When it says in Mar 10:14 that Jesus became righteously opposed to the disciples when they forbad the children to be brought to Him, it is not anger. It is an understanding of a wrong, and not appreciating it at all.

         2)      Jesus expressed what might be called righteous indignation in Mat 23:13-36 against the scribes and Pharisees. He wasn't angry, but expressed righteous indignation.

         3)      Jesus wasn't angry when He said to Peter in Mat 16:23, "Get behind me Satan, you [Peter] are a stumbling block to Me. You have not concentrated on the things [doctrines] of God, but on the things of man." Jesus was giving strong expression to the fact that Peter was completely mixed up about the plan of God, and that his expressed desire (to just live out in the wilderness and bask in the light of Jesus) was actually Satanic (wanting the crown before the cross).

         4)      Righteous indignation is not the same thing as legalism or self-righteousness.

8.      The concept of God’s anger is, there is activity which we do as individuals or that a nation does in large groups, which actions are sinful and anti-God. Therefore, God must judge these actions; and His application of justice appears to be anger to those whom God judges.

         1)      Let me quickly add that not all pain and suffering is a result of God’s justice being applied to us or to other people.

         2)      God’s application of justice to unrighteousness often protects those who are nearby. That is, God will judge a nation or subsets of people in a nation in order to protect others within that nation or others who are near to that nation.

         3)      This explains the verse: God is angry with the wicked every day (Psalm 7:11). Their sinfulness is like a cancer, spreading and destroying all in its path, and God must isolate them and judge them to keep it from spreading.

9.      God’s anger does not preclude the sinner from salvation. Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life; whoever does not obey the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God remains on him. (John 3:36; ESV)

This doctrine was culled from:

Grace Notes

West Bank Bible Church

and Dikaosune, all accessed May 8, 2014 (with very little original material added).


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


So far, this verse reads: The anger of Yehowah again burned against Israel. There are three ways to read this: (1) Israel as a whole has sinned against God, and is therefore guilty before God; (2) this is essentially the title of a chapter, Footnote indicating that God’s problem with Israel is based upon what David does in this chapter; or (3) there is an organic relationship between Israel, Israel’s sins and David initiating this census. If this is option #1 or #3, then we do not know what sins are prevalent in Israel to cause God to harm Israel.


Application: It is clear that those with political power can bring harm to their nation; or can make decisions for the nation which cause suffering within the nation. On the other hand, this does not mean that the people are blameless and the government is 100% at fault. Although I will discuss the housing crisis and bubble with the subsequent market crash of 2008 when we get to v. 14, this was a scheme worked up by the federal government which harmed a great many people. However, what allowed the housing bubble to become a bubble is, millions of people who should not have purchased a house, purchased a house. They were able to do this because of government’s relaxed standards. However, in order to do this, they had to lie about their income and credit history. So, the government had willing participants.


The focus of this chapter is David and his sin of taking the census. However, those who will bear the brunt of God’s judgment are the people of Israel. This causes me to postulate that there were unnamed problems among the people—whether idolatry or immorality or whatever. 70,000 people in Israel would die as a result. Now, were these simply random people, or did God remove them for a reason, and I would submit, based upon God’s justice, most of them (if not all of them) were removed according to God’s plan, according to His righteousness.


There is plenty of evidence that the people of Israel were wrong-headed and outside of God’s will. A great many of them join up with Absalom against David; and later, a great many of them rebel against David, following Sheba, in his insurrection. Joining a revolution against the established power of God is no little thing. Whether this event occurs before, after or between these revolts, the fact remains that there is clear rebellion in the hearts of many Israelites. Killing 70,000 is a culling practice by God, which protects and preserves the nation.


Now, what about David saying, “But these sheep—they haven’t done anything.” (v. 17). That is certainly what David prayed, but that is not necessarily an accurate appraisal of the situation. David understands that he has sinned and understands that God is dealing with his sin; David apparently does not realize that God is also dealing with the rebelliousness of Israel.


So that there is no doubt, God is against revolutions and He hates revolutionaries. See the Doctrine of Revolution (HTML) (PDF) (WPD). Jesus Christ was not some revolutionary, in the sense that we understand that term today. He was revolutionary in that He offered grace rather than legalism, which was the prevailing religion of Jews at that time. He offered Himself as the true revelation of God, as the true Son of God, as our Mediator between God and man. In this way, He was a revolutionary. However, Jesus did not incite the people to revolt against Roman control of Judæa; nor did He incite violence against the pharisees and sadducees. He did throw the money changers out of the Temple, but Jesus did not incite a armed revolt against the religious Jews or the Romans with political power. In other words, Jesus had little in common with Che, Mao or Castro.


2Samuel 24:1b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

çûth (סוּת) [pronounced sooth]

 to persuade, to stimulate, to instigate, to incite; to allure, to lure; to drive out, to expel [by discipline]; to lead forth, to set free

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect

Strong’s #5496 BDB #694

This verb is only found in the Hiphil, and it appears to mean, at its core, to cause to move; and the array of meanings proceed from that basic meaning.

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #88


Translation: [Satan] incited David against them,... In this passage, we do not have the word Satan; however, we do find this in 1Chron. 21:1 Then Satan stood against Israel and incited David to number Israel. (ESV) Therefore, we know that it is Satan who inspired David against his own people.


David is not mad at his people, and David is not going to do anything that we normally associate with sin; he is simply going to number the people, which is inspired by Satan, and therefore, wrong.


Application/personal experience: There are a lot of things in this world, inspired by Satan, which do not really seem to be very wrong. These things may not involve immorality, killing and anger; but whatever Satan inspires is outside of the plan of God and it is wrong. When I was teaching, our schools were making a move from disciplining our children to learning to praise them instead, when they did something right or close to right.

 

I had an honors class in Geometry, and I was fishing for answers from my students, and one came up with a wrong answer, to which I responded, “Wrong, wrong, wrong!” with no little intensity. The students laughed, because these were intelligent kids and they knew about this positive encouragement thing; they knew about this self-esteem thing. So, they were used to teachers praising them, no matter what sort of a lame answer they came up with. My saying that an answer was completely wrong was outside the norm for them, and so they laughed.

 

My point is, when I began teaching in Texas, the discipline was pretty strong and the tolerance for aberrant behavior was quite limited. However, Texas schools began reducing the amount of discipline and increasing the amount of praise to up these kids’ self-esteem, with the result that, the kids were undisciplined, not very smart, but they thought that they were really smart. All of this was Satanically inspired, and, when first introduced and argued for, it seemed pretty innocuous.

 

Speaking of seemingly innocuous Satanically-inspired ideas: when sex education was introduced into the school curriculum, probably a huge number of parents breathed a mutual sigh of relief. What can be more difficult than talking to your son or daughter about sex? The school would take care of that? Good! No one ever thought that, the explanations of the physiology of it all would lead to (1) a huge number of teen pregnancies and (2) children in grammar school being taught about the 3 types of sexual intercourse. The prevailing attitude was, “Give the students the truth about sex, and they will act appropriately.” A few crazies warned, “Tell the students about sex and they will then go out and try it.” Those who were quickly classified as reactionaries were completely right. Not only did sex ed begin bad, but it gets worse and worse with every year. For liberals, it is the gift that keeps on giving.


2Samuel 24:1c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

Literally, this means to say, and often, this is equivalent to quotation marks being started. The simplest rendering here is saying. However, this does not always mean that a quotation is to follow (although it usually does). What we have hear is something which is more akin to our expression to wit or meaning, namely, by interpretation, to explain, that is, in other words. Footnote

In 1Chron. 21:1, this is Satan who is speaking.

hâlake (הָלַךְ) [pronounced haw-LAHKe]

go, come, depart, walk; advance

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperative

Strong’s #1980 (and #3212) BDB #229

mânâh (מָנָה) [pronounced maw-NAW]

count, number, reckon; assign [allot, appoint]; prepare, make ready

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperative

Strong’s #4487 BDB #584

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Yiserâʾêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

God prevails; contender; soldier of God; transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 & #3479 BDB #975

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Yehûwdâh (יְהוּדָה) [pronounced yehoo-DAW]

possibly means to praise, to be praised; and is transliterated Judah

masculine proper noun/location

Strong’s #3063 BDB #397

1Chron. 21:1 reads: Now Satan stood up against Israel, and moved David to number Israel. (VW)


Translation: ...saying, “Go [and] number Israel and Judah.” 1Chron. 21:1 reads: Then Satan stood against Israel and incited David to number Israel. (ESV) Because Satan is apparently the subject of the verb to incited, it would be Satan who incited (moved, persuaded) David against Israel, as it says above.


God would allow David to be tempted by Satan (although we have no idea exactly how this was accomplished); and God would allow David to take the census. God apparently allows Satan to stand against Israel.

 

John Dummelow: The older account does not enter into the distinction between what God permits and what God causes. This distinction is the result of later reflection and more subtle theology. Footnote


In the Angelic Conflict, Satan and the angels do not just sit back and watch all that is happening. God allows Satan to play a part in human history, as well as many other angles—elect and fallen. Essentially, in our lives, we are making a choice between God and Satan—often between God’s thinking (= divine viewpoint) and Satan’s thinking (=cosmic system). We do not know the exact mechanics of how Satan gets his thinking into various societies, but we learn from Scripture what his thinking is, and we resist Satan through our own thinking.


Barnes suggests Footnote that this is not Satan, as the definite article is not used (as in Job 1:6 2:1); so that 1Chron. 21:1 simply refers to an unnamed adversary of David’s (although, not someone who would necessarily be understood by all to be David’s adversary—otherwise, how could he influence David?). Barnes notes 3 other verses where adversary is around without the definite article (1Kings 11:14, 23, 25). Let me respond with, who but David is most important in the human realm at this point in time in human history? David is clearly God’s man heading God’s nation. Therefore, where will Satan be, but with David? So, there possibility exists that someone close to David—someone who is not really his friend—did suggest to David that he take a census to see how God is doing on fulfilling His promises. However, this ultimately comes from Satan. Satan would logically be the one to put doubts into David’s mind about God’s promises.


When Critics Ask explores the question, who motivated David? God or Satan?

When Critics Ask on 2Samuel 24:1

2 SAMUEL 24:1 —How can this passage claim that God moved David to number Israel when 1 Chronicles 21:1 claims that it was Satan?

PROBLEM: This passage reports the sin of David in numbering the people of Israel and Judah. Verse one affirms that God moved David to number the people. However, according to 1 Chronicles 21:1 , it was Satan who moved David to number the people. Who was responsible for prompting David to act?

SOLUTION: Both statements are true. Although it was Satan who immediately incited David, ultimately it was God who permitted Satan to carry out this provocation. Although it was Satan’s design to destroy David and the people of God, it was God’s purpose to humble David and the people and teach them a valuable spiritual lesson. This situation is quite similar to the first two chapters of Job in which both God and Satan are involved in the suffering of Job. Similarly, both God and Satan are involved in the crucifixion. Satan’s purpose was to destroy the Son of God (John 13:2 1Cor 2:8). God’s purpose was to redeem humankind by the death of His Son (Acts 2:14– 39).

From Norman Geisler and Thomas Howe, When Critics Ask; Victor Books; taken from e-Sword, 2Sam. 24:1.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines

 

Jamieson, Fausset and Brown: God, though He cannot tempt any man (James 1:13), is frequently described in Scripture as doing what He merely permits to be done; and so, in this case, He permitted Satan to tempt David. Satan was the active mover, while God only withdrew His supporting grace, and the great tempter prevailed against the king. Footnote


Pett observes: History results from sinful man's random actions, is regularly prompted by Satan, but underneath is finally controlled by an omnipotent God. So when David was prompted by Satan, and took his own rational and sinful decision, behind it all could be seen YHWH's purpose of punishing Israel for its sinfulness.

v. 1 reads: The anger of Yehowah again burned against Israel. [Satan] incited David against them, saying, “Go [and] number Israel and Judah.” There is obviously a problem with Israel, which is made manifest by its two revolutions against King David. God does allow Satan to influence human history is some limited ways, even to the point of influencing the actions of a believer like David. At the same time, it is clear that David makes his own free will choices. Satan’s influence is not overwhelming; David has a choice.

 

Peter Pett makes a marvelous observation at this point: The writer puts it in terms of YHWH `moving David to number Israel'. But this was the viewpoint of someone who saw everything that happened as being the direct result of YHWH's will. In fact the Chronicler tells us that David was moved to number Israel by an adversary (satanas), or even by Satan, the greatest of man's adversaries (1Chronicles 21:1). Joab meanwhile lays the blame squarely on David himself. All three aspects were in fact involved. History results from sinful man's random actions, is regularly prompted by Satan, but underneath is finally controlled by an omnipotent God. So when David was prompted by Satan, and took his own rational and sinful decision, behind it all could be seen YHWH's purpose of punishing Israel for its sinfulness. Footnote


There was a law on the books, Ex. 30:11–16, which some try to tie to this passage: Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying, "When you take a census of the children of Israel, according to those who are numbered among them, then each man shall give a ransom for his soul to Yahweh, when you number them; that there be no plague among them when you number them. They shall give this, everyone who passes over to those who are numbered, half a shekel after the shekel of the sanctuary; (the shekel is twenty gerahs;) half a shekel for an offering to Yahweh. Everyone who passes over to those who are numbered, from twenty years old and upward, shall give the offering to Yahweh. The rich shall not give more, and the poor shall not give less, than the half shekel, when they give the offering of Yahweh, to make atonement for your souls. You shall take the atonement money from the children of Israel, and shall appoint it for the service of the tent of meeting; that it may be a memorial for the children of Israel before Yahweh, to make atonement for your souls." (WEB) This census was done at a particular time, for a particular purpose, as demanded by God. The census of David is not being done as a result of divine urging.


The Pulpit Commentary Footnote makes an interesting comment at this point, which I will paraphrase. When God tests us, it is for our improvement and our advancement. When Satan tempts us, it is to find our weakness and to exploit that weakness.


We have several situations likes this in the Bible where it appears that God and Satan both act upon the same person or the same situation almost in concert. What does this mean?

God and Satan seemingly act in concert

Satan

God

Satan temps David to take a census of the people, hoping that the end result will be pain and suffering for David and for the Israelites. 1Chron. 21:1

God allows David to take a census, knowing that there would be discipline for both David and the people; but that the end result would be God’s plan. In this case, King David will buy Mount Moriah and this will be where the Temple will be built. God also apparently removed 70,000 Israelites by means of the sin unto death. 2Sam. 24:1 2Chron. 3:1

In court before God, Satan asked to be able to bring great harm to Job, so that he might prove that Job’s only loved God because of what God did for him. Job 1–2

God allowed Satan to bring all kinds of harm to Job to (1) vindicate the character of Job; (2) to teach Job and his friends basic and advanced doctrine; (3) to allow Job’s example to stand forever, so that it does not have to be repeated; and (4) so that advanced doctrine could be taught in the book of Job.

Obviously, Satan can do nothing apart from God’s permission. 1Peter 5:8 Be sober-minded; be watchful. Your adversary the devil prowls around like a roaring lion, seeking someone to devour.

God does allow Satan to, at times, work against believers. Sometimes it is for discipline and sometimes it is for spiritual growth. 1Peter 4:19 Therefore let those who suffer according to God's will entrust their souls to a faithful Creator while doing good.

Satan, not fully understanding the cross and what it meant, did all that was in his power to get Jesus arrested, so that He would be taken captive and executed.

God would use the cross and pour out the sins of the world upon our Lord, so that we might be saved.

The key is, God and Satan both have different motives—however, what Satan does and what God allows can often be the same thing. Satan looks to cause harm and to appeal to our weaknesses; God looks for this to result in our overall benefit. This is why we are promised in Romans that God works all things out together for good. Even if there is Satanic involvement, God can take all of that and bring good from it.

This doctrine was basically inspired and laid out first by The Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties; Gleason L. Archer; Zondervan Publishing House; ©1982; pp. 186–187.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


——————————


And so says the king unto Joab a commander of the army who [is] with him, “Go, now in all tribes of Israel, from Dan and as far as Beersheba and number the people and I have known a number of the people.”

2Samuel

24:2

The king said to Joab (the commander of the army who [is] with him), “Go now into all the tribes of Israel, from Dan to Beersheba, and number the people so that I will know the number of the people.”

The king issued orders to Joab, the commander of the army of Israel: “Go now throughout all Israel, from Dan to Beersheba, and take a census, so that I may know the population of all Israel.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          And the king said to Joab the general of his army: Go through all the tribes of Israel from Dan to Bersabee, and number ye the people that I may know the number of them.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so says the king unto Joab a commander of the army who [is] with him, “Go, now in all tribes of Israel, from Dan and as far as Beersheba and number the people and I have known a number of the people.”

Peshitta (Syriac)                    So the king said to Joab the commander of the army who was with him. Go now through all the tribes of Israel, from Dan to Beer-sheba and number the people, and bring to me the sum of the number of the people.

Septuagint (Greek)                And King David said to Joab and to the captains of the forces, Go, number Israel from Beersheba even to Dan, and bring me the account, and I shall know their number.

1Chron. 21: (VW)                   And David said to Joab and to the rulers of the people, Go, number Israel from Beer- sheba to Dan, and bring the number of them to me that I may know it.

 

Significant differences:           That Joab is with David is ignored in the Latin and Greek. Interestingly enough, both the Syriac and Greek have David asking for the sum of the number of the people to be brought to him, as is found in the Chronicles verse.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           So the king said to Joab and the military commanders [LXX and 2 Sam 24:4; MT commander] who were with him, "Go throughout all the tribes of Israel, from Dan to Beer-sheba, and take a census of the people so I know how many people there are."

Contemporary English V.       David told Joab and the army commanders, "Count everyone in Israel, from the town of Beersheba in the south all the way north to Dan. Then I will know how many people can serve in my army."

Easy English                          So King David spoke to Joab who was the leader of his army. David said, `Go through all the *tribes of *Israel. Travel from Dan to Beersheba and count all the people. Then I will know how many people there are.'

Easy-to-Read Version            So David said to Joab and the leaders of the people, “Go and count all the people of Israel. Count everyone in the country—from the town of Beersheba all the way to the town of Dan. Then tell me, so I will know how many people there are.”

Good News Bible (TEV)         David gave orders to Joab and the other officers, "Go through Israel, from one end of the country to the other, and count the people. I want to know how many there are."

The Message                         David gave orders to Joab and the army officers under him, "Canvass all the tribes of Israel, from Dan to Beersheba, and get a count of the population. I want to know the number."

New Berkeley Version           The king proceeded to give orders to Joab, the commander of the army, who was present with him, “Make a survey now among all the tribes of Israel from Dan to Beer-sheba and register the people, so that I may know the population figure.”

New Century Version             So King David said to Joab, the commander of the army, "Go through all the tribes of Israel, from Dan to Beersheba [Dan to Beersheba Dan was the city farthest north in Israel, and Beersheba was the city farthest south. So this means all the people of Israel.], and count the people. Then I will know how many there are."

New Life Bible                        So the king said to Joab the captain of the army who was with him, "Go through all the families of Israel, from Dan to Beersheba. Number the people, so I may know how many there are."

New Living Translation           So the king said to Joab and the commanders [As in Greek version (see also 24:4 and 1 Chr 21:2); Hebrew reads Joab the commander.] of the army, "Take a census of all the tribes of Israel-from Dan in the north to Beersheba in the south-so I may know how many people there are."

The Voice                               David spoke to Joab, the commander of his army who was with him.

David: Travel to all the tribes of Israel, from Dan to Beersheba, and take a census of the people. I want to know how many there are.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          So, the king said to JoAb (who was in charge of the army): 'Go throughout all the tribes of IsraEl and Judah, from Dan to BeerSheba and count the men, so I will know how many there are.'

God’s Word                         David said to Joab and the leaders of the people, "Go, count Israel from Beersheba to Dan. Bring me the results so that I may know how many people there are."

International Standard V        So the king ordered Joab, commander of the special forces, who was with him, "Go throughout the tribes of Israel from Dan to Beer-sheba and take a census of the people so I can be made aware of the total number."

New Advent (Knox) Bible       The king said to Joab, the chief of his army, Go through all the tribes of Israel from Dan to Bersabee, and make a muster-roll of the people, so that I may know the full tale of them.

New American Bible (2011)   The king therefore said to Joab and the leaders of the army who were with him, "Tour all the tribes of Israel from Dan to Beer-sheba and register the people, that I may know their number."

NIRV                                      So the king spoke to Joab and the army commanders who were with him. He said, "Go all through the territories of the tribes of Israel. Go from Dan all the way to Beersheba. Count the fighting men. Then I'll know how many there are."

New Jerusalem Bible             The king said to Joab and the senior army officers who were with him, 'Now, go through all the tribes of Israel from Dan to Beersheba, and take a census of the people; I wish to know the size of the population.'

New Simplified Bible              David gave orders to Joab and the other officers. He said: »Go through Israel, from one end of the country to the other, and count the people. I want to know how many there are.«

Today’s NIV                          So the king said to Joab and the army commanders with him, "Go throughout the tribes of Israel from Dan to Beersheba and enroll the fighting men, so that I may know how many there are."


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      The king said to Joab and the army leaders with him, "Please explore all the staffs of Israel, from Dan unto Beersheba, and count the people for me to know the number of the people."

Bible in Basic English             And David said to Joab and the captains of the people, Now let all Israel, from Beer-sheba to Dan, be numbered; and give me word so that I may be certain of their number.

The Expanded Bible              So King David said to Joab, the commander of the army, "Go through all the tribes of Israel, from Dan to Beersheba [Cthe far north and south of Israel], and ·count [take a census of; register; number] the people. Then I will know how many there are."

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 ...for the king ordered Joab “to whip them up” [Literal translation of the word , Hlmww Shot-na, of the Hebrew.-F. F.] in all the tribes of Israel from Dan to Bersheba, and brigade in the forces, that I may know the number of my forces.

HCSB                                     So David said to Joab and the commanders of the troops, "Go and count Israel from Beer-sheba to Dan and bring a report to me so I can know their number."

NET Bible®                             The king told Joab, the general in command of his army, "Go through all the tribes of Israel from Dan to Beer Sheba and muster the army, so I may know the size of the army."

New Heart English Bible        The king said to Joab the captain of the army, who was with him, "Now go back and forth through all the tribes of Israel, from Dan even to Beersheba, and number the people, that I may know the sum of the people."


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           The king said to Yo'av the commander of the army, who was with him, "Go systematically through all the tribes of Isra'el, from Dan to Be'er-Sheva; and take a census of the population; so that I can know how many people there are."

exeGeses companion Bible   ...and David says to Yah Ab

and to the governors of the people,

Go, number and scribe Yisra El

from Beer Sheba even to Dan;

and bring the number of them to me, so I know.

Hebrew Names Version         David said to Yo'av and to the princes of the people, Go, number Yisra'el from Be'er-Sheva even to Dan; and bring me word, that I may know the sum of them.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               The king said to Joab, his army commander [1Chron. 21:2 reads: “and to the officers of the army”; compare below v. 4.], “Make the rounds of all the tribes of Israel, from Dan to Beer-sheba, and take a census of the people, so that I may know the size of the population.”

Judaica Press Complete T.    And David said to Joab and to the princes of the people, "Go count Israel from Beersheba until Dan, and bring me word, so that I may know their number."

Orthodox Jewish Bible           For HaMelech said to Yoav Sar HaChayil, who was with him, Go now through kol Shivtei Yisroel, from Dan even to Beer Sheva, and number ye HaAm, that I may know the Mispar HaAm.

The Scriptures 1998              And Dawi said to Yoʼa and to the rulers of the people, “Go, number Yisraʼĕl from Beʼĕrshea to Dan, and bring the number of them to me so that I know it.”


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And David said unto Joab, and unto the heads of the people, `Go, number Israel from Beer-Sheba even unto Dan, and bring unto me, and I know their number.’

Context Group Version          And the king said to Joab, the captain of the army, who was with him, Go now to and fro through all the tribes of Israel, from Dan even to Beer-sheba, and number { pl } the people, that I may know the sum of the people.

English Standard Version      So David said to Joab and the commanders of the army, "Go, number Israel, from Beersheba to Dan, and bring me a report, that I may know their number."

The Geneva Bible                  For the king said to Joab the captain of the host, which [was] with him, Go now through all the tribes of Israel, from Dan even to Beersheba, and number ye the people, that I may know the number of the people. Because he did this to determine his power and to trust in it, it offended God, for otherwise it was lawful to number the people, ( Exodus 30:12 ; Numbers 1:2 ).

Green’s Literal Translation    And David said to Joab and to the rulers of the people, Go, number Israel from Beer-sheba even to Dan; and bring to me, and I will know their number.

Kretzmann’s Commentary    For the king said to Joab, the captain of the host, which was with him, having held his post as commander-in-chief of the army, Go now through all the tribes of Israel, from Dan even to Beersheba, from the extreme north to the extreme south end of the land, and number ye the people that I may know the number of the people, really get the exact statistics of the country's military strength.

NASB                                     The king said to Joab the commander of the army who was with him, "Go about now through all the tribes of Israel, from Dan to Beersheba [Judg 20:1; 2 Sam 3:10], and register [Lit muster] the people, that I may know the number of the people."

New RSV                               So the king said to Joab and the commanders of the army,* who were with him, `Go through all the tribes of Israel, from Dan to Beer-sheba, and take a census of the people, so that I may know how many there are.'

Updated Bible Version 2.11   And David said to Joab and to the princes of the people, Go, number Israel from Beer-sheba even to Dan; and bring me word, that I may know the sum of them.

Webster’s Bible Translation  For the king said to Joab the captain of the host, who [was] with him, Go now through all the tribes of Israel, from Dan even to Beer-sheba, and number ye the people, that I may know the number of the people.

World English Bible                David said to Joab and to the princes of the people, Go, number Israel from Beersheba even to Dan; and bring me word, that I may know the sum of them.

Young’s Updated LT             And David says unto Joab, and unto the heads of the people, “Go, number Israel from Beer-Sheba even unto Dan, and bring unto me, and I know their number.”

 

The gist of this verse:          David tells Joab to take a census.


2Samuel 24:2a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

meleke (מֶלֶ) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

Yôwʾâb (יוֹאָב) [pronounced YOH-awbv]

Yah is father and is transliterated Joab

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #3097 BDB #222

sar (שַׂר) [pronounced sar]

chieftain, chief, ruler, official, captain, prince, leader, commander

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #8269 BDB #978

chayil (חַיִל) [pronounced CHAH-yil]

army, force; strength, courage, power, might; efficiency; and that which is gotten through strength—wealth, substance

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #2428 BDB #298

1Chron. 21:2 reads: and to the officers of the army.

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun; sometimes the verb to be is implied

Strong's #834 BDB #81

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

with, at, near, by, among, directly from

preposition (which is identical to the sign of the direct object); with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #854 BDB #85


Translation: The king said to Joab (the commander of the army who [is] with him),... David and Joab had a very intimate relationship. They were close and Joab could question David’s decisions and orders.


We are reminded here that Joab is over all the army, which is why he was not listed in the previous chapter under David’s mighty men. Basically he was not listed just as David would not be put on a list of his own mighty men.


Joab, the nephew of David, is one of the most fascinating persons in the Bible, although we do not tend to associate him with the great names of Scripture. At his greatest, he was commander-in-chief of David’s army. As a diplomat, he worked out some personal difficulties between David and his son Absalom. As a war hero, he defeated the Jebusites, Ammonites, Moabites and the Edomites. However, David dragged Joab into the middle of his two great sins and Joab himself twice got involved in high-level political intrigue, which eventually led to his execution by Solomon.

A Condensed View of Joab

1.      David has 3 nephews by his sister Zeruiah: Joab, Abishai and Asahel. 2Sam. 2:18 1Chron. 2:16

2.      Joab was in charge of David’s army, because he led a successful campaign against the Jebusites. 2Sam. 8:16 2Sam. 8:16 1Chron. 11:4–6 18:15a 27:34

3.      After Saul died, David became king over Judah (the Southern Kingdom) and Saul’s son, Ishbosheth, became king over Israel (the Northern Kingdom). A civil war ensued, and Ishbosheth’s top general, Abner, met David’s top general, Joab; along with their respective armies. Joab is victorious over Abner, so Abner retreats. Joab’s brother, Asahel, gives chase, and is killed in the pursuit. Abner, from a distance, managed to sort out a temporary peace with Joab. 2Sam. 2:12–32

4.      Abner and Ishbosheth had a falling out, and Abner transferred his loyalty to David, with the intention of helping David rule over all Israel (the north and the south). However, without David knowing, Joab arranged a meeting with Abner and killed him at this meeting. Although David should have tried and executed Joab for this crime, he did not, cursing his father’s house instead. This was a mistake on David’s part, and Joab would go on to murder another man and to rebel against David when David gets becomes very old. 2Sam. 3

5.      Joab is named specifically when Israel fought against Syria and the Ammonites (2Sam. 8:11–12 10 12:26–27 1Chron. 19:6–15); the Moabites (1Kings 11:11–25) and the Edomites (Psalm 60 inscription). However, we may assume that Joab would have led the armies of Israel against all the enemies of David as David’s commander-in-chief.

6.      David got Joab tangled up in both of his major sins.

         a.      Joab was at war with the Ammonites when David had an affair with Bathsheba. David eventually ordered Joab to put Bathsheba’s husband on the frontlines to die in battle. 2Sam. 11

         b.      David had Joab spearhead the census, which Satan motivated David to take. Joab advised against this census, but David overruled him and Joab followed orders. 2Sam. 24:1–9 1Chron. 21:1–6 However, this census was never completed, as God put a stop to it. 1Chron. 27:24

7.      Since David had so many sons and daughters, there ended up being conflicts between them. One conflict involved rape which led Absalom, David’s son, to kill his half-brother for the rape. Joab acted as a go-between (a mediator) for David and Absalom, finally bringing them together. 2Sam. 13–14

8.      However, when Absalom rebelled against David, Joab defeated his army and killed Absalom (2Sam. 18). David was quite upset about this, and Joab had to speak to him rather harshly to make him realize that his own army supported him and should receive appreciation for what they did (2Sam. 19:1–7).

9.      When David appointed Amasa over his armies, Joab killed him as a rival. 2Sam. 20

10.    In his old age, David became weak, and his son after Absalom, Adonijah, secured the help of Joab, among others, to boost him into power. In fact, while David was alive, Adonijah set up a government under him—again, his most prominent supporters included Joab. In all fairness to Joab, he may not have known that David had selected Solomon as his successor. David, in hearing about all of this, made Solomon king. 1Kings 1:7, 16–19, 38–52

11.    While David is in dying grace, he tells Solomon that Joab killed Abner and Amasa, although there should have been peace between them. David was unable to deal with this, but he puts this situation into Solomon’s hands. Solomon had Joab executed after Joab fled to the altar at Gibeon. 1Kings 2:1–12, 28–35

12.    Joab was a great man, but with some obvious defects. A few passages seem to indicate that he was a believer in the God of Israel, Jesus Christ. He had great military prowess and was probably the greatest military general during the time of David, apart from David and Jonathan. He was also authority-orientated and never tried to usurp David’s power, or to take power to himself when David was dying (supporting one of David’s sons as king at this time was just plain bad judgment). However, Joab made a number of bad decisions throughout his life—he murdered Abner and Amasa, treating his rivals as enemies, and it appears as though he did this in part to preserve his own position. Although he was generally loyal to David, he seemed to twice jockey to retain his position of power with Absalom and Adonijah, which would have involved his turning against David’s authority. My opinion was, he weak in some doctrine, so that he either had areas where he lacked the spiritual information to make good decisions, or he simply went against what he knew was right to do.

See the complete Doctrine of Joab (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


2Samuel 24:2b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

shûwţ (שוּט) [pronounced shoot]

go, rove about, quickly go to and fro, run quickly, run about, run to and fro

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperative

Strong’s #7751 BDB #1001

nâʾ (נָא) [pronounced naw]

now; please, I pray you, I respectfully implore (ask, or request of) you, I urge you

a primitive particle of incitement and entreaty

Strong's #4994 BDB #609

Nâʾ is used for a submissive and modest request. It is used to express a wish (Job 32:21: “Oh, that I may not respect any man’s person”); to incite or to urge (Jer. 5:24); it is depreciatory when affixed to the 2nd person with a particle of negation (do not, I implore you—see Gen. 33:10 19:18); with the it expresses a wish or request (Psalm 124 129:1 SOS 7:9), a challenge (Jer. 17:15), asking leave (Gen. 18:4), and depreciation with a negation (Gen. 18:32). In many of these examples, we would express this with the addition of the word let.

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

Strong’s# none BDB #88

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

with a plural noun, it is rendered all of, all; any of

masculine singular construct with a masculine plural noun

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

Literally, in all. Although I don’t have this in the lexicons, it is rendered by the most literal translations as among all, through all, throughout all, with all.

shêbeţ (שֵבֶט) [pronounced SHAYB-vet]

rod, staff, club; spear; scepter and figuratively for a tribe, subdivision of a tribe or family and for a ruler (scepter-bearer), governor

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #7626 BDB #986

Yiserâʾêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

God prevails; contender; soldier of God; transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 & #3479 BDB #975


Translation: ...“Go now into all the tribes of Israel,... Most of the time, the military was to be used to keep the peace at home and abroad. Because Israel belonged to God, there were many nations which tried to plunder them, and Israel required a strong army in order to fight off the many attempts to conquer them. We find this today in modern Israel, where virtually all of their citizens are military-trained, knowing that, at any moment, war could break out against them.


This begins as a masculine singular, imperative. However, generally speaking, when Joab is ordered to do something, this means that he will assign this to someone under him; or he will lead his army to take care of whatever he is ordered to take care of. However, as the commander of Israel’s forces, he is given the orders from David and then he carries them out.


2Samuel 24:2c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

Dân (דָּן) [pronounced dawn]

judge and is transliterated Dan

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1835 BDB #192

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʿad (עַד) [pronounced ģahd]

as far as, even to, up to, until

preposition

Strong’s #5704 BDB #723

Together, min...wa ʿad (וְעַד ... מִן) mean from...to or both...and; as in from soup to nuts or both young and old.

Beʾêr Shâbaʿ (שָבַע בְּאֵר) [pronounced beayr SHAWB-vahģ]

well of the oath [seven] and is transliterated Beersheba, Beer-sheba

proper noun; location

Strong’s #884 BDB #92


Translation: ...from Dan to Beersheba,... The tribe of Dan was pushed out of the land originally given to them, so they moved further north and seized a piece of property, which became their new land, which was in the far north. Beersheba was in the far south of Judah; so the phrase from Dan to Beersheba suggests that Joab is going to be required to go throughout the entire land in order to take this census. This phrase is found in Judges 20:1 1Samuel 3:20 2Samuel 3:10 17:11.


2Samuel 24:2d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

pâqad (פָּקַד) [pronounced paw-KAHD]

go to a person, visit, have personal contact with, sort out, visit a person, commit, charge to the care of; fall upon, attack, number, take a census

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperative

Strong's #6485 BDB #823

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʿam (עַם) [pronounced ģahm]

people; race, tribe; family, relatives; citizens, common people; companions, servants; entire human race; herd [of animals]

masculine singular collective noun with the definite article

Strong’s #5971 BDB #766


Translation: ...and number the people... This is an interesting thing here, that will be identified as a sin to David. David is telling Joab to take a census. This is going to require Joab to use a great deal of his army in order to take this census.


2Samuel 24:2e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

yâdaʿ (יָדַע) [pronounced yaw-DAHĢ]

to know, to perceive, to acquire knowledge, to become acquainted with, to know by experience, to have a knowledge of something; to see; to learn; to recognize [admit, acknowledge, confess]

1st person singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #3045 BDB #393

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

miçephâr (מֹסְפָר) [pronounced mise-FAWR

number, counted, numerical total; a recounting, a narration

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #4557 BDB #708

ʿam (עַם) [pronounced ģahm]

people; race, tribe; family, relatives; citizens, common people; companions, servants; entire human race; herd [of animals]

masculine singular collective noun with the definite article

Strong’s #5971 BDB #766


Translation: ...so that I will know the number of the people.” David’s desire here is to simply know how many people populate Israel.


These are the opinions of several commentators and exegetes.

Theories as to why this census was a sin

Theologian/Exegete

Commentary

Gleason Archer Footnote

Without being fully aware of what was going on in his heart, David had apparently been building up an attitude of pride and self-admiration for what he had achieved in the way of military success and economic expansion of his people. He began to think more in terms of armaments and troops than in terms of the faithful mercies of God. In his youth he had put his entire trust in God alone, whether he was facing Goliath with a slingshot or an army of Amalekites with a band of four hundred men. But in later years he had come to rely more and more on material resources, like any hardheaded realist, and he learned to measure his strength by the yardstick of numbers and wealth.

Clarke Footnote

David, in all probability, slackening in his piety and confidence toward God, and meditating some extension of his dominions without the Divine counsel or command, was naturally curious to know whether the number of fighting men in his empire was sufficient for the work which he had projected...He therefore orders Joab and the captains to take an exact account of all the effective men in Israel and Judah. God is justly displeased with this conduct, and determines that the props of his vain ambition shall be taken away, either by famine, war, or pestilence.

Guzik Footnote

This was dangerous because of a principle stated in Exodus 30:12: When you take the census of the children of Israel for their number, then every man shall give a ransom for himself to the Lord, when you number them, that there may be no plague among them when you number them.


The principle of Exodus 30:12 speaks to God's ownership of His people. In the thinking of these ancient cultures, a man only had the right to count or number what belonged to him. Israel didn’t belong to David; Israel belonged to God. It was up to the Lord to command a counting, and if David counted he should only do it at God's command and receiving ransom money to "atone" for the counting.

Although Guzik’s reference here appears to be right on point, this is not for all census taking for all time; but it applied to this particular census, when Moses was to oversee a census taken of the people. Furthermore, this census had nothing to do with the military.

Keil and Delitzsch Footnote

David himself admits that it was a grievous sin against God, and as a sin it is punished by the Lord (2Sam. 24:12.). In what, then, did David's sin consist? Certainly not in the fact that, when taking the census, “he neglected to demand the atonement money, which was to be raised, according to Ex. 30:12., from all who were numbered, because the numbering of the people was regarded in itself as an undertaking by which the anger of God might easily be excited,” as Josephus and Bertheau maintain; for the Mosaic instructions concerning the atonement money had reference to the incorporation of the people into the army of Jehovah (see at Ex. 30:13–14), and therefore did not come into consideration at all in connection with the census appointed by David as a purely political measure. Nor can we imagine that David's sin consisted merely in the fact that he “entered upon the whole affair from pride and vain boasting,” or that “he commanded the census from vanity, inasmuch as he wanted to have it distinctly set before his own eyes how strong and mighty he was” (Buddeus, Hengstenberg, and others); for although pride and vanity had something to do with it, as the words of Joab especially seem to indicate, David was far too great a man to allow us to attribute to him a childish delight in the mere number of souls in his kingdom.

Keil and Delitzsch continued

The census had certainly a higher purpose than this. It is very evident from 1Chron. 27:23–24, where it is mentioned again that it was connected with the military organization of the people, and probably was to be the completion of it. David wanted to know the number of his subjects, not that he might be able to boast of their multitude, nor that he might be able to impose all kinds of taxes upon every town and village according to their houses and inhabitants, as Ewald maintains; but that he might be fully acquainted with its defensive power, though we can neither attribute to him the definite purpose “of transforming the theocratic sacred state into a conquering world–state” (Kurtz), nor assume that through this numbering the whole nation was to be enrolled for military service, and that thirst for conquest was the motive for the undertaking.

Keil and Delitzsch continued

The true kernel of David's sin was to be found, no doubt, in self–exaltation, inasmuch as he sought for the strength and glory of his kingdom in the number of the people and their readiness for war. This sin was punished. “Because David was about to boast proudly and to glory in the number of his people, God determined to punish him by reducing their number either by famine, war, or pestilence” (Seb. Schmidt). At the same time, the people themselves had sinned grievously against God and their king, through the two rebellions headed by Absalom and Sheba.

F. B. Meyers Footnote

The sin of numbering the people lay in its motive. David was animated by a spirit of pride and vainglory. He was eager to make a fine showing among the surrounding nations, and to impress them with such a conception of Israel's greatness that they would not dare to attack any point of the long frontier line. He yielded to the temptation of trusting in chariots and horses, instead of in the victories of faith.

James Nisbet Footnote

It was very clear what David had an eye to in numbering the people. It was one of those steps which the kings of the nations around were accustomed to take from time to time when they wanted to know how strong they were and what wars they could carry on, what countries they could invade and what cities they could take. This was the way of the heathen world, whom the Israelites were specially bidden not to imitate. They were not meant by God to be a conquering nation; they were a holy nation, a peculiar people, whom God had admitted into a special covenant with Himself. David's act was one of vulgar kingly ambition, in absolute contradiction to the express designs of God for the Jewish people. It pleased God by a terrible visitation at once to check this new temper and suppress at its very commencement this dangerous aim. It is possible that this is ultimately attributable to Canon Mozley.

NIV Study Bible Footnote

The census does not appear to have been prompted by any external threat. Since he wanted to "know how many there are" (v.2), it is evident that his action was motivated either by pride in the size of the empire he had acquired or by reliance for his security on the size of the reserve of manpower he could muster in an emergency or, more likely, both.

Peter Pett Footnote

David's only aim was with a view to self-gloating aver what he was seeing as `his people', and so that he could have a `global total'.

Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge Footnote

We know not in what the sinfulness of this action consisted. Some think it was a contempt of the promise that the Israelites should be innumerable, and that they ought not to have been numbered without an express command, as in the days of Moses. Others suppose with Josephus that it was a kind of sacrilege, in omitting to collect the half-shekel a-piece for the use of the sanctuary. It however would appear that pride and ambition, and a desire of conquest, induced David to this measure, and rendered it so displeasing to God.

J. B. Mozley makes an application here: People are very fond of numbering the good things they have or suppose themselves to have. This is the peril to which our Lord refers when He says, `Lay not up for yourselves treasures on earth . for where your treasure is, there will your heart be also;' that is, you will be always brooding in your heart upon them, and they will fill your mind to the exclusion of all spiritual thoughts. The Bible takes us out of ourselves, and directs us to God as the great object of our love, and in Him to our neighbour. `Seek ye first the kingdom of God and His righteousness, and all these things shall be added to you.'  Footnote


Chapter Outline

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Scripture is not completely clear as to why this census is wrong, and why the punishment for Israel is so severe. So, let’s start with what we do know for certain.

What do we unequivocally know about David ordering this census?

1.      The problem that God has is fundamentally with the people of Israel. We do not know what that problem is, but the Bible clearly tells us that there is a problem. We will develop some reasonable theories. 2Sam. 24:1

2.      Since the actual act of taking a military census is not a sin (God requires that a census be taken from time to time—Num. 1:1–4 4:2, 22 1Sam. 11:18 2Sam. 18:1), that means that the motivation behind the act has to be sinful. As R. B. Thieme, Jr. said on many occasions: Doing a wrong thing in a wrong way is wrong; doing a right thing in a wrong way is wrong; doing a wrong thing in a right way is wrong; only doing a right thing in a right way is right. Therefore, David is doing a right thing—or a thing which is not right or wrong in and of itself—in a wrong way. This leads us to the conclusion that what David is doing wrong is in his head.

3.      Satan inspires David to take this census. 1Chron. 21:1

4.      David was not really numbering all the people, but he was numbering those who are potential military men. 2Sam. 24:9 1Chron. 21:5

5.      Joab and his captains, all of whom are outstanding military men (2Sam. 23) are against this. 2Sam. 24:3–4

6.      The substance of their objections is not made clear.

7.      However, Joab appears to understand that there will be guilt brought upon Israel. Why does my lord require this thing? Why will he be a cause of guilt to Israel? (1Chron. 21:3b; UPDV)

8.      1Chron. 27:23 reads: But David didn't take the number of them from twenty years old and under, because Yahweh had said he would increase Israel like the stars of the sky. (WEB) The implication is that, David may be taking this census having some doubt about God’s promises.

9.      David apparently listened to the objections of Joab and his captains and overruled them. 2Sam. 24:4

10.    Because Joab is authority oriented, he will obey David’s final command to take the census.

11.    God was displeased with the census and He struck Israel. 1Chron. 21:7

12.    David recognized, eventually, that what he required was a sin, apparently after the census had been taken. 2Sam. 24:10 1Chron. 21:8

13.    David did not seem to recognize that there was a problem with the people of Israel. He recognizes his sin, but asks, “What have these sheep done?” 2Sam. 24:17

14.    And because there are several censuses taken in the Bible—some required by God—it is clear that taking a census is not anti-God or anti-Biblical.

15.    There is a definite relationship to the number of people counted in this census and the rightness or wrongness of taking the census. Joab comments that it would be great if there were 100x as many people (2Sam. 24:3); and every judgment offered by God involved killing off a number of people (2Sam. 24:13).

16.    

When we try to zero in on the sin, keep these things in mind.


Chapter Outline

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I list these in part, just so you can see what ideas have been thrown against the wall.

Related Commentary to 2Samuel 24:1–2

Source

Commentary

Bible Teaching Resources Footnote

David wanted to know how strong his nation was militarily. However his strength really lay in God, but David laid his emphasis upon his armies. God’s position was: You don’t need to number the people. I have taken care of this situation. The strength of Israel’s army meant nothing if God was not with them to give them the victory.

The Biblical Illustrator Footnote

The sin committed by David. It is possible that David dwelt with satisfaction upon the thought of his ample resources and numerous armies, and calculated that he was possessed of a power to repel aggression, and attempt fresh conquests. He may have forgotten that God alone, who had made him great, could preserve to him his greatness, and thence he may have longed to reckon up his forces, as though he could thence learn his security, or compute the extension of his kingdom.

The Christian Community Bible

The kingdom has grown very much in territory, animals and wealth. Israel is a numerous people and so David is tempted to count them and orders a census. The census in itself is not bad. What is bad is to feel greater because one has so many people or soldiers, or to have an obsession for quantity, for numbers, forgetting the essential which is quality. David forgets that he is the administrator and deputy of God in Israel: the sheep do not belong to him. At all levels of life, people like to count their animals, or recall their accomplishments. There are many ways of feeling oneself Here, the author presents the pestilence as God’s intervention to punish the king. People of that time easily accepted an intervention of Yahweh to kill the Israelites even if they were not responsible for the sin of their king. It seems more accurate for us to say that God intervened by sending the prophet Gad a few days before the pestilence broke out, a pestilence which, of course, was not miraculous in nature. Thus he wanted to impart to David a lesson and a sign of the gravity of his sin, using a language he could understand. See what is said about collective punishment in Joshua 7, and about the Angel of Yahweh in Genesis 16.

The NET Bible

The parallel text in 1 Chron. 21:1 says, "An adversary opposed Israel, inciting David to count how many warriors Israel had." The Samuel version gives an underlying theological perspective, while the Chronicler simply describes what happened from a human perspective. The adversary in 1 Chron. 21:1 is likely a human enemy, probably a nearby nation whose hostility against Israel pressured David into numbering the people so he could assess his military strength. See the note at 1 Chron. 21:1.

The New Advent (Knox) Bible

Here, as often, the Old Testament record describes God's dealings with mankind in strictly human terms. By a somewhat violent metaphor, he is compared to a human ruler who is anxious to pick a quarrel with his neighbours, and employs an agent provocateur to give him a pretext for interference. In 1Chron. 21:1 the same course of events is described in theological terms, and we are told that Satan tempted David to register the people.

The New American Bible

The narrative supposes that since the people belonged to the Lord rather than to the king, only the Lord should know their exact number. Further, since such an exact numbering of the people would make it possible for the king to exercise centralized power, imposing taxation, conscription, and expropriation upon Israel, the story shares the view of monarchy found in 1Sam 8:4-18. See also Num 3:44-51, where census taking requires an apotropaic offering. Footnote

Adam Clarke Footnote

We know not exactly in what this sin consisted...probably David now began to covet an extension of empire, and purposed to unite some of the neighboring states with his own; and having, through the suggestions of Satan or some other adversary, (for so the word implies), given way to this covetous disposition, he could not well look to God for help, and therefore wished to know whether the thousands of Israel and Judah might be deemed equal to the conquests which he meditated. When God is offended and refuses assistance, vain is the help of man.

John Gill Footnote

This appears to be done not through any urgent necessity, but merely out of curiosity, and to gratify the pride of his heart, and please himself with the thought of ruling such a numerous people, and brag of their numbers to other nations, and place his confidence therein; and no wonder it was displeasing to the Lord.

Matthew Henry Footnote

[One thing] here seems [very] strange: The sinfulness of this. What harm was there in it? Did not Moses twice number the people without any crime? Does not political arithmetic come in among the other policies of a prince? Should not the shepherd know the number of his sheep? Does not the Son of David know all his own by name? Might not he make good use of this calculation? What evil has he done, if he do this? Henry goes on to list several possibilities, but most of them have been covered before.

Jamieson, Fausset and Brown Footnote

The act of numbering the people was not in itself sinful; for Moses did it by the express authority of God. But David acted not only independently of such order or sanction, but from motives unworthy of the delegated king of Israel; from pride and vainglory; from self-confidence and distrust of God; and, above all, from ambitious designs of conquest, in furtherance of which he was determined to force the people into military service, and to ascertain whether he could muster an army sufficient for the magnitude of the enterprises he contemplated. It was a breach of the constitution, an infringement of the liberties of the people, and opposed to that divine policy which required that Israel should continue a separate people. His eyes were not opened to the heinousness of his sin till God had spoken unto him by His commissioned prophet.

Peter Pett Footnote

The act of numbering the men of Israel would appear to have been seen as an act of rebellion against YHWH. According to 1Chronicles 27:23-24 YHWH had promised that the number of the children of Israel would be as the stars of the heavens. They were thus not to be numbered arbitrarily (it was permitted in a general way for organisational purposes when mustering to battle but not otherwise - 2Samuel 18:1) nor have any limit put on them. For in the end they were YHWH's people, not David's. To number them was thus an act of human arrogance and self-exaltation. It was to see them as David's own people and at his disposal, rather than as YHWH's people to be preserved by Him as He willed. David is seen as once more having got above himself. It was a similar act of arrogance to that of Moses smiting the rock in Numbers 20:10-12, something which also had painful consequences.

Matthew Poole Footnote

David’s sin in this matter [is] that he numbered them, not by direction from God, nor for any important business of the...kingdom; but out of mere curiosity, and pride...accompanied either with a secret distrust of God’s promise; or rather, with a carnal confidence in the numbers of his people; all [of] which...sins...were so manifest, that not only God saw them...in David; but even Joab and the captains of the host were very sensible of them.

As you can see, this topic has engendered no little discussion.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Now we must go further into this, to try to determine exactly what the problem was. Some speculation will be involved.

What is wrong with David taking a census?

1.      This appears to be a fairly innocuous sin. David is not killing anyone; he is not bedding down the wife of a soldier. He simply wants to know how many potential soldiers there are in Israel.

2.      It is also interesting that Joab objects to this census. As a military man and the general of Israel’s forces, we would think that he, even more than David, would be interested in Israel’s military potential. Because Joab knows David intimately, he is able to see the problem, as it relates to David’s character.

3.      In this time of obvious peace, was David thinking of expanding Israel’s borders, without first going through God on this matter? Was David thinking, we have defeated all of our enemies; now let’s increase the territory over which I rule. If anyone would recognize this in David, it would be Joab, whether David states this purpose or not.

4.      Determining the number of potential soldiers in Israel was not a wrong thing to do. That is what the first part of the book of Numbers is all about. Drafting men into war is also legitimate. Remember the passage, “Your sin will find you out”? In context, that is the sin of pacifism when your comrades are going to war.

5.      The first clear problem is, this is motivated by Satan (1Chron. 21:1).

         1)      This is an area of Scripture which really needs some more study done. How does Satan motivate anyone to do anything? Is he allowed to implant ideas in our heads? How does Satan take his strategy and insert it into the human race, many of whom do not believe that he exists?

         2)      We do know that Satan’s strategies can be quite brilliant. The political moves of the LGBT movement have been unbelievably effective. Today, if you are against a state-recognized gay marriage, you are considered by many as hateful and intolerant.

6.      We must assume that Satan has a way to communicate his ideas and plans without just visibly appearing to someone and saying, “Listen, this is what I want you to do.”

7.      It is reasonable to assume that most people who do Satan’s will do not realize that they are doing Satan’s will and would scoff if you told them this. The gay political agenda is a good example of this. The military expansion of Islam is another good example (well, any kind of expansion of Islam, is this).

8.      Satan clearly has a strategy and a game plan for all of the countries; and this includes the United States.

         1)      As an aside, we have a clear agenda throughout the world which is the gay political movement.

         2)      They make up a very small part of the population of the world, and yet, they have figured out how to gain great power.

         3)      They have done two things which were brilliant: they got the psychiatric association in the United States to no longer list homosexuality as a mental or as a behavior disorder; to the point where, now, when someone speaks of being reformed in this area (that is, a homosexual wanting to be heterosexual; or people claiming that this can be done), they are scoffed at.

         4)      And then they went after the schools, making gay marriage, through indoctrination, the #1 issue among young people.

         5)      Gay marriage involves a small percentage of a small percentage of the human population; and yet, to some people, this is the important “human rights” issue of the day.

         6)      This is taken to the point where, someone who says that they believe in traditional marriage can be ridiculed for expressing such “hate speech.” This approach, though perverse, is also brilliant.

         7)      My point in this is, Satan uses homosexuality and the gay movement to undermine divine establishment and the Bible.

9.      Therefore, if Satan can push such a movement in the United States; we must recognize that he has the ability to somehow enter into our minds, our consciousness or our society and implant his perverse notions.

10.    Often, the attacks of Satan are very subtle and yet very real.

11.    Besides being motivated by Satan, David is also using his army to do something which does not need to be done. David apparently does not really need to know the potential military population of Israel. God has not ordered him to take a census.

12.    The census that David is taking is related directly to the number of men eligible for military service. This implies that David was overly concerned in this area. He does not need to worry about an effective military. God has given David a number of promises and God has given Israel a number of promises. If necessary, just one Israelite can put 100 or even 1000 men to flight. Furthermore, we have specific examples in this appendix to Samuel which indicates that David had some of the greatest soldiers in human history.

13.    The implication is that David is worried or unsure; and as the king of Israel with God on his side, he should not worry about that. Or, in the alternative, David may have been thinking about going on the offensive to expand the size of Israel.

14.    1Chron. 27:23 reads: But David didn't take the number of them from twenty years old and under, because Yahweh had said he would increase Israel like the stars of the sky. (WEB) The implication is, when we compare this verse to our passage, David might be taking this census because he has some doubt about God’s promises.

15.    This helps to explain what Joab means, when he tells David: “May Yehowah your Elohim add to the people until [lit., as] they [are] a hundredfold while the eyes of my lord the king are observing. [But] why has my lord the king delighted in this thing?” (v. 3) The REB might do a better job conveying what we find here: Joab answered, ‘Even if the Lord your God should increase the people a hundredfold and your majesty should live to see it, what pleasure would that give your majesty?” Joab is saying, “I know that this is all about God’s promises to you to increase the size and population of Israel; but even if you observed a hundredfold increase, what actual pleasure is there in that observation?”

16.    Furthermore, if his army has free time, then they need to get some time off or some R&R. Or they need training. They do not need to be wandering from village to village getting a head count.

17.    So it is not the actual act of taking a census that is sinful. That it is motivated by Satan is the problem. That it is possibly motivated by some distrust in the promises of God—that is the problem. And if David is thinking of expanding the size of Israel, without God prompting him to do so, that is problematic.

18.    David is perhaps looking at this census as a kind of personal protection or insurance. But Jer. 17:5 tells us: Cursed is the man who trusts in man and makes flesh his arm.

19.    With regards to the idea of David expanding Israel beyond where it is. David illustrates Jesus Christ in the 1st and 2nd advents. He has spent much of his life at war; and much of his kingship presiding over Israel when at war. This is like Jesus when He returns and destroys the opposing armies of evil men. But when Solomon comes along, he will enjoy a long, prosperous reign, without war. He will build the Temple, God’s semi-permanent home for His Presence. Therefore, Solomon represents Jesus Christ in the Millennium. At that time, He will rule over the earth, and there will be perfect environment. If David begins a number of wars on various fronts, warfare might continue into Solomon’s reign. God wanted Solomon’s reign to be one of peace and wisdom, in order to look forward to our Lord’s reign.

20.    Therefore, we may assume that God wants David to keep nation Israel in a holding pattern, having a strong military force that will not be challenged for a generation.

Unless God specifically tells us that a census is wrong or sinful, we should not take a narrative like this and come to that conclusion.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


——————————


And so says Joab unto the king, “And may add Yehowah your Elohim unto the people as they and as they a hundred times and eyes of my adonai the king are seeing and my adonai the king for why he has delighted in the word the this.”

2Samuel

24:3

Joab then said to the king, “May Yehowah your Elohim add to the people until [lit., as] they [are] a hundredfold while the eyes of my lord the king are observing. [But] why has my lord the king delighted in this thing?”

But Joab objected, saying to the king, “May Jehovah God increase the people a hundredfold while you are taking this census. Just why have you decided to do this thing?”


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          And Joab said to the king: The Lord your God increase your people, and make them as many more as they are now, and again multiply them a hundredfold in the sight of my lord the king: but what means my lord the king by this kind of thing?

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so says Joab unto the king, “And may add Yehowah your Elohim unto the people as they and as they a hundred times and eyes of my adonai the king are seeing and my adonai the king for why he has delighted in the word the this.”

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And Joab said to the king, May the LORD your God add to the people a hundredfold, howsoever many they be, so that the eyes of my lord the king may see it; but why does my lord the king delight in this thing?

Septuagint (Greek)                And Joab said to the king, Now may the Lord add to the people a hundredfold as many as they are, and may the eyes of my lord the king see it: but why does my lord the king desire this thing?

1Chron. 21:3 (VW)                 And Joab answered, May Jehovah make His people a hundred times more than they are. But, my lord the king, are they not all my lord's servants? Why then does my lord desire this thing? Why should he be a cause of guilt to Israel?

 

Significant differences:           The Latin adds an additional phrase, which is interpreting a difficult Hebrew idiom. That exact phrase is missing in the Chronicles text.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Joab said to the king, "May the Lord your God increase the number of people a hundred times while the eyes of my master the king can still see it! But why does my master the king want to do this?"

Contemporary English V.       Joab answered, "I hope the LORD your God will give you a hundred times more soldiers than you already have. I hope you will live to see that day! But why do you want to do a thing like this?"

Easy English                          But Joab replied to the king, `The *Lord your God can give you 100 times more people. And I hope that you, my master the king, will see it happen. You should not want to do such a thing.'

Easy-to-Read Version            But Joab said to the king, “May the Lord your God give you 100 times as many people, no matter how many there are! And may your eyes see this thing happen. But why do you want to do this?”

Good News Bible (TEV)         But Joab answered the king, "Your Majesty, may the LORD your God make the people of Israel a hundred times more numerous than they are now, and may you live to see him do it. But why does Your Majesty want to do this?"

The Message                         But Joab resisted the king: "May your GOD multiply people by the hundreds right before the eyes of my master the king, but why on earth would you do a thing like this?"

New Berkeley Version           Joab tried to reason with the king, “May the Lord your God multiply the people a hundred times over what they are now, for the eyes of my master the king to see; but why should my master the king be pleased to do this thing?” There was nothing inherently wrong in a census, but in this case David was looking to the armed strength of his people (note v. 9)rather than maintaining his faith in the promises of God. Compare 1Chron. 27:23 (But David didn't take the number of them from twenty years old and under, because Yahweh had said he would increase Israel like the stars of the sky.—WEB).

New Century Version             But Joab said to the king, "May the Lord your God give you a hundred times more people, and may my master the king live to see this happen. Why do you want to do this?"

New Life Bible                        But Joab said to the king, "May the Lord your God add to the people a hundred times as many as they are. And may it be while the eyes of my lord the king still see. But why does my lord the king find this thing pleasing?"

New Living Translation           But Joab replied to the king, "May the Lord your God let you live to see a hundred times as many people as there are now! But why, my lord the king, do you want to do this?"

The Voice                               But Joab cautioned the king.

Joab: May the Eternal God increase the number of your people a hundred times while you are still alive to see it. But why on earth would you desire to do this, my king?


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          But JoAb said to the king: 'May Jehovah your God add to your people, and may you find that they have grown to be a hundred times greater. However, my Lord the king, why would you want to do you such a thing?'

Christian Community Bible     Joab told the king, “May Yahweh your God multiply the people a hun-dred times and may my lord the king see this blessing. But why does my lord the king want to take a census?”

God’s Word                         Joab responded to the king, "May the LORD your God multiply the people a hundred times over, and may Your Majesty live to see it. But why does Your Majesty wish to do this?"

International Standard V        But Joab replied, "May the LORD your God increase the population of the people a hundredfold while your majesty the king is still alive to see it happen! But why does your majesty the king want to do this?"

New Advent (Knox) Bible       Why, said Joab, my prayer is that the Lord may increase yet more the number of the people, great as it is, and that thou mayest live to see it a hundred times as great! But what is it my lord the king means by this design?

New American Bible (2002)   But Joab said to the king: "May the LORD your God increase the number of people a hundredfold for your royal majesty to see it with his own eyes. But why does it please my lord the king to order a thing of this kind?"

New American Bible (2011)   But Joab replied to the king: "May the LORD your God increase the number of people a hundredfold for my lord the king to see it with his own eyes. But why does it please my lord to do a thing of this kind?"

NIRV                                      Joab replied to the king. He said, "King David, you are my master. May the Lord your God multiply the troops 100 times. And may you live to see it. But why would you want me to count the fighting men?"

New Jerusalem Bible             Joab said to the king, 'May Yahweh your God multiply the people a hundred times -- however many there are -- while my lord the king still has eyes to see it, but why should my lord the king be set on this?'

New Simplified Bible              Joab answered reluctantly: »Your Majesty, may Jehovah your God make the people of Israel a hundred times more numerous than they are now. May you live to see him do it. But why does Your Majesty want to do this?«

Revised English Bible            Joab answered, ‘Even if the Lord your God should increase the people a hundredfold and your majesty should live to see it, what pleasure would that give your majesty?”

Today’s NIV                          But Joab replied to the king, "May the LORD your God multiply the troops a hundred times over, and may the eyes of my lord the king see it. But why does my lord the king want to do such a thing?"


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      Joab said to the king, "Yahweh your God added to ||these|| people a hundred times as the eyes of my lord the king sees. Why does my lord the king pleasure in this word?"

Bible in Basic English             And Joab said to the king, Whatever the number of the people, may the Lord make it a hundred times as much, and may the eyes of my lord the king see it: but why does my lord the king take pleasure in doing this thing?

The Expanded Bible              But Joab said to the king, "May the Lord your God give you a hundred times more ·people [soldiers], and may my master the king live to see this happen. ·Why do you [LBut why does my lord the king] want to do this?"

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 But J’oab answered the king, “May your Ever-living God increase the forces by enlistment [“By enlistment” Hebrew is literally “From up and down.”] a hundred fold, that the eyes oft your Majesty may see: —but, your Majesty, why are you inclined to this thing?”

HCSB                                     Joab replied to the king, "May the LORD your God multiply the troops 100 times more than they are--while my lord the king looks on! But why does my lord the king want to do this?"

NET Bible®                             Joab replied to the king, "May the Lord your God make the army a hundred times larger right before the eyes of my lord the king! But why does my master the king want to do this?"

NIV – UK                                But Joab replied to the king, `May the Lord your God multiply the troops a hundred times over, and may the eyes of my lord the king see it. But why does my lord the king want to do such a thing?'


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           Yo'av said to the king, "May ADONAI your God add to the people a hundredfold, no matter how many there are; and may the eyes of my lord the king see it. But why does my lord the king take pleasure in doing this?"

exeGeses companion Bible   And Yah Ab says to the sovereign,

Yes, Yah Veh your Elohim adds to the people

- as many as ever they be, a hundred times

that the eyes of my adoni the sovereign see.

But why delights my adoni the sovereign in this word?

Hebrew Names Version         Yo'av said to the king, Now the LORD your God add to the people, however many they may be, one hundred times; and may the eyes of my lord the king see it: but why does my lord the king delight in this thing?

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               Joab answered the king, “May the Lord your God increase the number of the people a hundredfold, while your own eyes see it! But why should my lord king want this?”

Orthodox Jewish Bible           And Yoav said unto HaMelech, Now Hashem Eloheicha add unto HaAm, how many soever they be, a hundredfold, and that the eyes of adoni HaMelech may see it; but why doth adoni HaMelech delight in this thing?

The Scriptures 1998              And Yoʼab? said to the sovereign, “Even if יהוה your Elohim does add to the people a hundredfold more than there are, and the eyes of my master the sovereign see it, but why does my master the sovereign delight in this matter?”


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Context Group Version          And Joab said to the king, May YHWH your God add to the people, however many they may be, a hundredfold; and may the eyes of my lord the king see it: but why does my lord the king delight in this thing?

Darby Translation                  And Joab said to the king, May Jehovah thy God even add to the people, how many soever they be, a hundredfold, and that the eyes of my lord the king may see [it]; but why does my lord the king delight in this thing?

English Standard Version      But Joab said to the king, "May the LORD your God add to the people a hundred times as many as they are, while the eyes of my lord the king still see it, but why does my lord the king delight in this thing?"

Green’s Literal Translation    And Joab said to the king, Yea, may Jehovah your God add to the people, however many they may be, a hundredfold. And may the eyes of my lord the king see it. But why does my lord the king delight in this thing?

Kretzmann’s Commentary    And Joab said unto the king, Now the Lord, thy God, add unto the people, how many soever they be, an hundredfold, and that the eyes of my lord the king may see it! But why doth my lord the king delight in this thing? Joab noticed that the pride of the king was his motive for instituting this census, that he wanted to boast of the imposing and growing military strength of his people, and he feared that no good would come of it, especially since the people themselves might resent the procedure. Joab's native shrewdness here stood him in good stead.

NASB                                     But Joab said to the king, "Now [Deut 1:11] may the Lord your God add to the people a hundred times as many as they are, while the eyes of my lord the king still see; but why does my lord the king delight in this thing?"

New King James Version       And Joab said to the king, "Now may the Lord your God add to the people a hundred times more than there are, and may the eyes of my lord the king see it. But why does my lord the king desire this thing?"

New RSV                               But Joab said to the king, `May the Lord your God increase the number of the people a hundredfold, while the eyes of my lord the king can still see it! But why does my lord the king want to do this?'

Third Millennium Bible            And Joab said unto the king, "Now the LORD thy God add unto the people, how many so ever they be, a hundredfold, that the eyes of my lord the king may see it. But why doth my lord the king delight in this thing?"

Updated Bible Version 2.11   And Joab said to the king, May Yahweh your God add to the people, however many they may be, a hundredfold; and may the eyes of my lord the king see it: but why does my lord the king delight in this thing?

A Voice in the Wilderness      And Joab said to the king, Now may Jehovah your God add to the people a hundred times more than there are, and may the eyes of my lord the king see it. But why does my lord the king desire this thing?

World English Bible                Joab said to the king, Now Yahweh your God add to the people, however many they may be, one hundred times; and may the eyes of my lord the king see it: but why does my lord the king delight in this thing?

Young’s Updated LT             And Joab says unto the king, “Yea, Jehovah your God adds to the people, as they are, a hundred times, and the eyes of my lord the king are seeing; and my lord the king, why is he desirous of this thing?”

 

The gist of this verse:          Joab appears to call for there to be 100x more available men during the time of David, but is clearly against this census idea.


2Samuel 24:3a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

Yôwʾâb (יוֹאָב) [pronounced YOH-awbv]

Yah is father and is transliterated Joab

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #3097 BDB #222

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

meleke (מֶלֶ) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572


Translation: Joab then said to the king,... Joab does not think that this is a good idea, and he questions King David about doing this. He is one of the few men of the kingdom who can tell David whatever is on his mind, even if this is exactly what David does not want to hear.


2Samuel 24:3b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

yâçaph (יָסַף) [pronounced yaw-SAHPH]

to add, to augment, to increase, to multiply; to add to do = to do again; to continue to

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect; voluntative form

Strong's #3254 BDB #414

The voluntative is alluded to in Owen’s, but I can’t find this terminology in any of my Hebrew grammar books, nor in ZPDB or any other Hebrew source whatsoever. This appears to be an umbrella term which includes the jussive (applied to the 3rd person); the imperative (applied to the 2nd person) and the cohortative (applied to the 1st person). Some translators do not acknowledge any sort of difference (The Amplified Bible, Keil and Delitzsch, KJV, Noyes) and some occasionally do (The Emphasized Bible, Owen, and Today’s English Version). I am going to tentatively go with the idea of being compelled by oneself and use the words let (when applied to the 3rd person or to the 1st person plural), and I must, I could, I would, I will, I should, I may, when applied to the 1st person singular.

Usually, this is indicated with a hê suffix, but I do not see a hê suffix for this verb. In fact, I don’t see anything to indicate that this is a voluntative verb.

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #430 BDB #43

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

ʿam (עַם) [pronounced ģahm]

people; race, tribe; family, relatives; citizens, common people; companions, servants; entire human race; herd [of animals]

masculine singular collective noun with the definite article

Strong’s #5971 BDB #766

kaph or ke (כְּ) [pronounced ke]

like, as, just as; according to, after; about, approximately; combined with an infinitive, it can also take on the meaning as, often, when, as soon as

preposition of comparison, resemblance or approximation

No Strong’s # BDB #453

hêm (הֵם) [pronounced haym]

they, those; themselves; these [with the definite article]

3rd person masculine plural personal pronoun; sometimes the verb to be is implied

Strong’s #1992 BDB #241

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

kaph or ke (כְּ) [pronounced ke]

like, as, just as; according to, after; about, approximately; combined with an infinitive, it can also take on the meaning as, often, when, as soon as

preposition of comparison, resemblance or approximation

No Strong’s # BDB #453

hêm (הֵם) [pronounced haym]

they, those; themselves; these [with the definite article]

3rd person masculine plural personal pronoun; sometimes the verb to be is implied

Strong’s #1992 BDB #241

This literally reads: as they and as they. This could be understood literally as they [are] and as they [are]. I did not find this phrase in BDB, but translators variously rendered this as many as there are (ACV, ESV, NASB, Rotherham, UPDV); so many more as they be (AKJV); however many there may be (CGV); as many as ever they be (ECB); however many they may be (Green’s literal translation, WEB); more than there are (NKJV); more than they are (the Scriptures); of whatsoever they may be (JPCT); so many more as they are (KJ2000); and as they are (Young). We do not have this same wording in 1Chron. 21:3, the parallel passage. Some translations virtually ignore this phrase (God’s Word™, HCSB, MKJV). Perhaps the idea is, however many there may be, given that the census has not yet been taken.

mêʾâh (מֵאָה) [pronounced may-AW]

one hundred, a hundred, hundred

feminine singular numeral

Strong’s #3967 BDB #547

peʿâmîym (פְּעָמִים) [pronounced peh-ģaw-MEEM]

times, beats, feet, occurrences, steps; the connotation is the passage of time

feminine plural noun

Strong’s #6471 BDB #821

Together, these two words probably mean a hundredfold.


Translation: ...“May Yehowah your Elohim add to the people until [lit., as] they [are] a hundredfold... There is an odd phrase in this sentence which is difficult to translate, which is covered in more detail in the exegesis. Joab appears to be saying, “Of course we agree that it would be good if God increases the people by a hundredfold.”


We can tie this to the promises of God, Who promised David that He would increase the size of Israel dramatically. David appears to be having some doubts at this point; and hence, the census to reassure himself that God is doing what He promised.


2Samuel 24:3c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʿêynayim (עֵינַיִם) [pronounced ģay-nah-YIM]

eyes, two eyes, literal eye(s), spiritual eyes; face, appearance, form; surface

feminine plural construct

Strong’s #5869 (and #5871) BDB #744

ʾădônây (אֲדֹנָי) [pronounced uh-doh-NAY]

Lord (s), Master (s), my Lord (s), Sovereign; my lord [master]; can refer to the Trinity or to an intensification of the noun; transliterated Adonai, adonai

masculine plural noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #113 & #136 BDB #10

There are actually 3 forms of this word: ʾădônây (אֲדֹנָי) [pronounced uh-doh-NAY]; ʾădônay (אֲדֹנַי) [pronounced uh-doh-NAY]; and ʾădônîy (אֲדֹנִי) [pronounced uh-doh-NEE].

This is a form of Strong’s #113, where there are three explanations given for the yodh ending: (1) this is a shortened form of the plural ending, usually written -îym (נִים) [pronounced eem], an older form of the pluralis excellentiæ (the plural of excellence), where God’s sovereignty and lordship are emphasized by the use of the plural; (2) this is the actual, but ancient, plural of the noun, which refers to the Trinity; or (3) this is the addition of the 1st person singular suffix, hence, my Lord (the long vowel point at the end would distinguish this from my lords).

meleke (מֶלֶ) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572

râʾâh (רָאָה) [pronounced raw-AWH]

seeing; observing; understanding; a seer, perceiver

feminine plural, Qal active participle

Strong's #7200 BDB #906


Translation: ...while the eyes of my lord the king are observing. These words are attached to the difficult phrase which came before: “May Yehowah your Elohim add to the people until [lit., as] they [are] a hundredfold while the eyes of my lord the king are observing. The idea is that Joab is calling for the number of men in David’s potential army to grow by a hundredfold during David’s tenure as king. That seems to be the gist of what is being said here. The implication is, David is having some doubts in the promises of God, and that is why he is taking this census.


Now, if that is what is meant, Joab is not expressing a specific objection against what the king asks him to do. He is saying, “Sure, I want there to be 100x more soldiers out there; I agree with you there. But if you are just trying to check God’s promises, you are putting God to the test.” (This is one interpretation of what Joab is saying).


There is an example of this when Satan takes Jesus to a very high place and Satan says, “Cast yourself down, because You know that the angels will catch you.” Footnote (Matt. 4:6b; Psalm 91:11) The idea is, God has an exact plan for the life of Jesus (which Satan did not fully understand), so that if Jesus threw Himself to the ground from that high place, God the Father would be forced to send angels to catch Jesus. Jesus quoted Scripture instead: “You will not test the Lord your God!” (Matt. 4:7b; Deut. 6:16).


2Samuel 24:3d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾădônây (אֲדֹנָי) [pronounced uh-doh-NAY]

Lord (s), Master (s), my Lord (s), Sovereign; my lord [master]; can refer to the Trinity or to an intensification of the noun; transliterated Adonai, adonai

masculine plural noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #113 & #136 BDB #10

There are actually 3 forms of this word: ʾădônây (אֲדֹנָי) [pronounced uh-doh-NAY]; ʾădônay (אֲדֹנַי) [pronounced uh-doh-NAY]; and ʾădônîy (אֲדֹנִי) [pronounced uh-doh-NEE].

This is a form of Strong’s #113, where there are three explanations given for the yodh ending: (1) this is a shortened form of the plural ending, usually written -îym (נִים) [pronounced eem], an older form of the pluralis excellentiæ (the plural of excellence), where God’s sovereignty and lordship are emphasized by the use of the plural; (2) this is the actual, but ancient, plural of the noun, which refers to the Trinity; or (3) this is the addition of the 1st person singular suffix, hence, my Lord (the long vowel point at the end would distinguish this from my lords).

meleke (מֶלֶ) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

mâh (מָה) [pronounced maw]

what, how, why

interrogative; exclamatory particle

Strong’s #4100 BDB #552

Lâmed + mâh together literally mean for why. They can be rendered why, for what reason, to what purpose, for what purpose, indicating an interrogatory sentence. BDB also offers the rendering lest. Gesenius, perhaps for this passage alone (1Chron. 15:13), offers the rendering on account of [that] which, because that.

châphêts (חָפֵץ) [pronounced khaw-FATES]

to will, to desire, to take pleasure in, to delight in, to long to, to be inclined to; to move, to bend down

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #2654 BDB #342

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

Strong’s# none BDB #88

dâbâr (דָּבָר) [pronounced dawb-VAWR]

word, saying, doctrine, thing, matter, command; business, occupation; case; something; manner

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #1697 BDB #182

zeh (זֶה) [pronounced zeh]

here, this, this one; thus; possibly another

masculine singular demonstrative adjective with a definite article

Strong’s #2088, 2090 (& 2063) BDB #260

Together, dâbâr zeh mean this thing, this matter, this command.


Translation: [But] why has my lord the king delighted in this thing?” Essentially, Joab asks, “Just why are you doing this?”


The parallel passage, which lacks that odd phrase, in 1Chron. 21:3 reads:

 

American KJV                        And Joab answered, The LORD make his people an hundred times so many more as they be: but, my lord the king, are they not all my lord's servants? why then does my lord require this thing? why will he be a cause of trespass to Israel?

A Conservative Version         And Joab said, LORD make his people a hundred times as many as they are. But, my lord the king, are they not all my lord's servants? Why does my lord require this thing? Why will he be a cause of guilt to Israel?

Bible in Basic English             And Joab said, May the Lord make his people a hundred times more in number than they are; but, my lord king, are they not all my lord's servants? why would my lord have this done? why will he become a cause of sin to Israel?

English Standard Version      But Joab said, "May the LORD add to his people a hundred times as many as they are! Are they not, my lord the king, all of them my lord's servants? Why then should my lord require this? Why should it be a cause of guilt for Israel?".

HCSB                                     Joab replied to the king, "May the LORD your God multiply the troops 100 times more than they are--while my lord the king looks on! But why does my lord the king want to do this?"Joab replied, "May the LORD multiply the number of His people a hundred times over! My lord the king, aren't they all my lord's servants? Why does my lord want to do this? Why should he bring guilt on Israel?"

King James 2000 Version      And Joab answered, The LORD make his people a hundred times so many more as they are: but, my lord the king, are they not all my lord’s servants? why then does my lord require this thing? why will he be a cause of guilt to Israel?

The Scriptures 1998              And Yoʼa answered, “יהוה does add to His people a hundred times more than they are. But, my master the sovereign, are they not all my masterʼs servants? Why does my master seek to do this? Why should he be a cause of guilt in Yisraʼĕl?”

A Voice in the Wilderness      And Joab answered, May Jehovah make His people a hundred times more than they are. But, my lord the king, are they not all my lord's servants? Why then does my lord desire this thing? Why should he be a cause of guilt to Israel?

 

Bible Teaching Resources observes: It’s obvious by Joab’s hesitation that this is not something which is pleasing to the Lord. Joab gives him wise counsel, but he doesn’t listen. When you have to force something or an issue, it’s a sure indication that you are walking out of the will of God at that point. Footnote

 

Peter Pett observes: The fact that Joab was appalled at the suggestion indicates that he clearly saw that the number of the people of Israel was neither his nor David's concern. It was YHWH Who determined the number of people in Israel. He it was who could add to them a hundredfold as He had promised, something in which David could delight, but it was not for David to regulate the number of people. That was YHWH's prerogative for the people were His `portion' (consider Deuteronomy 32:8-9). The fact that they could not be numbered was an indication that they were God's people (Numbers 23:10). Why then was David concerning himself to do so? He was taking such matters out of God's hands. Was he then seeking to take over YHWH's portion and inheritance?  Footnote

 

Peter Pett gives a modern-day example of David’s sin: For David to number the people would be like the church counting up its converts so that it could rule them and pride itself in its achievements. It was a sad day when it began to do so. It was an indication that the church saw themselves as `possessing' those souls and as having authority over them, and a sign that they were failing to recognise that they themselves were only the servants of God in winning men to Christ and building them up, and not the masters of the church. Such numbers have to left to God, for it is He Who alone can determine their number. Footnote 1Cor. 3:6–7 tells us: I [Paul] planted, Apollos watered, but God gave the growth. So then neither the one who plants nor the one who waters is anything, but only God who gives the growth. (HCSB)


This also indicates that there are times when one believer is making a big mistake, but does not appear to realize that, and another believer can see it quite clearly.


——————————


And so is firm a word of the king unto Joab and upon commanders of the army. And so go out Joab and commanders of the army to faces of the king to number the people, [to number] Israel.

2Samuel

24:4

However, the king’s word is firm to Joab and toward the commanders of the army. Therefore, Joab goes out with the commanders of the army in front of the king, to number the people [and to take a census in] Israel.

However, the king’s word is firm before Joab and his commanders. Therefore Joab went out along with the commanders of his army from before the king, in order to number the people and to take a census in Israel.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          But the king's words prevailed over the words of Joab, and of the captains of the army: and Joab, and the captains of the soldiers went out from the presence of the king, to number the people of Israel.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so is firm a word of the king unto Joab and upon commanders of the army. And so go out Joab and commanders of the army to faces of the king to number the people, [to number] Israel.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    Notwithstanding the kings word prevailed against Joab and against the commanders of the army. And Joab and the commanders of the army went out from the presence of the king to number the people of Israel.

Septuagint (Greek)                Nevertheless the word of the king prevailed against Joab and the captains of the army. Therefore Joab and the captains of the army went out before the king to number the people of Israel.

1Chron. 21: (VW)                   Nevertheless the king's word prevailed against Joab. Therefore Joab departed and went throughout all Israel and came to Jerusalem.

 

Significant differences:           The Chronicles passage leaves out the commanders of the army.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           But the king's word overruled Joab and the military commanders. So Joab and the commanders left the king's presence to take a census of the Israelites.

Contemporary English V.       But when David refused to change his mind, Joab and the army officers went out and started counting the people.

Easy English                          However, the king made Joab and the leaders of the army obey the king's command. So they left the king and they went to count the *Israelites.

Easy-to-Read Version            King David very strongly commanded Joab and the captains of the army to count the people. So Joab and the captains of the army went out from the king to count the people of Israel.

Good News Bible (TEV)         But the king made Joab and his officers obey his order; they left his presence and went out to count the people of Israel.

The Message                         Nevertheless, the king insisted, and so Joab and the army officers left the king to take a census of Israel.

New Berkeley Version           The king’s word, however, prevailed against Joab and the officers of the army; so Joab and the army officers went out from the presence of the king to register the people Israel.

New Century Version             But the king commanded Joab and the commanders of the army, so they left the king to count the Israelites.

New Living Translation           But the king insisted that they take the census, so Joab and the commanders of the army went out to count the people of Israel.

The Voice                               But the king's order held, and Joab and the other leaders of the army left the king's presence and went out to count the people of Israel.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          But the king refused to listen to JoAb and to those who were in charge of his army, so JoAb and his men left the presence of the king and went to take a census of the people of IsraEl.

Beck’s American Translation But the king’s order overruled Joab and the captains of the army. So Joab and the captains of the army left the king to count the people of Israel.

International Standard V        But the king's order overruled Joab and the commanders of the special forces, so Joab and the commanders of the special forces left David's presence to take a census of the people of Israel.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       But all that Joab and the captains of the army could say might not thwart the king's will; so Joab and the other commanders left the king's presence to make a register of Israel.

New American Bible (2002)   The king, however, overruled Joab and the leaders of the army, so they left the king's presence in order to register the people of Israel.

New American Bible (2011)   However, the king's command prevailed over Joab and the leaders of the army, so they left the king's presence in order to register the people of Israel.

NIRV                                      In spite of what Joab said, the king's word had more authority than the word of Joab and the army commanders did. So they left the king and went out to count the fighting men of Israel.

New Jerusalem Bible             The king nonetheless enforced his order on Joab and the senior officers, and Joab and the senior officers left the king's presence, to take a census of the people of Israel.

New Simplified Bible              The king made Joab and his officers obey his order. They left his presence and went out to count the people of Israel.

Revised English Bible            But Joab and the officers, being overruled by the king, left his presence in order to take the census.

Today’s NIV                          The king's word, however, overruled Joab and the army commanders; so they left the presence of the king to enroll the fighting men of Israel.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      The king's word fortified Joab and the army leaders. Joab and the army leaders proceeded from the face of the king to count the people of Israel.

Bible in Basic English             But the king's order was stronger than Joab and the captains of the army. And Joab and the captains of the army went out from the king, to take the number of the children of Israel.

The Expanded Bible              But the ·king commanded [Lking's word overruled/prevailed against] Joab and the commanders of the army, so they left the king to ·count [take a census of; register; number] the Israelites [Ctaking the census indicates David's ungodly dependence on the number of his troops].

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 The order of the king, however, prevailed over J'oab, and the Officers of the army, so J’oab and the Officers of the army went from the presence of the king to conscript Israel for the forces.

HCSB                                     Yet the king's order prevailed over Joab and the commanders of the army. So Joab and the commanders of the army left the king's presence to register the troops of Israel.

NET Bible®                             But the king's edict stood, despite the objections of [Heb "and the word of the king was stronger than."] Joab and the leaders of the army. So Joab and the leaders of the army left the king's presence in order to muster the Israelite army.

NIV, ©2011                             The king's word, however, overruled Joab and the army commanders; so they left the presence of the king to enroll the fighting men of Israel.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           However, the king's word prevailed against Yo'av and the army officers. So Yo'av and the army officers went out from the king's presence to take a census of the people of Isra'el.

exeGeses companion Bible   And the word of the sovereign prevails

against Yah Ab

and against the governors of the valiant:

and Yah Ab and the governors of the valiant

go from the face of the sovereign

to muster the people of Yisra El:...

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               However, the king’s command to Joab and to the officers of the army remained firm; and Joab and the officers of the army set out, at the instance Footnote of the king, to take a census of the people of Israel.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           Notwithstanding the devar HaMelech prevailed against Yoav, and against the Sarei HeChayil. And Yoav and the Sarei HaChayil went out from before HaMelech, to number HaAm Yisroel.

The Scriptures 1998              However, the sovereignʼs word prevailed against Yoʼa and against the commanders of the army. And Yoʼa and the commanders of the army went out from the presence of the sovereign to register the people of Yisraʼĕl.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And the word of the king is severe towards Joab, and against the heads of the force, and Joab goes out, and the heads of the force, [from] before the king to inspect the people, even Israel;...

Green’s Literal Translation    But the word of the king prevailed against Joab, and against the army commanders. And Joab and the army commanders went out from the presence of the king to number the people of Israel.

Kretzmann’s Commentary    Notwithstanding the king's word prevailed against Joab, his sinful exaltation insisted upon having his command carried out, and against the captains of the host, for the practical sense of the latter had caused them to side with Joab. And Joab and the captains of the host, without further opposition, went out from the presence of the king, before his very eyes, to number the people of Israel.

NASB                                     Nevertheless, the king's word prevailed against Joab and against the commanders of the army. So Joab and the commanders of the army went out from the presence of the king to register [Lit muster] the people of Israel.

New King James Version       Nevertheless the king's word prevailed against Joab and against the captains of the army. Therefore Joab and the captains of the army went out from the presence of the king to count the people of Israel.

World English Bible                Notwithstanding, the king's word prevailed against Joab, and against the captains of the host. Joab and the captains of the host went out from the presence of the king, to number the people of Israel.

Young’s Updated LT             And the word of the king is severe towards Joab, and against the heads of the force, and Joab goes out, and the heads of the force, from before the king to inspect the people, even Israel.

 

The gist of this verse:          David, as the king, insists that this census be taken, so Joab gives in.


2Samuel 24:4a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

châzaq (חָזַק) [pronounced khaw-ZAHK]

to tie up, to bind; to hold fast, to adhere to, to be stuck to; to be strong, to be firm, to increase in prosperity, to strengthen

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #2388 BDB #304

dâbâr (דָּבָר) [pronounced dawb-VAWR]

word, saying, doctrine, thing, matter, command; business, occupation; case; something; manner

masculine singular construct

Strong's #1697 BDB #182

meleke (מֶלֶ) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

Yôwʾâb (יוֹאָב) [pronounced YOH-awbv]

Yah is father and is transliterated Joab

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #3097 BDB #222


Translation: However, the king’s word is firm to Joab... David was positive that this is what he needed to do; to take a census. The objections of Joab were heard but overruled.


2Samuel 24:4b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over; on the ground of, because of, according to, on account of, on behalf of, with, by, besides, in addition to, to, toward, together with, in the matter of, concerning, as regards to

preposition of relative proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

sar (שַׂר) [pronounced sar]

chieftain, chief, ruler, official, captain, prince, leader, commander

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #8269 BDB #978

chayil (חַיִל) [pronounced CHAH-yil]

army, force; strength, courage, power, might; efficiency; and that which is gotten through strength—wealth, substance

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #2428 BDB #298


Translation: ...and toward the commanders of the army. David’s decision affects the commanders of his army as well. They would be the ones to oversee this operation.

 

Jamieson, Fausset and Brown: The sacred history has not mentioned the objections which he and other distinguished officers urged against it in the council of David. But it expressly states that they were all overruled by the inflexible resolution of the king. Footnote


2Samuel 24:4c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

yâtsâʾ (יָצָא) [pronounced yaw-TZAWH]

to go [come] out, to go [come] forth; to rise; to flow, to gush up [out]

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #3318 BDB #422

Yôwʾâb (יוֹאָב) [pronounced YOH-awbv]

Yah is father and is transliterated Joab

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #3097 BDB #222

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

sar (שַׂר) [pronounced sar]

chieftain, chief, ruler, official, captain, prince, leader, commander

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #8269 BDB #978

chayil (חַיִל) [pronounced CHAH-yil]

army, force; strength, courage, power, might; efficiency; and that which is gotten through strength—wealth, substance

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #2428 BDB #298

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

pânîym (פָּנִים) [pronounced paw-NEEM]

face, faces, countenance; presence

masculine plural construct (plural acts like English singular)

Strong’s #6440 BDB #815

Together, they mean upon the face of, before, before the face of, in the presence of, in the sight of, in front of. When used with God, it can take on the more figurative meaning in the judgment of. This can also mean forwards; the front part [or, the edge of a sword]. Lepânîym (םי.נָפל) can take on a temporal sense as well: before, of old, formerly, in the past, in past times.

meleke (מֶלֶ) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572


Translation: Therefore, Joab goes out with the commanders of the army in front of the king,... I would have expected the min preposition as well, that Joab and his commanders go out from in front of the king, but it is not found here. It is possible that the verb takes up the slack here; that is, in the verb itself means to go out; so adding the min preposition would be superfluous.


Joab is authority oriented. He disagrees with David, but David is the authority. Joab is amazing in this regard. We have run into many circumstances where Joab is at odds with David. However, at no point does Joab attempt to usurp David’s authority. He never says, in disgust, “David is wrong again; Israel needs me as king.”


Application: You will be under authority in numerous circumstances where the authority over you is wrong and you know that they are wrong. You are still under their authority. You will be under the authority of people who are not as smart as your or they are not as informed as you are (in your opinion). You are still under their authority.


2Samuel 24:4d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

pâqad (פָּקַד) [pronounced paw-KAHD]

to go to a person, to visit, to have personal contact with, to sort out, to visit a person, to commit; to charge to the care of; to fall upon, to attack, to number, to take a census

Qal infinitive construct

Strong's #6485 BDB #823

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʿam (עַם) [pronounced ģahm]

people; race, tribe; family, relatives; citizens, common people; companions, servants; entire human race; herd [of animals]

masculine singular collective noun with the definite article

Strong’s #5971 BDB #766

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Yiserâʾêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

God prevails; contender; soldier of God; transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 & #3479 BDB #975


Translation: ...to number the people [and to take a census in] Israel. We have the sign of the direct object found here twice, so that means that the verb is applied to both of these. They all left with the purpose of numbering the people and numbering Israel. So, despite his objections, Joab goes forth with David’s plan.


You will note that throughout this chapter, Joab is not faulted for obeying David’s orders. Joab does not have a crisis of conscience and say, “Listen, David, you’re wrong; I know you’re wrong, so if you need a census, you take it yourself.” Nor is Joab passive aggressive, acting as if he might do what David is asking him to do, but not fulfilling it, or putting if off, or doing a slipshod job. Joab goes out and he does what David has ordered him to do. I read in so many commentaries what a horrible person Joab was. Quite the contrary—Joab was a noble right hand man, a man very difficult for David to replace, and of incalculable importance to David’s reign.


The people are blamed; David is blamed; but Joab is not blamed, even though he oversees the taking of the census.


——————————


And so they cross over the Jordan and so they encamp in Aroer to a right of the city which [is] in a midst of the valley of the Gad and unto Jazer. And so they come the Gilead-ward and unto a land of Tahtim-hodshi and so they come Dan-ward Jaan (?) And around unto Sidon. And so they come [to] a fortress of Tyre and all cities of the Hivite and the Canaanite. And so they go out unto a Negeb of Judah [to] Beersheba.

2Samuel

24:5–7

They crossed over the Jordan and they camped in Aroer to the right of the city, which [is] in the middle of the valley of Gad and onward to Jazer. They came to Gilead and to the land of Tahtim-hodshi; and then they came to Dan [or, Dan-jaan], [coming] around to Sidon. They came to the fortress of Tyre and to all the cities of the Hivites and the Canaanites. Then they went [down] to the Negeb of Judah [as far as] Beersheba.

Joab took his army and they crossed over the Jordan and camped in Aroer, south of the city, in the middle of the valley of Gad, and went from there to Jazer. They went up to Gilead and to the land of Tahtim-hodshi; and then father north to Dan [or, Dan-jaan]. Coming back down around to Sidon, they passed by the fortress of Tyre and all of the cities of the Hivites and the Canaanites. Finally the went down as far as southern Judah to Beersheba.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          And when they had passed the Jordan, they came to Aroer to the right side of the city, which is in the vale of Gad. And by Jazer they passed into Galaad, and to the lower land of Hodsi, and they came into the woodlands of Dan. And going about by Sidon, They passed near the walls of Tyre, and all the land of the Hevite, and the Chanaanite, and they came to the south of Juda into Bersabee.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so they cross over the Jordan and so they encamp in Aroer to a right of the city which [is] in a midst of the valley of the Gad and unto Jazer. And so they come the Gilead-ward and unto a land of Tahtim-hodshi and so they come Dan-ward Jaan (?) And around unto Sidon. And so they come [to] a fortress of Tyre and all cities of the Hivite and the Canaanite. And so they go out unto a Negeb of Judah [to] Beersheba.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And they crossed the Jordan and came to Sharob, which is on the right side of the city that lies in the midst of the valley of Gad and toward Eleazer; Then they came to Tyre and Zidon, to the land of the Canaanites and the land of the Hittites and the land of the Jebusites, And when they had gone through the whole land, they came to the land of Judah in thirty-eight days. Then they came to Dan, and circled Zidon.

Septuagint (Greek)                And they went over the Jordan, and encamped in Aroer, on the right of the city which is in the midst of the valley of Gad and Jazer. And they came to Gilead, and into the land of Tahtim Hodshi, which is Adasai, and they came to Danidan and Udan, and compassed Sidon. And they came to Mapsar of Tyre, and to all the cities of the Hivite and the Canaanite; and they came by the South of Judah to Beersheba.

 

Significant differences:           Several interpretations are given concerning Gad and Jazer. The Latin begins a new paragraph with Jazer; the Hebrew and Syriac seem to indicate that it is the next major city that Joab’s men went to (although the Syriac called it Eleazer). The Greek puts Gad and Jazer together, as if the valley of Gad includes Jazer.

 

The Syriac ignores Gilead and Tahtim-hodshi; the Latin appears to translate rather than transliterate tahtim. The Greek adds a bonus phrase at this time. The Hebrew text appears to add something to Dan which may be a proper name. The Latin attempts to translate it. There is a bit of confusion here, which is apparent in the other ancient translations.

 

The Syriac adds cities from the middle on at the very end and also throws in the time as well.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           They crossed the Jordan River and began from Aroer and from[b] the town that is in the middle of the valley of Gad, then on to Jazer. They continued to Gilead and on to Kadesh in Hittite territory [Hebrew uncertain; correction on to the area beneath Hermon]. They came to Dan [LXXL; MT Dan-jaan] and went around to Sidon. They went to the fortress of Tyre and to all the towns of the Hivites and the Canaanites. They went out to Beer-sheba in the arid southern plain of Judah.

Contemporary English V.       They crossed the Jordan River and began with Aroer and the town in the middle of the river valley. From there they went toward Gad and on as far as Jazer. They went to Gilead and to Kadesh in Syria. Then they went to Dan, Ijon, and on toward Sidon. They came to the fortress of Tyre, then went through every town of the Hivites and the Canaanites. Finally, they went to Beersheba in the Southern Desert of Judah.

Easy English                          Joab and the other leaders crossed the river Jordan and they went to Aroer. They camped in the valley on the south side of the city. They went through the area called Gad and they continued to Jazer. They went to the area called Gilead and to the region called Tahtim Hodshi. Then they went to Dan Jaan and round to the city called Sidon. They went to the city called Tyre, which had strong walls. Then they went to all the towns of the people called Hivites and Canaanites. Finally, they went to the town called Beersheba in the south of *Judah.

Easy-to-Read Version            They crossed over the Jordan River. They made their camp in Aroer. Their camp was on the right side of the city. (The city is in the middle of the valley of Gad, on the way to Jazer.) Then they went {east} to Gilead, all the way to Tahtim Hodshi. Then they went {north} to Dan Jaan and around to Sidon. They went to the fort of Tyre. They went to all the cities of the Hivites and of the Canaanites. Then they went south to Beersheba in the southern part of Judah.

Good News Bible (TEV)         They crossed the Jordan and camped south of Aroer, the city in the middle of the valley, in the territory of Gad. From there they went north to Jazer, and on to Gilead and to Kadesh, in Hittite territory. Then they went to Dan, and from Dan they went west to Sidon. Then they went south to the fortified city of Tyre, on to all the cities of the Hivites and the Canaanites, and finally to Beersheba, in the southern part of Judah.

The Message                         They crossed the Jordan and began with Aroer and the town in the canyon of the Gadites near Jazer, proceeded through Gilead, passed Hermon, then on to Dan, but detoured Sidon. They covered Fort Tyre and all the Hivite and Canaanite cities, and finally reached the Negev of Judah at Beersheba.

New Berkeley Version           Having crossed the Jordan, they setup camp at Aroer, south of the city that is in the middle of the valley of Gad, and then moved on to Jazer. Next they cameto Gilead and the land of the Tahtim-hodshi, then to Dan-jaan and so around to Sidon. They proceeded to the fortress of Tyre and to all the cities of the Hivites and Canaanites, coming out finally in the south of Judah at Beer-sheba.

New Century Version             After crossing the Jordan River, they camped near Aroer on the south side of the city in the ravine. They went through Gad and on to Jazer. Then they went to Gilead and the land of Tahtim Hodshi and to Dan Jaan and around to Sidon. They went to the strong, walled city of Tyre and to all the cities of the Hivites and Canaanites. Finally, they went to southern Judah, to Beersheba.

New Life Bible                        They crossed the Jordan and stopped at Aroer, on the south side of the city in the center of the valley of Gad. And they went on to Jazer. Then they came to Gilead, and to the land of Tahtimhodshi. They came to Dan-jaan and around to Sidon. They came to the strong place of Tyre and to all the cities of the Hivites and the Canaanites. And they went out to the south of Judah, to Beersheba.

New Living Translation           First they crossed the Jordan and camped at Aroer, south of the town in the valley, in the direction of Gad. Then they went on to Jazer, then to Gilead in the land of Tahtim-hodshi [Greek version reads to Gilead and to Kadesh in the land of the Hittites.] and to Dan-jaan and around to Sidon. Then they came to the fortress of Tyre, and all the towns of the Hivites and Canaanites. Finally, they went south to Judah [Or they went to the Negev of Judah.] as far as Beersheba.

The Voice                               To begin, they went over the Jordan River and camped at Aroer south of the city that is in the middle of the valley there. Then they moved on toward Gad and Jazer. After that, they traveled to Gilead and to Tahtim-hodshi; then they traveled on north to Dan-jaan, and from Dan they went west to Sidon and then to the fortified city of Tyre and to all the cities of the Hivites and Canaanites. Then they went south to the wilderness of Judah at Beersheba.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          They crossed the JorDan and camped to the right of AroEr in the ravine of Gad and EliEzer. Then they went to Gilead and into the land of ThaBason (AdasSai). And from there, they traveled to DaniDan and UDan, and they camped around Sidon. Next, they traveled to MapSar of Tyre, and to all the cities of the Hivites and CanaAnites; and then they went to the south of Judah, into BeerSheba.

Beck’s American Translation They crossed the Jordan and reached Aroer, south of the town in the middle of the valley, and went on to Gad and to Jazer. They came to Gilead and to Kadesh in the land of the Hittites. Then they came to Dan and Ijon and around toward Sidon. They came to the fortified city of Tyre and all the cities of the Hivites and the Canaanites. Then they went to the south of Judah.

Christian Community Bible     They crossed the Jordan and started with Aroer, the city in the middle of the valley, and went on toward Gad and to Jazer. Then they proceeded to Gilead and to Kadesh in the land of the Hittites. They then went to Dan, and from Dan to Sidon, and arrived at the fortress of Tyre and the cities of the Hivites and the Canaanites. They went out through the Negeb of Judah at Beersheba and after having gone through all the land, returned to Jerusalem at the end of nine months and twenty days. V. 8 is included for context.

God’s Word                         They crossed the Jordan River and camped at Aroer, south of the city in the middle of the valley. Then they went to Gad and to Jazer. They went to Gilead and to Tahtim Hodshi and then to Dan Jaan and around toward Sidon. They went to the fortified city of Tyre and all the cities of the Hivites and the Canaanites. Then they went to Beersheba in the Negev of Judah.

International Standard V        They crossed the Jordan River [The Heb. lacks River], encamped at Aroer south of the town that is located in the river valley, proceeding through Gad and then on toward Jazer. 6They went on to Gilead and the territory of Tahtim-hodshi, then on toward Dan. From Dan they went around to Sidon 7and arrived at the fortified city of Tyre and all of the towns of the Hivites and Canaanites.

Eventually they proceeded to Beer-sheba in the Judean Negev [i.e. southern regions of the Sinai peninsula; cf. Josh 10:40].

New Advent (Knox) Bible       They crossed the Jordan, and reached Aroer, on the right side of the city that stands in the vale of Gad; then they passed by way of Jazer into Galaad to the plain country of Hodsi, and so reached the woodlands of Dan. Thence they turned towards Sidon, passed close to the walls of Tyre, and all along the country that was still held by Chanaanite and Hevite, and came at last to the southern end of Juda, at Bersabee.

New American Bible (2002)   Crossing the Jordan, they began near Aroer, south of the city in the wadi, and went in the direction of Gad toward Jazer. They continued on to Gilead and to the district below Mount Hermon. Then they proceeded to Dan; from there they turned toward Sidon, going to the fortress of Tyre and to all the cities of the Hivites and Canaanites, and ending up at Beer-sheba in the Negeb of Judah.

New American Bible (2011)   Crossing the Jordan, they began near Aroer, south of the city in the wadi, and turned in the direction of Gad toward Jazer. They continued on to Gilead and to the district below Mount Hermon. Then they proceeded to Dan; from there they turned toward Sidon, going to the fortress of Tyre and to all the cities of the Hivites and Canaanites, and ending up in the Negeb of Judah, at Beer-sheba.

NIRV                                      They went across the Jordan River. They camped south of the town in the middle of the Arnon River valley near Aroer. Then they went through Gad and continued on to Jazer. They went to Gilead and the area of Tahtim Hodshi. They continued to Dan Jaan and on around toward Sidon. Then they went toward the fort of Tyre. They went to all of the towns of the Hivites and Canaanites. Finally, they went on to Beersheba. It was in the Negev Desert of Judah.

New Jerusalem Bible             They crossed the Jordan and made a start with Aroer and the town in the middle of the valley, then moved on to the Gadites and to Jazer. They then went to Gilead and the territory of the Hittites, to Kadesh; they then went to Dan and from Dan cut across to Sidon. They then went to the fortress of Tyre and to all the towns of the Hittites and Canaanites ending up in the Negeb of Judah at Beersheba.

New Simplified Bible              They crossed the Jordan and camped south of Aroer, the city in the middle of the valley, in the territory of Gad. Then they went north to Jazer. They went to Gilead and to Kadesh in Syria. Then they went to Dan (Dan-jaan), Ijon, and on toward Sidon. They came to the fortress of Tyre. They went through every town of the Hivites and the Canaanites. Finally, they went to Beersheba in the Southern Desert of Judah.

Revised English Bible            They crossed the Jordan and began at Aroer and the town at the wadi, proceeding towards Gad and Jazer. They came to Gilead and to the land of the Hittites, to Kadesh, and then to Dan and Iyyon and so round towards Sideon. They went as far as the walled city of Tyre and all the towns of the Hivites and Canaanites, and then went on to the Negeb of Judah at Beersheba.

Today’s NIV                          After crossing the Jordan, they camped near Aroer, south of the town in the gorge, and then went through Gad and on to Jazer. They went to Gilead and the region of Tahtim Hodshi, and on to Dan Jaan and around toward Sidon. Then they went toward the fortress of Tyre and all the towns of the Hivites and Canaanites. Finally, they went on to Beersheba in the Negev of Judah.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      They passed the Jordan and camped in Aroer, the city of Gad right in the midst of the riverbed into Jazer. They came to West-Jordan and to the bottom lands of Hodesh. They came to Dan and Ijon, and around to Sidon. They came to the protection of Tyre, and to all the cities of the West-Bank, and in Canaan proceeded to the south of Judah, to Beersheba.

Bible in Basic English             And they went over Jordan, and starting from Aroer, from the town which is in the middle of the valley, they went in the direction of the Gadites, and on to Jazer; Then they came to Gilead, and to the land of the Hittites under Hermon; and they came to Dan, and from Dan they came round to Zidon, And to the walled town of Tyre, and to all the towns of the Hivites and the Canaanites: and they went out to the South of Judah at Beer-sheba.

The Expanded Bible              After crossing the Jordan River, they camped near Aroer on the south side of the city in the ·ravine [valley]. They went through Gad and on to Jazer. Then they went to Gilead and the land of Tahtim Hodshi and to Dan Jaan and around to Sidon. They went to the ·strong, walled city [fortress] of Tyre and to all the cities of the Hivites and Canaanites. Finally, they went to ·southern [Lthe Negev of] Judah, to Beersheba.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 They also passed over the jordan and encamped at Aroar, on the south of the city which is in the mid·va1ley of Gad and jazer. Thence he went to Gilgal, and the lowlands of Khadshi, and came to Dan, and all the villages of the Hivites, and the Cananites.

HCSB                                     They crossed the Jordan and camped in Aroer, south of the town in the middle of the valley, and then proceeded toward Gad and Jazer. They went to Gilead and to the land of the Hittites and continued on to Dan-jaan and around to Sidon. They went to the fortress of Tyre and all the cities of the Hivites and Canaanites. Afterwards, they went to the Negev of Judah at Beer-sheba.

NET Bible®                             They crossed the Jordan and camped at Aroer, on the south side of the city, at [Heb "in the middle of."] the wadi of Gad, near Jazer. Then they went on to Gilead and to the region of Tahtim Hodshi, coming to Dan Jaan and on around to Sidon. Then they went to the fortress of Tyre and all the cities of the Hivites and the Canaanites. Then they went on to the Negev of Judah, to Beer Sheba.

NIV, ©2011                             After crossing the Jordan, they camped near Aroer [S Jos 13:9], south of the town in the gorge, and then went through Gad and on to Jazer [S Nu 21:32]. They went to Gilead and the region of Tahtim Hodshi, and on to Dan Jaan and around toward Sidon [S Ge 10:19; Jdg 1:31]. Then they went toward the fortress of Tyre [S Jos 19:29] and all the towns of the Hivites [S Ex 3:8] and Canaanites. Finally, they went on to Beersheba [Ge 21:31] in the Negev [S Dt 1:7] of Judah.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           They crossed the Yarden and pitched camp in 'Aro'er, to the south of the city in the Vadi of Gad; went on to Ya'zer; came to Gil'ad and continued to the land of Tachtim-Hodshi. Then they arrived at Dan-Ya'an, went around to Tzidon and came to the stronghold of Tzor. They went on to the cities of the Hivi and of the Kena'ani, and finished in the south of Y'hudah, at Be'er-Sheva.

exeGeses companion Bible   ...and they pass over Yarden and encamp in Aroer,

on the right side of the city

midst the wadi of Gad and toward Yazer:

and they come to Gilad

and to the land of Tahtim Hodshi;

and they come to Dan Yaan and around to Sidon;

and come to the fortress of Sor

and to all the cities of the Hivviy and of the Kenaaniy;

and they go to the south of Yah Hudah to Beer Sheba.

Hebrew Names Version         They passed over the Yarden, and encamped in `Aro`er, on the right side of the city that is in the middle of the valley of Gad, and to Ya`zer: then they came to Gil`ad, and to the land of Tachtim-Chodshi; and they came to Dan-Ya`an, and round about to Tzidon, and came to the stronghold of Tzor, and to all the cities of the Chivvi, and of the Kena`anim; and they went out to the south of Yehudah, at Be'er-Sheva.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               They crossed the Jordan and ecamped at Aroer, on the right side of the town, which is in the middle of the wadi of Gad, and [Some Septuagint manuscripts read “began at Aroer, and from the town, which is...Gad, they.”] [went on] to Jazer. They continued to Gilead and to the region of Tahtim-hodshi, and they came to Dan-jaan and around to [Meaning of Hebrew uncertain (back to Tahtim-hodshi).] Sidon. They went onto the fortress of Tyre and all the towns of the Hivites and Canaanites, and finished at Beer-sheba in southern Judah.

Judaica Press Complete T.    And they crossed the Jordan, and they camped in Aroer, to the right of the city that is situated in the middle of the valley of Gad, and to Jaezer. And they came to Gilead, and to the land of Tahtim-hodshi; and they came to Dan to the city of Jaan and round about to Zidon. And they came to the stronghold of Tyre, and to all the cities of the Hivites, and of the Canaanites; and they went out to the South of Judah, to Beer-sheba.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           And they passed over Yarden, encamped in Aroer, on the south of the Ir that lieth in the middle of the ravine of Gad, toward Yazer; Then they came to Gil`ad, to Eretz Tachtim-Chodshi; they came to Dan-Ya'an, went around to Tzidon, And came to the fortress of Tzor, and to all the cities of the Chivi, and of Kena'ani; and they went out to the Negev of Yehudah, to Beer Sheva.

The Scriptures 1998              And they passed over the Yardĕn and camped in Aroʽĕr, on the right side of the town which is in the midst of the wadi of Ga, and toward Yaʽzĕr. Then they came to Gilʽa and to the land of Taḥtim Ḥoshi, and they came to Dan Yaʽan and around to Tsion. And they came to the stronghold of Tsor and to all the cities of the Ḥiwwites and the Kenaʽanites, and went out to South Yehuah as far as Beʼĕrshea.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                They passed over the Jordan and encamped in Aroer, on the south side of the city lying in the midst of the ravine [of the Arnon] toward Gad, and on to Jazer. Then they came to Gilead, and to the land of Tahtim-hodshi, and they came to Dan-jaan [Dan in the forest] and around to Sidon, And came to the stronghold of Tyre and to all the cities of the Hivites and Canaanites; and they went out to the South (the Negeb) of Judah at Beersheba.

Concordant Literal Version    ...and they pass over the Jordan, and encamp in Aroer, on the right of the city that [is] in the midst of the brook of Gad, and unto Jazer, and they come in to Gilead, and unto the land of Tahtim-Hodshi, and they come in to Dan-Jaan, and round about unto Zidon, and they come in to the fortress of Tyre, and all the cities of the Hivite, and of the Canaanite, and go out unto the south of Judah, to Beer-Sheba.

Darby Translation                  And they passed over the Jordan, and encamped in Aroer, on the right side of the city that is in the midst of the ravine of Gad, and toward Jaazer. And they came to Gilead, and to the land of Tahtim-hodshi; and came to Dan-jaan, and to the environs of Sidon; and they came to the fortified city of Tyre, and to all the cities of the Hivites and of the Canaanites; and went out to the south of Judah, to Beer-sheba.

English Standard V. – UK       They crossed the Jordan and began from Aroer [Deut. 2:36; Josh. 13:9, 16] [Septuagint; Hebrew encamped in Aroer], and from the city that is in the middle of the valley [Num. 13:23], towards Gad and on to Jazer [Num. 21:32; 32:1, 3]. Then they came to Gilead, and to Kadesh in the land of the Hittites [Septuagint; Hebrew to the land of Tahtim-hodshi]; and they came to Dan, and from Dan [Septuagint; Hebrew they came to Dan-jaan and] they went round to Sidon [Josh. 19:28; Judg. 18:28], and came to the fortress of Tyre and to all the cities of the Hivites [Josh. 11:3; Judg. 3:3] and Canaanites [Josh. 11:3; Judg. 3:3]; and they went out to the Negeb of Judah at Beersheba.

Kretzmann’s Commentary    And they passed over Jordan, in order to begin the census in the southeastern part of the country, in the territory of Reuben, and pitched in Aroer, on the right side of the city that lieth in the midst of the river, that is, the valley, of Gad, and toward Jazer, preferring to camp in the open on account of the large numbers of people who had to be summoned to be enrolled in the census lists. Then they came to Gilead, the hill country along the Jabbok, and to the land of Tahtim-hodshi, probably a lower section of the east-Jordan country, which had but recently been settled; and they came to Dan-jaan, in Northern Perea, southwest of Damascus, and about to Zidon, as they turned to the west across the foothills of the Lebanon, and came to the stronghold of Tyre, still a Phenician city, and to all the cities of the Hivites and of the Canaanites, for here the heathen nations had never been fully exterminated, and the mixed population of Galilee was notorious even in Old Testament times; and they went out to the south of Judah, even to Beersheba, omitting Benjamin, however, and not including the Levites, 1Chron. 21:6.

NASB                                     They crossed the Jordan and camped in Aroer [Deut 2:36; Josh 13:9, 16], on the right side of the city that is in the middle of the valley of Gad and toward Jazer [Num. 21:32; 32:35]. Then they came to Gilead and to the land of Tahtim-hodshi [Or Kadesh in the land of the Hittite], and they came to Dan-jaan and around to Sidon [Josh 19:28; Judg 1:31], and came to the fortress of Tyre [Josh 19:29] and to all the cities of the Hivites [Josh 11:3; Judg 3:3] and of the Canaanites, and they went out to the south of Judah, to Beersheba [Gen 21:22-33].

New King James Version       And they crossed over the Jordan and camped in Aroer, on the right side of the town which is in the midst of the ravine of Gad, and toward Jazer. Then they came to Gilead and to the land of Tahtim Hodshi; they came to Dan Jaan and around to Sidon; and they came to the stronghold of Tyre and to all the cities of the Hivites and the Canaanites. Then they went out to South Judah as far as Beersheba.

New RSV                               They crossed the Jordan, and began from [Gk Mss: Heb encamped in Aroer south of] Aroer and from the city that is in the middle of the valley, towards Gad and on to Jazer. Then they came to Gilead, and to Kadesh in the land of the Hittites [Gk: Heb to the land of Tahtim-hodshi]; and they came to Dan, and from Dan [Cn Compare Gk: Heb they came to Dan-jaan and] they went round to Sidon, and came to the fortress of Tyre and to all the cities of the Hivites and Canaanites; and they went out to the Negeb of Judah at Beer-sheba.

Third Millennium Bible            And they passed over the Jordan and pitched camp in Aroer, on the right side of the city that lieth in the midst of the valley of Gad and toward Jazer. Then they came to Gilead and to the land of Tahtimhodshi; and they came to Danjaan and about to Sidon, and came to the stronghold of Tyre and to all the cities of the Hivites and of the Canaanites; and they went out to the south of Judah, even to Beersheba.

Webster’s Bible Translation  And they passed over Jordan, and pitched in Aroer, on the right side of the city that [lieth] in the midst of the river of Gad, and towards Jazer: Then they came to Gilead, and to the land of Tahtim-hodshi; and they came to Dan-jaan, and about to Zidon, And came to the strong hold of Tyre, and to all the cities of the Hivites, and of the Canaanites: and they went out to the south of Judah, [even] to Beer-sheba.

Young's Literal Translation     And they pass over the Jordan, and encamp in Aroer, on the right of the city that is in the midst of the brook of Gad, and unto Jazer, and they come in to Gilead, and unto the land of Tahtim-Hodshi, and they come in to Dan-Jaan, and round about unto Zidon, and they come in to the fortress of Tyre, and all the cities of the Hivite, and of the Canaanite, and go out unto the south of Judah, to Beer-Sheba.

 

The gist of this verse:          In these 3 verses, essentially a travelogue is given of Joab’s military men and the general route that they follow in order to take the census.


2Samuel 24:5a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʿâbar (עָבַר) [pronounced ģawb-VAHR]

to pass over, to pass through, to pass on, to pass, to go over [beyond], to cross, to cross over; to go away, to depart; to violate [a law]

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #5674 BDB #716

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Yâredên (יָרְדֵן) [pronounced yare-DAYN]

descender; flowing downward; the watering place; transliterated Jordan

proper noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3383 BDB #434


Translation: They crossed over the Jordan... David and his soldiers reside in Jerusalem (when they are not at war). Crossing over the Jordan means that they would head northeast. They have to go far enough north to get past the Dead Sea; and from there, they would go east across the Jordan River.


I don’t know if you have ever had to do worthless paperwork before, but I was subjected to this at a number of different schools. Knowing computers and schools, I knew that when a standardized test was given, it is not difficult to figure out which questions were missed the most often and what the incorrect answers were usually chosen. I was at one school where the math department was called upon to do this by hand, going through the individual raw tests themselves. Schools are famous for generation mounds of paperwork. Even after the so-called Paperwork Reduction Act from our state legislature, nothing changed. In fact, our schools moved more and more towards top-heavy models, with more and more administrators, and these administrators often justified their positions by creating mounds of paperwork generated by teachers to place into their files for that year.


This is the equivalent of useless paperwork which David has assigned to his army: “You all have some time off; so let’s wander around all of Israel and collect data for my files.” I would go so far as to say, based upon this passage, that Satan is the father of useless paperwork.


2Samuel 24:5b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

chânah (חָנַה) [pronounced khaw-NAW]

to bivouac, to camp, to encamp in [or, against], to set up camp; to lay siege to; to incline, to decline, to bend down

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong's #2583 BDB #333

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

Strong’s# none BDB #88

ʿĂrôʿêr (עֲרֹעֵר) [pronounced ģuh-row-ĢAIR]

naked, bare; juniper (or some kind of tree or bush) and is transliterated Aroer

proper singular noun

Strong’s #6177 BDB #792

yâmîyn (יָמִין) [pronounced yaw-MEEN]

the right hand, the right side, on the right, at the right; the south

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #3225 BDB #411

ʿîyr (עִיר) [pronounced ģeer]

encampment, city, town

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #5892 BDB #746


Translation: ...and they camped in Aroer to the right of the city,... Once the crossed over the Jordan, Joab’s army would have had to go south down to the Arnon River and across to Aroer, where they camped out south of the city.

 

Barnes: Aroer itself stood on the very edge of the precipitous cliff of the valley; and in the valley beneath, possibly in an island in the stream, stood another city which is here alluded to. Footnote

 

The Pulpit Commentary: There is some uncertainty as to the Aroer here meant. There is first a city of that name in the tribe of Gad facing Rabbah, (Joshua 13:25) and this is apparently the city meant; for it is said that "Joab and his men pitched in Aroer, on the south side of the city situated in the middle of the valley of Gad, and unto Jazer." Now, Jazer is also in Gad, about seven miles west of Rabbah, and as Rabbah is on the extreme east of the Israelite territory towards Ammon, it would be a very convenient spot from which to commence the numbering, But there is another Aroer on the Arnon, to the south of Reuben, and many commentators think that this Aroer must be meant, as otherwise the tribe of Reuben would seem to have been omitted. But this Aroer is regularly called "Aroer on the brink of the valley of Arnon" (Deut. 2:36 Deut. 4:48; Joshua 12:2 Joshua 13:9, Joshua 13:16) or simply Aroer "in the valley of Arnon" (Deut. 3:12; 2Kings 10:33) and cannot possibly be "the city in the midst of the valley of Gad," nor can this Aroer be "toward Jazer." Really the difficulty is made by commentators whose idea of the method of the census is superficial. Joab, in commencing it, formed an encampment in the open country on the right–hand side, that is, on the south of Aroer in the tribe of Gad, as being central, with Reuben on the south, and Manasseh on the north. It was "toward Jazer," that is, it was on the Jazer side of Aroer, and not on the side opposite Rabbah. We, with our simpler way of describing the points of the compass, would merely say that Joab"s camp was in the open pasture land southwest of Aroer. Joab probably selected this spot because, though on the eastern border, it was yet not too far from Jerusalem, was central, and because a brook from Jazer flowing eastward for some distance, and thence to the north past Rabbah, would supply his people with water; and from this camp he would direct the proceedings of those who were to take the census. And as probably there would be considerable opposition for the people would see in an act which for four centuries had been in desuetude threats of heavier taxation, of heavier forced labour, and of longer service with the army Joab would require the presence of a body of troops sufficiently powerful to overawe malcontents. And these would be of no use at Aroer on the Arnon, in the distant south, but must lie eneamped in some central position, whence detachments could rapidly be moved to any place where there was danger of resistance  Footnote


aroer.jpg

Map of Aroer is from bibleatlas.org, accessed May 9, 2014. As you can see on the map, Aroer is east of the Dead Sea, about midway down the Dead Sea. This was traditionally Ammonite territory, but it is apparently under the control of King David, as his men went that far south to begin their census.


You may recall the King David originally had an alliance with the king of Ammon, but he passed away. The Ammonite king’s son, who was an arrogant son-of-a-bitch, dismissed David’s offer of sympathy, and he embarrassed David’s ambassadors. David’s army, under Joab, defeated the Ammonites, and then defeated the Syrians, with whom they had allied themselves. All of this is found in 2Sam. 10. This is also quite fascinating because, even though the Bible implies that beating the Syrians was a big deal, to the casual reader, this would not be known.


In any case, Ammon could have maintained its independence and friendship with David, but they chose not to.


During much of Israel’s history, Aroer would mark the southernmost city in Gad (Joshua 13:9).


There are possibly two cities with the name Aroer, which would not be too far apart.

The Two Cities of Aroer

According to Easton:

(1.) A town on the north bank of the Arnon (Deut. 4:48 Judges 11:26 2Kings 10:33), the southern boundary of the kingdom of Sihon (Joshua 12:2). It is now called Arair, 13 miles west of the Dead Sea.

(2.) One of the towns built by the tribe of Gad (Num. 32:34) “before Rabbah” (Joshua 13:25), the Ammonite capital. It was famous in the history of Jephthah (Judges 11:33) and of David (2Sam. 24:5). (Compare Isa. 17:2 2Kings 15:29.)

According to Keil and Delitzsch:

In order to distinguish Aroer from the place of the same name in the Arnon, in the tribe of Reuben (Joshua 12:2 Num. 32:34, etc.), it is defined more precisely as “the town in the brook–valley of Gad,” i.e., Aroer of Gad before Rabbah (Joshua 13:25 Judges 11:33).

You will note that Easton connects Num. 32:34 with the second city; and Keil and Delitzsch connect it to the first.

City #1:

Joshua 12:2 Sihon king of the Amorites, who dwelt in Heshbon and ruled half of Gilead, from Aroer, on the bank of the River Arnon, from the middle of that river, even as far as the River Jabbok, the border of the Ammonites. (VW)

City #2:

Joshua 13:25 Their territory was Jazer, and all the cities of Gilead, and half the land of the Ammonites as far as Aroer, which is before Rabbah. (VW)

Judges 11:32–33 So Jephthah passed over toward the sons of Ammon to fight against them, and Jehovah delivered them into his hands. And he struck them from Aroer as far as Minnith; twenty cities; and to Abel Keramim, with a very great slaughter. Thus the sons of Ammon were subdued before the sons of Israel. (VW)

Not certain but it sounds like city #2:

Num. 32:34 And the sons of Gad built Dibon and Ataroth and Aroer. (VW) The word build can mean to rebuild, to fortify.

I am not that certain that I am on-board with this theory. I don’t know that there is a problem.

Aroer is mentioned about 16 times in Scripture: Num. 32:34 Deut. 2:36 3:12 4:48 Joshua 12:2 13:9, 16, Judges 11:25–26, 33 1Sam. 30:28 2Sam. 24:5 2Kings 10:33 1Chron. 5:8 Isa. 17:2 Jer. 48:19

There are one or two more cities with this name. See 1Chron. 11:44 (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

M.G. Easton M.A., D.D., Illustrated Bible Dictionary; 1897; from e-Sword, topic: Aroer.

Keil and Delitzsch, Commentary on the Old Testament; from e-Sword; 2Sam. 24:4–5.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


2Samuel 24:5c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun; sometimes the verb to be is implied

Strong's #834 BDB #81

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

tâveke (תָּוֶ) [pronounced taw-VEKE]

midst, among, middle

masculine singular construct

Strong's #8432 BDB #1063

With the bêyth preposition, tâveke can mean in the middle of, in the midst of; into, among. In the Hebrew, this is spelled בְּתוֹ. With the 1st person plural suffix, it means in our midst. With the 2nd person masculine plural suffix, it can mean in your midst, among you. With the 3rd person masculine plural suffix, it can mean in their midst, among them.

nachal (נַחַל) [pronounced NAHKH-al]

brook, torrent; valley

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #5158 BDB #636

Gâd (גָּד) [pronounced gawd]

invader; troop; fortune; transliterated Gad

masculine proper noun with the definite article

Strong’s #1410 BDB #151


Translation: ...which [is] in the middle of the valley of Gad... Gad is the area east of the Jordan and east of the Dead Sea. It was originally a part of Israel; and it appears as though there has been, over the years, some push and pull when it comes to the control of that southern area. God had given specific areas to Ammon and to Moab; but when they abused Israel, they would forgo the blessings of God in having that territory.


So, Joab and his men traveled as far south as Aroer, and now were moving northward through Gad, east of the Jordan River.


The valley of Gad is probably a river at times, completely dry in the summer, which exhibits very evident traces of being swept over by an impetuous torrent in winter. Footnote


2Samuel 24:5d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

Yaʿezêr (יַעְזֵר) [pronounced yahģ-ZARE]

helped, helpful; transliterated Jazer, Jaazer

proper singular noun/location

Strong’s #3270 BDB #741

This is also spelled Yaʿăzêr (יַעֲזֵר) [pronounced yah-ģuh-ZARE].

BDB: [Jazer is] a Levitical city east of the Jordan, in Gilead in the territory of Gad, formerly an Amorite city; site uncertain. Footnote


Translation: ...and onward to Jazer. As you will notice in the map above, the location of Jazer is not known. It is surely north of Aroer, but where exactly is unknown. Bunting places it 16 miles from Aroer. Footnote At one time, this was a city of the Ammonites, which was taken over by the Israelites (Num. 21:32–35).

 

Keil and Delitzsch: Jazer is probably to be found in the ruins of es Szir, at the source of the Nahr Szir (see Num. 21:32, which reads: And Moses sent to spy out Jazer; and they took its villages and drove out the Amorites who were there.—VW). Footnote


Jazer (Gazer) is mentioned 13 times in Scripture: Num.  21:32 32:1, 3, 35 Joshua 13:25 21:39 2Sam. 24:5 1Chron. 6:81 26:31 Isa. 16:8–9 Jer. 48:32.


2Samuel 24:6a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

bôwʾ (בּוֹא) [pronounced boh]

to come in, to come, to go in, to go, to enter, to advance; to attain

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #935 BDB #97

Gileʿâd (גִּלְעָד) [pronounced gil-ĢAWD]

rocky region; transliterated Gilead

masculine proper noun with the definite article with the directional hê

Strong’s #1568 BDB #166

The directional hê (properly, the directive hê) is the âh (הַ] ending to a noun, usually found after a verb of motion. This is called the directive hê or the hê locale, which often indicates direction and puts somewhat of an adverbial spin on the noun. Essentially, it answers the question where? The pronunciation of the word does not change. The directional hê indicates the direction in which something moves. It is often used with the noun heaven and the most literal rendering in the English would be heavenward. We can also indicate the existence of the hê directional by supplying the prepositions to or toward.


Translation: They came to Gilead... Gilead is a territory, north of Gad and east of the Jordan River. Smith’s Bible dictionary tells us that Gilead is a mountainous region bordered on the west by the Jordan, on the north by Bashan, on the east by the Arabian plateau, and on the south by Moab and Ammon (Gen. 31:21 Deut. 3:12–17). This area or certain portions of it may be referred to as "Mount Gilead" (Gen. 31:25), the "land of Gilead" (Num. 32:1), and sometimes simply "Gilead" (Psalm 60:7 Gen. 37:25). Footnote

 

Barnes: Jazer was in the plain. They passed from there to the mountain district of Gilead. Footnote


This would have been northern Gad and included the tribe of Reuben and the half-tribe of Manasseh as well (Deut. 3:12).


2Samuel 24:6b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular construct

Strong's #776 BDB #75

Tachetîym (תַּחְתִּים) [pronounced tahkhe-TEEM]

lower, lowest [places], deepest; hidden

adjective & substantive; feminine plural construct

Strong’s #8482 BDB #1066

châdôshîy (חָדְֹשִי) [pronounced khohd-SHEE]

new moon, month; monthly; first day of the month

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #2320 BDB #294

Together, these words make up the proper noun: Tachetîym châdôshîy (חָדְֹשִי תַּחְתִּים) [pronounced tahkhe-TEEM-khohd-SHEE]. Strong’s #8483 BDB #1066. This proper noun only occurs here.

Barnes: The text here is corrupt, as no such land is known. Possibly the right reading is “the land of the Hittites”. Footnote


Translation: ...and to the land of Tahtim-hodshi;... According to Bunting, this is the lower country of Hodshi, near to the city Corazin, in the half tribe of Manasseh, fifty two miles from Jerusalem, and towards the northeast, and [it] signifies a new land. Footnote


Something like this is a very difficult call. Since we have not heard of these people anywhere else, it causes us to wonder if the text is corrupt. However, the Greek, using manuscripts from 200 b.c. and before has this name; the Latin, done maybe 600 years later, has the lower land of Hodshi.


Jamieson, Fausset and Brown associates this area with the Hagarites, who were conquered by Saul. Footnote 1Chron. 5:10–11 reads: Now in the days of Saul they made war with the Hagrites, who fell by their hand; and they dwelt in their tents before the east of Gilead. And the children of Gad dwelt next to them in the land of Bashan as far as Salcah. (VW) This certainly places them in approximately the right place.

 

Keil and Delitzsch: The words which follow, viz., “into the land חדשי תּחתּים” are quite obscure, and were unintelligible even to the earlier translators...the fact that we never read of a land called Chodshi, render the conjecture a very probable one that the text is corrupt. But it is no longer possible to discover the correct reading. Footnote

 

The Pulpit Commentary: Gesenius dismisses this name with the remark that it can scarcely be regarded as genuine. The versions give little help; but Thenius cleverly extracts from the LXX, "unto Bashan, which is Edrei." Others, by a slight change in the Hebrew, read, "the land of the Hittites," and suppose that Hodshi is a corruption of the Hebrew word for "month," so that the whole might have been, "They came to the land of the Hittites in the (third) month." Others, again, suppose that Hodshi is a corruption of the name of the town Kadesh. But the versions would certainly have preserved anything so commonplace as this. When they make mistakes, it is almost invariably in proper names or unusual phrases. Footnote


This is a people (or place) mentioned only here in this context. They are not found elsewhere. This suggests that the army of Joab, who certainly knew what area they controlled and what area they did not control, went to the outskirts of Israel’s territory. So, even though this paperwork was a waste of time, Joab still did it the right way. He was obviously doing a thorough and accurate job for David, regardless of how he personally thought about the situation.


Furthermore, we know the exact or the approximate locations of these other cities and areas named, so that we can determine where this place is, even if we are uncertain of its name.


We already know that Joab did not like this assignment. We already know that Joab probably thought that this was a waste of his time and the time of his military men, and the generals under him agreed. However, regardless, David is in charge, and therefore, Joab needed to obey him. Joab, in this, demonstrates authority orientation.


2Samuel 24:6c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

bôwʾ (בּוֹא) [pronounced boh]

to come in, to come, to go in, to go, to enter, to advance; to attain

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #935 BDB #97

Dân (דָּן) [pronounced dawn]

judge and is transliterated Dan

masculine proper noun with the directional hê

Strong’s #1835 BDB #192

The directional hê (properly, the directive hê) is the âh (הַ] ending to a noun, usually found after a verb of motion. This is called the directive hê or the hê locale, which often indicates direction and puts somewhat of an adverbial spin on the noun. Essentially, it answers the question where? The pronunciation of the word does not change. The directional hê indicates the direction in which something moves. It is often used with the noun heaven and the most literal rendering in the English would be heavenward. We can also indicate the existence of the hê directional by supplying the prepositions to or toward.

yaʿan (יַעַן) [pronounced YAH-ģahn]

because, therefore, because that, on account of (conjunction); because of, on account of (preposition); why (with interrogative pronoun) (preposition)

conjunction; preposition

Strong’s #3282 BDB #419 BDB #774

Together, these may be the proper noun Dan-jaan, a city unknown apart from this passage. Strong’s #1842 BDB #193.

Most think that this text is corrupt, and that this should read: Dan in the wood or Dan and Ijon.


Translation: ...and then they came to Dan [or, Dan-jaan],... Dan is one of the furthest places in the north of Israel. It is often considered the northernmost point, although Israel has controlled land further north than Dan before.


Dan is due north from the Sea of Galilee. Essentially, they have gone east and then south, and began there as the most southeastern portion of Israel. Then they went up through the area east of the Jordan, and then went west to Dan, which is the furthest point to the north.


Because of the addition of jaan to the word Dan, there are a differing opinions of “which” Dan is referred to.

 

Barnes: there can be little doubt that Dan (the ancient Laish) is meant (marginal references), both from its position and importance as the northern boundary of Israel. Footnote Poole agrees. Footnote

 

Keil and Delitzsch, on the other hand, see this as a different Dan, a city which is further north: they went there to Dan-jaan, i.e., the Dan in northern Peraea, mentioned in Gen. 14:14, to the south-west of Damascus, at that time probably the extreme north-eastern boundary of the kingdom of David, in the direction towards Syria. Footnote

 

The Pulpit Commentary seems to have the most logical explanation: Nowhere else is Dan found with this addition [of jaan], and the Syriac omits it even here. The Vulgate, and Septuagint (Codex Alex.) read Dan–jaar the woodland Dan. Possibly the names of two towns have been run into one, and the original reading was "unto Dan and Ijon". (see 1Kings 15:20 = So Ben-Hadad heeded King Asa, and sent the commanders of his forces against the cities of Israel. And he struck Ijon, Dan, Abel Beth Maachah, and all Chinnereth, with all the land of Naphtali.—VW) Ijon was on the direct road from Dan to Sidon. Footnote


2Samuel 24:6d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

çâbîyb (סָבִיב) [pronounced sawb-VEEBV]

around, surrounding, circuit, round about, encircle; all around; on every side

adverb/preposition

Strong’s #5439 BDB #686

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

Tsîydôwn (צִידוֹן) [pronounced tsee-DOHN]

hunting, fishing, catching fish; transliterated Sidon or Zidon

proper noun; location

Strong’s #6721 BDB #851


Translation: ...[coming] around to Sidon. The western portion of Palestine was mostly controlled by the Philistines, who were the greatest enemies of the Jews it seems, in the time of Saul and David. There were constant skirmishes between the two nations. Although it is highly unlikely that the Palestinians have any relationship to the Philistines, their relationship with the Jews was quite similar.


Bear in mind that a great deal of David’s time was spent at war with the Philistines, but the Jews decisively defeated them time after time. Therefore, by this point in time, they may have had a good relationship—meaning that they were not constantly at war with one another.


Sidon is a Philistine city.

 

Poole: i.e. to the city and territory of Zidon; but not into it, because it was not in the power and possession of the Israelites: and the like is to be thought concerning Tyre, and the cities which the Hivites and Canaanites yet possessed in the neighbourhood of Tyre and Sidon. Footnote


The adverb/preposition found here is çâbîyb (סָבִיב) [pronounced sawb-VEEBV], which means around, surrounding, circuit, round about, encircle; all around; on every side. Strong’s #5439 BDB #686. What this means is, Joab’s army reached the northernmost portion of Israel, and was now circling back down south, coming down along the border between Israel and Philistia.


2Samuel 24:7a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

bôwʾ (בּוֹא) [pronounced boh]

to come in, to come, to go in, to go, to enter, to advance; to attain

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #935 BDB #97

mibetsâr (מִבְצָר) [pronounced mibve-TZAR]

stronghold, fenced, fortress, fortification, fortified city

masculine singular construct

Strong's #4013 BDB #131

Tsôr (צֹר) [pronounced tsohr]

rock; knife; and is transliterated Tyre or Tyrus

proper singular noun; location

Strong’s #6865 BDB #862

Also spelled Tsôwr (צוֹר) [pronounced tsohr], and is identical to Strong’s #6864 (which means flint, hard pebble; knife).


Translation: They came to the fortress of Tyre... Tyre is one of the other great cities of the Philistines; and Joab’s army would have gone by their great fortress, now moving south throughout the western region of Israel. This would have been the original Tyre, located on the mainland, about 4 miles Footnote from the new Tyre, which was built on a rock in the sea.

 

Clarke: This must have been the old city of Tyre, which was built on the main land: the new city was built on a rock in the sea. Footnote


Here is a little bit on Tyre, one of the most famous ancient cities in the world.

Easton on Tyre

Tyre [is]...an ancient Phoenician city, about 23 miles, in a direct line, north of Acre, and 20 south of Sidon. Sidon was the oldest Phoenician city, but Tyre had a longer and more illustrious history. The commerce of the whole world was gathered into the warehouses of Tyre. “Tyrian merchants were the first who ventured to navigate the Mediterranean waters; and they founded their colonies on the coasts and neighbouring islands of the Aegean Sea, in Greece, on the northern coast of Africa, at Carthage and other places, in Sicily and Corsica, in Spain at Tartessus, and even beyond the pillars of Hercules at Gadeira (Cadiz)” (Driver's Isaiah). In the time of David a friendly alliance was entered into between the Hebrews and the Tyrians, who were long ruled over by their native kings (2Sam. 5:11 1Kings 5:1 2Chron. 2:3).


Tyre consisted of two distinct parts, a rocky fortress on the mainland, called “Old Tyre,” and the city, built on a small, rocky island about half–a–mile distant from the shore. It was a place of great strength. It was besieged by Shalmaneser, who was assisted by the Phoenicians of the mainland, for five years, and by Nebuchadnezzar (B.C.586–573) for thirteen years, apparently without success. It afterwards fell under the power of Alexander the Great, after a siege of seven months, but continued to maintain much of its commercial importance till the Christian era. It is referred to in Matt. 11:21 and Acts 12:20. In A.D. 1291 it was taken by the Saracens, and has remained a desolate ruin ever since.


“The purple dye of Tyre had a worldwide celebrity on account of the durability of its beautiful tints, and its manufacture proved a source of abundant wealth to the inhabitants of that city.”


Both Tyre and Sidon “were crowded with glass–shops, dyeing and weaving establishments; and among their cunning workmen not the least important class were those who were celebrated for the engraving of precious stones.” (2Chron. 2:7, 2Chron. 2:14).


The wickedness and idolatry of this city are frequently denounced by the prophets, and its final destruction predicted (Isa. 23:1 Jer. 25:22 Ezek. 26 28:1–19 Amo. 1:9–10 Zech. 9:2–4).


Here a church was founded soon after the death of Stephen, and Paul, on his return from his third missionary journey spent a week in intercourse with the disciples there (Acts 21:4). Here the scene at Miletus was repeated on his leaving them. They all, with their wives and children, accompanied him to the sea–shore. The sea–voyage of the apostle terminated at Ptolemais, about 38 miles from Tyre. Thence he proceeded to Caesarea (Acts 21:5–8).


“It is noticed on monuments as early as B.C.1500, and claiming, according to Herodotus, to have been founded about 2700 B.C.. It had two ports still existing, and was of commercial importance in all ages, with colonies at Carthage (about 850 B.C.) and all over the Mediterranean. It was often attacked by Egypt and Assyria, and taken by Alexander the Great after a terrible siege in 332 B.C.. It is now a town of 3,000 inhabitants, with ancient tombs and a ruined cathedral. A short Phoenician text of the fourth century B.C. is the only monument yet recovered.”

From M.G. Easton M.A., D.D., Illustrated Bible Dictionary; 1897; from e-Sword, topic: Tyre.


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And since Tyre is such a city of note...

Gill on Tyre

This was a famous city in Phoenicia, which exceeded in renown and grandeur all the cities of Syria and Phoenicia (h), and was much known for its trade and navigation, for which it was well situated by the sea; and indeed new Tyre stood in it, about half a mile from the shore, before it was joined to the continent by Alexander the great: but this seems to be old Tyre, and, was upon the continent, which was built by the Phoenicians before the Trojan war (i), and two hundred and forty years before the temple of Solomon (k). It had its name צור, "Tzur", in the Hebrew language, from whence it is called Tyre, from the rock on which it was built, that word so signifying. It is written here without a vau; and it is a rule with the Jews (l), that whenever this word is written full, with all its letters, it is to be understood of the city of Tyre; but if wanting, it designs Rome; and Cocceius interprets the whole prophecy of the antichristian city.

From Dr. John Gill, John Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible; from e-Sword, Isa. 23:1. Gill references: (h) Curt. l. 4. sect. 2. (i) Justin, l. 18. c. 3. (k) Joseph. Antiqu. I. 8. c. 3. sect. 1. (l) Bereshit Rabba, sect. 61. fol. 54. 2.


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The Bible has some amazing prophecies concerning a variety of ancient nations, one of those city-states being Tyre.

R. Totten on the prophecies concerning Tyre:

 TYRE, had a remarkable prophecy concerning it, in Isaiah 23 (in 715BC) and in Ezekiel 26 (in 588BC), ----- this is what they predicted :


1. That Nebuchadnezzar (the Chaldeans) will destroy the mainland city of Tyre (Isa.23:13 ; Ez.26:8).

2. At the end of 70 years, Tyre will recover and to return to business (Isa.23:15-17).

3. That Tyre would give some of her earnings to the Lord (Isa.23:18).

4. That many nations will come against Tyre (Ez.26:3).

5. The rubble of the city will be thrown into the sea (Ez.26:12).

6. That Tyre will be scraped flat like the top of a rock (Ez.26:4).

7. Tyre will finally be destroyed and never be rebuilt (26:14).

 This is how those prophecies were fulfilled:


1. Nebuchadnezzar laid seige to mainland Tyre in 585BC, and overthrew it in 573BC, and the people of Tyre retreated to an island half a mile off the shore, and built up a city there.

2. 70 years later, when the Persians overthrew Babylon, island-Tyre recovered to prosper fairly well.

3. Cyrus, king of Persia, forced island-Tyre to contribute materials to rebuild Yaweh's Temple in Jerusalem.

4. The Assyrians and Egyptians attacked Tyre, and Alexander the Great (Greece) brought military forces from Sidon, Aradus, Byblus, Rhodes, Soli, Mallos, Lycia, Macedon and Cyprus.

5. Alexander's forces took the stones & rubble of fallen mainland Tyre, and threw it into the sea, to build a causeway out to the island-city of Tyre.

6. To smooth out the causeway, the lose topsoil and "dust" was scraped off and added to the causeway.

7. Alexander reduced island-Tyre to ruins in 332BC, and although people tried to rebuild it, island-Tyre was completely destroyed by the Saracens in 1291AD. Though an condominium area they call "Tyre" has been built a few miles away, the flat-topped site where the ancient ruins used to be has never been rebuilt, despite a flowing spring of fresh water running through it. That flat site is still only used for the spreading of nets.

- - - (References: "A Ready Defense" by Josh McDowell ; "Wycliffe Bible Commentary"; "Truth Triumphant" by S.M. Coder, Th.M & G.F. Howe, Ph.D.)

Bible Evidence gives a modern-day example of a similar prediction:

What if I were to give you the following predictions:


    1. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (Iran) will destroy all but the island portion of New York City.

    2. Many nations will fight against New York City.

    3. The debris from the buildings in New York City will be thrown in the water to access Long Island.

    4. New York City will be made a bare and flat like the top of a rock.

    5. Fishermen will spread their nets over the heap that was once New York City.

    6. New York City will never be re-built.

    7. New York City's glory will never be restored.

    8. I will be laughed at and mocked, and disregarded as a lunatic.


The point is, these prophecies concerning Tyre are quite remarkable.

From: http://worldview3.50webs.com/prophecy.html and http://www.bibleevidences.com/prophecy.htm both accessed May 16, 2014.


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2Samuel 24:7b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

with a plural noun, it is rendered all of, all; any of

masculine singular construct with a masculine plural noun

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

ʿîyr (עִיר) [pronounced ģeer]

encampment, city, town

feminine plural construct

Strong's #5892 BDB #746

Chivvîy (חִוִּי) [pronounced khihv-VEE]

villagers, transliterated Hivite

masculine singular, gentilic adjective; with the definite article

Strong’s #2340 BDB #295

This is the first mention of these people in the book of Samuel.

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Kenaʿănîy (כְּנַעֲנִי) [pronounced ke-nah-ģuh-NEE]

merchant, trader; and is transliterated Canaanite, Canaanites

adjective/nominative gentilic; with the definite article

Strong’s #3669 BDB #489

This is the first mention of these people in the book of Samuel.


Translation: ...and to all the cities of the Hivites and the Canaanites. There were still some Hivites and Canaanites who had cities established within Israel, which God clearly allowed for in the first few chapters of Judges. This suggests that there was somewhat of a truce that existed between the Israelites, Canaanites and the Hivites.


You may recall that the Hivites made an alliance with the Jews, and were therefore able to live within the land of Israel side-by-side the Jewish settlers. Saul had caused some problem with the Hivites, which David repaired, something that we studied back in 2Sam. 21.

 

Keil and Delitzsch: “into all the towns of the Hivites and Canaanites,” i.e., the towns in the tribes of Naphtali, Zebulun, and Issachar, or the (subsequent) province of Galilee, in which the Canaanites had not been exterminated by the Israelites, but had only been made tributary. Footnote

 

Barnes: This continuance of distinct communities of Hivites so late as the end of David’s reign is remarkable. Footnote

 

The Pulpit Commentary: It is evident from this that even in David’s time there were towns and districts were Hivites and Canaanites dwelt as distinct communities, governed probably by their own laws. But as they were bound to serve in the Israelite armies, they were included in the census, and possibly one of its rosin objects was to learn the number of fighting men of alien races dwelling in Israel. They seem to have been reckoned as belonging to the tribe in whose borders they dwelt. So Baanah and Rechab, the murderers of Ishbosheth, though Beerothites (and therefore Gibeonites, who again were Hivites), were counted to Benjamin. (2Sam. 4:2–3 = Now Saul's son had two men who were commanders of troops. The name of one was Baanah and the name of the other Rechab, the sons of Rimmon the Beerothite, of the sons of Benjamin. (For Beeroth also was part of Benjamin, because the Beerothites fled to Gittaim and are sojourning there to this day.)—VW) These Gentile communities were chiefly to be found in the north, for which reason it was called "the circuit (Gelil) of the nations", (Isa. 9:1) and in later times from Gelil came the name Galilee. Footnote


As a matter of interest, there were 153,000 aliens in Israel during the time of Solomon (2Chron. 2:17).


2Samuel 24:7c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

yâtsâʾ (יָצָא) [pronounced yaw-TZAWH]

to go [come] out, to go [come] forth; to rise; to flow, to gush up [out]

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong's #3318 BDB #422

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

negeb (נֶגֶב) [pronounced ne-GHEBV]

south, south-country; southern portion of Judah, southern district of Palestine; often transliterated Negev or Negeb

masculine singular construct

Strong's #5045 BDB #616

This is the only occurrence of this word in 2Samuel.

Yehûwdâh (יְהוּדָה) [pronounced yehoo-DAW]

possibly means to praise, to be praised; and is transliterated Judah

masculine proper noun/location

Strong’s #3063 BDB #397

Beʾêr Shâbaʿ (שָבַע בְּאֵר) [pronounced beayr SHAWB-vahģ]

well of the oath [seven] and is transliterated Beersheba, Beer-sheba

proper noun; location

Strong’s #884 BDB #92


Translation: Then they went [down] to the Negeb of Judah [as far as] Beersheba. The Negev (Negeb) is the southern desert portion of Judah, and we have studied Beersheba on many occasions. It is a small village with a rich history in Israel.


It would certainly be important to know about Beersheba.

Fausset on Beersheba

Beersheba means "well of the oath". The southern limit of the Holy Land, as Dan in the N.: "from Dan to Beersheba" (compare in David's census, 1Chron. 21:2 2Sam. 24:2–7) comprehends the whole. Called so from the oath of peace between Abraham and Abimelech, king of the Philistines (Gen. 21:31), else from the seven (sheba' ) ewe lambs slain there: indeed sheba', an oath, is from the custom of binding one's self by seven things, as Abraham made the seven ewe lambs a pledge of his covenant with Abimelech. Again, from the like oath between Abimelech (with Phichol, his captain) and Isaac, it being not uncommon for an event to be recorded as occurring apparently for the first time, which has been recorded as occurring earlier before: so Bethel (Gen. 26:31–33).

The well dug by Abraham and secured to him by oath had been covered and lost. It is found by Isaac's servants just after the covenant made between him and Abimelech. The series of events recalls to Isaac's mind the original name and that which gave rise to the name; so he restores both the well itself and the name. Seven (sheba' which also may explain the name) wells are at the place, so that a different one may have been named by Isaac from that named by Abraham. They all pour their streams into the wady es Seba, and are called Bir es seba, the largest 12 ft. diameter, and masonry round reaching 28 ft. down, and 44 from bottom to surface of the water. The second, at a hundred yards distance, 5 in diameter, 42 in depth. The other five further off. The stones around the mouth are worn into grooves by the action of ropes for so many ages. Around the large are nine stone troughs; around the smaller, five.

The water is excellent, and grass with crocuses and lilies abounds. Abraham planted here a" grove" ('eshel) (distinct from the idol grove, Asheerah, or Astarte Baal), or tree, the tamarisk, long living, of hard wood, with long, clustering, evergreen leaves, as a type of the ever enduring grace of the faithful, covenant keeping God (Gen. 21:33), "and called on the name (the self manifested character and person) of Jehovah, the everlasting God." (See BAAL.) Here it was that Isaac lived when Jacob stole from his father the blessing already forfeited by Esau's profane sale of his birthright (Gen. 26:33 Gen. 26:27 Gen. 28:10). Long afterward, on Jacob's descent to Egypt, he halted there, sacrificed unto the God of Isaac, and had a vision of God encouraging him to go down. The dispensation of the promise, which began with Abraham's call from Ur to Canaan, ended on the last night of the sojourn of his grandson Israel in Canaan.

So God's promise was repeated for the last time (Gen. 46:1–5). Possibly the 430 years (Gal. 3:17) dates from this, the end, not from the beginning, of the dispensation of the promise. Beersheba was given to Simeon, in the extreme S. of Judah (Joshua 15:28 Joshua 19:1–2 1Chron. 4:28). Samuel's sons, Joel and Abiah, were judges there (1Sam. 8:2), its distance preventing his going in circuit to it, as he did to others yearly (1Sam. 7:16–17). Here Elijah left his confidential servant (narow) on his way to Horeb (1Kings 19:3–4).

"From Geba to Beersheba" or "from Beersheba to mount Ephraim" was the formula comprehending the southern kingdom of Judah after the severance of Israel's ten tribes (2Kings 23:8; 2Chron. 19:4), and on the return from Babylon still narrower, "from Beersheba to the valley of Hinnom" (Neh. 11:30). Ahaziah's wife, Zibiah, mother of Joash, was of Beersheba (2Kings 12:1.) It became seat of an idolatry akin to that of Bethel or Gilgal, so that it was a formula of superstition, "the manner (cultus, or religion, as in Acts 9:2 the new religion of Christ is designated "this way") of Beersheba liveth" (Amo. 5:5; Amo. 8:14). In Christian times, it became an episcopal city under the Bishop of Jerusalem.

From Andrew Robert Fausset, Fausset’s Bible Dictionary; from e-Sword, topic: Beersheba.


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1_kings_empire_david_solomon.jpg

This entire passage reads: Joab took his army and they crossed over the Jordan and camped in Aroer, south of the city, in the middle of the valley of Gad, and went from there to Jazer. They went up to Gilead and to the land of Tahtim-hodshi; and then father north to Dan [or, Dan-jaan]. Coming back down around to Sidon, they passed by the fortress of Tyre and all of the cities of the Hivites and the Canaanites. Finally the went down as far as southern Judah to Beersheba. So they begin at Jerusalem, go north-northeast and cross over the Jordan, and then go south to come down to Aroer. From there, they move north to Jazer, then up through Gilead to an area bordered by the land of Tahtim-hodshi.


The Negev is the far southern section of Judah. Beersheba is shown on the map.


Map of the Empire of David and Solomon from Bible-history.com, accessed May 9, 2014.


Although the thick green line is really the boundary around Israel, this is not too far from the route taken by Joab and his men. They probably would have been further in, the this gives us a general idea.


Matthew Henry: They began in the most distant places, in the east first, on the other side Jordan (2Sam. 24:5), then they went towards Dan in the north (2Sam. 24:6), so to Tyre on the east, and thence to Beersheba in the south (2Sam. 24:7). Footnote


They go as far north as Dan and then to Ijon, where they are at the northernmost portion of Israel. They circle around back down to the south, coming down to Sidon and the Fortress of Tyre, finally ending up in southern Judah, in Beersheba.


——————————


And so they go around in all the land and so they come in from an end of nine months and twenty a day [to] Jerusalem.

2Samuel

24:8

They went in a circuit throughout all the land and they entered Jerusalem at the end of nine months and twenty days.

They traveled in a circuit throughout all the land and finally returned to Jerusalem after 9 months and 20 days.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          And having gone through the whole land, after nine months and twenty days, they came to Jerusalem.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so they go around in all the land and so they come in from an end of nine months and twenty a day [to] Jerusalem.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And when they had gone through all the land, they came to Jerusalem at the end of nine months and twenty days.

Septuagint (Greek)                And they compassed the whole land; and they arrived at Jerusalem at the end of nine months and twenty days.

1Chron. 21:4b (VW)               Therefore Joab departed and went throughout all Israel and came to Jerusalem.

 

Significant differences:           None.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           At the end of nine months and twenty days, after going through the entire country, they came back to Jerusalem.

Contemporary English V.       After they had gone through the whole land, they went back to Jerusalem. It had taken them nine months and twenty days.

Easy English                          It took them 9 months and 20 days to go through all the country. Then they returned to Jerusalem.

Easy-to-Read Version            It took them nine months and 20 days for them to go through the country. After nine months and 20 days they came back to Jerusalem.

The Message                         They canvassed the whole country and after nine months and twenty days arrived back in Jerusalem.

New Berkeley Version           Thus when they had surveyed the whole land, they came back to Jerusalem at the end of nine months and twenty days.

New Living Translation           Having gone through the entire land for nine months and twenty days, they returned to Jerusalem.

The Voice                               At last, when they had traveled through all the land, they came back to Jerusalem after 9 months and 20 days.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          So, they traveled throughout the entire land.

Finally, at the end of nine months and twenty days, they returned to JeruSalem, 9 and JoAb gave the numbers of the people to the king. There were eight-hundred-thousand men in the armies of IsraEl who were carrying the broadsword, plus five-hundred-thousand warriors from Judah. V. 9 is included for context.

Beck’s American Translation When they had covered the whole country, they came to Jerusalem after 9 months and 20 days.

God’s Word                         When they had covered the whole country, they came to Jerusalem after 9 months and 20 days.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       So they made their review of the whole country, and returned to Jerusalem after nine months' and twenty days' absence.

New American Bible (2011)   Thus they toured the whole land, reaching Jerusalem again after nine months and twenty days.

NIRV                                      They finished going through the entire land. Then they came back to Jerusalem. They had been gone for nine months and 20 days.

New Jerusalem Bible             Having travelled throughout the country, after nine months and twenty days they returned to Jerusalem.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      They explored all the land and came to Jerusalem in the end of nine months and twenty days.

Bible in Basic English             So after going through all the land in every direction, they came to Jerusalem at the end of nine months and twenty days.

The Expanded Bible              After nine months and twenty days, they had gone through all the land. Then they came back to Jerusalem.

NET Bible®                             They went through all the land and after nine months and twenty days came back to Jerusalem.

NIV – UK                                After they had gone through the entire land, they came back to Jerusalem at the end of nine months and twenty days.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           When they were done going through all the land, they came back to Yerushalayim; it had taken nine months and twenty days.

exeGeses companion Bible   And they flit through all the land:

and at the end of nine months and twenty days

they come to Yeru Shalem:...

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               They traversed the whole country, and then they came back to Jerusalem at the end of nine months and twenty days.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           So when they had gone through kol HaAretz, they came to Yerushalayim at the end of 9 months and 20 days.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                So when they had gone through all the land [taking the census], they came to Jerusalem at the end of nine months and twenty days.

English Standard Version      So when they had gone through all the land, they came to Jerusalem at the end of nine months and twenty days.

Green’s Literal Translation    And they went to and fro through all the land, and came in to Jerusalem at the end of nine months and twenty days.

Kretzmann’s Commentary    So when they had gone through all the land, they came to Jerusalem at the end of nine months and twenty days, the census not being really finished, because wrath came upon Israel and caused the suspension of the project.

NASB                                     So when they had gone about through the whole land, they came to Jerusalem at the end of nine months and twenty days.

World English Bible                So when they had gone back and forth through all the land, they came to Jerusalem at the end of nine months and twenty days.

Young's Literal Translation     And they go to and fro through all the land, and come in at the end of nine months and twenty days to Jerusalem.

 

The gist of this verse:          After 9 months and 20 days, the census had been completed and Joab and his army returned to Jerusalem.


2Samuel 24:8a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

shûwţ (שוּט) [pronounced shoot]

to go, to rove about, to quickly go to and fro, to run quickly, to run about, to run to and fro

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #7751 BDB #1001

Dr. Good writes, the word imports, not so much the act of going forwards and backward, as of making a circuit of circumference; of going round about. Footnote Two things are implied by this verb: alacrity and circuity; that is, a circuit is kept to and it is done quickly.

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

the whole, all of, the entirety of, all; can also be rendered any of

masculine singular construct followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

Literally, in all. Although I don’t have this in the lexicons, it is rendered by the most literal translations as among all, through all, throughout all, with all.

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: They went in a circuit throughout all the land... This simply means that Joab and his army went throughout the entire land. The verb indicates that they made a circuit throughout the entire land, which is what was required in order to take this census.


2Samuel 24:8b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

bôwʾ (בּוֹא) [pronounced boh]

to come in, to come, to go in, to go, to enter, to advance; to attain

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #935 BDB #97

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

qâtseh (קָצֶה) [pronounced kaw-TSEH]

end, extremity, outskirts; the whole, the sum

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #7097 BDB #892

With the min preposition, it means from the end of; at the end of; after.

tishaʿâh (תִּשְעָה) [pronounced tihshe-ĢAW]

nine, ninth

feminine singular noun; ordinal or cardinal numeral

Strong’s #8672 BDB #1077

châdôshîy (חָדְֹשִי) [pronounced khohd-SHEE]

new moon, month; monthly; first day of the month

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #2320 BDB #294

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʿeserîym (עֶשְׂרִים) [pronounced ģese-REEM]