1Chronicles 11

 

1Chronicles 11:1–47

David King Over all Israel/David’s Mighty Men


Outline of Chapter 11:

 

Introduction

 

         vv.     1–3           David is Made King over All Israel

         vv.     4–9           David Conquers Jerusalem, Making it the Capital City of United Israel

         vv.    10–47         David’s Mighty Men

         vv.    10–25                            David’s Greatest Soldiers and some of Their Exploits

         vv.    26–41a                          David’s Thirty

         vv. 41b–47                           Additional Military Men of Note

 

Addendum


Charts, Short Doctrines and Maps:

 

         Introduction         Alternate Outline from Clarke

         Introduction         The Attitude of the Word of God toward the Military

         Introduction         Synching up 1Chronicles 11 with Samuel

 

         v.       1              The History of Israel, Samuel, Saul and David

         v.       1              “We are your bone and your flesh”

         v.       2              Public Awareness that God had Chosen David

         v.       3              The Suzerain-Vassal Treaty

         v.       3              A Side-by-Side Comparison of 2Sam. 5:1–3 and 1Chron. 11:1–3

         v.       4              The Doctrine of the Jebusites

         v.       5              Scofield on Zion

         v.       6              A Condensed View of Joab

         v.       8              What is the Millo? The Opinions of Commentators

         v.       8              The Millo as Found in the Bible

         v.      10              Why are There Lists of Names in the Bible?

         v.      10              Doctrine of the Pivot

         v.      10              Pivot Politics Versus Power Politics

         v.      10              How Does the Doctrine of the Client nation and of the Pivot Apply?

         v.      10              Romans 12:1–2 Exegeted by R. B. Thieme, Jr.

         v.      10              Prophesies About David Becoming King

         v.      10              Applying 1Chronicles 11:10 to our Lives

         v.      11              The Break-Down of 1Chronicles 11:10–47

         v.      11              The Clunkiness of 1Chronicles 11:10–11a

         v.      11              Jashobeam ben Hachmoni

         v.      12              What Does “Eleazar ben Dodo” Mean?

         v.      12              The Eleazar’s of Scripture

         v.      14              Comparing the Texts (1Chron. 11:12–14 and 2Sam. 23:9–12)

         v.      14              Who is the Missing Man of the Three?

         v.      15              Map of the Valley of Rephaim

         v.      18              David Pouring out a Drink Offering to God

         v.      20              Fausset, ISBE and Smith on Abishai

         v.      21              Is There a Second Three?

         v.      21              Interpreting 1Chronicles 11:20–21

         v.      21              Keil and Delitzsch Explain this Passage

         v.      22              Who Exactly did Benaiah Kill?

         v.      24              Theologians Describe Benaiah

         v.      25              Barnes on the Thirty

         v.      27              The Shammah’s of Scripture

         v.      28              The Ira’s of Scripture

         v.      28              The Doctrine of Tekoa

         v.      28              The Abiezer’s of Scripture

         v.      28              Anathoth

         v.      31              Our Divine Operating Assets—the 40 Things Given to us at Salvation

         v.      32              The Primary Uses of the Term Arabah

         v.      33              The Azmaveth’s of Scripture

         v.      33              Bahurim

         v.      33              Shaalbim

         v.      36              The Hepher’s of Scripture

         v.      36              How Do We Determine the Accurate Text of 1Chornicles 11:36?

         v.      36              The Ahijah’s of Scripture

         v.      37              The 3 Carmel’s in Scripture

         v.      38              A Quick View of Redemption

         v.      38              Links to the Doctrine of Redemption

         v.      38              The Joel’s of Scripture

         v.      38              The Nathan’s of Scripture

         v.      41              The Zabad’s of Scripture

         v.      43              The Hanan’s of Scripture

         v.      43              The Maacah’s of Scripture

         v.      44              A Summary of the Doctrine of Ashtoreth

         v.      44              The Jeiel’s of Scripture

         v.      44              The Aroer’s of Scripture

         v.      47              George Will on “The Pencil Czar”

 

         Addendum          A Complete Translation of 1Chronicles 11


Doctrines Covered

Doctrines Alluded To

The Arabah

Client Nation

Bethlehem

Joab

 

 

Masada

Zion


Chapters of the Bible Alluded To

 

1Sam. 23

2Sam. 5

2Sam. 11

2Sam. 12

2Sam. 23

1Chron. 7

1Chron. 12

Psalm 2

 

Psalm 51

 


Definition of Terms

Client Nation

Client-Nation, is a national entity in which a certain number of spiritually mature Christians (the salt of the earth) have formed a pivot sufficient to sustain the nation and through which God specifically protects this nation so that believers can fulfill the divine mandates of evangelism, communication and custodianship of Bible doctrine, providing a haven for Jews, and sending missionaries abroad. The United States is a client-nation to God. A client nation must have freedom: Freedom to seek God, freedom to use one’s own volition and self-determination to succeed or fail, freedom from anarchy and tyranny, freedom for evangelism, freedom for believers to hear Bible teaching without government interference and, therefore, to grow spiritually, and freedom to send missionaries to other nations.

Cosmic thinking

This is human viewpoint and the worldly norms and standards of those around you.

Cycles of Discipline

A national entity which is a client nation to God is under both God’s protection and His discipline (much like the individual believer). As a nation moves further and further from God, God may impose disciplinary measures on that nation, which include economic disaster, illness, civil unrest, military defeat, and even invasion which may include a slavery or dispersion of the people. These cycles are found in Lev. 26. Although these warnings are designed for Israel, all client nations to God may face similar downward historical trends.

Divine Operating Assets

These are the 40 things given to us at salvation, enumerated in the doctrine: Our Divine Operating Assets—the 40 Things Given to us at Salvation

Fifth Cycle of Discipline

The fifth cycle of discipline involves complete loss of personal and national sovereignty, the destruction of the family and the nation. Offerings to God are unacceptable. Nations which have undergone this destruction have experienced slavery, cannibalism, and the assimilation of its surviving citizens into other cultures.

Out of fellowship

Whenever a believer sins, that takes him out of fellowship with God. He must name this sins to God in order to be restored to fellowship (if it is an unknown sin, whenever he names his known sins to God, the unknown sins will be forgiven as well—1John 1:9).

Pivot

Believers in a national entity who grow to spiritual maturity and act as the preservative of a nation (Gen. 18:23–32 Matt. 5:13–14).

Rebound

The act of naming one’s sins to God. A sin takes you out of fellowship and naming your sin or sins to God puts you back into fellowship (1John 1:9).

Most of these terms were coined by R. B. Thieme Jr. during his 50+ year ministry at Berachah Church.

Some of these definitions may have been taken from

http://www.bibledoctrinechurch.org/?subpages/GLOSSARY.shtml

http://www.bigrick.org/pubs/terms.pdf

http://www.gbible.org/_files/pdf/Doctrine_of_The_Divine_Decree.pdf

http://www.gbible.org/index.php?proc=d4d&sf=rea&did=28

http://www.realtime.net/~wdoud/topics/chastisement.html


I ntroduction: 1Chron. 11 may seem, to some, to be 2 separate chapters. First we have David being made king over all Israel, and then he takes the city of Jebus (Jerusalem). These 2 topics seem to fit together. However, after this we have a long list of David’s great soldiers. We could argue that these 2 sets of topics ought to be together or not, but the chapter setup of the Bible are not inspired. In one or two instances, the differentiating of chapters confuses the meaning of the passage. Our Bible was divided into chapters and verses long after the Word of God was completed. David, as king, would be nothing without his Mighty Men. Therefore, he could not have been made king over all Israel had he not been supported by these great men. Nor could he have taken Jebus apart from his Mighty Men.


It is possibly worth noting that you will not read a more thorough examination of this chapter anywhere else. This, for all intents and purposes, is unplowed field in the Word of God. Guzik spends about 6 pages on this chapter. McGee and Selman spend about 7 pages on this chapter. You have never walked into the church, and your pastor said, “Open the Word of God to 1Chron. 11.” And yet, this chapter is filled with important doctrines and applications. There is so much in the Bible which has been neglected, and this is one of those neglected chapters. When I first approach this chapter, in 2005, I exegeted the first dozen or so verses, decided that I did not feel like dealing with another list of names, and moved on. Upon returning to this chapter, in 2010, I find that it is filled with important doctrines. It is a great privilege and honor to be able to examine this portion of the Word of God, verse by verse and word by word. I am continually amazed at all that God has provided for us in these ignored corners of His Word.


This chapter is almost impossible to separate in any other way:

Alternate Outline from Clarke

1Chron. 11:1-3

David is anointed king in Hebron

1Chron. 11:4-9

He wars against the Jebusites, and takes their city

1Chron. 11:10-19

An account of David’s three mightiest heroes; and particularly of their hazardous exploit in bringing water from the well of Beth-lehem

1Chron. 11:20-47

A list of the rest, and an account of their acts

Adam Clarke, Commentary on the Bible; from e-Sword, 1Chron. 11 introduction.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


When it comes to the military, the Word of God is clear: the military is a great and honorable profession. Therefore, God the Holy Spirit will list the great military men under David’s command. At no time in the Bible, does God the Holy Spirit list the great pacifists of Biblical times. Pacifism is listed once as a sin in Num. 32. Most believers have heard the verse, “Your sin will find you out.” What most believers do not know is, this is the sin of pacifism. The only other time we find an allusion to pacifism is an incorrect interpretation of Jesus saying, “Turn the other cheek.” Jesus never suggested that a nation turn the other cheek when attacked, Footnote nor did He suggest that, if your house and/or family is attacked, that you ought to just let it happen (see Matt. 12:29). That is cowardice, which is a sin. My point is, the Word of God recognizes the importance and greatness of the military and men who choose the profession.


Right off the bat, we ought to examine in a little more detail how the Word of God views the military.

The Attitude of the Word of God toward the Military

       Early on, the Bible recognizes favorably an offensive military action taken by Abram to retrieve his nephew Lot. There was an alliance of King-warriors who went to war against Sodom and Gomorrah (and other city-states) and they defeated them, taking Abram’s nephew Lot and his family captive in the process. Abram took his own men, who became citizen soldiers, and they attacked the victorious alliance of kings and rescued Lot. After the battle, the great historical incident of Abram giving a tenth to the King of Salem (Jerusalem), Melchizedek, a priest of God. This incident is seen as so significant, that it is mentioned on several occasions in the New Testament. Gen. 14

       When God took Moses and the Israelites to the Land of Promise, and they stood at the southern border, they were to first examine the land, and then take the land by military force. The Israelites, just out of slavery, were unable to muster up the courage and the dependence upon God to take the land with their military. Therefore, God kept them in the desert wilderness for an additional 38½ years and God killed off the first generation of Israelites due to their cowardice and refusal to do what God told them to do (to take the land militarily). Num. 13–14 describe the cowardice of the Israelites. In Num. 15–20, God takes out the rebellious generation of the Exodus, Gen X. Much of Num. 19 speaks of cleansing, which is what God is doing to the Israelites; and, the death of Miriam represents that last of her generation to die the sin unto death (the handful who remained were onboard for God’s plan).

       Under God’s direction, Israel marched up the eastern side of the Dead Sea, not backing down to any enemy force. In fact, God appeared to help them hone their military skills on these peripheral nations east of the Dead Sea and east of the Jordan River. In this march northward, Israel conquered the ranch lands east of the Jordan, and these lands were given to the tribes of Reuben, Gad and half of the tribe of Manasseh. Num. 21–31

       Even though Reuben, Gad and half of Manasseh now had their land to occupy, Moses made it very clear that they must continue to fight along side of their brothers to take the rest of the land of Canaan. Moses warned them that, if they did not do this, their sin would find them out. Num. 32

       Israel fought a war of aggression to take the Land of Promise in the book of Joshua. They used some locals against their own people (Rahab the prostitute) and they killed men, women and children. They also made peace with some groups who were willing to put down their arms and surrender. The first half of the book of Joshua is a city-by-city conquering of the Land of Promise by the Jews, as directed by God. The second half of Joshua is devoted to the division of spoils.

       It ought to be noted that there was a time frame for this and a saturation of degeneracy for those who lived in the land. For Abraham, the land was a place for him to walk through, but he was not to carve out a territory for himself because the iniquity of the Amorites was not yet full. That would be four generations hence. Gen. 15:6

       It should be emphasized that the wars in Joshua were offensive wars.

       The book of Judges is all about Israel’s wars with people which remained in the land and those from round about. Israel would fall into degeneracy, they would be enslaved, and then they would grow spiritually, and finally militarily defeat their enemies. This pattern is described in Judges 2:11–23. The book of the Judges documents this pattern.

       The key is not the military, however, but the spiritual state of the Israelites (which is related to the Word of God). Deut. 27:3 Joshua 1:7–8 5:6 Judges 2:17–20

       Each incident mirrored man in this world:

       We came into this world with God’s blessing. God placed man and the woman in the Garden of Eden (Gen. 1:27–31 2:8–9). God placed Israel into Land of Promise, a land flowing with milk and honey (Ex. 3:8, 17 13:5 Deut. 6:3 26:9. Jer. 32:22).

       Adam and the woman sinned against God (Gen. 3:1–6). Israel sinned against God, usually by chasing after other gods (Judges 2:11–13).

       This put Adam and Eve under cursing (Gen. 2:16–19). Israel, when deserting God, was also cursed, and overrun by her enemies (Judges 2:14–15).

       Mankind was promised a Savior (Gen. 3:15 Luke 2:11 Gal. 3:16, 19). In the book of the Judges, God would send a Savior to deliver Israel (Judges 2:16).

       As a result of turning toward God and depending upon Him, Israel would build up its military again and defeat their enemies. God would teach them war. God continually put Israel under the pressure of enemies in order to keep them spiritually attuned to Him. Judges 3:1–2

       God taught David how to fight in war. Psalm 18:34 144:1

       Israel’s greatest king was also Israel’s greatest warrior—David. 1Sam. 18:6–7 30:1–20 2Sam. 8:1–14 1Kings 9:4 Acts 13:22

       However, the key to David’s life was not his ability to war, but his spiritual state (1Kings 11:6 Acts 13:22). The point being, David’s great military exploits and his willingness to risk his life for his country is not incompatible with his spiritual life, but a result of spiritual growth.

       The bulk of this chapter is a memorial to the great warrior-generals who served under David. The Bible does not list the great pacifists of all time or during any era, but it lists here the most notable military men during the time of David.

       This doctrine does not mean that we always fight. There were a few instances where God placed Israel under the hand of someone else, against whom they were not to rebel. The Jews were under Cyrus the Great, Alexander the Great and under Roman rule. In these instances, God did not step into history and guide Israel to war against those who ruled over them. 2Chron. 36:1–23 Matt. 22:21 Rom. 13:1–7

       On at least 2 occasions, God intervened and destroyed Israel’s enemies personally. Ex. 14:1–31 Isa. 37:35–36

       Although the New Testament says less directly about war, when Jesus speaks to a centurion who comes to Him, He does not tell the centurion to put down his weapon and follow him, but, instead, points out this man’s great faith. Matt. 8:5–10

       People take what Jesus said at the Sermon on the Mount, about turning one’s cheek, to be the end-all, be-all statement of how to deal with aggression (Matt. 5:39). This passage has nothing to do with how one nation should interact with an enemy nation, but simply deals with a person who has been personally insulted. Far more important than this personal insult is giving this person the gospel of Jesus Christ.

       People also distort Jesus saying, “Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called sons of God” (Matt. 5:9). Jesus was not talking about some American Secretary of State rushing to the Palestine area to establish some sort of lasting peace in the Middle East. In the Bible, a peacemaker is one who makes peace between man and God, which is done by conveying the gospel of Jesus Christ (the plural indicates that Jesus was not speaking of Himself).

       In the end times, Jesus Himself will destroy all of the armies which have converged upon Israel, and their blood will run as high as the horse’s bridle for 185 miles. Rev. 14:19–20

       So the Bible views the military profession like any other profession; at no time does the Bible cast soldiers in a bad light because they are soldiers. Spiritual growth and a soldier’s ability to kill the enemy efficiently and with great bravery often go hand-in-hand.

       The greatest miliary men in the history of the United States had great faith in Jesus Christ. Examples include Thomas Jonathon Jackson, Robert E. Lee, George Patton, and Douglas MacArthur. MacArthur, when supervising and ruling over Japan, called for missionaries to be sent. Our missionaries in South Korea are key to the success of that nation today.

It took me awhile to grasp this aspect of the Word of God, having been brought up to think that Gandhi represented an ideal; and that Jesus was some sort of a wandering hippie pacifist in the ancient land of Israel.

Additional references: In 2Samuel 8, there are several doctrines related to war which are covered:

Some Points on War

What is a Righteous War?

There is a good Powerpoint presentation on God and War here:

http://www.spokanebiblechurch.com/powerpoint/WarandGod.pdf

Other links related to the Doctrine of War:

http://sites.google.com/site/rabbimike44/documents/-4-the-christian-doctrine-of-war (There is a lot of emphasis in this doctrine of examining passages which are used to support pacifism as the Christian way of doing things).

http://nearemmaus.files.wordpress.com/2009/11/leport-the-christian-doctrine-of-war-and-military-participation-from-pentecost-to-constantine.pdf (This document is unique, in that it examines the early Christians and what their attitude was toward war and the military)

http://www.scribd.com/doc/14293129/Doctrine-of-War


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


1Chron. 11, for the first 9 verses, parallel 2Sam. 5:1–10. In fact, it is obvious that the text of 1Chron. 11 came from the book of Samuel, or, in the alternative, that they had the same original source. Given that Chronicles was written long after these events took place and that Samuel was written shortly after these events took place, I would reasonably postulate that Chronicles use Samuel as its primary source.


It may be helpful to match up 1Chron. 11 with its source material:

Synching up 1Chronicles 11 with Samuel

1Chronicles

2Samuel

Notes and Comments

1Chron. 11:1–3

2Sam. 5:1–3

These first 3 verses are almost identical. 2Sam. 5:4–5 give us specific information on how long David reigned and where.

1Chron. 11:4–9

2Sam. 5:6–10

The Chronicles account tells us that Joab led the first strike against the Jebusites. Chronicles also indicates that Joab played a major part in the restoration of this city as well. More of the conversation between David and the Jebusites is recorded in the Samuel record.

1Chron. 11:10–25

2Sam. 23:8–23

Exploits of the cream of the crop of David’s officers.

1Chron. 11:26–41a

2Sam. 23:24–39

The most basic information is given about David and his the rest of his mighty men.

1Chron. 11:41b–47

———

The writer/editor of Chronicles adds to the list of outstanding soldiers who served under David.

Most believers are wondering, what does any of this have to do with me? We will all stand before the Judgment Seat of Christ. Our works will be evaluated, and some of them will be burned. Some of us will be simply believers who believed in Jesus Christ and did nothing else with our lives. Perhaps we spend 5 minutes filled with the Holy Spirit. There are others of us whose name will be mentioned as a good and faithful servant. Finally, there will be others of us whose divine good will be revealed to all in attendance.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


In exegeting this chapter, I am going to assume that you have gone through my exegesis of 2Sam. 5:1–10, and therefore, I will expand very little upon the verses which are identical as those found in 2Samuel. There are a couple of details found in this chapter which are not found in 2Samuel, and I will spend a little more time with those points.


As discussed previously, there are 1, 2 or 3 possible gatherings here. All of the armies of northern and southern Israel just appear to show up to David when he is in Hebron, giving them their support (1Chron. 12:23–40). We have all Israel (or, all the tribes of Israel) gathering together here to pledge their allegiance to David (2Sam. 5:1–2 1Chron. 11:1–2). This may be the same gathering, or it may represent two different gatherings. Finally, elders gather to David and anoint him king over a united Israel (2Sam. 5:3 2Chron. 11:3). If I were a betting man, I would assume to the gathering of the armies to David and the gathering of all Israel to David is the same event; and that elders coming to David at a later date to make his kingship official, occurs later. However, these could have occurred in 1 or more meetings and in almost any order, insofar as I can tell. I have discussed the options in much greater detail in the introduction to 2Sam. 5.


Like 2Sam. 5, the first two sections are parallel; David is first recognized as king over all Israel and then he is anointed as such. Afterwards, David successfully invades and takes Jerusalem. What we find in this chapter is more of an indication as to what Joab does in regards to Jerusalem; and the latter half of this chapter deals with the great men who served under David. The latter half of this chapter parallels 2Sam. 5:23, and we will cover it at that time.


You may notice a difference between the exegesis of the first 9 verses and the exegesis of the rest of the chapter. Quite frankly, I did a little work on the first portion of this chapter back in 2005, and am now completing it 5 years later.


There is a danger when studying a chapter like this. I often want to simply name the names and move on to the next section (once we get to vv. 10–47 (particularly when we get to v. 27 and beyond). However, this is the Word of God, and the names of these great soldiers are here for a reason, so I know I need to slow my roll, and spend a little time with each verse, even if there is nothing in that verse but the name of some warrior from 3000 years ago. Bear in mind, God the Holy Spirit placed this list of names into the Word of God, so we need to pay attention.


With some soldiers, we will hear some exploits, or things which they did for which they are remembered. In some cases, the father’s name is given; in some cases, more lineage is given; and, in some cases, their hometown is given. As a general rule, what we are told about these soldiers, no matter how sparse, reflects upon that particular influence in that soldier’s life. That is what is being emphasized by God the Holy Spirit. So, if his father is named, we know that this soldier’s father played an important role in shaping him; if his city is named, then we know where he lived was important to this soldier in making him into a man; if his family name is a part of his description, then we know that the influence of his family is relevant to him ending up in the Bible.


Now, how do you deal with a list of names? After each person, do I write ___ was great; one of David’s mighty men? I think a second thing to consider, as we go through these various names is, we look at their names, which are generally fraught with great meaning, and then quickly examine the pertinent doctrines as related to each name. These men were given names by their parents or they became to be known by a particular name, and their name means something, and that meaning is generally related to the plan of God, both for Israel, and for God’s great plan of redemption in the future.


Let me warn you that there will be some grave difficulties with the text in this chapter. There will be times when we struggle to determine, how do we interpret this; or, which text is accurate; or, what is the exact meaning here? In some cases, I will be unable to give you a definitive answer. For most people, that is fine. However, some of us were raised spiritually in Berachah Church, and R. B. Thieme, Jr. was a rather dogmatic teacher, and some of us liked the precision of his dogmatism. So, when we come to a passage like this, and there are a dozen difficulties, we might become distraught. Here are 2 things to bear in mind when dealing with difficult passages—whether the difficulty is in the actual text or interpreting the passage: (1) are there one or two reasonable explanations which make sense to explain the passage? If there are, then we can be reasonably assured that there is a reasonable explanation or interpretation which we may not get in our lifetimes. (2) One of the amazing things in the Bible is, there are problem passages. There are times when I hit a wall, and experience no little frustration trying to figure out what the text is or what it means. However, at no time does such a passage leave this or that major doctrine in peril. Even secondary doctrines are not affected by problematic passages. You will never come across a passage, where its true text or meaning would explain an important aspect of the Angelic Conflict or help to smooth out the Doctrine of the Hypostatic Union. That is a remarkable fact. If the Jews recognized this as the Word of God, then we might expect some very devious types to try to change the text in order to promote this or that pet doctrine. However, we never run into this. The textual difficulties which we face are, if anything, rather mundane.


——————————


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


David is Made King over all Israel

2Samuel 5:1–3


Slavishly literal:

 

Moderately literal:

And so gather all Israel unto David Hebron-ward; to say, “Behold us! Your bone and your flesh [are] we.

1Chronicles

11:1

Then, all Israel gathered together with David at Hebron, and said [to him], “Look at us [lit., behold]; we [are] your bone and your flesh.

Then all Israel gathered to David at Hebron and they said, “Listen, we are your flesh and blood;...


Here is how others have translated this verse:

 

Ancient texts:                       Note: I compare the Hebrew text to English translations of the Latin, Syriac and Greek texts (using the Douay-Rheims translation; George Lamsa’s translation, and Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton’s translation, respectively). When there are serious disparities between my translation and Brenton’s, I look at the Greek text of the Septuagint (the LXX) to see if a substantive difference actually exists (and I reflect these changes in the English rendering of the Greek text). Now and again, I update these texts with non-substantive changes (e.g., you for thou, etc.).

 

Masoretic Text                       And so gather all Israel unto David Hebron-ward; to say, “Behold us! Your bone and your flesh [are] we.

Septuagint                              And all Israel comes to David to Chebron, saying, “Behold, we [are] your bones and your flesh.

 

Significant differences:           None.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       Israel's leaders met with David at Hebron and said, "We are your relatives,...

The Message                         Then all Israel assembled before David at Hebron. "Look at us," they said. "We're your very flesh and blood.

NAB                                       Then all Israel gathered about David in Hebron and they said: “Surely, we are of the same bone and flesh as you.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

HCSB                                     All Israel came together to David at Hebron and said, "Here we are, your own flesh and blood.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

WEB                                      Then all Israel gathered themselves to David to Hebron, saying, Behold, we are your bone and your flesh.

Young’s Updated LT             And gathered are all Israel unto David, to Hebron, saying, “Lo, we [are] your bone and your flesh.


What is the gist of this verse? The men from the northern tribes of Israel came down to David in Hebron and begin by tell him they are his flesh and blood (they use the terms bone and flesh). Their intention is to recognize David as their king.


1Chronicles 11:1a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

qâbats (קָבַץ) [pronounced kaw-BATS]

to be gathered, to be collected, to be congregated, to congregate selves

3rd person masculine plural, Niphal imperfect

Strong’s #6908 BDB #867

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

Yiserâʾêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 BDB #975

el (אֶל) [pronounced el]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

Chebrôwn (חֶבְרוֹן) [pronounced khebv-ROHN]

association, league, joined; transliterated Hebron

proper noun; location; with a directional hê

Strong’s #2275 BDB #289


Translation: Then, all Israel gathered together with David at Hebron,... This is taking place 7 years and 6 months into David’s reign of southern Israel (2Sam. 5:5). The events of the next few verses will solidify David’s reign over all Israel.


The book of Chronicles has but one chapter on the reign of Saul, and we next find ourselves here. Let’s fill in some of the blanks:

The History of Israel, Samuel, Saul and David

       Samuel was the prophet-priest-judge who guided Israel. The true King of Israel is Jesus Christ.

       The idea was for Israel to go from Jesus Christ being their king to Jesus Christ being their king when He came to them.

       However, Israel was concerned over this matter, and they wanted a king to lead them—primarily a man who would be a military leader to deliver them from their enemies. 1Sam. 8:4–6

       During the time of the judges, Israel continually was attacked and plundered by nearby nations.

       Therefore, Israel wanted a king and a standing army. 1Sam. 8:20

       However, the real problem was, Israel’s spiritual life. They would pursue false gods, and God would discipline them with the military might of another nation.

       There was also the problem that Samuel tried to train up his own sons to take his place, and they were corrupt. 1Sam. 8:1–3

       So, the problem was not hat they lacked a king but that they strayed from their God.

       God granted Israel a king, telling Samuel, “They have not rejected you; they have rejected Me.” (1Sam. 8:7b).

       God sent Saul to Samuel, and Samuel anointed Saul king over all Israel. Superficially, Saul seemed like a good choice and the people of Israel were quite enthusiastic about this. 1Sam. 9:1–22 10:17–24 12:1

       Although Saul seemed to start out well (see 1Sam. 11 13), he assumed the priestly duties of Samuel, which took him outside of the plan of God, which was the first indication that Saul might not be the bet man for the job. 1Sam. 13:7–14

       Later, Saul disobeyed a direct order from God and God rejected him from being king over Israel. 1Sam. 15:1–27

       While Saul was still king, Samuel anointed David to be king over Israel. David was such an unlikely choice, at the first, that even his own family did not recognize his potential. 1Sam. 16:1–23 17:26–30

       David made his first public appearance when there was a standoff between the braying Philistine giant Goliath and Saul’s army. Every day, Goliath would come out and taunt Israel, daring any man of Israel to fight him. If none of his men volunteered, then Saul should have fought this man, but he did not. David, a young boy at this time (maybe age 16?), met Goliath face to face and killed him. This won David a place in Saul’s palace. 1Sam. 17

       David eventually became a general in Saul’s army, and, after while, King Saul became extremely jealous of David because of his success in battle. As a result, Saul began to behave psychotically when dealing with David. He attempted to kill David himself and plotted at various times for the Philistines to kill David in war. 1Sam. 18

       During this time, David developed a close friendship with Saul’s son, Jonathan. Jonathan recognized how crazy his father was getting, and he warned David to flee, so he did. 1Sam. 19–20

       Saul became absolutely obsessed with David, spending as much time chasing David all over the country with his army as he did defending Israel from its true enemies. David also succumbed to spiritual weakness, and, at some point, found himself marching with the Philistines against Israel. God intervened, removed David from this situation; but the Philistines defeated Saul and his sons in battle. Saul and his sons were killed in this battle. 1Sam. 21–31 1Chron. 10:1–10

       Saul’s first act of greatness was to deliver the people of Jabesh-Gilead from the vicious Ammonites. Men from Jabesh-Gilead, out of respect for who Saul was, rescued his body from the Philistines and gave him a proper burial. 1Sam. 11:1–13 1Chron. 10:11–13

       Saul’s defeat in battle was simultaneous to David’s defeat of the Amalekites. A man claiming to have killed Saul—at Saul’s request—came to David with that story, and is executed by David’s order. In this way, David found out, more or less, that Israel had been defeated by the Philistines. 2Sam. 1:1–16

       There was also the problem of a division between Israel (the northern kingdom) and Judah (the southern kingdom).

       The Philistines tended to attack the nation of Israel right in the middle, perhaps, in part, to split this country in two.

       When Saul was going to rescue the people of Jabesh-Gilead, he gathered up troops from the north and the south: 300,000 from Israel and only 30,000 from Judah (1Sam. 11:8). The fact that these are listed separately and Judah is offering such a small number of troops, comparatively speaking, suggests that there was a fissure between these two sections early on.

       Much of the fist few chapters of 2Samuel deal with David first ruling over only Judah and later ruling over Israel as well.

       Anytime there is a change of dynasty (and often when there is simply a change of kings within the same dynasty), there is a certain amount of political turmoil and intrigue. This describes the first few chapters of 2Samuel. David becomes king over Judah and Ishbosheth, one of Saul’s sons, becomes king over Israel, supported by Abner, Saul’s general. 2Sam. 2:1–11

       Rather than let things be, Abner met Joab (David’s general) in Gibeon, and they fight. Joab’s army begins to defeat Abner, so Abner and his army retreat. Asahel, Joab’s brother, runs in hot pursuit of Abner, and Abner kills him, forever increasing the tensions between Joab and Abner. 2Sam. 2

       Ishbosheth and Abner have a falling out, and Abner defects to David. 2Sam. 3:6–21

       Joab (and his other brother, Abishai) seized this opportunity to kill Abner, to avenge his brother. 2Sam. 3:22–30

       2 trusted generals in Ishbosheth’s army plot to kill him, and bring his head to David, hoping to be rewarded. David has them executed. 2Sam. 4

       This takes us to the events of 1Chron. 11 (and 2Sam. 5).

Keil and Delitzsch give us a similar summation of events: After Saul's death, in obedience to a divine intimation, David left Ziklag, whither he had withdrawn himself before the decisive battle between the Philistines and the Israelites, and betook himself with his wives and his warriors to Hebron, and was there anointed by the men of Judah to be king over their tribe (2Sam. 2:1–4). But Abner, the captain of Saul's host, led Ishbosheth, Saul's son, with the remainder of the defeated army of the Israelites, to Mahanaim in Gilead, and there made him king over Gilead, and gradually also, as he reconquered it from the Philistines, over the land of Israel, over Jezreel, Ephraim, Benjamin, and all (the remainder of) Israel, with the exception of the tribal domain of Judah. Ishbosheth's kingship did not last longer than two years, while David reigned over Judah in Hebron for seven years and a half (2Sam. 2:10–11). When Abner advanced with Ishbosheth's army from Mahanaim against Gibeon, he was defeated by Joab, David's captain, so that he was obliged again to withdraw beyond Jordan (2 Sam 2:12–32); and although the struggle between the house of Saul and the house of David still continued, yet the house of Saul waxed ever weaker, while David's power increased. At length, when Ishbosheth reproached the powerful Abner because of a concubine of his father's, he threatened that he would transfer the crown of Israel to David, and carried his threat into execution without delay. He imparted his design to the elders of Israel and Benjamin; and when they had given their consent, he made his way to Hebron, and announced to David the submission of all Israel to his sway (2 Sam 3:1–21). Abner, indeed, did not fully carry out the undertaking; for on his return journey he was assassinated by Joab, without David's knowledge, and against his will. Immediately afterwards, Ishbosheth, who had become powerless and spiritless through terror at Abner's death, was murdered in his own house by two of the leaders of his army. There now remained of Saul's family only Jonathan's son Mephibosheth (2Sam. 4:1–12), then not more than twelve years old, and lame in both his feet, and all the tribes of Israel determined to anoint David to be their king. The carrying out of this resolution is narrated in 1Chron. 11:1–3, in complete agreement as to the facts with 2Sam. 5:1–3, where the matter has been already commented upon.1

Because Chronicles is so short on details, this helps to integrate us into the historical context of 1Chron. 11.

1 Keil and Delitzsch, Commentary on the Old Testament; from e-Sword; 1Chron. 11:1–3.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Then, all Israel gathered together with David at Hebron,... Personally, I would think that all Israel (and, as we find in 2Sam. 5:1, all the tribes of Israel) corresponds to what is in 1Chron. 12:22–40, where the number of soldiers who came from each tribe is listed. Otherwise, what we have here are two very large meetings which take place around the same time—all of the tribes come to David in Hebron and then, all of the soldiers from the same areas come to David.


In any case, this indicates that David had recognized authority. This indicated that the population of Israel had authority orientation.


In any case, all Israel is a metonym for those who came to David, to recognize him as king. It is unlikely that every single man, woman and child from norther Israel came down to David in Hebron as a group. We may assume that there were many people who did come to David in this group (I write this in 2010, and millions of people came out to see Barrack Obama). So it is reasonable to assume that this was a huge crowd of people. However, we may also reasonably assume that they are representative of northern Israel. Quite obviously, 100% of the people did not turn out and 100% of the people did not support David. They probably represent a solid majority of the people who support David, which support could even exceed 90%.


1Chronicles 11:1b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lâmed (לְ) (pronounced le)

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

âmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

hinnêh (הִנֵּה) [pronounced hin-NAY]

lo, behold, or more freely, observe, look here, look, listen, note, take note; pay attention, get this, check this out

interjection, demonstrative particle; with the 1st person plural suffix

Strong’s #2009 (and #518, 2006) BDB #243

׳etsem (עֶצֶם) [pronounced ģeh-TSEM]

bone, substance, self; self-same; corporeality, duration, existence, and therefore identity

feminine singular substantive; with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #6106 BDB #782

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that, so that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

bâsâr (בָּשָׂר) [pronounced baw-SAWR]

flesh; body; animal meat

masculine singular noun with a 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #1320 BDB #142

ănachenûw (אֲנַחְנוּ) [pronounced uh-NAHKH-noo]

we; (sometimes a verb is implied)

1st person plural pronoun

Strong’s #587 BDB #59


Translation: ...and said [to him], “Look at us [lit., behold]; we [are] your bone and your flesh. If you will recall, Abner, a relative of Saul’s, first backed one of Saul’s sons, and then threw his considerable influence over to David, because he and Ishbosheth (Saul’s son) had a falling out over a woman. Abner went so far as to go to the various tribes throughout northern Israel and get a pledge of support from each one of them in support of David over Ishbosheth. However, through a bit of political intrigue, both Ishbosheth and Abner are assassinated, making all of his efforts almost a waste of time. Even though his speaking to a variety of tribes increased their support of David, after the death of Ishbosheth, these tribes really had no one else to look to for leadership.


Interestingly enough, we find this phrase (or something very similar to it) in several passages:

“We are your bone and your flesh”

       When God brought the woman to Adam, he recognized that she was bone of his bone and flesh of his flesh. Gen. 2:23

       Satan, when he wants to physically harm Job, tells God, "Skin for skin! All that a man has he will give for his life. But stretch out your hand and touch his bone and his flesh, and he will curse you to your face." (Job 2:4b–5).

       We first find this expression when a young Jacob meets Laban, his uncle, who is taken to him by Rachel, his first cousin. Laban calls Jacob my bone and my flesh (Gen. 29:14). This all seemed to be a very warm welcome, but Laban would use and abuse Jacob.

       Abimelech was one of Gideon’s many sons (Gideon was one of the judges of Israel and also known as Jerubbaal). Israel wanted to make Gideon king but he refused. However, his son Abimelech was interested in the job, so he first gathered all of his family members, who he would ask to go out there and talk to all of their friends and associates to float his own name out there as Israel’s king. Gideon had many wives and 70 sons, so Abimelech said to his family members, “Say in the ears of all the leaders of Shechem, 'Which is better for you, that all seventy of the sons of Jerubbaal rule over you, or that one rule over you?' Remember also that I am your bone and your flesh.” (Judges 9:2). So Abimelech used this expression in order to get what he wanted (to be made king over Israel).

       When northern Israel comes to make David king, they say, “Listen, you are our bone and our flesh.” (1Sam. 5:1 1Chron. 11:1).

       Later, in David’s life, he will be temporarily deposed by Absalom, David’s son, whom Joab will kill. David will go on and on, lamenting over the death of Absalom, and Joab gives David a little tough love, telling him to snap out of it. David, still in exile, sends word to the two priests, Zadok and Abiathar, to speak to the elders of Judah, to reinstate David as king. The appeal that is to be made by these priests is, “You are my bone and my flesh.” (from 2Sam. 9:12–13).

       The point being made by David using this phrase is, the king over Israel must be a Jew. Deut. 17:15

       The New Testament has one similar passage: In the same way husbands should love their wives as their own bodies. He who loves his wife loves himself. For no one ever hated his own flesh, but nourishes and cherishes it, just as Christ does the church, because we are members of his body (Eph. 5:28–30). The husband is to treat his wife as his own body and extend to her the same love that Jesus Christ extends to the members of His body—that is, the church.

Therefore, throughout most of the Bible, this phrase represents being related to another.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Then, all Israel gathered together with David at Hebron, and said [to him], “Look at us [lit., behold]; we [are] your bone and your flesh.” Elders and representatives from northern Israel have come to David to recognize him as king over them. They have apparently met on several occasions and discussed their various options. All Israel, recall, went to Samuel, to request that he appoint a king over them; so the option of going without a king would have taken them back to square one. Most of Saul’s family had been killed and there were no viable leaders left who were related to him. Saul’s lead general, Abner, deserted northern Israel and was killed by Joab. So, they did not have a lot of options. They came to the conclusion that David is the most reasonable choice to rule over them. They will explain their reasoning in v. 2 (given all that has transpired, this is almost a little humorous).


——————————


Also yesterday, also 3 days ago also in was Saul king, you the leading out and the bringing in Israel. And so says Yehowah your Elohim to you, ‘You [even] you will shepherd My people Israel and you [even] you will be a prince over My people Israel.’ ”

1Chronicles

11:2

In the past, when Saul was king, you led out and [you] brought in Israel. [Even] then, Yehowah your Elohim said to you, ‘You [even] you will shepherd My people; [you will shepherd] Israel; and you will be a prince over My people Israel.’ ”

...in the past, even when Saul was king, it was you who led Israel’s army out and brought them back in; and even then, Jehovah your God said to you, ‘You specifically will shepherd My people, you will shepherd Israel, and you will be a prince over My people Israel.’ ”


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text                       Also yesterday, also 3 days ago also in was Saul king, you the leading out and the bringing in Israel. And so says Yehowah your Elohim to you, ‘You [even] you will shepherd My people Israel and you [even] you will be a prince over My people Israel.’ ”

Septuagint                              And yesterday and the third day when Saul was king, you were he that led Israel in and out, and the Lord of Israel said to you, “You will feed my people Israel, and you will be for a ruler over Israel.

 

Significant differences:           Although it appears as there is a difference of verbs (to feed in the Greek; to shepherd in the Hebrew), the Hebrew verb may be translated in both ways. The Greek also has the word for before ruler, which is how the text in 1Samuel reads.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       ...and we know that you have led our army into battle, even when Saul was still our king. The LORD God has promised that you would rule our country and take care of us like a shepherd.

The Message                         In the past, yes, even while Saul was king, you were the real leader of Israel. GOD told you, 'You will shepherd my people Israel; you are to be the ruler of my people Israel.' "

NLT                                        For a long time, even while Saul was our king, you were the one who really led Israel. And the Lord your God has told you, ‘You will be the shepherd of my people Israel. You will be their leader.’ ”

REB                                       In the past, while Saul was still king, it was you that led the forces of Israel on their campaigns. To you the Lord your God said, “You are to be shepherd of my people Israel; you are to be their prince.” ’


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

God’s Word                         "Even in the past when Saul ruled, you were the one who led Israel on its campaigns to war. The LORD your God has said to you, 'You will be shepherd of my people Israel, the leader of my people Israel.'"

HCSB                                     Even when Saul was king, you led us out to battle and brought us back. The LORD your God also said to you, 'You will shepherd My people Israel and be ruler over My people Israel.'"

JPS (Tanakh)                         Long before now, even when Saul as king, you were the leader of Israel; and the Lord your God said to you: You shall shepherd My people Israel; you shall be ruler of My people Israel.”


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

LTHB                                     And also in time past, even when Saul was king, you were he that led out and brought in Israel. And Jehovah your God said to you, You shall feed My people Israel, and you shall be ruler over My people Israel.

Young’s Updated LT             Even in time past, even in Saul’s being king, it is you who are taking out and bringing in Israel, and Jehovah your God says to you: You feed My people Israel, and you are leader over My people Israel.”


What is the gist of this verse? These representatives tell David that, even when Saul was in power, it was David who led the army out to battle and brought them back in. Furthermore, Jehovah God told David that he would shepherd Israel and be a ruler over Israel. For these reasons, they will recognize David as their king.


1Chronicles 11:2a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

gam (גַם) [pronounced gahm]

also, furthermore, in addition to, even, moreover

adverb

Strong’s #1571 BDB #168

temôwl (תּמוֹל) [pronounced teMOHL]

 yesterday; and is used figuratively for recently, formerly

adverb

Strong’s #865 (and #8543) BDB #1069

There are slightly different spellings of this adverb, a slightly different spelling used in the same essential phrase is found in 2Sam. 3:17.

gam (גַם) [pronounced gahm]

also, furthermore, in addition to, even, moreover

adverb

Strong’s #1571 BDB #168

shileshôwm (שִלְשוֹם) [pronounced shil-SHOHM]

three days ago, the day before yesterday

adverb

Strong’s #8032 BDB #1026

Literally, these adverbs read also yesterday, even three days ago or both yesterday and three days ago. The lexicons give the meaning as formerly, so formerly, so more recently. The more literal translators in our passage render this in times past (HNV, MKJV, NASB, NKJV, the Tanakh—1917, WEB); in the past (HCSB); before now (LTHB); for some time now (God’s Word™); for some time past (ESV); all along (the Tanakh—1985); heretofore (Young). I think the idea is recently and persistently (or, continuously). Let me add the translation, for awhile now.

gam (גַם) [pronounced gahm]

also, furthermore, in addition to, even, moreover

adverb

Strong’s #1571 BDB #168

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

Qal infinitive construct

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

The infinitive construct, when combined with the bêyth preposition, can often take on a temporal meaning and may be rendered when [such and such happens]. It can serve as a temporal marker that denotes an event which occurs simultaneously with the action of the main verb.

Shâûwl (שָאוּל) [pronounced shaw-OOL]

which is transliterated Saul; it means asked for

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #7586 BDB #982

meleke (מֶלֶך׃) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572


Translation: In the past, when Saul was king,... Although a great number of Israelites have come to David, only a small portion are going ot meet with him personally and speak with him. There is the possibility that David is speaking to a smaller group in front of a large crowd. We don’t know all of the particulars here.


What these leaders and elders of (northern) Israel are doing is, explaining their reasoning, why they are coming to David to recognize him as their king.


1Chronicles 11:2b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

attâh (אַתָּה) [pronounced aht-TAW]

you (often, the verb to be is implied)

2nd person masculine singular, personal pronoun

Strong’s #859 BDB #61

yâtsâ (יָצָא) [pronounced yaw-TZAWH]

to cause to go out, to lead out, to bring out, to carry out, to draw out, to take out; [of money:] to put forth, to lay out, to exact; to promulgate; to produce

Hiphil participle with the definite article

Strong's #3318 BDB #422

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that, so that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

bôw (בּוֹא) [pronounced boh]

to take in, to bring, to come in with, to carry

Hiphil participle with the definite article

Strong’s #935 BDB #97

êth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Yiserâʾêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 BDB #975


Translation: ...you led out and [you] brought in Israel. This refers back to the time when David was a general in Saul’s army and he used to lead the armies in and out. This means that he would take them out to battle and then return them home, as their leader. It was David who kept Israel safe from their enemies and it was David whom they recognized and respected when he was Saul’s general over Israel’s armies.


No doubt, some of these men coming to David either served under David or had relatives who did, and they recognize David as being honorable in this leadership position. They knew him in a leadership position and had great respect for David, the man.


1Chronicles 11:2c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

âmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

gods, foreign gods, god; God; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #430 BDB #43

lâmed (לְ) (pronounced le)

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition; with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

attâh (אַתָּה) [pronounced aht-TAW]

you (often, the verb to be is implied)

2nd person masculine singular, personal pronoun

Strong’s #859 BDB #61

râ׳âh (רָעָה) [pronounced raw-ĢAWH]

to shepherd, to pasture, to tend to graze, to feed; to rule?

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #7462 BDB #944

êth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

׳am (עַם) [pronounced ģahm]

people; race, tribe; family, relatives; citizens, common people; companions, servants; entire human race; herd [of animals]

masculine singular collective noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #5971 BDB #766

êth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Yiserâʾêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 BDB #975


Translation: [Even] then, Yehowah your Elohim said to you, ‘You [even] you will shepherd My people; [you will shepherd] Israel;... These Jews were also aware that God, through Samuel, had anointed David, to rule Israel. Quite obviously, this is all that needs to be said. If God determined that David would rule over all Israel, then who are they to disagree with God?


It is interesting that this had become common knowledge, that God told David, “You will shepherd My people, Israel.”

Public Awareness that God had Chosen David

Incident

Text/

Samuel told King Saul directly that God had rejected him from being king over Israel because he disobeyed God.

1Sam. 15:10–29

David’s family knew that David had been anointed king over all Israel. This would have been Jesse, his 7 sons and many in Bethlehem who knew of this.

1Sam. 16:1–13

People publically admired David as a soldier more than Saul, and Saul reflected, “What more can he have but the kingdom?” (recall that at least Saul knew that God took his kingship from him).

1Sam. 18:5–9

After this, Saul began to try to kill David, which, no doubt, became known to some.

1Sam. 18:10–12

Because of David’s wisdom and restraint, he became well-known among the people.

1Sam. 18:30

King Saul had a point in time when he was going to go after David, when the Spirit overtook Saul and he began to prophesy. We do not know the content of what he said, but the most logical thing would have been, prophesies about David coming to power. Such an interpretation would also help to explain why Saul stripped off all of his clothes. His clothes differentiate Saul from all other men, inasmuch as, they reveal that he is king. So for him to remove his clothes would go along with the message, “And God will remove the kingship from my dynasty and give it to David, just as I have removed my clothes.” Bear I mind, this is conjecture on my part as to what he said prophetically (although, I think that is the most logical explanation as to what Saul said).

1Sam. 19:23–24

David and Jonathan, Saul’s son, made a pact in 1Sam. 20. Jonathan seems to understand that God would cut off all of David’s enemies from before him, which is typically how a king seizes and holds power. Jonathan asks that David spare his life. The only reason Jonathan’s life would be in danger is, David takes the throne of Israel, and then removes all of his enemies, which would be the rival dynasty (Saul’s). In the end, after Jonathan and David are able to see each other one more time, Jonathan makes certain that it is clear, that their covenant is to stand between David and Jonathan and between their descendants forever. If David is made king, then such an agreement between dynasties makes perfect sense.

1Sam. 20:12–17, 42

In the very last meeting between David and Jonathan, Jonathan clearly recognizes that David will be made king over all Israel. He will say, “Do not be afraid, because the hand of Saul my father will not find you and you will be king over Israel and I will be next to you, and Saul my fathers knows that as well.” Bear in mind, the Bible accurate records what Jonathan says, which reveals his knowledge of what God has promised David. Because of their friendship and their covenant, Jonathan assumed that he would be with David when David ruled. He was right about David ruling over Israel and wrong that he would be with David when that happened (Jonathan would die in battle with his father, Saul).

1Sam. 23:16–18

David had a band of men with him. Early on, this numbered 600. This indicates natural leadership ability. We non-leaders have an ability to recognize a leader (or we think that we do); and at least 600 men recognized that David was a leader of men.

1Sam. 23:13

The most public pronouncement that David would become king was made by King Saul himself. Saul had gone off to a cave to relieve himself and to sleep. David was also in this cave, and David could have killed him, but he did not. After Saul left and was on another hill, far enough away where David was safe, David called out to Saul. When Saul realized that David could have killed him, but did not, Saul yelled back, in front of all of his soldiers and in front of all David’s soldiers, "You are more righteous than I, for you have repaid me good, whereas I have repaid you evil. And you have declared this day how you have dealt well with me, in that you did not kill me when the LORD put me into your hands. For if a man finds his enemy, will he let him go away safe? So may the LORD reward you with good for what you have done to me this day. And now, behold, I know that you shall surely be king, and that the kingdom of Israel shall be established in your hand. Swear to me therefore by the LORD that you will not cut off my offspring after me, and that you will not destroy my name out of my father's house." (1Sam. 24:17b–21). It does not get much more public or clear than this.

1Sam. 24:1–22

Saul and David will once more meet up, while Saul is again pursuing David, and David again refuses to kill Saul. Saul again publically recognizes that David will prevail in the end. Although Saul’s statement here is not quite as clear as in 1Sam. 24, it is still a public statement where Saul recognizes that, in the end, David will prevail.

1Sam. 26:3–25

It ought to be clear that, if the King in the opposing dynasty publically recognizes that David will become king; and that the King’s son, Jonathan, recognizes that same thing, then this thing is clearly public knowledge.

This clearly explains why these people recognize that God would make David king, and therefore say, “In the past, when Saul was king, you led out and [you] brought in Israel. [Even] then, Yehowah your Elohim said to you, ‘You [even] you will shepherd My people; [you will shepherd] Israel; and you will be a prince over My people Israel.’ ”

This doctrine is also found in 1Sam. 23:17.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


You may ask, God anointed David king; what was Israel thinking by setting up Ishbosheth as king? What was Abner thinking when he went from tribe to tribe to set up Ishbosheth as king? It is man’s nature to oppose God. If we thought that God can simply anoint David, and that everyone would fall into step, that simply isn’t true. After being anointed, recall that Saul fired up his army to go chasing David all over Israel. They went along with it, and we can rest assured that most of them paid for this bad decision with their lives. Saul’s soldiers, en masse, could have chosen not to follow him. These people were partially convinced by Abner, and most of them had a deep, abiding respect for David.


This recognition that God chose David as king over all Israel indicates some spiritual growth on the part of these people in northern Israel. Quite obviously, any group of 2 or more people is not homogenous, but many of these Israelites, when they met and discussed this originally, said, “God told David he would be king over all Israel; that should settle the matter.” No doubt there were others who still suggested other names, but God had steadily removed the most viable candidates for king.


“[Even] then, Yehowah your Elohim said to you, ‘You [even] you will shepherd My people; [you will shepherd] Israel;...” God pictured David not just as a king, but as a shepherd for His people. This means that David functioned as a true leader, as a guide, as a protector. The shepherd leads his flock to whatever valley or hill where they can find sustenance, and then he watches over them, to keep them from straying and to protect them from their enemies (wolves, lions, etc.).


Application: This does not mean that David establishes a welfare state. David rules within the precedents set by God, and a very early precedent is “The ground shall be cursed because of you; you shall eat of it in sorrow all the days of your life. And it shall bring forth thorns and thistles for you, and you shall eat the plant of the field. By the sweat of your face you shall eat bread until your return to the ground.” (Gen. 3:17b–19a). In other words, man had to work to eat. God did not set up a nation so that large numbers of people could live on the dole. God made provision for the poor (the corners of fields would not be harvested and the poor were allowed to go and harvest from these sections). However, notice, they had to work in order to get this food, and they had to still budget what they had, to make certain that they picked enough a preserved enough to continue. If you have a nation, and the significant number of the people in that nation are not working hard, God will curse that nation. In fact, the laws of divine establishment will curse that nation. We have this going on in the nation of Greece today (I write this in 2010), where the nation is bankrupt, people have all sorts of promises from the government (promises about retirements and salaries which the government financially cannot keep), and the people are rioting in the streets out of anger. David shepherding Israel does not mean that he, as the government, takes care of their every need. He is to provide them a measure of security (which demands universal military training), a measure of law and order and a measure of freedom, so that people can work and prosper. It is even better when a leader can provide some sort of spiritual guidance, as David did.


Application: Let me qualify that last statement: although David wrote a lot of Scripture (much of the Psalms and Proverbs and possibly some of Samuel), there was still spiritual function in the nation of Israel which David did not lead or guide in any way (the function of the tabernacle, the function of the priests, the authority of the prophets, etc.). Our President, for the most part, should not stand up in front of a church congregation and teach. It is not his place to make religious pronouncements. He is to preserve and enforce the freedom of religion, but it is not his place to be involved as a spiritual leader. However, a president will, from time to time, publically acknowledge the blessings and protection which we have received from the hand of God. A president who is squared away on doctrine will publically acknowledge the Lord Jesus Christ and the Bible. Even FDR, in one of his public speeches, recognized that the United States was where the Word of God was taught.


Application: There is a balance in all things, and David, as ruler of Israel, was not to throw things out of whack. When we study 2Sam. 11, David allows things to become skewed. He remains in the palace, rather than go out with his men to war. He takes advantage of his position as king and has sex with another man’s wife (a man who is one of the great leaders in David’s own army; and a man who will be named below in a list of David’s great men). A shepherd is not supposed to take advantage of his position or of his sheep (most shepherds are minding a flock which belongs to someone else). Soon thereafter, in 2Sam. 12, there will be some balance restored to nation Israel and to David’s position as king. He will recognize the authority of the prophet Nathan, and, in doing so, also confess his own sin to God (Psalm 51).


1Chronicles 11:2d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that, so that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

attâh (אַתָּה) [pronounced aht-TAW]

you (often, the verb to be is implied)

2nd person masculine singular, personal pronoun

Strong’s #859 BDB #61

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

nâgîyd (נָגִיד) [pronounced naw-GEED]

prince, crown-prince, leader, ruler, noble

masculine singular noun

Strong's #5057 BDB #617

׳al (עַל) [pronounced ģahl ]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

׳am (עַם) [pronounced ģahm]

people; race, tribe; family, relatives; citizens, common people; companions, servants; entire human race; herd [of animals]

masculine singular collective noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #5971 BDB #766

Yiserâʾêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 BDB #975


Translation: ...and you will be a prince over My people Israel.’ ” This is God’s promise to David and to Israel, and these people have finally decided to go along with it. The end result is going to be two generations of great blessing for Israel.


Application: This is going to seem quite basic, but, when you go along with God’s plan, things get better; your life gets better. Following God’s program makes your life more enjoyable. Even an unbeliever who decides to adhere to the principles of the Word of God—insofar as he is able—will find that his life is better. I have a cousin who is very negative toward the Bible, whose life was centered around drugs for many years. However, at some point, he stopped taking drugs, got married, and fathered children. He sort of became normal. He was still negative toward the Word of God, but he was closer to God’s design for a family and for the life of a man than he had ever been before, and he seemed to be happier in this than at any other time in his life. His young boys brought him great joy.


So northern Israel recognized that God anointed David as their king, and came to the conclusion that there was no good reason to fight this or to rebel against this. After all, who knows better than God who ought to rule over Israel? However, it is worth noting that they did not come to David at the first. All of this language sounds great, but bear in mind, northern Israel first followed after Ishbosheth, and they are at a point where all of their other real options are exhausted.


Application: This indicates some spiritual growth in Israel, but these people first followed after Ishbosheth until he was removed by God. Ideally speaking, as we grow spiritually, we learn to figure out what is God’s will, and we go with that first, as opposed to exercising our other options first.


Taking all of these things into consideration, this telegraphs to us the general spiritual state of northern Israel. Therefore, if they finally accept God’s will when there is no viable alternative, even though that is better than nothing, it is not a sign of their great spiritual growth. So, when northern and southern Israel split up, we should not be surprised that northern Israel will be ruled by lousy kings—this reflects their own spiritual wanting. Furthermore, we ought not be surprised when God allows them to be removed from the land under the 5th Cycle of Discipline (see Definition of Terms).


——————————


And so come all elders of Israel unto the king Hebron-ward; and so he cuts to them the King David a covenant in Hebron to faces of Yehowah. And so they anoint David to king over Israel according to a word of Yehowah in a hand of Samuel.

1Chronicles

11:3

So all the elders of Israel came to the king at Hebron, and he made a covenant with them in Hebron before Yehowah. Therefore, they anointed David as the king over [all] Israel according to the word of Yehowah by the hand of Samuel.

So, all the elders of northern Israel came to King David at Hebron and he made a compact with them. So they anointed David as king over all Israel, just as God had promised through Samuel.


2Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text                       And so come all elders of Israel unto the king Hebron-ward; and so cuts to them the king David a covenant in Hebron to faces of Yehowah. And so they anoint David to king over Israel in a hand of Samuel.

Septuagint                              And all the elders of Israel came to the king to Chebron; and king David made a covenant with them in Chebron before the Lord: and they anointed David to be king over Israel, according to the word of the Lord by the hand of Samuel.

 

Significant differences:           None.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       So we have come to crown you king of Israel." David made an agreement with the leaders and asked the LORD to be their witness. Then the leaders poured olive oil on David's head to show that he was now king of Israel. This happened just as the LORD's prophet Samuel had said.

NAB                                       Then all the elders of Israel came to the king at Hebron, and there David made a covenant with them in the presence of the Lord; and they anointed him king over Israel, in accordance with the word of the Lord as revealed through Samuel.

NJB                                        So all the elders of Israel came to the king at Hebron, and David made a pact with them in Yahweh’s presence at Hebron, and they anointed David as king of Israel, in accordance with the word of Yahweh through Samuel.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

God’s Word                         All the leaders of Israel had come to Hebron. David made an agreement with them at Hebron in front of the LORD. So they anointed David king of Israel, as the LORD had spoken through Samuel.

HCSB                                     So all the elders of Israel came to the king at Hebron. David made a covenant with them at Hebron in the LORD's presence, and they anointed David king over Israel, in keeping with the LORD's word through Samuel.

JPS (Tanakh)                         All the elders of Israel came to the king at Hebron, and David made a pact with them in Hebron before the Lord. And they anointed David king over Israel, according to the word fo the Lord through Samuel.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

MKJV                                     And all the elders of Israel came to the king to Hebron. And David made a covenant with them in Hebron before Jehovah. And they anointed David king over Israel, according to the Word of Jehovah by Samuel.

Young’s Updated LT             And all the elders of Israel come in to the king to Hebron, and David makes with them a covenant in Hebron before Jehovah, and they anoint David for king over Israel, according to the word of Jehovah by the hand of Samuel.


What is the gist of this verse? A delegation of elders (possibly different than those spoken of in the previous two verses), come to David and make a covenant with him, making him king over all Israel.


1Chronicles 11:3a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

bôw (בּוֹא) [pronounced boh]

to come in, to come, to go in, to go, to enter

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #935 BDB #97

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

zeqênîym (זְקֵנִים) [pronounced zê-kay-NEEM]

old men; elders; chiefs, respected ones

masculine plural construct; adjective, used as a substantive

Strong’s #2205 BDB #278

Owen lists this as an adjective.

Yiserâʾêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 BDB #975

el (אֶל) [pronounced el]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

meleke (מֶלֶך׃) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572

Cheberôwn (חֶבְרוֹן) [pronounced khebv-ROHN]

association, league, joined; transliterated Hebron

proper noun; location; with a directional hê

Strong’s #2275 BDB #289


Translation: So all the elders of Israel came to the king at Hebron,... This sounds like a different meeting, as I have pointed out in 2Sam. 5:3. It may have occurred immediately after the agreement which was apparently struck; but, in any case, it does appear to be different.


Basically, 2 things are involved here: the people have first decided to recognize David as their king; and then representatives of the people (the elders) have to strike a deal with David. This was common in the ancient world and it is called a Suzerain-Vassal treaty. A Suzerain-Vassal treaty or covenant is made between 2 unequal parties, the suzerain (a ruler, king, military leader) and an inferior king (a vassal-king) or with potential subjects (vassals). Footnote Such a contract was generally initiated by the suzerain over a king or a people that he has just conquered (however, in this situation, the contract appears to be initiated by the people of northern Israel). It lays down an agreement between these two unequal parties and their responsibilities toward one another. The suzerain may promise to rule over and protect a particular group of people, and they may agree to pay him taxes, allow him to recruit soldiers from them (or to press their males into military service), and that they will obey his laws.


Although I am unable to confirm that the vassal part of the ancient Suzerain-Vassal treaty can refer to a group of people, not necessarily headed by a king, that appears to be the basis for some of the covenants which God makes with His people Israel. The reference below appears to allow for this sort of a treaty (between a king and a group of people).


[These are] notes from lectures of Dr. Meredith Kline, presented at Westminster Theological Seminary in Escondido, California, Westminster Theological Seminary in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary, in Massachusetts.

The Suzerain-Vassal Treaty

Brief Summary of Suzerain Treaties:

In the Ancient Near East, treaties between kings was common. These were treaties drawn up among equals and mostly outlined agreements to honor each other's boundaries, to maintain trade relations, and return run-away slaves. These treaties are preserved in the Mari Tablets and in the Amarna texts.

Also preserved in these collections are treaties drafted between a superior and his inferior. If the relationship was familial or friendly, the parties are referred to as "father" and "son." If the relationship is bereft of kindness and intimacy, the parties are referred to as "lord" and "servant," or "king" and "vassal," or "greater king" and "lesser king." The greater king is the suzerain and the lesser king is a prince, or a lesser lord in the service of the greater king. The lesser lord is a representative of all the common people who are under the protection of the greater king. He enforces the treaty among the masses.

These Suzerain/Vassal treaties open with two sections: 1) The identification of the Suzerain by his name and titles; 2) The historical survey of the Suzerain's dealings with the vassal. The purpose is to illustrate to the vassal how much the Suzerain has done to protect and establish the vassal who therefore owes submission and allegiance to the Suzerain. These two sections are referred to as the "Preamble."

The next section of these treaties list the "stipulations." What the vassal is required to do is spelled out in principal and detail. This section is often concluded with the requirement that the vassal deposit his copy of the treaty in his temple, where he is to occasionally read and study it to refresh his memory concerning his duties.

The last section of these treaties contains the blessings and curses of the Suzerain. If the stipulations are met by the vassal, he will receive the Suzerain's blessings, which are listed. If the vassal fails to meet the stipulations, he will receive the Suzerain's curses, which are also listed.

The Suzerain would keep one copy of the treaty and the vassal would keep one copy of the treaty. A number of ratifying ceremonies were used depending upon the era and culture. But the most widely used rite was that of cutting the bodies of animals in halves and placing them in two rows with enough space between for the two parties of the treaty to walk side by side. As they walked between the pieces, they were vowing to each other, "May what has happened to these animals, happen to me if I break this covenant with you."

Covenant Documents of the Bible Patterned After Suzerain Treaties:

Exodus 20

       "Yahweh" is the Suzerain who delivered this Preamble to Moses, the vassal-lord who represents the people under the authority of the Suzerain. Ex. 20:1–2

       Names & titles = "I am the Lord, your God." Ex. 20:2

       Historical prologue = "Who brought you out of Egypt..." Ex. 20:2

       Stipulations with selected blessings and curses. Ex. 20:3–17

       Stipulations = the 10 commandments. Ex. 20:3–17

       Blessings and curses Ex. 20:5b–6, 7b, 12b

Deuteronomy

       This entire book of Moses is saturated with Suzerain Treaty language and structure. It is not properly the treaty document itself, but it is based upon such a treaty, making reference to it often. Below are some examples.

       Historical Prologue language and structure. Deut. 4:32–40

       Stipulations. Deut.  4:44–5:21

       Blessings and Curses. Deut. 6:4–25

       Reflects all the sections of a suzerain treaty. Deut. 8

       Reflects all the sections of a suzerain treaty. Deut. 11

       Reflects the relationship of a vassal king to the Suzerain., Deut. 17:14-20

       Reflects the language and structure of war-time arrangements between a Suzerain and his people. Deut. 20

       Curses and Blessings. Deut. 27–28

       Covenant Renewal. Deut. 29

       Classic presentation of Ancient Near East Treaties! Deut. 30:11–19

       A question along the lines of "what came first, the chicken or the egg?" Did God see fit to present his covenant to his people in a cultural form developed by Near Eastern empires, or did God's original pattern for his covenant in Eden inform and form the cultural pattern of the Ancient Near East?

Taken from http://www.fivesolas.com/suzerain.htm and edited.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines

 

Or, from Eternal Ministries: The Suzerain-Vassal Treaty is a conditional covenant. This type of covenant bound a subordinate vassal to a superior vassal. It was binding only upon the one who swore it. The purpose of the covenant was to emphasize the goodness and kindness of the lord to his vassal with a view to cause the vassal to gladly accept his responsibilities and obligations. Examples of this type of covenant are the Adamic, Noahic, and Mosaic Covenants.


The exact covenant laid down between David and northern Israel is not revealed to us; however, there was a covenant:


1Chronicles 11:3b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

kârath (כָּרַת) [pronounced kaw-RAHTH]

to cut off, to cut down; to kill, to destroy; to make a covenant

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #3772 BDB #503

lâmed (לְ) (pronounced le)

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition; with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

berîyth (בְּרִית) [pronounced bereeth]

pact, alliance, treaty, alliance, covenant

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #1285 BDB #136

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

Cheberôwn (חֶבְרוֹן) [pronounced khebv-ROHN]

association, league, joined; transliterated Hebron

proper noun; location

Strong’s #2275 BDB #289

lâmed (לְ) (pronounced le)

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

pânîym (פָּנִים) [pronounced paw-NEEM]

face, faces, countenance; presence

masculine plural construct (plural acts like English singular)

Strong’s #6440 BDB #815

Together, they mean upon the face of, before, before the face of, in the presence of, in the sight of, in front of. When used with God, it can take on the more figurative meaning in the judgment of. This can also mean forwards; the front part [or, the edge of a sword]. Lepânîym (םי.נָפל) can take on a temporal sense as well: before, of old, formerly, in the past, in past times.

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217


Translation: ...and he made a covenant with them in Hebron before Yehowah. When David agrees to be a king over Israel, this is done by a pact or covenant. That is, they have to agree to some terms, and it really is not clear as to how detailed this contract is. When I was in real estate, our contracts got larger and larger, and the primary reason was, lawsuits—someone would sue someone else, and they would attempt to write a provision into the contract to clarify a point; and this would happen again and again.


It is possible, after the less formal recognition by the people (v. 2), that the elders got together and discussed various issues and David’s legal department put together a contract for the elders to sign (v. 3). Or David’s legal department may have done this unilaterally. Since it would make little sense for every person from northern Israel to sign this covenant, David would make the covenant with their elders.


Jesus Christ, the God of Israel, was witness to the contract.


1Chronicles 11:3c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

mâshach (מָשַח) [pronounced maw-SHAHKH]

to smear, to anoint

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #4886 BDB #602

êth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

lâmed (לְ) (pronounced le)

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

The meanings of the lâmed preposition broken down into groups: ➊ to, towards, unto; it is used both to turn one’s heart toward someone as well as to sin against someone; ➋ to, even to;  in this sense, it can be used with a number to indicate the upper limit which a multitude might approach (nearly). ➌ Lâmed can be equivalent to the Greek preposition eis (εἰς), meaning into, as in transforming into something else, changing into something else (Gen. 2:7). This use of lâmed after the verb hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW] (Strong’s #1961 BDB #224) is one thing becoming another (Gen. 2:7). ➍  Its fourth use is the mark of a dative, after verbs of giving, granting, delivering, pardoning, consulting, sending, etc. This type of dative is broken down into several categories, but one includes the translation by, which would be apropos here. ➎ With regards to, as to. Similar to the Greek preposition eis (εἰς) plus the dative. [Numbering from Gesenius]. ➏ On account of, because, propter, used of cause and reason (propter means because; Gesenius used it). ➐ Concerning, about, used of a person or thing made the object of discourse, after verbs of saying. ➑ On behalf of anyone, for anyone. ➒ As applied to a rule or standard, according to, according as, as though, as if. ➓ When associated with time, it refers to the point of time at which or in which anything is done; or it can refer to the space of time during which something is done (or occurs); at the time of.

meleke (מֶלֶך׃) [pronounced MEH-lek]

king, ruler, prince

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #4428 BDB #572

׳al (עַל) [pronounced ģahl ]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

Yiserâʾêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 BDB #975


Translation: Therefore, they anointed David as the king over [all] Israel... As a result of coming to an agreement, David was made king over all Israel.


1Chronicles 11:3d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kaph or ke (כְּ) [pronounced ke]

as, like, according to; about, approximately

preposition of comparison or approximation

No Strong’s # BDB #453

dâbâr (דָּבָר) [pronounced dawb-VAWR]

word, saying, doctrine, thing, matter, command

masculine singular construct

Strong's #1697 BDB #182

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

yâd (יָד) [pronounced yawd]

generally translated hand

feminine singular construct

Strong's #3027 BDB #388

This combination of the bêyth preposition and hand literally means in [the] hand of; and can be rendered in the power of; by the power of; with; through, by, by means of; before, in the sight of.

Shemûwêl (שְמוּאֵל) [pronounced she-moo-ALE]

which means heard of El [God]; it is transliterated Samuel

proper masculine noun

Strong’s #8050 BDB #1028


Translation: ...according to the word of Yehowah by the hand of Samuel. In v. 3, there is a match word for word with 2Sam. 5:3, except for the addition of this phrase. David was anointed according to the word of Jehovah through Samuel. The author/editor of Chronicles obviously had access here to the book of Samuel (as this is written a few hundred years later), and he is referring back to 1Sam. 13:14 15:28 16:11–13 28:17. The author/editor of Chronicles is not saying that he took these few verses from 2Sam. 5:1–3 (Samuel did not write these verses, because he was dead and face to face with the Lord); he is saying that Samuel prophesied that David would be king over all Israel, and this fulfill that prophecy.


Furthermore, in 2Sam. 5:4–5, we read: David [was] 30 years old when he [began to] reign; [and] he reigned [for] 40 years. He ruled over Judah from Hebron seven years and six months; and in Jerusalem he ruled for 33 years over both Israel and Judah. We find these same verses in 1Chron. 29:26–27 (recorded at the end of David’s reign). So Chronicles retains this passage, but they place it elsewhere. From this point, 1Chron. 11 and 2Sam. 5 are in alignment again.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


It might do us well to compare these different documents. They are so close as to demand that Chronicles was taken from Samuel, or that they had the same source material. I will note the additional words in each text with boldface.

A Side-by-Side Comparison of 2Sam. 5:1–3 and 1Chron. 11:1–3

2Sam. 5:1–3

1Chron. 11:1–3

Commentary

Then, all the tribes of Israel came to David at Hebron, and said, “Observe us; we [are] your bone and your flesh. In the past, when Saul was king over us, you [even] you led out and brought in Israel. [Even] then, Yehowah said to you, ‘You [even] you will shepherd My people; [you will shepherd] Israel; and you will be a prince over Israel.’ ”

Then, all Israel gathered together with David at Hebron, and said [to him], “Look at us [lit., behold]; we [are] your bone and your flesh. In the past, when Saul was king, you led out and [you] brought in Israel. [Even] then, Yehowah your Elohim said to you, ‘You [even] you will shepherd My people; [you will shepherd] Israel; and you will be a prince over My people Israel.’ ”

In both texts, it is obvious that we are dealing with a lot of people here.


Interestingly enough, 1Chronicles, which was written much later, has additional text. This suggests (1) minor corruption in the Samuel text (a few words dropped out); (2) The writer of Chronicles, inspired by God the Holy Spirit, added text which is accurate; (3) Chronicles was taken from another source, the same source that Samuel was taken from (which possibility, I think is unlikely; I believe the editor of Chronicles utilized the text of Samuel and other historical documents).

So all the elders of Israel came to the king at Hebron, and he made a covenant with them in Hebron before Yehowah. Therefore, they anointed David as the king over [all] Israel.

So all the elders of Israel came to the king at Hebron, and he made a covenant with them in Hebron before Yehowah. Therefore, they anointed David as the king over [all] Israel according to the word of Yehowah by the hand of Samuel.

The additional text here could be legitimately added, since it is true and based upon Samuel’s prophecies about David.

The reasons for the text being different are given as commentary with the first 2 verses.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


——————————


David Conquers Jerusalem, Making it the Capital City of United Israel

2Samuel 5:6–10


And so goes David and all Israel [to] Jerusalem (this [is] Jebus) and there the Jebusite inhabitants of the land.

1Chronicles

11:4

And David and all Israel went to Jerusalem (then called [lit., this] Jebus) and the Jebusites inhabited the land there.

Later David and all Israel went to Jerusalem (then known as Jebus) where Jebusites inhabited the land.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text                       And so goes David and all Israel [to] Jerusalem (this [is] Jebus) and there the Jebusite inhabitants of the land.

Septuagint                              And the king and his men went to Jerusalem, this is Jebus; and there the Jebusites the inhabitants of the land said to David,...

 

Significant differences:           The Greek reads Jebusites, inhabitants of the land only once (in this verse); it is repeated in the Hebrew in the next (along with the fact that they speak to David). Although that is considerably different, it has no effect on the overall meaning.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       Jerusalem was called Jebus at the time, and David led Israel's army to attack the town.

The Message                         David and all Israel went to Jerusalem (it was the old Jebus, where the Jebusites lived).

NAB                                       Then David and all Israel went to Jerusalem, that is, Jebus, where the natives of the land were called jebusites.

NLT                                        Then David and all Israel went to Jerusalem (or Jebus, as it used to be called), where the Jebusites, original inhabitants of the land, lived.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

God’s Word                         David and all Israel went to Jerusalem (that is, Jebus). The Jebusites were living in that region.

HCSB                                     David and all Israel marched to Jerusalem (that is, Jebus); the Jebusites who inhabited the land were there.

JPS (Tanakh)                         The king and all Israel set out for Jerusalem, that is Jebus, where the Jebusite inhabitants of the land lived.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:


 

ESV                                       And David and all Israel went to Jerusalem, that is Jebus, where the Jebusites were, the inhabitants of the land.

Young’s Updated LT             And David goes, and all Israel, to Jerusalem—it is Jebus—and there the Jebusite, the inhabitants of the land.


What is the gist of this verse? David takes some men to Jerusalem to possibly take it as his royal city, known then as Jebus. It is occupied by Jebusites.


1Chronicles 11:4a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâlake (הָלַךְ) [pronounced haw-LAHKe]

to go, to come, to depart, to walk; to advance

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #1980 (and #3212) BDB #229

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

Yiserâʾêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 BDB #975

Yerûwshâlayim (יְרוּשָלַיִם) [pronounced yroo-shaw-LAH-yim]

possibly means founded upon peace or city of the Jebusites (or both); it is transliterated Jerusalem

Proper singular noun, location

Strong’s #3389 BDB #436


Translation: And David and all Israel went to Jerusalem... Jerusalem is a city of Israel. It had not been completely conquered, but it was within the borders of Israel and David had a right to this city. He takes, apparently, a rather large army with him, an army consisting of men from both northern and southern Israel (or so the text appears to say).


1Chronicles 11:4b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

hîy (הִיא) [pronounced hee]

she, it; also used as a demonstrative pronoun: that, this

3rd person feminine singular, personal pronoun

Strong’s #1931 BDB #214

Yebûwç (יְבוּס) [pronounced yebVOOS]

[place of the] Jebusites

proper noun/location

Strong’s #2982 BDB #101


Translation: ...(then called [lit., this] Jebus)... The name of Jerusalem was originally Jebus, so named for the Jebusites who controlled it. It is possible that some Israelites even lived in this city; however, it is possible that they had been forced out as well. Although we covered a history of Jerusalem back in 2Sam. 5:9, we are only speculating about the population. That David is kept out and that these Jebusites have great confidence in their walls, suggests to me that, at this time, no Israelite lived inside Jerusalem.


When it came to taking the land and conquering various cities, God set up a procedure. Deut. 20:10–18: "When you draw near to a city to fight against it, offer terms of peace to it. And if it responds to you peaceably and it opens to you, then all the people who are found in it shall do forced labor for you and shall serve you. But if it makes no peace with you, but makes war against you, then you shall besiege it. And when the LORD your God gives it into your hand, you shall put all its males to the sword, but the women and the little ones, the livestock, and everything else in the city, all its spoil, you shall take as plunder for yourselves. And you shall enjoy the spoil of your enemies, which the LORD your God has given you. Thus you shall do to all the cities that are very far from you, which are not cities of the nations here. But in the cities of these peoples that the LORD your God is giving you for an inheritance, you shall save alive nothing that breathes, but you shall devote them to complete destruction, the Hittites and the Amorites, the Canaanites and the Perizzites, the Hivites and the Jebusites, as the LORD your God has commanded, that they may not teach you to do according to all their abominable practices that they have done for their gods, and so you sin against the LORD your God.” God was quite specific here; for the cities within the land of Canaan, the land given to Israel, they were to simply take it and destroy them all. For a foreign city, Israel was to first offer up terms of peace. What appears to be the case, as we will see in v. 5, is there is a conversation between David and perhaps the guards at the gate of Jebus. So, it is possible, given that so much time has transpired between God’s orders to the people of Israel (through Moses), that David chose to err on the side of graciousness, and allow these people to surrender. We have discussed how David learned the Scriptures—particularly after trying to move the ark unsuccessfully the first time—so it is reasonable to assume that he had read this passage. Since 400 years had passed since Moses said those words to the Jews, David simply gave these Jebusites the benefit of the doubt.


There are essentially 2 different conversations which could have taken place. David (more likely, a representative of David’s) goes to the city gate, the army behind him, and says, “We are going to conquer you.” Or, he could say, “You see this army behind me? We are going to take this city. If you would like to spare yourselves personal destruction, we will offer you terms of peace.” If the first is all that is said to the Jebusites, then why would anyone bother to say that? Why not simply attack and take the city? However, for the Jebusites to tell David (or his representative), “You will not come in here” (1Chron. 11:5b) indicates that there was some conversation which occurred before the attack, which logically indicates that David first offered them terms of peace.


The Jebusites certainly figured that their position on Mount Zion, their walls and their army would protect them from David. Since this city was within the boundaries of the land given to Israel by God, David believed that he had the right to take it (which he did).


Application: People have made such a big deal of our founders taking the entire land of the United States, from shore to shore, and have acted as if this is the greatest transgression ever. Pretty much every plot of land which belongs to this or that country was conquered by the people who live there (or their ancestors). Whether this history of conquering a land goes back 10 years, 100 years or 1000 years, that is the history of every notable country on earth. If you have ever been in a history class, and the professor talks about the horrendous acts of imperialism by the United States and Britain, they are simply an ideologue, who ignores the countries seized by the Communists, which always involves much more bloodshed and much more stealing.


Application: Because of the conversation that we are exposed to, this transfer of control of Jebus could have been done peacefully, but the Jebusites chose not to. There are times in the Bible when the Jews are to fight to take the land, or resist those trying to conquer them; and there are times when the Jews are to knuckle under the authority of a foreign power. God guided Israel in these areas. For us, we study these passages and make our own determination from our studies.


The Jews were unable to defeat the Jebusites before this, and they lived in the land, occupying Mount Zion, until the time of David. But the Jebusites, the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the people of Judah could not drive out, so the Jebusites dwell with the people of Judah at Jerusalem to this day (Joshua 15:63). Jerusalem belonged to the tribe of Benjamin, and that would suggest that King Saul, ideally speaking, should have taken this city (as he ruled from Gibeah in Benjamin) (Joshua 18:28 Judges 1:21 19:10–12).


1Chronicles 11:4c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

shâm (שָם) [pronounced shawm]

there; at that time, then; therein, in that thing

adverb

Strong’s #8033 BDB #1027

Yebûçîy (יְבֻסִי) [pronounced yevoo-SEE]

an inhabitant or descendant of Jebus; transliterated Jebusite

adjective gentilis with the definite article

Strong’s #2983 BDB #101

yâshab (יָשַב) [pronounced yaw-SHAHBV]

inhabiting, staying, remaining, dwelling, sitting

masculine plural construct, Qal active participle

Strong's #3427 BDB #442

erets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, ground, soil

feminine singular noun; with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: ... and the Jebusites inhabited the land there. The Jebusites were a small tribe of heathen left in the land by God to test Israel (Judges 1:21 2:21–23).


This doctrine was taken from 2Sam. 5:6.

The Doctrine of the Jebusites

1.      The Jebusites are a Canaanite people, most of whom lived in the Land of Promise. Gen. 10:15–19 1Chron. 1:13–14

2.      God promised to give Abraham “...the land of the Kenites, the Kenizzites, the Kadmonites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Rephaim, the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Girgashites and the Jebusites.” (Gen. 15:18–21).

3.      God spoke to Moses in the desert, and promised to give him and God’s people “...a land flowing with milk and honey, to the place of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Amorites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites (Ex. 3:7–8), which promise Moses conveyed to elders of the enslaved Jews (Ex. 3:14–22).

4.      When the plagues against Egypt had been completed, Moses confirmed God’s promise to bring His people to “...the land of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Amorites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites, which He swore to your fathers to give you, a land flowing with milk and honey.” Ex. 13:3–5

5.      God, through Moses, demanded the obedience of the Jewish people, that they not worship the gods of the heathen, and then He would send His angel before them to blot out “...Amorites and the Hittites and the Perizzites and the Canaanites, the Hivites and the Jebusites.” Ex. 23:22–24

6.      The LORD said to Moses, "Depart; go up from here, you and the people whom you have brought up out of the land of Egypt, to the land of which I swore to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, saying, 'To your offspring I will give it.' I will send an angel before you, and I will drive out the Canaanites, the Amorites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites. Go up to a land flowing with milk and honey; but I will not go up among you, lest I consume you on the way, for you are a stiff-necked people." Ex. 33:1–3 (see also Ex. 34:11–15). Interestingly enough, although I don’t pretend to understand any significance by it, the Jebusites are always listed last on these grocery lists of people whom God will allow the Jews to conquer.

7.      When Moses sent spies into the Land of Promise, they returned with the following report: And they told him, "We came to the land to which you sent us. It flows with milk and honey, and this is its fruit. However, the people who dwell in the land are strong, and the cities are fortified and very large. And besides, we saw the descendants of Anak there. The Amalekites dwell in the land of the Negeb. The Hittites, the Jebusites, and the Amorites dwell in the hill country. And the Canaanites dwell by the sea, and along the Jordan." (Num. 13:27–29). Unlike what has come before, this is not a grocery list, but their report identifies the locations of these various people.

8.      Moses, in one of his last messages to Israel, says the following: "When the LORD your God brings you into the land that you are entering to take possession of it, and clears away many nations before you, the Hittites, the Girgashites, the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites, seven nations more numerous and mightier than yourselves, and when the LORD your God gives them over to you, and you defeat them, then you must devote them to complete destruction. You shall make no covenant with them and show no mercy to them. You shall not intermarry with them, giving your daughters to their sons or taking their daughters for your sons, for they would turn away your sons from following me, to serve other gods. Then the anger of the LORD would be kindled against you, and he would destroy you quickly. But thus shall you deal with them: you shall break down their altars and dash in pieces their pillars and chop down their Asherim and burn their carved images with fire.” Deut. 7:1–5

9.      The approach that Israel was to take was as follows (as per the instructions of Moses): "When you draw near to a city to fight against it, offer terms of peace to it. And if it responds to you peaceably and it opens to you, then all the people who are found in it shall do forced labor for you and shall serve you. But if it makes no peace with you, but makes war against you, then you shall besiege it. And when the LORD your God gives it into your hand, you shall put all its males to the sword, but the women and the little ones, the livestock, and everything else in the city, all its spoil, you shall take as plunder for yourselves. And you shall enjoy the spoil of your enemies, which the LORD your God has given you. Thus you shall do to all the cities that are very far from you, which are not cities of the nations here. But in the cities of these peoples that the LORD your God is giving you for an inheritance, you shall save alive nothing that breathes, but you shall devote them to complete destruction, the Hittites and the Amorites, the Canaanites and the Perizzites, the Hivites and the Jebusites, as the LORD your God has commanded, that they may not teach you to do according to all their abominable practices that they have done for their gods, and so you sin against the LORD your God.” Deut. 20:10–18

10.    Joshua, in Joshua 3:10, tells the people: “Here is how you shall know that the living God is among you and that he will without fail drive out from before you the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Hivites, the Perizzites, the Girgashites, the Amorites, and the Jebusites.”

11.    When Israel began to conquer the land, there were two very different reactions: some of the people banded together to oppose Israel and others submitted to them. As soon as all the kings who were beyond the Jordan in the hill country and in the lowland all along the coast of the Great Sea toward Lebanon, the Hittites, the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites, heard of this, they gathered together as one to fight against Joshua and Israel. But when the inhabitants of Gibeon heard what Joshua had done to Jericho and to Ai, they on their part acted with cunning and went and made ready provisions and took worn-out sacks for their donkeys, and wineskins, worn-out and torn and mended, with worn-out, patched sandals on their feet, and worn-out clothes. And all their provisions were dry and crumbly. And they went to Joshua in the camp at Gilgal and said to him and to the men of Israel, "We have come from a distant country, so now make a covenant with us." Joshua 9:1–6

12.    Joshua kills the king of Jerusalem (therefore, the king of the Jebusites) at Beth-horon, along with several other kings. Joshua 10:1, 5, 26

13.    An alliance of several peoples, including the Jebusites, gathered to meet Joshua, and God told him not to be afraid, and delivered this alliance into Joshua’s hand. Joshua 11:1–8

14.    We have a list of the kings conquered by Joshua, which includes the king of Jerusalem (Joshua 12:7–24).

15.    The city of the Jebusite is listed as a border city for Judah and Benjamin in Joshua 15:8 18:16.

16.    Even though Joshua had conquered the king of Jerusalem, this does not mean that they conquered Jerusalem itself. When Joshua conquered the king of Jerusalem, he was with an alliance of other kings who had attacked the Gibeonites. So, Joshua could have conquered him without conquering Jerusalem. In any case, the Jebusites were never completely defeated, and they lived in Jerusalem side by side Judahites (Joshua 15:63) and the Benjamites (Judges 1:21).

17.    Very near his death, Joshua reminded the people of God’s faithfulness, and that He had given these other nations into their hand (Joshua 24:11).

18.    However, even though Israel had conquered these people, they did not completely wipe them out, and lived among several groups of people during the time of the judges and afterward as well (Judges 3:1–5). This, by the way, is the final list of the peoples in the land, and the Jebusites are listed last, as found throughout.

19.    At some point, the tribe of Benjamin was almost completely wiped out, save for 600 (Judges 19–21), so we may reasonably assume that Benjamin lost control of most of their cities—at least of Jerusalem. However, it is suggested in Judges 19:11 that even before the Benjamite tribe was decimated, that the Jebusites had control of Jerusalem.

20.    Now, although the tribe of Benjamin built itself up over a few hundred years, they apparently did not take back Jerusalem; and the Jebusites took this opportunity to build up the defense wall system of Jerusalem.

21.    We do not hear about the Jebusites again until this passage, when David takes the city of Jerusalem from them. 2Sam. 5:6–9 1Chron. 11:4–8

22.    Apparently, not all of the Jebusites are wiped out, as we hear about individual Jebusites from time to time. 2Sam. 24:16, 18 1Chron. 21:15, 18, 28 2Chron. 3:1

23.    In fact, it is from one of these Jebusites that David purchases the site upon which the Temple is built by Solomon (2Sam. 24:16–25 1Chron. 21:24–25). Although this Jebusite tries to give David the property for free, David insists on purchasing it. The interaction between this Jebusite and David shows both him and David in a good light.

24.    The heathen that Israel did not destroy, remained in the land until the time of Solomon, and he made slaves of them. 1Kings 9:20–21 2Chron. 8:7–8

25.    After the time of Solomon, apparently many descendants of these heathen groups were either removed from slavery, or, when Israel was conquered, the Israelites were in the same states as these people (slavery). Therefore, there had been some intermarriage between the Israelites and these heathen. Ezra 9:1–2

26.    Levites remind returning Israel of God’s faithfulness in giving them the land of these heathen peoples in Neh. 9:7–8. Interestingly enough, this is again one of the few lists where the Jebusites are not listed last (the Girgashites is listed last here).

27.    It is likely that a group of believer-Jebusites became a part of Israel (apparently as slaves of Solomon) who returned to the Land of Promise along with the Israelites. Neh. 7:57 11:3 Ezra 3:1

28.    The Jebusites are mentioned one more time in a prophecy given by Zechariah about the neighboring nations of Israel. He warns that Ekron would be like the Jebusites. Zech. 9:7

This may be more about the Jebusites than you are interested in knowing.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


——————————


And so say inhabitants of Jebus to David, “You will not come in here.” And so takes David a stronghold of Zion (this, a city of David).

1Chronicles

11:5

The inhabitants of Jebus said to David, “You will not come in here.” Nevertheless [lit., and so] David captured the stronghold of Zion (also known [today] as the city of David).

Although the inhabitants of Jebus warned David, “You will not come in here,” David still captures the stronghold of Zion and it became known as the City of David.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text                       And so say inhabitants of Jebus to David, “You will not come in here.” And so takes David a stronghold of Zion (this, a city of David).

Septuagint                              You will not enter in hither. But he took the strong hold of Sion: this is the city of David.

 

Significant differences:           The Greek has the inhabitants of Jebus in the previous verse (the Hebrew has this phrase twice).


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       The Jebusites said, "You won't be able to get in here!" But David captured the fortress of Mount Zion, which is now called the City of David.

The Message                         The citizens of Jebus told David, "No trespassing--you can't come here." David came on anyway and captured the fortress of Zion, the City of David.

NAB                                       The inhabitants of Jebus said to David, “You shall not enter here.” David nevertheless captured the fortress of Sion, which is the City of David.

NLT                                        The people of Jebus said to David, “You will never get in here!” But David captured the fortress of Zion, now called the City of David.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

God’s Word                         They told David, "You will never get in here." But David captured the fortress Zion (that is, the City of David).

JPS (Tanakh)                         David was told by the inhabitants of Jebus, “You will never get in here!” But David captured the stronghold of Zion; it is now the City of David.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

ESV                                       The inhabitants of Jebus said to David, "You will not come in here." Nevertheless, David took the stronghold of Zion, that is, the city of David.

Young’s Updated LT             And the inhabitants of Jebus say to David, “You will not come in here;” and David captures the fortress of Zion—it is the city of David.


What is the gist of this verse? Even though David is told that he would not even enter the city, he captures it—even the fortress of Zion—and it becomes known as the city of David.


1Chronicles 11:5a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

âmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

yâshab (יָשַב) [pronounced yaw-SHAHBV]

inhabiting, staying, remaining, dwelling, sitting

masculine plural construct, Qal active participle

Strong's #3427 BDB #442

Yebûwç (יְבוּס) [pronounced yebVOOS]

[place of the] Jebusites

proper noun/location

Strong’s #2982 BDB #101

lâmed (לְ) (pronounced le)

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187


Translation: The inhabitants of Jebus said to David,... In Samuel, there is one person speaking to David; however, no doubt, a delegation of Jebusites met David in front of the city, and there was a discussion. My opinion is, and I am pretty firm here, is David told them that he wanted the city as his capital city, but that, they could work things out together. That is, David did not go to them with only the intention of killing them and taking the city. I think the fact that they are all standing here talking makes that abundantly clear. If David had intended to just attack and take the city, then there would be no reason to have this preliminary conversation. However, we have a conversation taking place here. We know from the Mosaic Law that Israel was to offer terms of peace to the people that they invaded (this did not fit into that situation exactly), and we may reasonably suppose that David spent enough time in the Scriptures to know this.


I this is not the case, then the conversation here makes no sense. Let’s assume for a moment, that David is going to attack these Jebusites, without offering any terms of peace. Why would he stop and chat with Jebusites to begin with? One of the great tactics of war is surprise, so why would David, a great warrior and a brilliant tactician, give up this advantage just to chat? You see, that approach makes little or no sense. A delegation from David was the proper way to do this; which delegation could possibly take Jerusalem through a reasonable treaty with the Jebusites. This conversation tells us that David was approaching these people as God had ordered them through Moses in Deut. 20:10–18.


1Chronicles 11:5b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lô (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

bôw (בּוֹא) [pronounced boh]

to come in, to come, to go in, to go, to enter

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #935 BDB #97

hênnâh (הֵנָּה) [pronounced HAYN-naw]

hither, here

adverb

Strong’s #2008 BDB #244


Translation: .. .“You will not come in here,... David offers these Jebusites terms of peace, and they flat out tell him, “You can’t come into Jerusalem. It is too well fortified.” In 2Samuel, we find out that things are so well-fortified, that these Jebusites tell David that even blind and lame soldiers could keep David out (2Sam. 5:6–8).


1Chronicles 11:5c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

The wâw consecutive can also be rendered so, that, yet, therefore. There are times when the wâw consecutive simply carries the action along and we do not need an English translation in order to indicate that.

lâkad (לָכַד) [pronounced law-KAHD]

to capture, to seize, to take, to choose [by lot]

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #3920 BDB #539

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

êth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

metsûwdâh (מְצוֹדָה) [pronounced metzoo-DAW]

fortress, stronghold, top of a mountain; capture, prey, hunted; snare, net; transliterated Masada

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #4686 BDB #845

Tsâyôwn (צִיּוֹן) [pronounced tzaw-YOHN]

dry, parched ground; and is transliterated Zion

Proper noun/location

Strong’s #6726 BDB #851


Translation: Nevertheless [lit., and so] David captured the stronghold of Zion... We will be given a slightly different approach to David’s capture of Zion in Chronicles. This does not contradict the narrative in 2Sam. 5, but it complements it.


This is called the stronghold of Zion for several reasons: Zion is on a mountain, making it difficult to access; they had fortified walls around Zion and possibly around an inner sanctum as well. So, taking down the Jebusites in Jerusalem was going to be a difficult task. Interestingly enough, the Bible tells us about this conversation between David (or his ambassadors) and the men of Jerusalem, but we get no information about how he took down Jerusalem. In fact, we will actually be given more information in this chapter of Chronicles than we got in 2Sam. 5 about this victory.


C. I. Scofield is a genius at presenting a condensed explanation, and this is what he had to say on Zion.

Scofield on Zion

Zion, the ancient Jebusite stronghold, is the southwest eminence in Jerusalem, called in Scripture the city of David, and associated with the Davidic royalty both historically and prophetically (1Chron. 11:7 Psalm 2:6 Isa. 2:3). The word is often used of the whole city of Jerusalem considered as the city of God (Psalm 48:2 Psalm 48:3) especially in passages referring to the future kingdom–age; (Isa. 1:27 2:3 4:1–6 Joel 3:16 Zech. 1:16–17 8:3–8 Rom. 11:26). In (Heb. 12:22) the word is used symbolically of heaven.

In (Deut. 4:48) the name is given to a projection or peak of Mount Hermon. Footnote

Actually, the word found in Deut. 4:48 is not Zion, a difference which is much more obvious in the Hebrew (see my exegesis of Deut. 4:48).

From C. I. Scofield, Scofield Notes from the Scofield King James’ Bible; from e-Sword, 1Chron. 11:5.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


We’ve covered the Doctrine of Zion in Psalm 110:2.


1Chronicles 11:5d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

hîy (הִיא) [pronounced hee]

she, it; also used as a demonstrative pronoun: that, this

3rd person feminine singular, personal pronoun

Strong’s #1931 BDB #214

Several good translators rendered this that is; perhaps the connotation could be also known as.

׳îyr (עִיר) [pronounced ģeer]

encampment, city, town

feminine singular construct

Strong's #5892 BDB #746

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187


Translation: ...(also known [today] as the city of David). The writer of Chronicles puts this all together many years later, and simply tells us that Jerusalem is known today as the City of David.


At some point in time, David would write Psalm 2, and pen these words: "As for Me, I have set My King on Zion, My holy hill." (Psalm 2:6). God did this first for David, who is a type of Christ. Our Lord will rule the world from Mount Zion.


——————————


Interestingly enough, we will have additional narrative here in Chronicles which is not found in Samuel. There is certainly material in Chronicles not found in Samuel (like the genealogies), but it is more rare for Chronicles to have additional narrative material.


One possible explanation is, some of this material dropped out of the Samuel text which we use. There is some overlap between the narratives, which makes me doubt that (however, similar text is often related to portions of Scripture being dropped out). Footnote What is more likely is, there are additional historical records which the writer of Chronicles used, to which sources the editor of Chronicles makes reference on many occasions (1Chron. 29:29 2Chron. 12:15 16:11). Certainly, God the Holy Spirit has His reasons why we have both events recorded. Furthermore, musing about the text might be interesting to some, but, regardless of the history of the text, we still have both narratives.


And so says David, “Each of a striker of the Jebusite in the first is for a head and for a chief.” And so goes up in the first Joab son of Zeruiah and so he is head.

1Chronicles

11:6

David had said, “Whoever strikes down the Jebusite first, he will be prince and commander.” Joab son of Zeruiah went up first and he is [now] a prince.

David had promised, “The first man to kill a Jebusite will be made a crown prince and a chief.” So Joab son of Zeruiah went up first, and he became a prince [by killing the first Jebusite].


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic text                        And so says David, “Each of a striker of the Jebusite in the first is for a head and for a chief.” And so goes up in the first Joab son of Zeruiah and so he is head.

Septuagint                              And David said, “Everyone striking the Jebusite, even he shall be chief and captain.” And Joab the son of Saruia went up first, and became chief.

 

Significant differences:           The Hebrew text has the phrase in the first twice; the Greek only once.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       David had told his troops, "The first soldier to kill a Jebusite will become my army commander." And since Joab son of Zeruiah attacked first, he became commander.

NAB                                       David said, “Whoever strikes the Jebusites first shall be made the chief commander.” Joab, he son of Zeruiah, was the first to go up; and so he became chief.

TEV                                        David said, “The first man to kill a Jebusite will be commander of the army!” Joab, whose mother was Zeruiah, led the attack and became commander.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

God’s Word                         Now, David said, "Whoever is the first to kill a Jebusite will be made a general and a prince." Zeruiah's son Joab was the first to go into Jerusalem, so he became the general.

HCSB                                     David said, "Whoever is the first to kill a Jebusite will become commander-in-chief." Joab son of Zeruiah went up first, so he became the chief.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

ESV                                       David said, "Whoever strikes the Jebusites first shall be chief and commander." And Joab the son of Zeruiah went up first, so he became chief.

Young’s Updated LT             And David says, “Whoever strikes the Jebusite first becomes head and prince;” and Joab son of Zeruiah goes up first and becomes head.


What is the gist of this verse? David promises that the first man to strike down a Jebusite will be named commander of David’s army.


1Chronicles 11:6a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

âmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

nâkâh (נָכָה) [pronounced naw-KAWH]

to smite, to assault, to hit, to strike, to strike [something or someone] down, to defeat, to conquer, to subjugate

masculine singular construct, Hiphil participle

Strong #5221 BDB #645

Yebûçîy (יְבֻסִי) [pronounced yevoo-SEE]

an inhabitant or descendant of Jebus; transliterated Jebusite

adjective gentilis

Strong’s #2983 BDB #101

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

rîshôwnâh (רִשוֹנָה) [pronounced ree-show-NAW]

first [in time, in degree, chief, former [in time], ancestors, former things; foremost; beginning

feminine singular adjective with the definite article

Strong’s #7223 BDB #911

With the bêyth preposition, rîshôwnâh means first, in front, in the first rank; before, formerly, aforetime.

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

lâmed (לְ) (pronounced le)

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

rôsh (רֹאש or רֹאֶש) [pronounced rohsh]

head [of a man, city, state, nation, place, family, priest], top [of a mountain]; chief, prince, officer; front, choicest, best; height [of stars]; sum

masculine singular noun

Strong's #7218 BDB #910

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

lâmed (לְ) (pronounced le)

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

sar (שַׂר) [pronounced sar]

chieftain, chief, ruler, official, captain, prince, leader, commander

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #8269 BDB #978


Translation: David had said, “Whoever strikes down the Jebusite first, he will be prince and commander.” We have seen a similar scenario play out on various occasions. Caleb promised his daughter to whomever would strike Kiriath-Sepher (or, lead a strike against Kiriath-Sepher) (Joshua 15:16–17), When Goliath was braying, challenging anyone to fight him as a representative of the Jews, Saul promised such a man one of his daughters and great riches (1Sam. 17:25). This was a motivational approach and it serves to give the Jews momentum in war.


Although we tend to freeze an image of a Biblical character in time—I see Joab as David’s 2nd in command—it was not always so. This may be the point at which Joab became David’s right hand man.


Joab, the nephew of David, is one of the most fascinating persons in the Bible, although we do not tend to associate him with the great names of Scripture. At his greatest, he was commander-in-chief of David’s army. As a diplomat, he worked out some personal difficulties between David and his son Absalom. As a war hero, he defeated the Jebusites, Ammonites, Moabites and the Edomites. However, David dragged Joab into the middle of his two great sins and Joab himself twice got involved in high-level political intrigue, which eventually led to his execution by Solomon.

A Condensed View of Joab

I.       David has 3 nephews by his sister Zeruiah: Joab, Abishai and Asahel. 2Sam. 2:18 1Chron. 2:16

II.      Joab was in charge of David’s army, having led a successful campaign against the Jebusites. 2Sam. 8:16 2Sam. 8:16 1Chron. 11:4–6 18:15a 27:34

III.     After Saul died, David became king over Judah (the Southern Kingdom) and Saul’s son, Ishbosheth, became king over Israel (the Northern Kingdom). A civil war ensued, and Ishbosheth’s top general, Abner, met David’s top general, Joab; along with their respective armies. Joab is victorious over Abner, so Abner retreats. Joab’s brother, Asahel, gives chase, and is killed in the pursuit. Abner, from a distance, managed to sort out a temporary peace with Joab. 2Sam. 2:12–32

IV.     Abner and Ishbosheth had a falling out, and Abner transferred his loyalty to David, with the intention of helping David rule over all Israel (the north and the south). However, without David knowing, Joab arranged a meeting with Abner and killed him at this meeting. Although David should have tried and executed Joab for this crime, he did not, cursing his father’s house instead. This was a mistake on David’s part, and Joab would go on to murder another man and to rebel against David when David gets becomes very old. 2Sam. 3

V.      Joab is named specifically when Israel fought against Syria and the Ammonites (2Sam. 8:11–12 10 12:26–27 1Chron. 19:6–15); the Moabites (1Kings 11:11–25) and the Edomites (Psalm 60 inscription). However, we may assume that Joab would have led the armies of Israel against all the enemies of David as David’s commander-in-chief.

VI.     David got Joab tangled up in both of his major sins.

         1.      Joab was at war with the Ammonites when David had an affair with Bathsheba. David eventually ordered Joab to put Bathsheba’s husband on the frontlines to die in battle. 2Sam. 11

         2.      David had Joab spearhead the census, which Satan motivated David to take. Joab advised against this census, but David overruled him and Joab followed orders. 2Sam. 24:1–9 1Chron. 21:1–6 However, this census was never completed, as God put a stop to it. 1Chron. 27:24

VII.    Since David had so many sons and daughters, there ended up being conflicts between them. One conflict involved rape and then Absalom, David’s son, killed his half-brother for the rape. Joab acted as a go-between for David and Absalom, finally bringing them together. 2Sam. 13–14

VIII.   However, when Absalom rebelled against David, Joab defeated his army and killed Absalom (2Sam. 18). David was quite upset about this, and Joab had to speak to him rather harshly to make him realize that his own army supported him and should receive appreciation for what they did (2Sam. 19:1–7).

IX.     When David appointed Amasa over his armies, Joab killed him as a rival. 2Sam. 20

X.      In his old age, David became weak, and his son after Absalom, Adonijah, secured the help of Joab, among others, to boost him into power. In fact, while David was alive, Adonijah set up a government under him—again, his most prominent supporters included Joab. In all fairness to Joab, he may not have known that David had selected Solomon as his successor. David, in hearing about all of this, made Solomon king. 1Kings 1:7, 16–19, 38–52

XI.     While David is in dying grace, he tells Solomon that Joab killed Abner and Amasa, although there should have been peace between them. David was unable to deal with this, but he puts this situation into Solomon’s hands. Solomon had Joab executed after Joab fled to the altar at Gibeon. 1Kings 2:1–12, 28–35

XII.    Joab was nearly a great man. A few passages seem to indicate that he was a believer in the God of Israel, Jesus Christ. He had great military prowess and was probably the greatest military general during the time of David, apart from David and Jonathan. He was also authority-orientated and never tried to usurp David’s power, or to take power when David was dying. However, Joab made a number of bad decisions throughout his life—he murdered Abner and Amasa, treating his rivals as enemies, and it appears as though he did this in part to preserve his own position. Although he was generally loyal to David, he seemed to twice jockey to retain his position of power with Absalom and Adonijah, which would have involved his turning against David’s authority. My opinion was, he did not know a lot of doctrine (although it is hard in David’s administration to avoid it altogether), so that he either had areas where he lacked the spiritual information to make good decisions, or he simply went against what he knew was right to do.

The complete Doctrine of Joab may be found at http://kukis.org/Doctrines/Joab.htm


Return to the Beginning of the Doctrine

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


1Chronicles 11:6b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

׳âlâh (עָלָה) [pronounced ģaw-LAWH]

to go up, to ascend, to come up, to rise, to climb

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #5927 BDB #748

There appears to be a military component in the use of this verb in some contexts. That is, it sometimes does not mean to go up [in elevation] or to go up [in a northerly direction], but to go up against an enemy in battle or to go to a specific place in order to position oneself ready for war.

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

rîshôwnâh (רִשוֹנָה) [pronounced ree-show-NAW]

first [in time, in degree, chief, former [in time], ancestors, former things; foremost; beginning

feminine singular adjective with the definite article

Strong’s #7223 BDB #911

With the bêyth preposition, rîshôwnâh means first, in front, in the first rank; before, formerly, aforetime.

Yôwâb (יוֹאָב) [pronounced YOH-awbv]

Yah is father and is transliterated Joab

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #3097 BDB #222

bên (בֵּן) [pronounced bane]

son, descendant

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

Tserûwyâh (צְרוּיָה) [pronounced tzeroo-YAW]

transliterated Zeruiah

feminine singular proper noun

Strong’s #6870 BDB #863


Translation: Joab son of Zeruiah went up first. Joab, up until this time, had shown great promise as a military man. David has led a band of 600 men about southern Judah until he became king over Judah. It is reasonable to assume that Joab, in these previous battles, had distinguished himself as a great soldier. However, all we know about Joab which is recorded in the Bible is that bit of intrigue where he kills Abner in revenge (2Sam. 4). Here, we find out what David already knows—that Joab is a great and brave soldier. He was also a leader, as we studied back in 2Sam. 2. However, at this point, he will distinguish himself from the rest of Davd’s men, and it will be clear that he is not little Joab, David’s nephew, but his own man.


1Chronicles 11:6c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW]

to be, is, was, are; to become, to come into being; to come to pass

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #1961 BDB #224

lâmed (לְ) (pronounced le)

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

rôsh (רֹאש or רֹאֶש) [pronounced rohsh]

head [of a man, city, state, nation, place, family, priest], top [of a mountain]; chief, prince, officer; front, choicest, best; height [of stars]; sum

masculine singular noun

Strong's #7218 BDB #910


Translation: ...and he is [now] a prince. The Bible gives us very little information as to what this really means. Joab appears to be a leader of men back in 2Sam. 2 (Poole Footnote calls him a chief-captain). Here, however, Joab is clearly given a promotion. Therefore, we may assume that, earlier, he led small companies of men; and now, he directs entire armies in war (as we will see when he goes up against the Ammonites, for instance, in 2Sam. 10). In fact, he appears to be the commander over all of Judah and Israel’s armies, just under David in authority.


——————————


And so David lives in the stronghold upon so, they called to him a city of David.

1Chronicles

11:7

David lived in the stronghold; therefore, they called it the city of David.

David lived in the stronghold so that Jerusalem became known as the city of David.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text                       And so David lives in the stronghold; upon so they called to him a city of David.

Septuagint                              And David sat in the stronghold; therefore he called it the city of David.

 

Significant differences:           Although the first verbs appear to be different, the Greek is a reasonable translation from the Hebrew.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       Later, David moved to the fortress--that's why it's called the City of David.

The Message                         David took up residence in the fortress city; that's how it got its name, "City of David."


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

God’s Word                         David lived in the fortress, so it was called the City of David.

HCSB                                     Then David took up residence in the stronghold; therefore, it was called the city of David.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

ESV                                       And David lived in the stronghold; therefore it was called the city of David.

Young’s Updated LT             And David lives in the fortress, therefore, they have called it “the City of David.”


What is the gist of this verse? David decides to live in Jerusalem, calling it the city of David. He also began several building projects around the city.


1Chronicles 11:7a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

yâshab (יָשַב) [pronounced yaw-SHAHBV]

to remain, to stay; to dwell, to live, to inhabit; to sit

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #3427 BDB #442

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

metsûwdâh (מְצוֹדָה) [pronounced metzoo-DAW]

fortress, stronghold, top of a mountain; capture, prey, hunted; snare, net; transliterated Masada

feminine singular noun with the definite article; pausal form

Strong’s #4686 BDB #845


Translation: David lived in the stronghold;... Jerusalem had been a great, well-fortified city, with great walls and, we may reasonably assume, a great palace. There appears to be one place within the Jerusalem city walls which is even more secure, here called Masada, and translated fortress or stronghold.


We studied Masada back in 1Sam. 24:22 and the full Doctrine of Masada is available online.


1Chronicles 11:7b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

׳al (עַל) [pronounced ģahl ]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

kên (כֵּן) [pronounced kane]

so or thus

adverb

Strong's #3651 BDB #485

Together, ׳al kên (כֵּן עַל) mean so, upon the ground of such conditions, therefore, on this account, on account, for this reason.

qârâ (קָרָא) [pronounced kaw-RAW]

to call, to proclaim, to read, to call to, to call out to, to assemble, to summon; to call, to name [when followed by a lâmed]

3rd person plural, Qal perfect

Strong's #7121 BDB #894

lâmed (לְ) (pronounced le)

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition; with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

׳îyr (עִיר) [pronounced ģeer]

encampment, city, town

feminine singular construct

Strong's #5892 BDB #746

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187


Translation: ...therefore, they called it the city of David. In v. 5, David takes Masada, the city of David; and here, it is clear that it is called the city of David because he lives there. Jerusalem, Masada and the city of David are essentially designations for the same place (although, Masada can refer to a particular section of Jerusalem). Also, the city of David is said to refer to the southeastern and oldest part of Jerusalem. Footnote


Guzik suggests Footnote that Jerusalem is a good choice for a capitol city, as it is not specifically associated with either northern or southern Israel, and it is a well-fortified and easy-to-defend city. Furthermore, it is right on the border of Benjamin and Judah, placing it between northern and southern Israel.


——————————


And so he builds the city from round about from the Millo and as far as round about. And brought to life Joab a rest of the city.

1Chronicles

11:8

David [lit., he] built the city round about from Millo and round about. Joab brought the rest of the city back to life.

He also built all around the city from Millo and outward. Joab [and his army corps of engineers] repaired the rest of the city.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          And he built the city round about from Mello all round, and Joab built the rest of the city.

Masoretic Text                       And so he builds the city from round about from the Millo and as far as round about. And brought to life Joab a rest of the city.

Septuagint                              And he built the city round about.

 

Significant differences:           The LXX is quite abbreviated at this point, and leaves Joab completely out of the picture.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

The Message                         David fortified the city all the way around, both the outer bulwarks (the Millo) and the outside wall. Joab rebuilt the city gates.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

God’s Word                         He built the city of Jerusalem around it, starting from the Millo and making a complete circuit. Joab rebuilt the rest of the city.

HCSB                                     He built up the city all the way around, from the supporting terraces to the surrounding parts, and Joab restored the rest of the city.

JPS (Tanakh)                         David also fortified the surrounding area, from Millo roundabout, and Joab rebuilt the rest of the city.

NIV Study Bible                      He built up the city around it, from the supporting terraces to the surrounding wall, while Joab restored the rest of the city.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

ESV                                       And he built the city all around from the Millo in complete circuit, and Joab repaired the rest of the city.

Young’s Updated LT             And David builds the city round about, from Millo and to the circumference, and Joab restores the rest of the city.


What is the gist of this verse? David begins several building projects around the city. Joab is heavily involved in this project as well.


1Chronicles 11:8a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

bânâh (בָּנָה) [pronounced baw-NAWH]

to build, to rebuild, to restore

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #1129 BDB #124

׳îyr (עִיר) [pronounced ģeer]

encampment, city, town

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #5892 BDB #746

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

çâbîyb (סָבִיב) [pronounced sawb-VEEBV]

around, surrounding, circuit, round about, encircle

adverb/preposition

Strong’s #5439 BDB #686

The min preposition and çâbîyb mean from round about, from every side.

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

Millôw (מִלּוֹא) [pronounced mihl-LOW]

rampart; mound; transliterated Millo

Proper masculine singular noun; with the definite article

Strong’s #4407 BDB #571

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that, so that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

׳ad (עַד) [pronounced ģahd]

as far as, even to, up to, until

preposition

Strong’s #5704 BDB #723

çâbîyb (סָבִיב) [pronounced sawb-VEEBV]

around, surrounding, circuit, round about, encircle

adverb/preposition

Strong’s #5439 BDB #686


Translation: David [lit., he] built the city round about from Millo and round about. The millo is probably a Canaanite name for the wall around the city. Although David’s armed forces would have destroyed parts of this wall during the taking of the city, David’s intention was to make this city the capital city of Israel. Therefore, care would have been taken to leave as much intact as possible.


What this verse appears to be saying is, there is this great existing wall, millo, which is probably two walls with earth and stones in between, and David supervises the building of the city from these walls inward, in a circular fashion (meaning the walls would be used as the 4th wall for many structures), and then from the walls outward, more construction was done, around these walls. However, there is some disagreement as to what exactly the millo refers, because we read, in 1Kings 9:15: This is the reason of the levy which king Solomon raised, to build the house of Yahweh, and his own house, and Millo, and the wall of Jerusalem, and Hazor, and Megiddo, and Gezer. Even though one could render this ...and the Millo, even the wall of Jerusalem,... all of the items named are separate things, suggesting that the wall of Jerusalem and the Millo are different things. An alternative understanding would be that this is an inner wall, behind which was all of the royal residences, and out from which, was the rest of the city of Jerusalem, which would extend to the wall about Jerusalem. This understanding makes more sense, as we would expect very little building to occur outside of the city walls. However, if there is a set of inner walls, then we would expect there to be building round about those walls as far as the wall of Jerusalem.


This collection of opinions was first posted in 2Sam. 5

It is interesting that we find Millo listed several times in Scripture, and really don’t know what it is.

What is the Millo? The Opinions of Commentators

Commentators

Opinion

Contemporary English Version

"The Millo," which probably refers to a landfill to strengthen and extend the hill where the city was built. Footnote

Easton

Probably the Canaanite name of some fortification, consisting of walls filled in with earth and stones, which protected Jerusalem on the north as its outer–most defense. It is always rendered Akra i.e., “the citadel”, in the LXX. It was already existing when David conquered Jerusalem (2Sam. 5:9). He extended it to the right and left, thus completing the defense of the city. It was rebuilt by Solomon (1Kings 9:15, 24 11:27) and repaired by Hezekiah (2Chron. 32:5). Footnote

Easy-to-Read Version Bible

The Millo was probably a raised platform of land southeast of the temple area in Jerusalem. Footnote

Gordon/Kenyon

The Millo, a concern also of Solomon (1Kings 9:15, 24 11:27), cannot be precisely identified. The probable connection with the Hebrew mâlê (fill in) gives a possible clue; a construction (tower?) built on a filled-in platform of earth or stones, or a reference to the artificial terracing on the eastern slope of the hill on which the ancient city stood, are the main candidates. Footnote Kenyon prefers the latter explanation (which I read in Gordon’s commentary).

Gower

When David fortified Jerusalem with retaining walls and narrow terraces, these were known as Millo (1Kings 9:15, 24). Footnote The efficacy of these fortifications may have led to Jerusalem becoming known as the city of peace (which is possibly more a play on words than an interpretation).

Jamieson, Fausset and Brown

[What David builds is] probably a row of stone bastions placed on the northern side of Mount Zion, and built by David to secure himself on that side from the Jebusites, who still lived in the lower part of the city. The house of Millo was perhaps the principal corner tower of that fortified wall. Footnote

Keil and Delitzsch

The “Millo” was at any rate some kind of fortification, probably a large tower or castle at one particular part of the surrounding wall (compare Judges 9:6 with Judges 9:46 and Judges 9:49, where Millo is used interchangeably with Migdal). The name (“the filling”) probably originated in the fact that through this tower or castle the fortification of the city, or the surrounding wall, was filled or completed. The definite article before Millo indicates that it was a well–known fortress, probably one that had been erected by the Jebusites. With regard to the situation of Millo, we may infer from this passage, and 1Chron. 11:8, that the tower in question stood at one corner of the wall, either on the north–east or north–west, “where the hill of Zion has the least elevation and therefore needed the greatest strengthening from without” (Thenius on 1Kings 9:15). This is fully sustained both by 1Kings 11:27, where Solomon is said to have closed the breach of the city of David by building (fortifying) Millo, and by 2Chron. 32:5, where Hezekiah is said to have built up all the wall of Jerusalem, and made Millo strong, i.e., to have fortified it still further (vid., 1Kings 9:15 and 1Kings 9:24). Footnote

Kukis

The Millo is possibly an inner wall, which was a fortification about the royal family. This could have been the original Jebusite wall, out from which David built more of Jerusalem, about which he placed another wall.

Lewin

Millo is the Temple area; and there was another Millo in Shechem (Judges 9:6) which is also designated as the migdal or tower of Shechem. Footnote

NIV Study Bible

They render millo as supporting terraces, and tell us that these are the stone terraces on the steep slopes of the hill, creating additional space for buildings. Footnote

New Living Testament

Millo is a rampart of two walls with a space between them [which is] filled in. Footnote They also refer to Millo as being an older section of the city. Footnote

Smith

Mil'lo. (a rampart, mound). A place in ancient Jerusalem. Both name and place seem to have been already in existence when the city was taken, from the Jebusites by David. (2Sam. 5:9 1Chron. 11:8). Its repair or restoration was one of the great works, for which Solomon raised his "levy" (1Kings 9:15, 24 11:27), and it formed a prominent part, of the fortifications by which Hezekiah prepared, for the approach of the Assyrians. 2Chron. 32:5. The last passage seems to show that "the Milo" was part of the "city of David," that is, of Zion. Compare 2Kings 12:20. Footnote

Wesley

Millo seems to have been the town - hall or, state - house, near the wall of the city of Zion. Footnote

Millo is obviously well-known to those who originally wrote this manuscript; however, at some point, it became little more than a thing, place or whatever in Jerusalem.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines

It may help us to see all of the passages where the Millo is found.

The Millo as Found in the Bible

Scripture

Text/Commentary

Judges 9:6 And all the leaders of Shechem gathered together, and all the house of Millo. And they came and made Abimelech king beside the plain of the pillar in Shechem.

Here, Millo appears to be the father or the ancestor of the mother of Abimelech. They would have been the chief backers, along with the leaders of Shechem, who would have supported Abimelech as king.

Judges 9:18–20 “And you have risen up against my father's house today, and have killed his sons, seventy persons, upon one stone, and have made Abimelech, the son of his slave woman, king over the men of Shechem, because he is your brother; if then you have dealt truly and sincerely with Jerubbaal and with his house today, rejoice in Abimelech, and let him also rejoice in you. But if not, let fire come out from Abimelech and burn up the men of Shechem and the house of Millo. And let fire come out from the men of Shechem, and from the house of Millo, and burn up Abimelech.”

This is simply an public prayer of cursing or blessing which suggests one or the other depending upon the motivation of those who put Abimelech in power. The house of Millo again probably refers to the family of Abimelech’s mother.

2Sam. 5:9 David lived in the stronghold, and called it the city of David. David built round about from Millo and inward.

At this point, Millo is theorized to be the wall; and it is unclear whether we are speaking of a separate wall or not. My theory is, this is the original wall, which was around a smaller area, which David used for his royal family. The wall of Jerusalem was a wall further out, which enclosed a larger chunk of land.

1Kings 9:15 This is the reason of the levy which king Solomon raised, to build the house of Yahweh, and his own house, and Millo, and the wall of Jerusalem, and Hazor, and Megiddo, and Gezer.

In this passage, it seems reasonable that the wall about Jerusalem and Millo are different things, as this is a list of distinct items. This differentiation is what led me to suggest that Millo is the original wall, inside of which is the royal family, and outside of which is the rest of Jerusalem (and the city wall). Our passage (1Chron. 11:8) also makes more sense with this interpretation.


There is the alternative approach that this could read ...and Millo, even the wall of Jerusalem,... This is less likely, in my opinion, as these are all treated as separate items held together with a series of wâw conjunctions.

1Kings 9:24 But Pharaoh's daughter came up from the city of David to her house which had been built for her [by Solomon]. And he [Solomon] built Millo.

My interpretation of millo is consistent with this passage, which Solomon rebuilds (or adds to) for his new wife, the daughter of the Pharaoh.

1Kings 11:27 And this was the thing for which he lifted up his hand against the king: Solomon built Millo, repairing the breaks of the city of his father David.

Again, Millo is seen as a specific thing or place. This is the repair of the walls of the city.

2Kings 12:20 And his servants rose up and made a conspiracy and killed Joash in the house of Millo, which goes down to Silla.

Here, we have the term, the house of Millo, which appears to refer to a place, as opposed to the same phrase found in the Judges. .

1Chron. 11:8 And he built the city all around, from Millo even all around. And Joab restored the rest of the city.

This is our passage, and a parallel passage to 2Sam. 5:9. Here, we are given more information as to who did the building and that building occurred all around Millo.

2Chron. 32:5 And Hezekiah made himself strong and built all the wall that was broken, and raised on it the towers; and outside, another wall; and strengthened Millo, the city of David, and made darts in abundance, and shields.

Because he is threatened by Sennacherib, Hezekiah builds up the city and prepares for war with Sennacherib. It may be worth noting, to the turn-the-other-cheek crowd that Hezekiah does not run out and immediately establish some sort of a peace agreement.

 


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Some suggest Footnote that the remainder of this verse was dropped out of the Samuel text. However, we really do not know about that. The writer of Chronicles had access to a variety of texts, although it is clear that he most closely followed the Samuel text for the narrative portions of Chronicles.


1Chronicles 11:8b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

Yôwâb (יוֹאָב) [pronounced YOH-awbv]

Yah is father and is transliterated Joab

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #3097 BDB #222

châyâh (חָיָה) [pronounced khaw-YAW]

to cause to live, to make alive; to keep alive; to call back to life; to restore life

3rd person masculine singular, Piel imperfect

Strong's #2421 & #2425 BDB #310

êth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

sheâr (שְאָר) [pronounced she-AWR]

rest, remainder, residue, remnant

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #7605 BDB #984

׳îyr (עִיר) [pronounced ģeer]

encampment, city, town

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #5892 BDB #746


Translation: Joab brought the rest of the city back to life. This is an unusual verb to find here. We would have expected to find the verb bânâh (בָּנָה) [pronounced baw-NAWH], which means to build, to rebuild, to restore. Strong’s #1129 BDB #124. However, the verb that we find here is châyâh, which means to cause to live, to make alive; to keep alive; to call back to life; to restore life. This suggests that there were huge numbers of Jebusites who were killed in David’s attack of Jebus, which shut down the city. Therefore, Joab is not overseeing the rebuilding of the city, but he is functioning more as the city manager, to get everything within the city functioning again—the stores, the animals, the water supply. He would have been involved in bringing in personnel, for David’s palace; for his wives and mistresses. There needs to be places for David’s personal bodyguard to live. So, Joab saw to the removal of all the dead Jebusites; he saw to the cleaning up of the new Jerusalem; he oversaw new personnel being put into place; he saw to the leasing out of various buildings; he made determinations as to who might live here or there.


Joab is a military genius. When Joab defeats Ammon and Syria in 1Chron. 19:6–15, he was able to do something that almost no other general could have done. He will find himself in the most precarious and difficult situation, and he will turn it around in a way that few people appreciate today.


But here, Joab will breathe new life into this city. Joab is taking this city filled with the corpses of Jebusites, and he is going to transform it into a living, breathing city once again. Joab does not complain and say, “Look, I am a military man; I kill people for a living. I don’t know what the hell I ought to do here. You want me to kill a bunch of soldiers, I can do that; but restore this city? What?” Joab doesn’t say this. Joab is not confused by this request, nor is he unable to function here.


One of the lies of my generation is, when veterans exit the military, they are lost and damaged souls, who often cannot fit into life; many, therefore, turn to drugs. Statistically, this is false. Military men learn self-discipline, integrity, teamwork and innovation; they make courageous decisions sometimes on a moment by moment basis. So men who come out of the military can adapt very quickly to additional schooling or entering into the business world, translating their many skills into non-war life. Despite all of the hype which we have read, statistically speaking, veterans are far more successful in school and in life than their non-veteran counterparts.


This helps to explain the American military. We often just see these as fighting men, but what they do is absolutely amazing. The American military does not than kill and destroy; we often build up again and restore an area.


Application: One of the greatest places for a man (and some women) to get their start in life is by the military. Many young people who have not grown up, have not developed any self-discipline, or have had lousy childhoods, can see this turned around by joining the military.


Application: When we defeat another country in war, that nation, that land and that people belong to us. However, what the United States did after WWII was absolutely amazing. While Stalin greedily grabbed this and that piece of land to control and exploit, we went into Japan, our defeated enemy, and built them into a great nation and a great ally. We restored their sovereignty and freedom, and then we exited, leaving Japan as one of America’s greatest allies only a decade after dramatically defeating it.


Application: Here is where President George W. Bush got it right and got it wrong at the same time. More than most presidents, Bush knew history, and he understood the importance of the nation-building that we did in Japan. Therefore, when something needed to be done about Afghanistan, Iran and Iraq, Bush acted. Afghanistan trained terrorists to act against us; Iraq was led by a blood-thirsty killer who paid the families of terrorists to show his gratitude for the actions of the terrorists. Iran was going nuclear. President Bush chose to invade and rebuild both Afghanistan and Iraq, and have our military poised there in case we needed to act concerning Iran (Afghanistan and Iraq are on both sides of Iran, so this was a brilliant strategic move, completely unappreciated by the Obama administration). But where Bush failed was in the spiritual realm. These people needed to be evangelized. General MacArthur called for Bibles and missionaries; President Bush did not. When we were holding all the cards, we could have insisted upon a Bill of Rights, which would include freedom of religion; we did not (obviously, that would have been imposing our standards on them; what do you think this war was all about?). End result is, we established a democracy in both countries, but, without missions and the gospel of Jesus Christ, this could be a relatively short-lived alliance.


——————————


And so goes David going great and Yehowah of armies [is] with him.

1Chronicles

11:9

And David greatly advanced and Yehowah of the armies [was] with him.

And David continued to move forward, always advancing, becoming greater in power and substance; and Jehovah of the armies was always with him.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          And David went on growing and increasing, and the Lord of hosts was with him.

Masoretic Text                       And so goes David going great and Yehowah of armies [is] with him.

Septuagint                              And David continued to increase, and the Lord Almighty [was] with him.

 

Significant differences:           In the first thought, the Hebrew uses the same verb twice; the Greek actually has 3 verbs here, two which have the same root and mean to advance; and a 3rd which means to become great. There does not appear to be a strong difference in meaning. The Greek also has a slightly different title for God (the Lord Almighty instead of the Lord of the armies).


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       David became a great and strong ruler, because the LORD All-Powerful was on his side.

REB                                       David steadily grew more and more powerful, for the Lord of hosts was with him.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

God’s Word                         David continued to grow more powerful because the LORD of Armies was with him.

HCSB                                     David steadily grew more powerful, and the LORD of Hosts was with him.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

ESV                                       And David became greater and greater, for the LORD of hosts was with him.

WEB                                      David grew greater and greater; for Yahweh of Hosts was with him.

Young’s Updated LT             And David goes, going on and becoming great, and Jehovah of Hosts [is] with him.


What is the gist of this verse? David continues to advance in greatness (in prosperity, power and prestige); and God is with him (which indicates spiritual advancement as well).


1Chronicles 11:9a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

hâlake (הָלַךְ) [pronounced haw-LAHKe]

to go, to come, to depart, to walk; to advance

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #1980 (and #3212) BDB #229

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

hâlake (הָלַךְ) [pronounced haw-LAHKe]

to go, to come, to depart, to walk; to advance

Qal infinitive absolute

Strong’s #1980 (and #3212) BDB #229

A Qal infinitive absolute is a verb which can act like noun, a verb or an adverb. Generally it takes the place of a noun and serves to intensify meanings. When used as a complement of affirmation, it may be rendered surely, indeed, definitely; and when it is a complement of improbability and condition, we render it at all, freely, indeed. The Qal infinitive absolute can also serve as an adverbial complement; or, as a verb, it can replace finite verbs, imperatives, participles, and the infinitive constructs. Footnote

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that, so that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

gâdôwl (גָּדוֹל) [pronounced gaw-DOHL]

large, great or mighty [in power, nobility, wealth; in number, or magnitude and extent], loud, older, important, distinguished; vast, unyielding, immutable, significant, astonishing

masculine singular adjective

Strong’s #1419 BDB #152


Translation: And David greatly advanced... In every way possible, David moved ahead. His power became greater as ruler over all of Israel. His reign over Jerusalem became more organized, which organization extended to his entire kingdom. David was able to call up large armies from among his people, which, in itself is a great feat. David became richer. Hiram, the King of Tyre, will even come and build David a palace (1Chron. 14:1).


However, most important of all, David advanced spiritually.


1Chronicles 11:9b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that, so that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

tsebâʾôwth (צְבָאוֹת) [pronounced tzeb-vaw-OHTH]

army, war, or warfare

masculine plural noun; Owen lists this as a proper noun

Strong's #6635 DB #838

׳îm (עִם) [pronounced ģeem]

with, at, by, near; like; from

preposition of nearness and vicinity; with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5973 BDB #767


Translation: ...and Yehowah of the armies [was] with him. An area where we often fall down in is, once God has given us pretty much everything that we want, we just enjoy that stuff, and give God very little thought.


Application: This occurs on a human level as well: we get that job promotion that we wanted, we move into the neighborhood that we have dreamed of, we are promoted or advanced; and we burn those bridges behind us. We are able to buy our dream house, so we screw our previous landlord. All real blessing is from God, and whether we are up or down, our focus needs to be upon Him and His Word. That ought to be our priority, no matter where we find ourselves at any given time.


David did not lose his spiritual life. David did not say, “Look at me; I am rich and famous and powerful; I have all of the women I could possibly want. See you in eternity, God.” David focused on God and His Word. He continued to grow in grace and knowledge of Jehovah Elohim. How do we know this? Right here, we have the God-ward side of things: Jehovah of the armies was with him. Furthermore, down the road, David is going to try to move the Ark of God, and he is going to make a big mistake in moving it. He will then study the Word of God, learn how the Ark is to be moved, and, in this study, he will grow spiritually (1Chron. 13, 16). After this, God is going to grace David out with the Davidic Covenant, which is one of the great covenants of the Old Testament (1Chron. 17).


Application: The key is focus and priorities; David focuses on the priority of Bible doctrine, and he grows spiritually. He does not simply play with all of his toys, ignoring God. There is no need to be weird about this; God expects us to spend some time with divine viewpoint daily; Bible class every day or listening to a sermon (ideally speaking, by your own right pastor). You spend the other 23 hours a day living your life—ideally speaking, with an eye on your eternal future. You live your life in the light of eternity.


Application: There are people who will become missionaries, pastors, seminary school teachers, etc.; i.e., jobs which involve a daily commitment of 8–16 hours. However, for most of us, we simply live our lives where God has placed us, and we take in doctrine once a day for an hour. This is not an onerous requirement. Most of us watch television for 3–5 hours a day and we might spend 1–4 hours a day on our computers. Furthermore, we spend 1–2 hours eating everyday and 6–10 hours sleeping everyday. Therefore, the idea of making time for an hour of doctrine each day is not a burdensome expectation. It is a matter of priorities. In eternity, you want to find out that Jesus Christ of the armies was with you.


Application: There is one more thing, which David Guzik points out: David was not an overnight success, and, as we have seen and will see, David was far from being perfect. There are people in the Christian community, and they were famous before they became believers, and they are paraded about after they believe as some great thing. It is wonderful when someone believes in Jesus Christ, but when someone goes from being an unbeliever to being a believer, rarely do their norms and standards line up with the thinking of Jesus Christ; rarely do they have any concept of divine viewpoint. A new believer at the point of salvation is at square one, whether this was the captain of the football team, a famous celebrity of some sort, or some guy who spent the last 10 years of his life drunk and laying in gutters. We tend to be quite confused by this. If someone was a celebrity before they believed in Jesus, we haul him out in front of everyone else. Even with the town drunk, sometimes he is cleaned up and made a show of. They need to grow up spiritually. If these people speak, most of the time, all they convey is human viewpoint or the most basic information. If they say, “I just believed in Jesus Christ and I don’t know what is going to happen next;” great. If they say much more than this, they are just spreading a lot of human viewpoint in with the gospel.


Application: David grew in grace and knowledge of the Lord Jesus Christ. It is his spiritual growth which makes him a great believer to emulate. This was developed over a period of time, all which took place subsequent to David becoming a believer in Jesus Christ. It did not happen overnight. We first learned about David at age 16; we now tune into his life here at age 40. At this point, we are told, Jehovah of the armies was with him.


God has said, “You are My servant, I have chosen you and not cast you off; fear not, for I am with you; be not dismayed, for I am your God; I will strengthen you, I will help you, I will uphold you with My righteous right hand.” (Isa. 41:9b–10). And, If God is for us, who can be against us? (Rom. 8:31).


This final verse which ends this section is very important, and there is a reason why we find it here. And David continued to move forward, always advancing, becoming greater in power and substance; and Jehovah of the armies was always with him. The rest of 1Chron. 11 will name the soldiers, the elite force, who supported David. Now, these are great men, but they are not the reason for David’s success. David’s great success was based upon the fact that he grew spiritually and God was with him. A part of this blessing are these great men who supported David. Because David grew spiritually and because God was with him, these men were David’s supporters. David’s advancement in life was not based upon gathering an elite force of soldiers around him. The support of these men is one of the many ways in which God blessed David.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


——————————


At this point, I would have made the rest of this chapter a new chapter altogether. Bear in mind that, the writer of Scripture (or, the editor, in this case) did not himself divide these verses up into chapters. They simply wrote, and men, hundreds of years later, divided the Bible into chapters and verses.


The writer of Samuel wrote a chronology of the events leading up to King Saul, then covered King Saul’s reign, and the covered David’s reign from 1Sam. 1 to 2Sam. 21. What follows are 2 psalms written by David, a list of David’s Mighty Men, the census which Satan inspired David to take. In other words, after 2Sam. 21, there seem to be a few random things thrown together—sort of a postscript, if you will (and here may have been an editor who did this). David’s dying grace will be covered in 1Kings 1–2. So, the writers of Samuel (or the editor), thought that it would be important to include those psalms of David, which describe what God had done for David throughout his life, and to then name the men who stood behind David—David’s Mighty Men.


The editor of the book of Chronicles treated this matter much differently. He essentially ignored any history related to the Judges (Samuel was the last judge), and began his history with the death of Saul in 1Chron. 10. Then he jumps over the divided kingdom, David’s partial rule, and all of the intrigue which occurred, and jumps right into David’s rule over all Israel. For this editor, one must immediately name David’s great elite soldiers, those who were his chief backers from the very beginning.


David’s Mighty Men

2Samuel 23:8–39


Joab is probably the one who actually composed this list of David’s mighty men, which is something we will discuss in greater detail later on in this chapter.


For all intents and purposes, this is a new chapter in Chronicles.


Throughout the book of Chronicles and in various chapters here and there, we have various lists of names: genealogies mostly, and here, lists of heroes. Why?

Why are There Lists of Names in the Bible?

1.      In a genealogy like this, we meet a variety of men, and are given clues as to their backgrounds, and we will be able to make a variety of observations and applications based upon how they are named in this text.

2.      God the Holy Spirit finds it important to place 2 lists of David’s great soldiers in the Bible (and there are other lists of soldiers), to indicate the honor of serving one’s country as a soldier. Nowhere in the Bible does God the Holy Spirit give us the list of great pacifists from this or that era.

3.      There are a variety of ways men are referred to in this list, and that gives us key clues as to their backgrounds.

4.      Most of the lists found in the Bible are genealogies. They have their own reasons for being found in the Bible:

         1)      The Bible contains the list of men, going all the way from Adam to Joseph and from Adam to Mary, giving us the full legal line of the humanity of Jesus Christ and the full genealogy of the humanity of Jesus Christ. This genealogy is scattered in many places in the Bible, although Luke gives it in its entirety in Luke 3. It is always fascinating to me that there is only one line followed all the way through from Adam to Jesus, even though this line is located in several different chapters in various books of the Bible. God the Holy Spirit knew to preserve this line, but the human authors probably had no idea most of the time that they were preserving the human genealogy of Jesus Christ.

         2)      Genealogies tell us which families were glorified and which disappeared into human history. Abraham’s line was followed out; but there were various other family lines before and after Abraham which went out for 2, 3 or 4 generations, and then they just stopped.

         3)      Straight-line genealogies (which we are told how long a person lived until the sired this or that son) give us a chronology, and we have found that the chronology of mankind, as laid out in the Bible, is in line with human population growth models (evolution does not synch up with any accepted human population growth model).

         4)      We learn how various races began, where they went to, and who they are descended from. Gen. 10 is one of the most amazing chapters of the Bible, as it identifies almost all early civilizations, which we can match up with archeological records.

         5)      One of the very first genealogies, found in Gen. 5, gives us the gospel.

         6)      A straight-line genealogy from Gen. 10 gives us an idea as to the culture from generation to generation.

         7)      Thomas fuller observed1 this particular line:

                  (1)     Roboam begat Abia; that is, a bad father begat a bad son.

                  (2)     Abia begat Asa; that is, a bad father, a good son.

                  (3)     Asa begat Josophat; that is, a good father, a good son.

                  (4)     Josaphat begat Joram; that is, a good father, a bad son.

                  (5)     And fuller concluded: I see, Lord, from hence, that my father's piety cannot be entailed; that is bad news for me. But I see also that actual impiety is not always hereditary; that is good news for my son.

         8)      Genealogical lines are of a natural interest to many of us; and it seems as you get older, the more interesting that they become. Even evolutionists, when they find old money bones somewhere, they are remarkably moved, thinking that this is one of their ancestors.

5.      Eventually, our eternal destiny will be determined by whether or not our name is found in a large book of names, the Book of the Lamb of God. Rev. 20:12-15

I am certain that there are other reasons for lists of names and genealogies, and as they occur to me, I will integrate them into this list.

1 From http://www.custance.org/old/geneal.html; which cites Thomas Fuller, quaintest of English divines, in his Scripture Observations. Page accessed August 23, 2010.

For further study, let me recommend:

http://www.custance.org/old/geneal.html

http://www.complete-bible-genealogy.com/index.htm (this is a very interesting site, where we see pretty much every genealogy and who is related to who).

http://www.apologeticspress.org/articles/2185

http://www.bible-genealogy.com/


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There are 2 doctrines which are quite important at this time, and, since there is no reason for me to reinvent the wheel, I will use other sources where they have done a good job.


There are several doctrines which we ought to take a look at. First is the Doctrine of the Client Nation to God (PDF version). At this point, I have tried to shorten this doctrine down, and I have not succeeded to reducing even the shortened version is 10 pages, so it is best to go directly to the doctrine itself until I am able to edit it down further. .


The client nation is a specific nation with specific duties before God. However, there are a number of nations where there are believers. The doctrine of the pivot concentrates more on the individuals in a nation rather than on the corporate impact of the nation.

Doctrine of the Pivot

1.      The pivot refers to the maturing believers in a nation.

2.      The spinoff refers to those believers who go negative toward Bible doctrine or to those who enter into interlocking systems of arrogance.

3.      One of the early examples of this is when Abram is bargaining with God concerning Lot and his living in Sodom. Abram reasons with God, that, if he can find 50 righteous men in Sodom, would He spare the city, and God agrees to that. Then Abram brings the number down to 40, then 30 and eventually down to 10 (which would have been the size of Lot’s family). So, in the city of Sodom, if there were 10 righteous people, then God promised not to destroy it. However, it turned out that there were fewer than 10, so God destroyed the city, allowing the believers to leave. Gen. 18:27–33 19:1–26

4.      When a nation has a large number of growing believers, that nation is blessed.

5.      However, with blessing from God also comes great responsibility.

6.      The various incarnations of Israel is our guide to God’s interaction with the client nation.

7.      The pivot is not made up of people who are necessarily visible. Elijah thought that he was the last significant believer in Israel, and God tells him that there are 7000 who have not bowed their knee to Baal. 1Kings 10:14, 18 Rom. 11:3–4

8.      When people turn toward God, God protects them and their nation. The example is the Southern Kingdom under the ministry of Isaiah.

9.      When there is not a large enough pivot, God brings discipline upon a nation, which could result in the removal of that nation and its people. The example is the Southern Kingdom under the ministry of Jeremiah.

10.    The Book of Jonah also demonstrates the power of the pivot and positive volition. The Assyrians in Nineveh need to be evangelized, and God sends Jonah to them. Jonah hates the Assyrians and first goes the other way, but God gets him there, the Assyrians respond to his ministry, and Assyria continues as a great nation because of this.

11.    This tells us that, even if a nation is not a client nation to God, that nation can be preserved because of the number of believers inside of that nation.

12.    Once a pivot is large enough, that nation becomes a client nation to God, with increased blessings and increased responsibilities. The functions of a client nation include teaching Bible doctrine throughout the nation, preserving the Word of God, and evangelizing other nations as well. We have seen this in the United States where there have often been strongly opposing forces within the nation, which has resulted in great pain and discipline. The Civil War and the Great Depression are illustrations of difficult times that our nation has gone through. The 1920's and the 1950's are 2 decades of great prosperity; however, since these decades were not followed spiritual growth, the following decade was more difficult.

13.    One of the greatest presidents of the United States, Calvin Coolidge, was one of the presidents in the 1920's. Some of Coolidge’s quotations include:

         1)      “The foundations of our society and our government rest so much on the teachings of the Bible that it would be difficult to support them if faith in these teachings would cease to be practically universal in our country.”

         2)      “America seeks no earthly empire built on blood and force. No ambition, no temptation, lures her to thought of foreign dominions. The legions which she sends forth are armed, not with the sword, but with the cross. The higher state to which she seeks the allegiance of all mankind is not of human, but of divine origin. She cherishes no purpose save to merit the favor of Almighty God.”

         3)      “A government which lays taxes on the people not required by urgent public necessity and sound public policy is not a protector of liberty, but an instrument of tyranny.”

         4)      “Doubters do not achieve; skeptics do not contribute; cynics do not create. Faith is the great motive power, and no man realizes his full possibilities unless he has the deep conviction that life is eternally important, and that his work, well done, is a part of an unending plan.”

14.    Anytime the citizens of the United States look to a particular man or to a governmental system to solve their problems, we face great discipline. Our nation, as a whole, put a tremendous amount of faith in FDR, and the end result was 15 years of hard times.

The key to the solution of the problems of a nation is always the pivot, which can only be strengthened spiritually.


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One easy trap for the believer is thinking that there are political solutions for a nation.

Pivot Politics Versus Power Politics

Definition and Description:

1.      Problems of life demand solution. These problems are both individual and collective. Self-righteousness is the motivator for power politics, which is the Satanic system for problem solving on earth.

2.      While man cannot solve his personal problems, he likes to compensate by trying to solve collective problems in his society or nation.

3.      There are two approaches to problem solving on a national scale: pivot politics and power politics.

4.      Pivot politics is the divine solution to problems of life.

5.      Pivot politics includes regeneration, advance in the plan of God through perception and application of doctrine, attaining maturity, and becoming part of the pivot which preserves a locale (city, state, nation).

6.      Pivot politics adheres to principles of freedom and advocates the function of the laws of divine establishment in the national entity.

7.      Power politics is the human and Satanic solution to problems.

8.      Power politics is the concept of social action practiced by the National Council of Churches, the World Council of Churches, the Communist Party, all political parties, and the United Nations.

9.      Power politics uses peace and love propaganda to achieve its goals. It stops people from thinking. Self-determination must not function on emotion. If this doesn't work, they resort to violence, tyranny, terror, and revolution to achieve their ends when people resist their propaganda.

10.    Many believers become distracted from the plan of God by power politics. They become involved in socialism, the welfare state, and other Satanic plans for the establishment of the pseudo-millennium.

Pivot Politics versus Power Politics

1.      Historical crisis clarifies the difference between pivot politics and power politics.

2.      Unless the situation is hopeless, there is no historical crisis. Crisis means there is no apparent solution.

3.      The crisis finds antithetical solutions from pivot politics and power politics.

4.      Because the crisis finds power politics unable to cope with the situation, the crisis is intensified by irrationality, confusion, and violence on the part of the reversionist.

5.      Pivot politics prepares the believer for the crisis through perception of doctrine, so that the faith-rest drill functions in claiming promises, reversing concentration, and coming to doctrinal conclusions.

6.      Doctrine is utilized in reverse concentration under the second stage of the faith-rest drill. God uses prepared people in the crisis who know how to apply doctrine to the situation for divine solutions.

7.      Pivot politics represents personal solutions to disaster through personal relationship with God through Jesus Christ.

8.      Power politics represents collective human viewpoint. Its approach to crisis includes alliance and compromise with evil, the welfare state, and socialism.

9.      In pivot politics, the means (doctrine) justifies the end (maturity). But in power politics, the end (e.g., socialist conquest) justifies the means (terrorism, revolution, violence).

10.    Pivot politics emphasizes thought, reverse concentration, and grace; while power politics emphasizes action, e.g., violence, tyranny, arrogance, evil, self-righteousness, revolution and change.

11.    Grace glorifies God; change glorifies man. We need unchanging doctrine for the changing world.

The Conflict of History.

1.      There is a continuous battle between pivot politics and power politics. There is a difference in their modus operandi.

2.      Bible doctrine demands that the believer reject power politics. For example, he must never approve of assassination or revolution. The solution in pivot politics is perception of doctrine, remembering the fact that Jesus Christ controls history, and advancing to spiritual maturity.

3.      The larger the pivot, the greater the blessing, prosperity and effectiveness of the client nation.

4.      By emphasizing change, power politics destroys establishment authority and the proper use of freedom.

5.      Change upsets establishment and destroys freedom in the name of the common good. Therefore power politics, in the name of human good, destroys the essential characteristics of the angelic conflict: freedom.

6.      Whatever the form of government, the practice of establishment principles sponsors human freedom in monarchy, oligarchy, and democracy.

7.      The change of power politics destroys human freedom by attacking establishment authority, personal privacy, property and free enterprise.

8.      Pivot politics offers solutions to crisis without tampering with human freedom.

9.      A pivot of mature believers breaks no laws, sponsors no violence, confiscates no one's property, does not intrude on privacy, but turns the world upside down through the invisible force of Bible doctrine and the function of the royal family honor code.

10.    Power politics tries to change the leopard's spots, while pivot politics only tries to change his direction.

11.    Power politics exchanges establishment evil for non-establishment evil. Therefore tyranny prevails, e.g., the French and Russian revolutions.

12.    Power politics is the believer on a crusade, full of scar tissue of the soul, with locked in arrogance, filled with self-righteousness, parlaying human good into evil, and distorting law through the advocacy of terrorism or revolution.

13.    Power politics means disruption of normal life in the name of human good, self-righteousness; it is the use of arrogance and self-sacrifice to destroy freedom.

14.    With power politics, responsible government is changed to irresponsible tyranny.

15.    Power politics uses human good to produce evil. Pivot politics uses doctrine to produce divine good.

Conclusion

Each believer must choose for involvement in the plan of God or try to improve Satan's world through human systems. Pivot politics uses doctrine to produce divine good. Power politics uses human good to produce evil.

This was taken from http://www.amadorbiblestudies.org/Notes/Romans/Rom11/Rom11_5.doc (Which will automatically open up in WP or in Word on your computer). In that document is included an illustration of pivot politics versus power politics using Elijah and Obadiah. If you are interested in that overall study, it is easier to access it from the online folder of http://www.amadorbiblestudies.org/Notes/Romans/Rom11/ It ought to be emphasized that this doctrine was originally formulated by R. B. Thieme, Jr. so, for all I know, this could have been taken nearly word-for-word from his teachings.


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Our concluding introductory principle:

How Does the Doctrine of the Client nation and of the Pivot Apply?

1.      We are about to examine a number of military men, men who are named in the Bible.

2.      The Bible never names the greatest pacifists of all time, but it does list the great military men of David’s day.

3.      All Israel is a client nation at this time.

4.      This implies that there are a lot of believers in Israel and a number of believers who are mature.

5.      Any time a nation is clearly a client nation, believers are squared away with regards to the divine institutions and their place in life as believers.

These are great men, but David is blessed by God, Who provided these men for him.


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David’s Greatest Soldiers and Some of Their Exploits

2Samuel 23:8–23


This verse which follows has no parallel in the Samuel text. Recall that, in general, the book of Chronicles is said to be the divine viewpoint of events of the past.


And these [are] heads of the strong men who [are] to David, those being established with him in his reign [or, kingdom] with all Israel to make him king according to a Word of Yehowah over Israel.

1Chronicles

11:10

And these [men] [are] the officers of the mighty men who [belong] to David—the ones assisting him in his kingdom—with all Israel, to make him king according to the Word of Yehowah over Israel.

Now, these men are the officers of David’s Mighty Men—the ones who assist David in his kingdom—along with all Israel, to make David king according to the Word of Jehovah over Israel.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          These are the chief of the valiant man of David, who helped him to be made king over all Israel, according to the word of the Lord, which he spoke to Israel.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And these [are] heads of the strong men who [are] to David, those being established with him in his reign [or, kingdom] with all Israel to make him king according to a Word of Yehowah over Israel.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    These are the chiefs of David's mighty men, who strengthened themselves with him in his kingdom and helped him to be made king over all Israel, according to the word of the LORD which he spoke concerning Israel.

Septuagint (Greek)                And these are the chiefs of the mighty men, whom David had, who strengthened themselves with him in his kingdom, with all Israel, to make him king, according to the word of the Lord concerning Israel.

 

Significant differences:           There are various ways to legitimately translate ...who [are] to David... What is underlined above are legitimate renderings of the Hebrew. The first verb, a Hithpael participle, is difficult to translate, and the Hithpael is the reflexive of the Piel (which accounts for the Greek and Syriac renderings). However, as you will read in the Hebrew exegesis, when followed by ʿîm, this can mean to help, to aid, to assist, which is likely the better rendering (see my nearly literal translation above. Again, there is no problem with the underlying Hebrew here. The English rendering of the Syriac, if you look closely enough, translates this verb twice to cover all bases. The English of the Latin leaves out a few words at this point.

 

The only real problem is the phrase which he spoke, which is found in the English translation of the Latin and Syriac, which phrase is not found in the Hebrew or the Greek.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       The LORD had promised that David would become king, and so everyone in Israel gave David their support. Certain warriors also helped keep his kingdom strong.

Easy English (Pocock)           These were the leaders of David's soldiers. They helped to make David's *kingdom strong. And with all the *Israelites, they made him king over the whole country as the *LORD had promised.

Easy-to-Read Version            This is a list of the leaders over David’s special soldiers. These heroes became very powerful with David in his kingdom. They and all the people of Israel supported David and made him king. It happened just like God had promised.

Good News Bible (TEV)         This is the list of David's famous soldiers. Together with the rest of the people of Israel, they helped him become king, as the LORD had promised, and they kept his kingdom strong.

The Message                         These are the chiefs of David's Mighty Men, the ones who linked arms with him as he took up his kingship, with all Israel joining in, helping him become king in just the way GOD had spoken regarding Israel.

New Century Version             This is a list of the leaders over David's warriors who helped make David's kingdom strong. All the people of Israel also supported David's kingdom. These heroes and all the people of Israel made David king, just as the Lord had promised.

New Life Bible                                                             David's Strong Men

 

These are the leaders of David's strong men. They gave him much help in his nation, together with all Israel, to make him king. It was just as the Lord had said would happen with Israel.

New Living Translation           These are the leaders of David's mighty warriors. Together with all Israel, they decided to make David their king, just as the Lord had promised concerning Israel.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          These are the leaders and the mighty ones who were with David and who became great along with him when he ruled over all Israel, because they were the ones who made him king over Israel, just as Jehovah had said:...

Ancient Roots Translinear       He reigned over Israel by the word of Yahweh. These mighty heads with David and with all Israel fortified his kingdom:...

God’s Word                         Now, these were the commanders of David's fighting men, who exercised power with him in his kingdom, and with all Israel they made him king according to the LORD'S word to Israel.

New American Bible              These were David's chief warriors who, together with all Israel, supported him in his reign in order to make him true king, even as the LORD had commanded concerning Israel.

NIRV                                      David's Mighty Men

 

The chiefs of David's mighty men and the whole community of Israel helped David greatly. They helped him become king over the entire land. That's exactly what the Lord had promised him.

Revised English Bible            These were the chief of David’s heroes, men who lent their full strength to his government and, with all Israel, joined in making him king; such was the Lord’s decree for Israel.

Today’s NIV                          David's Mighty Warriors

 

These were the chiefs of David's mighty warriors-they, together with all Israel, gave his kingship strong support to extend it over the whole land, as the LORD had promised-.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             Now these are the chief of David's men of war who were his strong supporters in the kingdom, and, with all Israel, made him king, as the Lord had said about Israel.

HCSB                                     The following were the chiefs of David's warriors who, together with all Israel, strongly supported him in his reign to make him king according to the LORD's word about Israel.

JPS (Tanakh—1917)               Now these are the chief of the mighty men whom David had, who held strongly with him in his kingdom, together with all Israel, to make him king, according to the word of the LORD concerning Israel.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               And these were David’s chief warriors who strongly supported him in his kingdom, together with all Israel, to make him king, according to the word of the Lord concerning Israel.

Judaica Press Complete T.    And these are the chiefs of David's mighty men who held strongly with him in his kingdom with all Israel to crown him-according to the word of the Lord concerning Israel.

NET Bible®                             David's Warriors

 

These were the leaders of David's warriors who helped establish and stabilize his rule over all Israel, in accordance with the LORD's word [Heb "and these were the heads of the warriors who were David's, who held strongly with him in his kingdom and with all Israel to make him king, according to the word of the Lord, over Israel."].

New International Version      David's Mighty Men

 

These were the chiefs of David's mighty men-they, together with all Israel, gave his kingship strong support to extend it over the whole land, as the LORD had promised–...


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And these [are] heads of the mighty ones whom David has, who are strengthening themselves with him in his kingdom, with all Israel, to cause him to reign, according to the word of Yahweh, over Israel.

English Standard Version      Now these are the chiefs of David's mighty men, who gave him strong support in his kingdom, together with all Israel, to make him king, according to the word of the LORD concerning Israel.

exeGeses companion Bible   THE HEADS OF THE MIGHTY OF DAVID

And these are heads of the mighty of David

- who strengthen themselves with him

in his sovereigndom

and with all Yisra El,

to have him reign according to the word of Yah Veh

concerning Yisra El.

Syndein/Thieme                     These also are the chief of the mighty men whom David had, who strengthened themselves with him in his kingdom, and with all Israel, to make him king, according to the word of Jehovah/God concerning Israel.

World English Bible                Now these are the chief of the mighty men whom David had, who shown themselves strong with him in his kingdom, together with all Israel, to make him king, according to the word of Yahweh concerning Israel.

Young's Updated LT              And these are heads of the mighty ones whom David has, who are strengthening themselves with him in his kingdom, with all Israel, to cause him to reign, according to the word of Jehovah, over Israel.

 

The gist of this verse:          We are being introduced here to David’s Mighty Men, those who assisted David in his kingdom and who, along with all Israel, made David king, according to God’s Word.


Generally when I write, I cover the chapters in 2Samuel first, and then, when they have a parallel passage in Chronicles, I cover that next, noting any of the significant differences. This time, I simply had to get back to 1Chron. 11, because I left it hanging there undone for 5 years. So, this time, I will not spend much time with how this portion of 1Chron. 11 differs with 2Sam. 23, its parallel passage. When I get to 2Sam. 23, I will spend more time there noting the differences and discussing them (2Sam. 23 is placed much later in the history of David and Israel than is 1Chron. 11).


1Chronicles 11:10a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêlleh (אֵלֶּה) [pronounced ALE-leh]

these, these things

demonstrative plural adjective

Strong's #428 BDB #41

The phrase the words the these can either refer to what will immediately follow this phrase (see Gen. 2:4 6:9 11:10), or it refers back to what has come before (see Gen. 9:19 10:20, 29, 31). Obviously, since a quotation does not follow, then this refers back to what precedes this. Given the addition of the kaph preposition, Goliath is making the same announcement as he has made before (from 1Sam. 17:23).

rôʾsh (רֹאש or רֹאֶש) [pronounced rohsh]

head [of a man, city, state, nation, place, family, priest], top [of a mountain]; chief, prince, officer; front, choicest, best; height [of stars]; sum

masculine plural construct

Strong's #7218 BDB #910

gibbôwr (גִּבּוֹר) [pronounced gib-BOAR]

strong man, mighty man, soldier, warrior, combatant, veteran

masculine plural noun/adjective with the definite article

Strong’s #1368 BDB #150


Translation: And these [men] [are] the officers of the mighty men... Israel appears to have had universal military training among the men. Most of Israel’s males were in the reserves. That is, they served a few years and then returned to civilian life, but ready to go to war for Israel at any time (which will occur in 1Chron. 19 against Aram).


These are men who are trained to kill other men in battle—these are the greatest military men in Israel’s history, and God wants us to know their names.

It appears as though there was a standing army at all times (there is no evidence to the contrary of this), and in this standing army would have been an elite force. I do not want to venture a guess as to how many this would be, but I would assume thousands, and that these are career military men. Over them are their officers, who would have come up in the ranks—fellow lifers—and these officers are named here.


Application: If David, a man after God’s Own heart, kept a standing army back around 1000 b.c., with the ability to draft men throughout Israel in a heartbeat, what makes you think the United States ought to do things any differently? God recognizes the importance of the military.


Over the years, these have been called David’s Mighty Men, but that is a misnomer, like Levitical priests. Just as Levitical priests ought to be called Aaronic priests, David’s Mighty Men ought to be called the Officers of David’s Mighty Men or the Officers of David’s Elite Fighting Force.


Here is an important note: the Bible does not glorify or name the great businessmen or great landowners of Israel. There is no list of the top 100 businesses or business people in Israel. Nor does God the Holy Spirit ever name the great pacifists in Israel’s history (although, not going to war is presented as a sin in Num. 32, in that famous passage where Moses says, “Your sin [of pacifism] will find you out.”). But God recognizes here, in writing, in His Holy Word, the great elite force officers, whose names will be enshrined forever. These are men who are trained to kill other men in battle—these are the greatest military men in Israel’s history, and God wants us to know their names.


Application: I was raised as a child of the 60's of liberal—even anti-war—parents. One of the difficult things for me was learning to recognize the place of the military, and the great honor of such men who serve their country in this way. I had this distorted notion of the world that, if we all carried flowers in our pockets and refused to go to war, that everything would be butterflies and popsicles. This is not what the Word of God teaches, nor is this the way that the world is. Jesus Christ said that there will be wars and rumors of wars until He returns, and in passages like this, He recognizes and honors great military men whose battles are long ago, but whose names and personal honor stand forever in the Word of God.


Application: Some of us have had doctrinal parents, but most of us have not. Most of us have gone to schools which intentionally distort the truth and distort history in order to get across various points of view. Footnote You have been ingrained with certain points of view and ideas that are wrong. These may be your most cherished feelings about life. However, when you stand these up against the Word of God, the Word of God must win out. You have to be willing to accept God’s Word over your puny ideas, whenever that occurs. Whenever there is a conflict between how you have been brainwashed in your life and the Word of God, you will need to choose the Word of God as being right and your closely held values as being wrong.


Application: New believers are quite confused by the Christian way of life. Because very little doctrine is ever taught, they think that, all of the principles and values they learned as a child are equivalent to Biblical principles, and that their Christian lives are primarily an avoidance of gross sins. Growing spiritually means that you are going to have to chunk out your old values when they are wrong.


One of the keys to the Christian way of life is what you think.

Romans 12:1–2 Exegeted by R. B. Thieme, Jr.

Therefore I {Paul} urge you, brethren {all Royal Family of God}, by the mercies/'grace blessings' {oiktirmos} of the God, to 'place your bodies under orders'/'present yourself' {paristemi—aorist active infinitive—point of time; not continuous action} as a sacrifice, living, holy/'set apart to God; {this is} well pleasing to our God, your 'rational and spiritual' {logikos} 'sacred service.

Paristemi was first used in classical Greek to describe a military maneuver with a double flank attack and destruction of a foe in battle. It came to mean to place yourself beside or under the authority of another.

Logos is the word form, which we get logical. Logikos has two meanings, both are applicable here. First of all means to act rationally and secondly, it also means to be spiritual.

Also, stop being molded/conformed to this age [to the thinking of your time] {meaning to stop following human viewpoint - learn the Mind of Christ and apply His viewpoint to your Ways of life}, but be transformed {metamorphoo - from human to divine viewpoint} by the renewing/renovation {anakainosis} of your mind [or, your thinking] {nous} {means to take in doctrine and replace human viewpoint with divine viewpoint} . . .

Note: All humans absorb the viewpoint of their parents, teachers, pastors, friends and even enemies. When we accept their viewpoint and believe it, we metabolize that viewpoint into the norms and standards by which we live and operate. What Paul is teaching us is that we think differently from God. We need to study the Bible, believe what we study, and metabolize God's viewpoint into the norms by which we live. Then He "walks" or "operates" through us and produces Divine Good (only someone who is Devine can produce anything that is Divine). We "Walk according to the More Excellent Ways taught to us by Jesus Christ". It is His Thinking - He receives the glory!

that you may prove/"expose the value" {dokimazo - investigate (like gold) to see if there is value} what the will of God is—namely {that the will of God is} the good {see Romans 8:28 - 'the good' will be defined} the well-pleasing/acceptable and the complete/perfect {teleios} {the attainment of the objective of the plan of God}!

Note: The purpose of spiritual growth is to determine what is God's will/purpose/design for each of us. Now that the canon of scripture is complete, the only way to determine God's will is by studying His Mind/Word. That is the beginning of spiritual growth - consistent intake of the Word.

I appeal to you therefore, brothers, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God, which is your spiritual worship. Do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewal of your mind, that by testing you may discern what is the will of God, what is good and acceptable and perfect (ESV).

I am entreating you, then, brethren, by the pities of God, to present your bodies a sacrifice, living, holy, well pleasing to God, your logical divine service, and not to be configured to this eon, but to be transformed by the renewing of your mind, for you to be testing what is the will of God, good and well pleasing and perfect." (CLV)

And now, brethren, I appeal to you by God's mercies to offer up your bodies as a living sacrifice, consecrated to God and worthy of his acceptance; this is the worship due from you as rational creatures. And you must not fall in with the manners of this world; there must be an inward change, a remaking of your minds, so that you can satisfy yourselves what is God's will, the good thing, the desirable thing, the perfect thing. (Knox NT)

I beg you, therefore, brothers, through these mercies God has shown you, to make a decisive dedication of your bodies as a living sacrifice, devoted and well-pleasing to God, which is your reasonable service. Stop living in accordance with the customs of this world, but by the new ideals that mold your minds continue to transform yourselves, so as to find and follow God's will; that is, what is good, well-pleasing to Him, and perfect. (Williams NT)

Consequently, brothers, I am repeatedly calling you folks alongside to exhort, implore and encourage you, through God's compassions to stand your bodies alongside (to place your bodies beside) [the] Well-pleasing, Set-apart (Holy), Living Sacrifice by God (in God; for God; to God) [this being] your sacred service which pertains to thought, reason and communication (your rational service; your logical obedience in worship). And stop constantly conforming yourself (or, as pass.: And quit being repeatedly fashioned or patterned together) by this age [or, w/other MSS: ... and not to be continuously configured to this age; ... and to not constantly remodel yourself for this age], but on the contrary, be continuously transformed (transfigured; changed in shape, form and semblance) by the renewing (in the renewal; for the making-back-up-new again) of your mind into the [situation and condition for] you to be habitually examining in order to be testing and, after scrutiny, approving what [is] God's will (design; purpose; resolve; intent): the good and well-pleasing, even perfect (finished and complete)! [or: ... the thing that is good, satisfying and able to succeed;... the good thing, also an acceptably well-pleasing woman, even a full-grown, mature man!] (Jonathon Mitchell NT)

Taken from: http://syndein.com/Romans_12.html accessed May 29, 2010 (edited). The other translations are from modules for e-sword.


Return to Chapter Outline

Return to Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


1Chronicles 11:10b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

châzaq (חָזַק) [pronounced khaw-ZAHK]

to be confirmed, to be established; to strengthen oneself, to take courage; to show oneself to be strong or energetic; to aid, to assist

masculine plural Hithpael participle

Strong’s #2388 BDB #304

This can be reasonably rendered to aid, to assist when followed by ׳îm (עִם) [pronounced ģeem]. Footnote

׳îm (עִם) [pronounced ģeem]

with, at, by, near; like; from

preposition of nearness and vicinity; with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5973 BDB #767

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

malekûwth (מַלְכוּת) [pronounced mahl-KOOTH]

royalty, royal power, reign, kingdom

feminine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #4438 BDB #574


Translation: ...who [belong] to David—the ones assisting him in his kingdom—... This little phrase is more difficult to render then you might think. The relative pronoun and the lâmed preposition can refer to ownership, so these officers of the Mighty Men are David’s men, his officers. So that phrase can be dealt with by using the possessive form of David, as in: Now, these men are the officers of David’s Mighty Men—the ones assisting him in his kingdom—...


The second part of this phrase has the Hithpael of châzaq (חָזַק) [pronounced khaw-ZAHK]. Usually, the Hithpael is the reflexive of the Piel (intensive), so they would be acting upon themselves—establishing themselves, strengthening themselves. However, in the Hithpael, châzaq can mean to aid, to assist, to help when followed by ʿîm. This helps to explain the very different approaches to translating this part of v. 10. However, given the context of this verse, it is most reasonable to see these men as assisting David in his kingdom. This would suggest that we are dealing with more than just military muscle. These men would play a part in all aspects of the establishment of the Davidic dynasty, including going to war for the nation.


Application: One of the misconceptions about military men is that, they are not as bright or as well-adjusted or as talented in other areas. There has been an attempt to portray those who go into the military as losers or who cannot make it in life, and that they come out of the military and become addicts or alcoholics. However, just the exact opposite is true. When people come out of the military, then tend to come out much more focused and directed, far better suited for life than their non-military counterparts. They have self-discipline and a willingness to do hard work and they do not give up when things are difficult. On the other hand, those who have matriculated through high school and college do not necessarily have this same self-discipline or focus. As a former high school teacher, I can tell you all about children who, when faced with something difficult, just wanted to cry and to make their parents take it all away.


Let me add that, in case you did not know, the military has high standards, and, in some cases, higher than some colleges. Although, I personally believe that their standards ought to be lowered, that is not the case at this time.


Application: It is an absolute myth that, soldiers, after having been in war, come home, and are confused and disoriented to a peaceful world. Obviously, there will be some like this who have to sort out war in their own minds, but, for the most part, the teens and immature kids in their 20's who entered into the military, exit as focused and disciplined men and women (there is a lot of hard data on this, by the way).


The upshot is, these may have been primarily military men, but they helped David in a number of different ways when it came to establishing his kingdom. These men were able to focus, they could adjust to changing circumstances and they were able ot make do with whatever they had. The military teaches a clear line of authority, and the ability to adjust to changing circumstances and to improvise when necessary.


1Chronicles 11:10c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

׳îm (עִם) [pronounced ģeem]

with, at, by, near; like; from

preposition of nearness and vicinity

Strong’s #5973 BDB #767

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

Yiserâʾêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

God prevails; the prince that prevails with God; he will rule as God; transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 BDB #975


Translation: ...with all Israel,... This indicates that Israel was behind David as well. That is, the people of Israel supported David and did their part in making his power stand. What is being taught here is, David did not take control of Israel by means of some military thugs. David had the support of a well-organized elite military force, but he also had the support of the people. David was well-known throughout the land and no one seemed more suited to be king than he.


Back at the end of 1Samuel, you may have become concerned about Jonathan and how God let him die in battle at the very end. There was a reason for this. Jonathan would have been David’s real competition. As young men, they were true friends, but you will recall, as Saul aged, he went from being a fairly good king and military man to being a psycho driven by delusion. We do not know what would have happened to Jonathan. We do not know if this would have been a part of his psyche or not. However, God removed Jonathan from this life at the exact right time. As a result, when it was time for Israel to be led by a king again, there was no other choice but David.


1Chronicles 11:10d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

mâlake (מָלַך׃) [pronounced maw-LAHKe]

to make king, to cause to reign, to cause to rule over

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil perfect with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #4427 BDB #573

kaph or ke (כְּ) [pronounced ke]

as, like, just as; according to; about, approximately

preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #453

dâbâr (דָּבָר) [pronounced dawb-VAWR]

word, saying, doctrine, thing, matter, command

masculine singular construct

Strong's #1697 BDB #182

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over; on the ground of, because of, according to, on account of, on behalf of, with, by, besides, in addition to, to, toward, together with, in the matter of, concerning, as regards to

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

Yiserâʾêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

God prevails; the prince that prevails with God; he will rule as God; transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 BDB #975


Translation: ...to make him king according to the Word of Yehowah over Israel. God made it clear that David would be made king over ll Israel. God set this up. He did not just pull David out of obscurity and say, “You’re king now.” God pulled David out of obscurity and then trained him for over 20 years. Simultaneously, God set up the people of Israel to accept David as their king. This involved spiritual growth on the part of the people of God.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines

God, through Samuel, anointed David as king over all Israel. This is what is meant by David being made king over Israel according to the word of Yehowah.

Prophesies About David Becoming King

Scripture

Prophecy

1Sam. 13:13–14

Samuel tells Saul that God will take the kingdom from him: And Samuel said to Saul, "You have done foolishly. You have not kept the command of the LORD your God, with which he commanded you. For then the LORD would have established your kingdom over Israel forever. But now your kingdom shall not continue. The LORD has sought out a man after his own heart, and the LORD has commanded him to be prince over his people, because you have not kept what the LORD commanded you."

1Sam. 15:22–23

Once again, Samuel tells Saul that God has chosen another to take his place: And Samuel said, "Has the LORD as great delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices, as in obeying the voice of the LORD? Behold, to obey is better than sacrifice, and to listen than the fat of rams. For rebellion is as the sin of divination, and presumption is as iniquity and idolatry. Because you have rejected the word of the LORD, he has also rejected you from being king."

1Sam. 16:11–13

The original prophecy was made when Samuel first met David: Then Samuel said to Jesse, "Are all your sons here?" And he said, "There remains yet the youngest, but behold, he is keeping the sheep." And Samuel said to Jesse, "Send and get him, for we will not sit down till he comes here." And he sent and brought him in. Now he was ruddy and had beautiful eyes and was handsome. And the LORD said, "Arise, anoint him, for this is he." Then Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed him in the midst of his brothers. And the Spirit of the LORD rushed upon David from that day forward.

These seem to be rather threadbare insofar as prophecies go with respect to David becoming king over all Israel; and that there must be more, given that so many people know that David will be made king over all Israel. Let me suggest several options: (1) Samuel could have said more than what we find recorded when he anointed David king over all Israel. David’s brothers later may have spoke of these things, albeit with an ill temper, as in, “Can you believe what that old prophet Samuel said about my jerk-weed little brother David?” (2) Samuel prophesied at other times about David (e.g., at his school for prophets; particularly when Saul and David showed up), which information was freely shared throughout the kingdom of Israel. (3) Other prophets spoke of David becoming king over Israel, and such pronouncements were never recorded in Scripture.

We have already covered the general public awareness concerning David being Israel’s next king.

This doctrine was originally placed in 2Sam. 5:2.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


There is more prophecy with David and the Davidic Covenant, but that is not is what is being referenced here.


Whenever we are approach a list of names, I approach such a thing with great trepidation. How do you take a list of names and actually teach something based upon that list? What I have found with every chapter of the Bible is, there is something there for us to learn, no matter how mundane the passage appears to be at first glance.

Applying 1Chronicles 11:10 to our Lives

1.      This may strike you as a bit odd for this to be a list of great warriors under David, and yet for there to be some sort of spiritual application, but there is.

2.      1Chron. 11:10 reads: And these [men] [are] the officers of the mighty men who [belong] to David—the ones assisting him in his kingdom—with all Israel, to make him king according to the Word of Yehowah over Israel.

3.      David is a shadow of Jesus Christ. The function of the priests and the Tabernacle—2 very important aspects to Israel’s spiritual life—are placed on the back burner throughout David’s life, so that we focus upon him. This is because he represent our Lord Jesus Christ.

4.      Under him are great men of war, and, in nearly every case, there is a clear spiritual factor in their lives.

5.      We live during the intensified stage of the Angelic Conflict. Jesus Christ scores a tactical victory at the cross, put us into a whole new ball game, and Satan and his minions are doing everything possible to derail the plan of God.

6.      Even though David’s list of mighty men includes men with dramatically different personalities and backgrounds, they function as one military force. They do not go off half-cocked, in different directions, each man doing what he believes is best in the war effort. They function as a team.

7.      Believers in the Church Age function as a team as well. We all have different personalities; we all have different backgrounds; however, we are all in the Angelic Conflict together. However, we are all on the same team and we all have an important function. 1Cor. 12

8.      There is a clear delineation of authority, with David as king over all Israel. These men were under him, subject to his direction.

9.      In life, we are under systems of authority, and in the Christian walk, we are under specific authorities (e.g., the authority of the pastor-teacher).

10.    None of these men can function properly when they go outside of David’s authority. However, these are great men who willingly place themselves under David’s authority.

11.    In our daily lives, we are under various systems of authority, and no matter how great we are (or think we are), it is our proper function to be under these various authorities.

12.    Many, if not all, of these men understood that it was God’s plan to make David king over all Israel. That means they had to know Bible doctrine. The Word of God had to be etched in their souls and they had to believe it. In this verse, they assisted David in his kingdom, to make him king over Israel according to the Word of Jehovah.

13.    By our daily function, we assist Jesus Christ in the establishment of His kingdom. We are observed daily by a number of people, and we function—ideally speaking—while filled with the Holy Spirit. Our daily walk needs to be in accordance with the Word of God.

14.    During the time of David, not all believers were as involved in the plan of God, just as there were citizen-soldiers, who, for short periods of time, defended Israel against all foes, but, for most of the time, they led their own lives.

15.    However, during the intensified stage of he Angelic Conflict, in the time that we live, every believer is involved, and we all have different personalities and different backgrounds.

16.    As David’s men belonged to him; we belong to Christ Jesus.

17.    Just as these men assisted David and his kingdom, we will assist the Lord Jesus Christ in His kingdom.

18.    There is an over-arching plan at work, which takes in all previous dispensations. All Israel is a part of David’s reserve army; just as Israel is a part of God’s plan.

19.    All of this is according to the Word of God, which is over Israel and over all believers.

20.    In the Church Age, every single one of us is involved in the plan of God. This does not mean that you will become an evangelist, a pastor-teacher or a deacon. This does mean that you need to know the plan of God, which you learn by knowing and believing Bible doctrine.

21.    Wherever you are, that is your mission field; whatever you do for a living, that is your Christian testimony.

22.    Just as these men are great warriors under David, so we are God’s warriors in the Angelic Conflict.

These points set the stage for what we will learn in this chapter. Whenever you think all you are doing is reading a list of names, go back to these points.

Perhaps there will be a great assembly before our Lord, where men will be recognized for their part in the Angelic Conflict. Now, Charley Brown’s name may be called, and he will be known for the fact that he believed in Jesus Christ and nothing else, but that is something. Becoming a believer in Jesus Christ is the most important decision that we will make in our lives. However, other names will be called, and there will be a list read of the decorations given to other people, above and beyond their faith in Jesus Christ. Two important points: these men glorify Jesus Christ and we will not be bored during this assembly.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Now, these men are the officers of David’s Mighty Men—the ones who assist David in his kingdom—along with all Israel, to make David king according to the Word of Jehovah over Israel. What follows will be a list of the great men who served under David, as both officers in his army and as those who helped him to rule over Israel. All of this came to pass as per the Word of God. Then men who will be listed below are absolutely necessary to make David king over all Israel. Obviously, this all comes to pass by the Word of God, but these men are the means by which this occurs.


One may understand this verse to be the title of this catalogue of citizen-soldiers: Now, these men are the officers of David’s Mighty Men—the ones who assist David in his kingdom—along with all Israel, to make David king according to the Word of Jehovah over Israel. Or, more freely: This is a list of the highest-ranking military officers to serve under David, who helped to establish him as king over all Israel, in accordance with the Word of God.


——————————


At this point, the text more exactly matches up with the parallel passage in 2Sam. 23 (although the editor of Chronicles will add a few names to the list at the very end).


So you know what is coming, there David over all these men. Below him are the Three, only two of which are listed (Jashobeam the Hakmonite and Eleazar ben Dodo). The missing man of the Three is Joab. The two men in line for their jobs are then listed. In fact, it may simply be easier to divide this up below:

The Break-Down of 1Chronicles 11:10–47

1Chronicles 11

Commentary

1Chron. 11:10–11a

Title

1Chron. 11:11b–12

2 of the Three are listed

1Chron. 11:13–19

One exploit involving the Three.

1Chron. 11:20–25

The 2 men in line for the Three.

1Chron. 11:26–41a

A list of the Thirty (these are the commanding officers who are under the Three). The exact number of men here is difficult, because of v. 34. However, the Thirty may simply be a name given to the roughly 30 commanding officers.

1Chron. 11:41b–47

Bonus list of great military men found in Chronicles but not in the parallel passage in 2Sam. 23. There are 16 men in this list.

If you need to understand just one thing from this chapter, it is this: this is the Bible and this is a list of the greatest military men under David.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


And these a number of the Mighty Men who [are] to David:

Jashobeam ben Hachmoni, a head of the three [probably, the thirty]. He raised up his spear against three hundreds slain [ones] at one time.

1Chronicles

11:11

These [are] a numbering of the Mighty Men who [belong] to David:

Jashobeam son of a Hachmonite [or, Jashobeam the Hachmonite], [was] chief of the thirty. He raised up his spear against 300 slain [men] at one time.

In fact, this is the entire list of David’s Mighty Men:

There is Jashobeam, the son of Hakmoni, who was chief of the 30. He raised up his spear against 300 men at one time—whom he killed in battle.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          And this is the number of the heroes of David: Jesbaam the son of Hachamoni the chief among the thirty: he lifted up his spear against three hundred wounded by him at one time.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And these a number of the Mighty Men who [are] to David: Jashobeam ben Hackmoni, a head of the three [probably, the thirty]. He raised up his spear against three hundreds slain [ones] at one time.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And this is the number of the mighty men whom David had: seated in the first rank, chief of thirty men, Gedho, a valiant man; he lifted up his spear and slew three hundred men in one hour.

Septuagint (Greek)                And this is the list of the mighty men of David: Jashobeam, son of a Hachmonite, first of the thirty; he drew his sword once against three hundred, whom he killed at one time.

 

Significant differences:           The phrase who [are] to David can be reasonably translated who belong to David, of David or simply as David’s. This explains the slight differences in the translation here. In the Hebrew exegesis, you will see that this reads that Jashobeam is chief of 3, but there is a side note indicating that copyists believed this to be chief of 30. This explains why we have 30 in the other ancient versions.

 

The final phrase in the English translation of the LXX is not altogether accurate. It is not an exact translation from the Greek (there is no verb there, like the Hebrew). However, the general meaning seems to be the same, and in my most relaxed translation of this verse, I translated this in a very similar fashion, without having seen what they did.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       The first of these warriors was Jashobeam the son of Hachmoni, the leader of the Three Warriors. In one battle he killed three hundred men with his spear. The Three Warriors: One ancient translation and 2Samuel 23.8; Hebrew "the Thirty Warriors." The "Three Warriors" was the most honored group of warriors and may have been part of the "Thirty Warriors." "Three" and "thirty" are spelled almost the same in Hebrew, so there is some confusion in the manuscripts as to which group is being talked about in some places in the following lists.

Easy English (Pocock)           This is a list of the leaders of David's soldiers. Jashobeam was from the *clan of Hacmon. He was the head over all of David's most powerful men. With his *spear, he fought 300 men at one time, and he killed them all.

Easy-to-Read Version            This is a list of David’s special soldiers:...

Good News Bible (TEV)         First was Jashobeam of the clan of Hachmon, the leader of "The Three." He fought with his spear against three hundred men and killed them all in one battle.

The Message                         The list of David's Mighty Men: Jashobeam son of Hacmoni was chief of the Thirty. Singlehandedly he killed three hundred men, killed them all in one skirmish.

New Century Version             This is a list of David's warriors:

 

Jashobeam was from the Hacmonite people. He was the head of the Three,[a] David's most powerful soldiers. He used his spear to fight three hundred men at one time, and he killed them all.

New Living Translation           Here is the record of David's mightiest warriors: The first was Jashobeam the Hacmonite, who was leader of the Three-the mightiest warriors among David's men [As in some Greek manuscripts (see also 2 Sam 23:8); Hebrew reads leader of the Thirty, or leader of the captains]. He once used his spear to kill 300 enemy warriors in a single battle.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Counted among the mighty ones of David was JeseBaal (the son of AchaMani), who was the first of the thirty. This is because there was a time when he used his broadsword to kill three hundred men all by himself.

Ancient Roots Translinear      Josheb, a son of Hachmon, head of the captains numbered those mighty with David. In one time, he awakened and his spear desecrated over 300.

God’s Word                         The first of David's fighting men was Jashobeam, son of Hachmon, the leader of the three. He used his spear to kill 300 men on one occasion.

New American Bible              Here is the list of David's warriors: Ishbaal, the son of Hachamoni, chief of the Three. He brandished his spear against three hundred, whom he slew in a single encounter.

NIRV                                      Here is a list of David's mighty men.

 

Jashobeam was chief of the officers. He was a Hacmonite. He used his spear against 300 men. He killed all of them at one time.

New Jerusalem Bible             This is the roll of David's champions: Jashobeam son of Hachmoni, head of the Three; he it was who brandished his spear over three hundred men whom he had killed at one time.

New Simplified Bible              This is the number of the mighty men whom David had: Jashobeam the son of a Hachmonite, chief of the captains; he had lifted up his spear against three hundred, killed by him at one time.

Today’s NIV                          ...this is the list of David's mighty warriors:

Jashobeam, [b] a Hakmonite, was chief of the officers [c]; he raised his spear against three hundred men, whom he killed in one encounter.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             This is the list of David's men of war: Ishbaal, the son of a Hachmonite, the chief of the three: he put to death three hundred at one time with his spear.

HCSB                                     This is the list of David's warriors: Jashobeam son of Hachmoni was chief of the Thirty; he wielded his spear against 300 and killed them at one time.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               This is a list of David’s warriors: Jashobeam son of Hachmoni, the chief officer; he wielded his spear against three hundred and slew them all on one occasion.

Judaica Press Complete T.    And these are the number of David's mighty men: Jashobeam the son of Hachmoni, the head of the mighty men; he stirred his spear on three hundred slain at one time.

NET Bible®                             This is the list of David's warriors [Heb "and these are the number of the warriors who were David's."]:

Jashobeam, a Hacmonite, was head of the officers [The marginal reading (Qere) has "officers;" the consonantal text (Kethib) has "the Thirty" (see v. 15).]. He killed three hundred men with his spear in a single battle [Heb "he was wielding his spear against 300, [who were] slain at one time."].


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                And this is the number [thirty, and list] of David's mighty men: Jashobeam, a Hachmonite, the chief of the Thirty [captains]. He lifted up his spear against 300, whom he slew at one time.

Concordant Literal Version    And this [is] an account of the mighty ones whom David has:Jashobeam son of a Hachmonite [is] head of the thirty; he is lifting up his spear against three hundred--wounded, at one time.

Context Group Version          And this is the number of the mighty men whom David had: Jishbaal, the son of a Hachmonite, chief of the elite troops; he lifted up his spear against three hundred and killed them at one time.

Updated Emphasized Bible    And, this is the number of the heroes who pertained to David:

Jashobeam son of a Hachmonite, chief of the thirty, the same, brandished his spear over three hundred—slain at one time.

English Standard Version      This is an account of David's mighty men: Jashobeam, a Hachmonite, was chief of the three. He wielded his spear against 300 whom he killed at one time.

exeGeses companion Bible   And this is the number of the mighty of David:

Yashob Am a son of the Hachmoniy,

the head of the tertiaries:

he wakened his spear against three hundred

- pierced at one time.

LTHB                                     And this is the number of the mighty men who were to David: Jashobeam the son of a Hachmonite, the head of the thirty; he lifted up his spear against three hundred, killing them at one time.

Modern KJV                           And this is the number of the mighty men whom David had: Jashobeam, a Hachmonite, the chief of the captains. He lifted up his spear against three hundred, who were killed by him at one time.

NRSV                                     This is an account of David's mighty warriors: Jashobeam, son of Hachmoni,* was chief of the Three;* he wielded his spear against three hundred whom he killed at one time.

Owen's Translation                And this is an account of the mighty men o David: Jashobeam a Hachmonite, chief of the thee. He wielded his spear against three hundred (of) slain (ones) at one time.

Young’s Updated LT             And this is an account of the mighty ones whom David has: Jashobeam son of a Hachmonite is head of the thirty; he is lifting up his spear against 300 wounded, at one time.

 

The gist of this verse:          The first man named is Jashobeam, the son of a Hachmonite, who stood up against 300 men at one time.


1Chronicles 11:11a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêlleh (אֵלֶּה) [pronounced ALE-leh]

these, these things

demonstrative plural adjective

Strong's #428 BDB #41

The phrase the words the these can either refer to what will immediately follow this phrase (see Gen. 2:4 6:9 11:10), or it refers back to what has come before (see Gen. 9:19 10:20, 29, 31). Obviously, since a quotation does not follow, then this refers back to what precedes this. Given the addition of the kaph preposition, Goliath is making the same announcement as he has made before (from 1Sam. 17:23).

miçephâr (מֹסְפָר) [pronounced mise-FAWR

number, counted, numerical total; a recounting, a narration

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #4557 BDB #708

gibbôwr (גִּבּוֹר) [pronounced gib-BOAR]

strong man, mighty man, soldier, warrior, combatant, veteran

masculine plural noun/adjective with the definite article

Strong’s #1368 BDB #150

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187


Translation: These [are] a numbering of the Mighty Men who [belong] to David:... David’s might men are first mentioned in 2Sam. 10:7. They are enumerated here and in 2Sam. 23:8–39. Although the Hebrew is clunky to directly render into the English, this might be better said as, This is a list of David’s Mighty Men:...


I do not think like a Hebrew does, so I would not have set up these sentences as we find them here.

The Clunkiness of 1Chronicles 11:10–11a

Scripture

Text/Commentary

The problem:

We also have the problem of the way the Hebrew sounds to us as opposed to how it sounded to them. If we add this part of v. 11 to v. 10, we get: And these [men] [are] the officers of the mighty men who [belong] to David—the ones assisting him in his kingdom—with all Israel, to make him king according to the Word of Yehowah over Israel. These [are] a numbering of the Mighty Men who [belong] to David:... This is followed first by a list of David's greatest officers and their exploits, which is then followed by the rest of his Mighty Men. It sort of sounds like we are saying the same thing twice to introduce this portion of 1Chron. 11. The Hebrew seems to indicate that there is one list, where the commanding officers are listed first; and then the outstanding officers are listed second.

We English-speakers would have probably done this in 2 different ways.

First solution:

We may switch these sentences around, to give us: These [are] a numbering of the Mighty Men who [belong] to David. And these [men] [are] the officers of the mighty men who [belong] to David—the ones assisting him in his kingdom—with all Israel, to make him king according to the Word of Yehowah over Israel. That way, we know that this entire list will be all of David's mighty men, and that the first group we will look at will be his officers. We may have further shortened this to: This is a list of David's Mighty Men; we will look at his commanding officers first along with their exploits:

Second Solution

Or we may have done it this way: And these [men] [are] the officers of the mighty men who [belong] to David—the ones assisting him in his kingdom—with all Israel, to make him king according to the Word of Yehowah over Israel. Then we list the greatest commanding officers in David's army. Then we write: And this is a list of David's other Mighty Men:... And then we list the rest of David's mighty men (vv. 26–47).

I need to emphasize that there is nothing wrong with the Hebrew here. It is simply not the way my mind organizes information. You will note that, all I am doing is organizing this in such a way that it makes sense to me in the English, with the way that my brain organizes and categorizes things. Apart from moving around a portion of this verse, nothing else is being changed.

As an addendum, this may be the key the some of the differences between languages. My language verb tense is set up as past, present and future, so I tend to organize things in my head in relation to time.. I love timelines. I am going to give you a list of David's commanding officers first (and then I list them); and now I will list the rest of David's officers (and I list them next). The Hebrew tense system indicates a completely different mind set. They have essentially 2 tenses: perfect and imperfect, which indicates completed action as versus future or continuous action. Context tells you when the action takes place. The Greek also has a completely different tense system, which is a key as to how their minds organize information as well.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


In any administration, there is an inner core, and these men were the heart and soul of David’s army. Where in the Bible do we find a list of the great pacifists of Scripture or the noble men of non-violence? Nowhere. But twice, God the Holy Spirit enumerates David’s greatest soldiers.


Application: There are peddlers of lies out there who try to teach some form of non-violent resistence to tyranny, and allege that Jesus was a proponent of this philosophy. This goes against all that the Bible teaches. It is clear that God looks over and blesses soldiers, and that He even recognizes these men for centuries, because of their greatness under David.


Application: Nonviolence against tyranny is a crock to begin with. You may cite Gandhi and his non-violent resistance to England in order to gain India’s independence, but Gandhi’s approach was based upon the honor and civility of the English. If the British were tyrannical rulers—if they were Muslims, for instance—then Gandhi’s first nonviolent protest would have been his last—he would have been thrown into jail and/or killed. It is precisely because England was not tyrannical that a nonviolent resistence was possible. You take a Gandhi and put him into some Muslim or Communist controlled country and see how well this nonviolent resistence works out. Certainly, it has been tried, and we probably will never know the names of people who have tried it.


1Chronicles 11:11b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

Yâshâbeʿâm (יָשָבְעָם) [pronounced yaw-shawbe-ĢAWM]

the people will return; transliterated Jashobeam

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #3434 BDB #1000

The meaning will be explained in great detail below in the Doctrine of Jashobeam ben Hakmoni. When we find the Ammonites mentioned in Scripture, they are usually called sons of Ammon (however, not in the gentilic adjective form). What we would actually expect to find here is Jashobeam the Hakmoni, but we find this odd form instead.

bên (בֵּן) [pronounced bane]

son, descendant

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

Chakemônîy (חַכְמֹנִי) [pronounced khak-mo-NEE]

wise and is transliterated Hachmonite, Hakmonite, Hachmoni

gentilic adjective, masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #2453 BDB #315

Because this is a gentilic adjective, this is more like calling Jashobeam a Hachmonite rather than indicating that his actual father was Hakmoni.


Translation: ...Jashobeam son of a Hachmonite [or, Jashobeam the Hachmonite],... The man at the top of this list is Jashobeam the Hachmonite (literally, Jashobeam son of Hakmoni).


We need to dig out whatever we can about Jashobeam, since God the Holy Spirit lists him first:

Jashobeam ben Hachmoni

1.      Jashobeam ben Hakmoni is named first among David’s Mighty Men. 1Chron. 11:11

2.      Jashobeam son of a Hachmonite [or, Jashobeam the Hachmonite], [was] chief of the thirty. He raised up his spear against 300 slain [men] at one time. Here, he is called the head of the 30. This make shim a leader among leaders; a chief alpha dog over a pack of alpha dogs.

         1)      As an aside, I suspect that there were always about 30 key men in David’s elite armed forces, like Navy SEALS or Rangers—but that this number may not have been constant.

         2)      What does not appear to be the case is, David does not concentrate these great men into one squadron. Apart from specialized missions, the lives of our elite forces are often wasted using them together in near-suicide missions. R. B. Thieme, Jr. continually recommended that such men ought to be spread out among the entire armed forces, rather than concentrating them into a few groups.

3.      Jashobeam’s name means dweller among the people; or to whom the people turn (Easton); the people sitting; or captivity of the people (Hitchcock); people will return (ISBE); to whom the people turn (Smith).

         1)      His name is based upon the verb yâshab (יָשַב) [pronounced yaw-SHAHBV], which means to remain, to inhabit, to sit, to dwell. Strong's #3427 BDB #442. This is combined with the word for people, which is ʿam (עַם) [pronounced ģahm], which means people. Strong’s #5971 BDB #766. Together, they mean, the people remain, the people inhabit.

         2)      However, the other possible combination would be an imperfect of the verb: shûwb (שוּב) [pronounced shoobv]; which means to return, to turn, to turn back, to reminisce, to restore something, to bring back something, to revive, to recover something, to make restitution. Strong's #7725 BDB #996. Combined with people, this would mean the people will return.

         3)      It is possible that his parents saw the stability of their time, that the people have been in the land and have remained in the land (a completed tense), but, as prophesied, they would be removed from the land and later, they would return. If his parents intended this double-meaning, then these were very doctrinal parents. They understood the eschatology of Israel.

4.      Jashobeam is noted in particular as a man who lifted up his spear against 300 men. However, the text reads 300 slain [ones], which suggests that he killed them all. This is an amazing feat to kill 300 men under any circumstance of war.

5.      Saul had forced David out of the mainstream, and, for awhile, he stayed in Ziklag (1Chron. 12:6). During this time, Jashobeam and many others came to David and threw in their lot with him. This means that these men must have recognized David’s greatness and fairness; and saw that this was in direct contrast to Saul and his evil ways.

         1)      As a side note, David could have used these men to foment revolution against Saul. However, on several occasions, David allowed Saul to live, and he did not revolt against Saul, recognizing him as God’s anointed.

         2)      Application: as I write this, we have, in my opinion, one of the worst presidents that we have ever had. However, any form of revolt against him—assassination or some sort of an armed uprising, is wrong, and the Bible teaches that this is wrong. Saul had become an awful king, wasting money and resources on chasing down David, one of his most loyal subjects. A weaker man than David might have said, “Okay, Saul, you want me, come get me” and then engage in war with Saul. David did not. As long as King Saul drew breath, David was loyal to him.

         3)      Application: we will have worse presidents than Barrack Obama, even though that may seem impossible at this time. The Bible teaches that we do not revolt against our leaders, despite their obvious shortcomings.

         4)      Application: However, respecting the office of the president does not mean that there is no recourse to a lousy president. Our constitution, which is the law of the land, provides several ways to rid ourselves of a lousy president. (1) We vote him out of office or (2) We impeach him (through the Senate; the people have no constitution way of impeaching a president). Therefore, if we stay within the law (which is how believers need to be), those are the steps which we can take to remove the president.

         5)      Application: It is important for countries to have bad rulers. A lousy president reflects the thinking of many people in the country, and allows others to either accept or reject his vision for the country (President Obama, more than any other president since Reagan, has a very specific vision for this country, and almost all that he does is to serve that vision).

6.      Jashobeam the son of Zabdiel is named in 1Chron. 27:2 as the head of 24,000 men under David. As mentioned in the Hebrew exegesis, Jashobeam might be better classified as a Hachmonite as opposed to being the son of Hakmoni. This would allow him to be the actual son of Zabdiel. This is assuming that these 2 men are identical and for there to be no contradiction in the texts.

7.      The parallel passage in 2Sam. 23:8b reads: Josheb-basshebeth a Tahchemonite; he was chief of the three. He wielded his spear against eight hundred whom he killed at one time. Obviously, we have the problem of the text chief of 3 (which will be dealt with below in the Hebrew exegesis); and here, he is said to have killed 800 rather than 300.

         1)      The simplest explanation is, this is a copyist error; Samuel is riddled with errors.

         2)      He has killed 800 men total on one occasion, and 300 on another (a possible, but less likely explanation).

8.      Jashobeam is identified as one of the 3 who broke through the Philistine lines in order to fetch David water in 2Sam. 23:13–17. ISBE1 disagrees with this.

9.      ISBE also points out that many LXX manuscripts have a very different name here: Iesebaal (ιεσεβααλ), which is very close to Ishbaal, which is the name of one of Saul’s sons.

10.    Quite obviously, there are problems with this passage. However, we do have a man of God here, a man who is first listed on David’s list of Mighty Men, and a great warrior. We may have to wait until eternity to know his exact name and his actual exploits.

1 The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia; James Orr, Editor; ©1956 Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.; Ⓟ by Hendrickson Publishers; from E-Sword; Topic: Jashobeam.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


The identifying factor here, that Jashobeam is the son of a Hachmonite, is somewhat confusing. The noun here is in the form of a gentilic adjective, so that this is better rendered Jashobeam, son of a Hachmonite instead of Jashobeam, son of Hachmoni. Although the latter is almost an exact translation, the problem is, proper nouns have their own form, and it is not as a gentilic adjective. So, words like Philistine, Ammonite, Edomite, etc., all have a particular form, indicating a particular group of people. This could be a family which is grouped or it could be a foreign group of people. However, we know nothing more about this name than that. We find it here and in 1Chron. 27:32, where it is simply the family name of another person associated with David. We know nothing more about this name, except that it possibly means wise.


Instead of Jashobeam son of a Hachmonite, the Samuel text (2Sam. 23:8b) has He who sits in the seat of the Tachmonite. This appears to be a bastardization of Jashobeam son of a Hachmonite. Transliterated, the Samuel passage reads: Josheb-basshebeth a Tachmonite.


What we will find in this list is, each man is identified in a different way. That is, we do not simply find Charlie ben Brown throughout. Many are listed that way, but many are listed in a different way. What this does is provide clues as to how these men were influenced to become great enough to be named on this list.


1Chronicles 11:11c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

rôʾsh (רֹאש or רֹאֶש) [pronounced rohsh]

head [of a man, city, state, nation, place, family, priest], top [of a mountain]; chief, prince, officer; front, choicest, best; height [of stars]; sum

masculine singular construct

Strong's #7218 BDB #910

shâlîyshîym (שָלִישִים) [pronounced shaw-leesh-EEM] or shâlîshîy (שָלִשִי) [pronounced shaw-leesh-EE]

an noble rank of soldiers; 3 captains, 3 highly ranked officers;