1Chronicles 16

 

1Chronicles 16:1–16

The Ark of God is Brought to Rest in Jerusalem


Outline of Chapter 16:

 

Introduction

 

         vv.     1–7           Celebrating the Ark in Jerusalem

         vv.     8–22         Psalm 105:1–15

         vv.    23–33         Psalm 96:1–13

         vv.    34–36         Psalm 106:1, 47–48/The People’s Response

         vv.    37–42         David’s Assignments of Spiritual Positions

         v.       43           The People Return Home

 

                                     Addendum 


Charts, Short Doctrines and Maps:

 

         Introduction         Matthew Henry’s Outline of 1Chronicles 16

         Introduction         Selman’s Organization of 1Chronicles 16

 

         v.       1              A Basic Review of the Ark of the Covenant

         v.       2              What It Means for David to Bless the People

         v.       3              The Hidden Parallels of 1Chron. 16:1–3

         v.       4              The Psalms Sung before the Ark Give Thanks, Praise and Call to Remembrance

         v.       5              The Asaph’s of Scripture

         v.       5              The Zechariah’s of Scripture

         v.       5              The Musical Instruments Played

         v.       5              The Jeiel’s of Scripture

         v.       5              The Shemiramoth’s of Scripture

         v.       5              The Jehiel’s of Scripture

         v.       5              The Mattithiah’s of Scripture

         v.       5              The Benaiah’s of Scripture

         v.       7              Where Goes in that Day?

         v.       7              Matching the Psalms with Chronicles

         v.       7              A Question about these Psalms

         v.       8              Make His Deeds Known Among the People

         v.       8              Why Do We Find Psalm 105 Twice in the Bible?

         v.       9              Singing in the New Testament

         v.      11              Why Did David Bring the Ark into Jerusalem?

         v.      12              The Argument for the Historicity of Miracles

         v.      16              God’s Appearances and Promises to Abraham

         v.      16              God’s Covenant to Abraham in the New Testament

         v.      17              God’s Covenant with the Patriarchs throughout the Old Testament

         v.      22              Christian Martyrs Versus Muslim Martyrs

         v.      22              Islam versus Christian Links

         v.      22              Why Did God the Holy Spirit Include Portions of these Psalms in Chronicles?

         v.      23              Commentary on 1Chron. 16:23a from Psalm 96:1b

         v.      23              Joshua (or Jeshua), in the Greek, is Jesus

         v.      23              Commentary on 1Chron. 16:23b from Psalm 96:2c

         v.      24              Commentary on 1Chronicles 16:24a from Psalm 96:3a

         v.      24              Commentary on 1Chronicles 16:24b from Psalm 96:3b

         v.      25              The Greatness of God—Scriptural References

         v.      26              Online Doctrines for Satan, Demonism and the Angelic Conflict

         v.      26              Commentary on 1Chronicles 16:26b from Psalm 96:5b

         v.      27              Commentary on 1Chronicles 16:27a from Psalm 96:6a

         v.      27              Commentary on 1Chronicles 16:27b from Psalm 96:6b

         v.      28              Commentary on 1Chronicles 16:28a from Psalm 96:7a

         v.      28              Translations and Interpretations of 1Chronicles 16:28/Psalm 96:7 Part I

         v.      28              Translations and Interpretations of 1Chronicles 16:28/Psalm 96:7 Part II

         v.      28              Translations and Interpretations of 1Chronicles 16:28/Psalm 96:7 Part III

         v.      28              What Does This Mean Ascribe to Jehovah glory and strength?

         v.      29              Commentary on 1Chronicles 16:29a from Psalm 96:8a

         v.      29              Commentary on 1Chronicles 16:29b from Psalm 96:8b

         v.      29              1Chronicles 16:29 Explained (by way of Psalm 96:8)

         v.      29              Commentary on 1Chronicles 16:29d from Psalm 96:9a

         v.      29              Closing Points on the Beauty of His Holiness

         v.      30              Commentary on 1Chronicles 16:30b from Psalm 96:10b

         v.      30              Commentary on 1Chronicles 16:30c from Psalm 96:10c

         v.      31              Commentary on 1Chronicles 16:31a from Psalm 96:11a

         v.      31              Commentary on 1Chronicles 16:31b from Psalm 96:10a

         v.      31              Old Testament Calls to Evangelize the Gentiles

         v.      33              Commentary on 1Chronicles 16:33a from Psalm 96:12b–13a

         v.      33              Commentary on 1Chronicles 16:33b from Psalm 96:13c

         v.      34              Commentary on 1Chronicles 16:34 from Psalm 106:1

         v.      37              God the Holy Spirit is in the Details

         v.      39              Why Doesn’t David Move the Tabernacle to Jerusalem?

         v.      39              The Two High Priests

         v.      42              Who is responsible for what?

         v.      42              Problems and Solutions concerning Who does What

         v.      42              Clarke Rants about Musical Instruments

 

         Addendum          Selman’s Organization Revisited with Additional Parallels

         Addendum          What is in 1Chronicles 16 that we do not Find Elsewhere?

         Addendum          A Complete Translation of 1Chronicles 16


Doctrines Covered

Doctrines Alluded To

 

 

The Ark of God

Old Testament Salvation

 

 

The Eliab’s of Scripture

The Jahaziel's of Scripture

 

 

Jacob and Israel

God’s Contract with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob

 

 

Travels of Abraham

Journeys of the patriarchs


Psalms Alluded To

 

 

 

 

Psalms Appropriately Exegeted in this Chapter

Psalm 105

Psalm 96

Psalm 106

 

Psalms Appropriately Exegeted at the end of this Chapter

Psalm 122

Psalm 138

Psalm 145

Psalm 132


I ntroduction: 1Chron. 16 is parallel to the last few verses of 2Sam. 6, but it presents these events very differently than those presented in 2Sam. 6. What is emphasized here in great detail is what happens after David brings the Ark into the city of Jerusalem. We will have the celebration within the city; the words of the psalms which are sung in celebration; and then David will give the assignments to those who would be involved in spiritual service.


Essentially, what I am doing is, exegeting the book of Samuel, which, from time to time, sends me off on several tangents. As has already been pointed out in 2Sam. 6, Chronicles has 3 parallel chapters: 1Chron. 13, 15–16. So, while studying 2Sam. 6, I have, when appropriate, studied these chapters of Chronicles, this being the last of the 3. I have also studied several psalms which appear to be appropriate to this study and the study of previous chapters. My recommendation will be, once we come to the quotations of these psalms, that you go first to the exegesis which I have done on the psalm, and then return back to 1Chron. 16—in any case, that is the way I approached it.


One of the things to bear in mind as we examine this chapter of Chronicles is, there are certain psalms found here which tell us what was sung during celebration of the moving of the Ark. At no time do we find the entire psalm, although we have about half of Psalm 105. We may want to be attuned to any differences between what we find here and what is found in the book of Psalms; and we may want to question in the back of our mind, why God the Holy Spirit repeats Himself here and in the book of Psalms. Is there any reason beyond the writer of Chronicles feeling as though it would be important for us to know which psalms were sung during this ceremony. In this, bear in mind that, believers for hundreds of years did not possess a Bible as we do today. That is, it was not easy for the believer to go to the computer or to the coffee table or book shelf, and pull out an entire copy of the Old and New Testaments. Not only were these rare documents to begin with, but there would be times when even a group with a library of sorts would not have all the books of Scripture.


In 1Chron. 16:1, the Ark is placed within the tent which David had prepared for it, and then the celebration continues. There are sacrificial offerings (v. 2) and food is distributed v. 3 (in 2Sam. 6, this appears to occur for their return home; in this chapter, it appears to occur during the worship service). What appears to be the case is, these provisions were distributed near the end of the ceremonies, which comports well with this chapter and 2Sam. 6. In vv. 4–5, the musicians who played during the second half of the celebration are named.


Asaph and his relatives appear to be in charge of the song service in v. 7, wherein, at least 3 psalms (or portions of Psalms) are sung: Psalms 105, 96 and 106 (1Chron. 16:8–36a). David then makes assignments to certain Levites to the Ark as well as to the Tabernacle of God, which is apparently now in Gibeon (vv. 37–42). In v. 43, all of the people are sent back to their homes and David returns to his.


There were several outlines offered by Clarke, Gill, Henry and Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge. Mine is the most detailed; and Henry’s is the least.

Matthew Henry’s Outline of 1Chronicles 16

Section

Scripture

I. The solemnity with which the ark was fixed

1Chron. 16:1-6

II. The psalm David gave to be sung on this occasion

1Chron. 16:7-36

III. The settling of the stated public worship of God in order thenceforward

1Chron. 16:37-43

None of the commentators to whom I refer had much to say about 1Chron. 16. Those who had anything to say about the introduction only offered up an outline and nothing else.

From Matthew Henry, Commentary on the Whole Bible; from e-Sword, 1Chron. 16 introduction.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines

Selman put an interesting spin on the outline for this chapter.

Selman’s Organization of 1Chronicles 16

A│     God’s blessing for every Israelite. 1Chron. 16:1–3

                  B│     The Levites appointed to the worship service in Jerusalem. 1Chron. 16:4–7

                                     C│     Psalm 105 1Chron. 16:8–22

                                     C│     Psalm 96 1Chron. 16:23–33

                                     C│     Psalm 106 1Chron. 16:34–36

                  B│     The Levites are given permanent assignments. 1Chron. 16:37–42

A│     David blesses his own household. 1Chron. 16:43

Once we have completed this chapter, we will look back and see how Selman’s organization reveals to us God’s eternal plan for our lives.

This was modified from Martin J. Selman, I Chronicles An Introduction & Commentary; The Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries, D. J. Wiseman editor, Inter-Varsity Press, Downers Grove, Il., ©1994, p. 166.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Since some of this is repetitious, it is reasonable to ask, why 1Chron. 16? In fact, why 1Chron. 13, 15–16? We are already told what happens in 2Sam. 6. Besides giving us greater details, one of the most important aspects of 1Chron. 15–16 is that it breaks down the moving of the Ark into two parts: the Ark is brought to Jerusalem; and then the Ark is brought into Jerusalem. These are two separate, but consecutive, ceremonies. It is not that we need to recognize, for whatever reason, that two sets of ceremonies took place, but that, what is in view here is the 1st Advent of our Lord and His Millennium reign. The Ark being brought to Jerusalem is Jesus Christ in His incarnation, walking this earth 2000 years ago. The Ark being in Jerusalem, and being there forever more, as it were, Footnote represents our Lord’s reign from Jerusalem over the world during the Millennium.


A second thing which the book of Chronicles does in general is, it stands as a permanent testimony to the heroes of the faith of men who otherwise would have been completely forgotten. As an illustration, if you were some kind of a star in high school, and there is, inside the trophy case, some award which either has your name on it or is in that case because of what you have done, then you are quite proud of that achievement (I realize that this is not the experience of most people). These people of the faith are known in the Word of God, which lives and abides forever. I recognize that when you come across someone’s name in the book of Chronicles, and you know very little about that person; still, God the Holy Spirit has seen fit to record their name forever in the Word of God; that person spent 70 years on this earth, and, at least once or twice, did something or led a life worthy of mention. In the Church Age, I assume that there is going to be some sort of hall of records or some trophy case which will record the impact of our lives as well. Our human good will be burned, our sins will be forgiven and forgotten, but what will remain is our spiritual life and spiritual service.


I must tell you that, when I began this exegetical study, a couple months ago, I never expected this to run in excess of 200 pages. What I did do in this chapter, unlike my approach in the past, is I included much of the exegetical information about Psalm 96 both here and in Psalm 96. However, wherever this exegetical information is not new, I clearly indicate that.


Return to Chapter Outline

Return to the Chart Index


Celebrating the Ark in Jerusalem

1Chronicles 16:1–3 = 2Samuel 6:17–19a


Slavishly literal:

 

Moderately literal:

And so they bring in an Ark of the Elohim and so they set him in a midst of the tent which spread out David for him. And so they bring near burnt offerings and peace-offerings to faces of the Elohim.

1Chronicles

16:1

So they brought the Ark of Elohim [into Jerusalem] and placed it in the middle of the tent which David pitched for it. Then they offered up burnt offerings and peace offerings before Elohim.

So they brought the Ark of God into Jerusalem and placed it inside the tent which David had pitched for it. Then they offered up burnt offerings and peace offerings before God.


Here is how others have translated this verse:

 

Ancient texts:                       Note: I compare the Hebrew text to English translations of the Latin, Syriac and Greek texts (using the Douay-Rheims translation; George Lamsa’s translation, and Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton’s translation, respectively). When there are serious disparities between my translation and Brenton’s, I look at the Greek text of the Septuagint (the LXX) to see if a substantive difference actually exists (and I reflect these changes in the English rendering of the Greek text). Now and again, I update these texts with non-substantive changes (e.g., you for thou, etc.).

 

Masoretic Text                       And so they bring in an Ark of the Elohim and so they set him in a midst of the tent which spread out David for him. And so they bring near burnt offerings and peace-offerings to faces of the Elohim.

Septuagint                              So they brought in the ark of God, and set it in the midst of the tabernacle which David pitched for it; and they brought near whole–burnt–offerings and peace–offerings before God.

 

Significant differences:           None.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       They put the sacred chest inside the tent that David had set up for it, then they offered sacrifices to please the LORD and sacrifices to ask his blessing.

Good News Bible (TEV)         They took the Covenant Box to the tent which David had prepared for it and put it inside. Then they offered sacrifices and fellowship offerings to God.

The Message                         They brought the Chest of God and placed it right in the center of the tent that David had pitched for it; then they worshiped by presenting burnt offerings and peace offerings to God.

New American Bible              They brought in the ark of God and set it within the ten which David had pitched for it. Then they offered up holocausts and peace offerings to God.

NIRV                                      The ark of God was brought into Jerusalem. It was put in the tent David had set up for it. The priests brought burnt offerings and friendship offerings to God.

New Life Version                    They brought the special box of God, and put it inside the tent David had set up for it. Then they gave burnt gifts and peace gifts to God.

New Living Testament           They brought the Ark of God and placed it inside the special tent David had prepared for it. And they presented burnt offerings and peace offerings to God.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             Then they took in the ark of God and put it inside the tent which David had put up for it; and they made offerings, burned offerings and peace-offerings before God.

God’s Word                         The men carrying the ark set it inside the tent David had put up for it. They presented burnt offerings and fellowship offerings in God's presence.

New International Version      They brought the ark of God and set it inside the tent that David had pitched for it, and they presented burnt offerings and fellowship offerings [traditionally, peace offerings] before God.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

MKJV                                     And they brought the ark of God and set it in the middle of the tent which David had pitched for it. And they offered burnt sacrifices and peace offerings before God.

New King James Version       So they brought the ark of God, and set it in the midst of the tabernacle that David had erected for it. Then they offered burnt offerings and peace offerings before God.

Young’s Updated LT             And they bring in the ark of God, and set it up in the midst of the tent that David stretched out for it, and they bring near burnt-offerings and peace-offerings before God.


What is the gist of this verse? The special procession which David had organized came to the Jerusalem gates and the Levites carrying the Ark of God brought it into the city and placed it inside the tent which David had pitched for it. Then they offered up burnt offerings and peace offerings to God.


1Chronicles 16:1a = 2Samuel 6:17a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

bôw (בּוֹא) [pronounced boh]

to take in, to bring, to come in with, to carry

3rd person masculine plural, Hiphil imperfect

Strong’s #935 BDB #97

êth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ărôwn (אֲרוֹן) [pronounced uh-ROHN]

ark, chest; Ark

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #727 BDB #75

Ělôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong's #430 BDB #43

In 2Sam. 6:17a, this reads ...the Ark of Yehowah. There is no need for these passages to be identical. The writer of Chronicles used the book of Samuel along with several other books in order to write the history which became Chronicles.


Translation: So they brought the Ark of Elohim [into Jerusalem]... David, once he realize just exactly what he had done wrong the first time he attempted to transport the Ark of God, did it again, and according to the instructions found in the Law of Moses. The Ark was supposed to be moved by Levites who did not come into physical contact with the Ark, but placed poles through the rings on the sides of the Ark, so that they could lift up and carry the Ark using these poles, and so they would never have to actually touch the Ark.


The idea here was, the Ark of God represented Jesus Christ. We have gone into great detail about this in the Doctrine of the Ark of God, which we covered in great detail back in 1Sam. 4:11.


These summary points are taken directly from this doctrine:

A Basic Review of the Ark of the Covenant

1.      The Ark of God was one of the pieces of furniture of the Tent of Meeting which represented the God-man, Christ Jesus.

2.      It was built out of Acacia wood (which represented Christ’s humanity) and overlaid with gold (which represented His Deity).

3.      Inside the Ark were three items: (1) the tablets of the Law, representing God’s perfect standards and our inability to reach these standards; (2) a golden pot of manna, representing God’s perfect provision for us (manna was a perfect food); and (3) Aaron’s rod which budded, which represents the resurrection from the dead (the rod was a dead staff on which buds came forth).

4.      On the Ark was a mercy seat and on both sides of the mercy seat were two angels, or cherubim. The mercy seat represents our point of contact with God (which is upon the Ark itself, above the three items mentioned); and the cherubim represent the angelic conflict, of which we are a part.

         a.      The Angelic Conflict refers to the fact that we are a part of an unseen conflict.

         b.      Our very actions are being observed and even discussed in heaven by elect and fallen angels.

5.      The Ark was kept in the Holy of Holies, which was a room inside the Tent of Meeting. Only the High Priest went into this room once a year on the Day of Atonement to sprinkle blood upon the mercy seat, which represents the blood of our Savior for our sins.

6.      Because the Ark was kept in the Holy of Holies, it was not seen by the Israelites as Christ had not come yet. The Ark was a shadow image of the Christ to come, and the most exact image of God of the Tabernacle furniture.

When you compare the shadow form of Jesus Christ as presented in the Ark (the Ark is known as the type; Jesus Christ is the antitype, you recognize just how important the Ark of God was. For me, one of the most striking features of the Ark was, the people of Israel never saw the Ark for the most part. There were probably a number of them who did not even know what it was or where it was supposed to be. However, God taught the gospel to the His people through the Ark and the sacrifices. Furthermore, it is just one more example of many where it is clear that God knew all along what was going to happen.


Return to Chapter Outline

Return to Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


1Chronicles 16:1b = 2Samuel 6:17b–c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

yâtsag (יָצַג) [pronounced yaw-TSAHG]

to make to stand, to set, to station, to place, to leave, to establish, to let stay

3rd person masculine plural, Hiphil imperfect

Strong’s #3322 BDB #426

êth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated mark of a direct object; occasionally to, toward

affixed to a 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #853 BDB #84

2Sam. 6:17b adds in the words in a place at this juncture.

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

tâveke (תָוֶך׃) [pronounced taw-VEKE]

midst, among, middle

masculine singular construct

Strong's #8432 BDB #1063

With the bêyth preposition, tâveke can mean in the middle of, in the midst of; into, among. In the Hebrew, this is spelled בְּתוֹך׃.

ohel (אֹהֶל) [pronounced OH-hel]

tent, tabernacle, house, temporary dwelling

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong's #168 BDB #13

ăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

nâţâh (נָטָה) [pronounced naw-TAWH]

to stretch out, to spread out, to pitch [a tent]; to bow, to extend, to incline, to turn

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #5186 BDB #639

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition; with the masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

In 2Sam. Sam. 6:17, David and the lâmed preposition are reversed. The couple of changes noted here are simply slight differences of writing styles.


Translation: ...and placed it in the middle of the tent which David pitched for it. The Ark is supposed to be placed into the Tent of God (generally called the Tabernacle; a word for a semi-permanent tent Footnote ). What I cannot answer definitively is, why didn’t David bring the Tabernacle into Jerusalem as well? I can, however, give you my best guess: David had every intention of building a permanent home for the Ark—a Temple, if you will. So, step #1: bring the Ark into Jerusalem; step #2: build a Temple for the Ark. Therefore, in David’s mind, bringing the Tent of God into Jerusalem was really not important, as he felt he needed to build a permanent home for the Ark of God. This is purely conjecture, but I’m probably right.


Few people appreciate just exactly what is happening here. God is going to reign over this earth for 1000 years; from where will He reign? Jerusalem. David chose Jerusalem. A mere man decided to bring the Ark, which represents Jesus Christ, and to place it permanently in Jerusalem. This decision of David actually will be respected by God. God the Son will choose Jerusalem from which to rule in the Millennium. This is truly an amazing thing. David makes a choice and God will go along with his choice. Remember, David also represents Jesus Christ, so his choice as a believer filled with doctrine (a man after God’s own heart) is like Jesus Christ choosing to rule from Jerusalem—it is all done in shadow form.


Now, David probably used a very nice tent in which to place the Ark; but on his mind is the building of a permanent residence for the Ark.


By the way, if you know the general details of David’s intention to build a Temple, but that God said no to David but yes to Solomon, you may wonder why. It is quite simple: David represents Jesus Christ in His 1st and 2nd Advents, often presented as just one event in prophecy. Solomon represents Jesus Christ on the throne in the Millennium, during which there will be 1000 years of peace on this earth. So, much of David’s life will be parallel to our Lord’s in His advents; much of Solomon’s life will parallel our Lord in the Millennium. Realize that very few people ever saw the Ark of God. It was rarely removed from the Holy of Holies. It was taken out legitimately once by Joshua and then illegitimately during the time of Eli. Apart from those two times, no one saw the Ark. It was hidden from them. Here, all of a sudden, not only do we have much of Israel being able to see the Ark, but they are celebrating the entrance of this Ark into Jerusalem, walking right along side of it. This is our Lord coming into the city of Jerusalem. When Solomon comes along and then builds a permanent residence for the Ark of God—the Temple—this is Jesus Christ ruling the earth from a semi-permanent dwelling in Jerusalem (I only say semi-permanent, because our Lord will only rule for 1000 years, and then there will be a new heaven and a new earth).


1Chronicles 16:1c = 2Samuel 6:17d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

qârab (קָרַב) [pronounced kaw-RABV]

to cause to approach, to bring [draw] near, to bring, to offer; to bring together; to cause to withdraw, to remove

3rd person masculine plural, Hiphil imperfect

Strong #7126 BDB #897

The writer of Samuel uses the verb to cause to go up instead. David’s name is also found in 2Samuel but not here.

׳ôlâh (עֹלָה) [pronounced ģo-LAW]

burnt offering, ascending offering

feminine plural noun

Strong #5930 BDB #750

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

shelem (שֶלֶם) [pronounced SHEH-lem]

peace-offerings, sacrifice for alliance or friendship

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #8002 BDB #1023

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

pânîym (פָּנִים) [pronounced paw-NEEM]

face, faces, countenance; presence

masculine plural construct (plural acts like English singular)

Strong’s #6440 BDB #815

Together, they mean upon the face of, before, before the face of, in the presence of, in the sight of, in front of. When used with God, it can take on the more figurative meaning in the judgment of. This can also mean forwards; the front part [or, the edge of a sword]. Lepânîym (לְפָּנִים) can take on a temporal sense as well: before, of old, formerly, in the past, in past times.

Ělôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong's #430 BDB #43

The word order is slightly different from 2Sam. 6:17 in this section, and the writer of Chronicles again uses Elohim instead of Yehowah.


Translation: Then they offered up burnt offerings and peace offerings before Elohim. This seems like what would be apropos to bringing the Ark of God into Jerusalem and placing it in its tent. The burnt offerings represent Jesus Christ on the cross dying for our sins; the peace offerings are those which represent peace between man and God. We are not pals with God; we do not naturally mix well with God. We are at enmity with Him; we sin against Him; we have Adam’s original sin imputed to us, so positionally, we are against Him; and we have the old sin nature within us, which makes us putrid before God. We represent an affront to all that is holy about God. We are by birth, by action and by imputation at war with God. Because Jesus Christ paid the penalty for our sins on the cross (the burnt offerings) we are able to have peace with God (the peace offerings).


And so completes David from a causing to go up the burnt offering and the peace-offerings. And so he blesses the people in a name of Yehowah.

1Chronicles

16:2

[After] David finished from causing the burnt offering to go up as well as [lit., and] the peace-offerings, he then blessed the people in the name of Yehowah.

After David completed offering up the burnt offering and the peace-offerings, he blessed the people in the name of Jehovah.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text                       And so completes David from a causing to go up the burnt offering and the peace-offerings. And so he blesses the people in a name of Yehowah.

Septuagint                              And David finished offering up whole–burnt–offerings and peace–offerings, and he blessed the people in the name of the Lord.

 

Significant differences:           None.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       After David had finished, he blessed the people in the name of the LORD...

Good News Bible (TEV)         After David had finished offering the sacrifices, he blessed the people in the name of the LORD.

The Message                         When David had completed the offerings of worship, he blessed the people in the name of GOD.

NET Bible®                             When David finished offering burnt sacrifices and peace offerings, he pronounced a blessing over the people in the LORD's name.

New Life Version                    When David finished giving the burnt gifts and peace gifts, he prayed in the name of the Lord that good would come to the people.

New Living Testament           When he had finished his sacrifices, David blessed the people in the name of the Lord.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):



Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

LTHB                                     And when David finished offering the burnt offering and the peace offering, and he blessed the people in the name of Jehovah;...

Young’s Updated LT             And David ceases from offering the burnt-offering and the peace-offerings, and so he blesses the people in the name of Jehovah.


What is the gist of this verse? Once David had completed offering up the burnt offerings, then he blessed the people.


1Chronicles 16:2a = 2Samuel 6:18a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

kâlâh (כָלָה) [pronounced kaw-LAWH]

to complete, to finish; to prepare; to come to an end; to consume, to waste, to destroy, to annihilate; to make pine away

3rd person masculine singular, Piel imperfect

Strong's #3615 BDB #477

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

׳âlâh (עָלָה) [pronounced ģaw-LAWH]

to cause to go up, to lead up, to take up, to bring up

Hiphil infinitive construct

Strong's #5927 BDB #748

׳ôlâh (עֹלָה) [pronounced ģo-LAW]

burnt offering, ascending offering

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong #5930 BDB #750

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

shelem (שֶלֶם) [pronounced SHEH-lem]

peace-offerings, sacrifice for alliance or friendship

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #8002 BDB #1023


Translation: [After] David finished from causing the burnt offering to go up as well as lit., and] the peace-offerings,... It is not clear whether David offered up any sacrifices directly or not. In my opinion, the use of the Hiphil (the causative stem—used in both verses), indicates that he did not, having the priests offer up these animal sacrifices. Furthermore, David had read up on how God expected things to be done, and, after losing one good man because he touched the Ark of God, I think that David was more careful. Furthermore, in the previous verse, we have they offered burnt offerings and peace offerings; so, I think that it is clear that David himself was not offering up sacrifices on behalf of the people.

 

You have to be careful anytime you read about a king or a general doing this or that. That does not mean that a king actually does this or that thing. David may be spoken of as routing the Philistine army; but this does not mean that David went out there with a sword and chased the Philistine army away. In fact, it is even possible that David does not personally engage in any fighting. As king, David has command over his people, and he tells them what to do. The Bible may speak of David doing this or that, but, in all actually, David ordered that this or that thing be done. This explains why Dr. Constable is incorrect to comment, According to the Mosaic Law individual Israelites were to bring their sacrificial animals to the sanctuary and slay them themselves (Lev. 1:3-5; 3:2; 1 Chron. 16:1-2). Only the priests were to place the blood and other parts of the animals on the altar (Lev. 1:5; 3:2, 5). How could David, clothed in a priestly garment (15:27), offer sacrifices to God since he was not an Aaronic priest? Evidently he did so as a priest after the order of Melchizedek, fulfilling the provisions of the Abrahamic Covenant, rather than as an Aaronic priest serving under the Mosaic Covenant.58 David realized he was the king promised to the patriarchs (Gen. 17:6; 49:10; et al.) for whom Israel had been looking (cf. 1 Sam. 2:10). Footnote Constable goes to a great deal of trouble trying to justify David offering up animal sacrifices, when he really does not need to do this. As king, David organized the sacrificial offerings, but he did not actually do the sacrificing himself. Please remember that David has read the Bible of his day (the Mosaic Law), and he knows that the Levites and the line of Aaron are to play an important part in the area of animal sacrifices.


Now, there is a misperception which I need to correct here. If you study the doctrines of Islam, you cannot help but be struck with how coercive and how legalistic it is, as well as how merit-based blessing is. The Old Testament is not filled with tidbits of legalism which are done away with in our dispensation of grace. The specifics given in the Old Testament were not to force the Israelites into some sort of legalistic box, but to present the gospel in such a way that the Holy Spirit could communicate Jesus Christ to the Jews at the time (and to those who knew about the Jews). If you have spent any amount of time in the books of Exodus or Leviticus, all of these offerings and rituals all point to the person of Jesus Christ. Once Jesus Christ had come to His people, then we no longer needed to learn about Him in shadow form.


Let me put this in a different way. You have this new girlfriend and you are crazy about her and you’re telling your family members about her, and describing her personality, her values and showing them pictures of her. However, when you bring her over to meet the family, you no longer talk about her in the 3rd person and describe what she looks like or how she acts, because she is right there for everyone to see and to interact with. You no longer need the props in order to convey who and what this girl is. Well, once Jesus Christ came onto the scene, God no longer needed to present Him with sacrifices and feast days and rituals.


I mentioned Islam: when Christ came, we became free of the ceremony and rituals of the Old Testament, because people actually spoke face to face with our Lord; they recorded His words and deeds in the gospels. When Islam came along much later, they simply tried to place a burden of ceremonies and rules upon their adherents, not for any reason other than place them under a greater burden than they perceived the Law of Moses to be.


Back to the exegesis of this verse. There is an interesting nuance here, and I do not quite get it, but I need to point it out: in the previous verse, David causes to offer up burnt offerings and peace offerings; in this verse, he causes to offer up the burnt offering and the peace offerings. The definite article probably just refers back to the offerings first mentioned in the previous verse; however, I do not know what we went from a plural burnt offerings in the previous verse to the singular in this verse. My assumption is, the burnt offering refers to the absolute singularity of Jesus Christ, who will offer Himself in our stead.


1Chronicles 16:2b = 2Samuel 6:18b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

bârake (בָּרַך׃) [pronounced baw-RAHKe]

to invoke God, to praise, to celebrate, to adore, to bless [God]; to bless [men], to invoke blessings; to bless [as God, man and other created things], therefore to cause to prosper, to make happy; to salute anyone [with a blessing]; to curse

3rd person masculine singular, Piel imperfect

Strong’s #1288 BDB #138

êth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

generally untranslated; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

׳am (עַם) [pronounced ģahm]

people; race, tribe; family, relatives; citizens, common people; companions, servants; entire human race; herd [of animals]

masculine singular collective noun with the definite article

Strong’s #5971 BDB #766

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

shêm (שֵם) [pronounced shame]

name, reputation, character

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #8034 BDB #1027

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

The writer of Samuel has Yehowah of the armies here.


Translation: ...he then blessed the people in the name of Yehowah. The ceremonies are over. The Ark of God has been successfully brought into the tent which David had prepared for it. There was music and singing on their approach to Jerusalem; there were sacrifices and offerings all along the way and after the had gotten inside the Jerusalem city gates; and there were psalms sung after entering the city walls as well.


As we often find in the Hebrew, we do not get a strict chronological view. The first 3 verses simply tell us what happens after entering into the city walls with the Ark. Then we find out about David’s organization of the Levites, which organization was first seen at the ceremony of the transporting of the Ark (vv. 4–7). Then we actually have bits and pieces of the psalms which were publically performed there (it is not clear whether there was strictly a choir or whether the people all sang along, or if there was a combination of these things. Why doesn’t the Bible clue us in here? Because it is unimportant. The content of what was sung is important. Who sang what when and in which order is much less important. The Bible doesn’t provide a myriad of details and miscellaneous historical facts so that we simply get an historical perspective on what they did way back when; but the Bible is designed to teach those who examine it carefully. And so I am not misunderstood here, I am not suggesting that the individual believer begin his or her own regular Bible study with Strong’s Concordance on one side and two Bible translations and a commentary on the other—God designed for us to learn under a pastor-teacher. Footnote


Now, here we are told that David blesses the people. So, just what does that mean?

What It Means for David to Bless the People

1.               The people in attendance are Jews from all over Israel, and there are probably interested Gentiles there as well.

2.               The fact that these people would show up to this event indicates positive volition on their part. This is most certainly a mix of both believers and unbelievers.

3.               David conferring blessing upon them means that, he desires that they believe in Jehovah Elohim; and that those who are believers are blessed spiritually and temporally by God.

4.               People who have never believed in Jehovah Elohim (Jesus Christ in the New Testament) do go on positive signals toward God. They know something about Him; they have heard something about Him, and they are then drawn to Him. They want to know more. In our time, such a person might go to a church, talk to a minister or talk to a person who seems spiritual (I recall when I began to get some interest in spiritual matters, wanting to know more than what I had been taught in my own home, one friend suggested another friend to talk to). During the time of David, one way of expressing interest in God was moving to the land of the Jews (for Gentiles); and attending ceremonies such as this.

5.               In the Church Age, I can formulate the exact words and thoughts involved in becoming a Christian: believe in Jesus Christ and you will be saved. In the time of David, that one needed to trust in Jehovah Elohim was set out as clearly as the Apostle John expressed it. See Old Testament Salvation.

6.               In this doctrine of Old Testament Salvation, I have listed nearly 3 dozen verses from every section of the Old Testament where we are enjoined to place our faith in Jehovah Elohim. Therefore, someone who attended a religious event such as this, would be blessed if they believed in Jehovah Elohim.

7.               Obviously, the bulk of the people who showed up to this event were believers already. They have heard at least 3 psalms sung after walking through the gates Jerusalem and certainly, there were psalms sung along the way. Therefore, a person who attended was blessed by the doctrine which they heard, if they believed this doctrine and committed it to their own souls. David, when blessing the people, was, in effect, calling for this to be the case.

8.               Finally, we have simple material and personal blessings, which David was calling for, to be rained down upon these people with positive volition, and those who are believers, growing and mature, who attended this momentous event. God is not stingy with His blessings. I can personally attest to great blessings from God, and that I can see great blessings poured out upon my family, my personal friends, and those places with which I closely associate. I know about a number of believers, and the ones whom I am familiar with have enjoyed great blessings as well, in a variety of areas. This is not a call to believe in Jesus Christ so that you can be blessed; but this is what David was doing, when he blessed the people who were there. He was calling for their families, their homes, their farms and ranches to all be blessed by God; to be prospered.

9.      David, as a type of Christ, is seen as blessing us. In general, it is rare for kings to bless us (Solomon also blessed the people in 1Kings 8:14, 55 2Chron. 6:3); and specific men in the past have blessed the people (Moses in Ex. 39:43). These 3 men in particular are figures of Jesus Christ (David represents Christ at the 1st Advent and Solomon Christ at the 2nd Advent).

[After] David finished from causing the burnt offering to go up as well as [lit., and] the peace-offerings, he then blessed the people in the name of Yehowah.


Return to Chapter Outline

Return to Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


And so he apportions to all Israel from a man as far as a woman to a man a round of bread and a [piece of] meat and a raisin-cake.

1Chronicles

16:3

He apportioned to all Israel—both men and women—to each one, a loaf of bread, a [piece] of meat, and a raisin-cake.

Then David gave a loaf of bread, a piece of meat and a raisin-cake to every man and woman of Israel who was in attendance.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text                       And so he apportions to all Israel from a man as far as a woman to a man a round of bread and a [piece of] meat and a raisin-cake.

Septuagint                              And he divided to every man of Israel (both men and women), to every man one baker’s loaf, and a cake.

 

Significant differences:           The Greek has from every man of Israel rather than from all Israel. The meaning is essentially the same, although it is not clear whether the translators of the Greek took liberties with the Hebrew text or if the Hebrew text was actually different. In any case, the meaning remains unchanged.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       ...and gave every person in the crowd a small loaf of bread, some meat, and a handful of raisins.

Good News Bible (TEV)         ...and distributed food to them all. He gave each man and woman in Israel a loaf of bread, a piece of roasted meat, and some raisins.

The Message                         Then he passed around to every one there, men and women alike, a loaf of bread, a slice of barbecue, and a raisin cake. A slice of barbeque?

NET Bible®                             He then handed out to each Israelite man and woman a loaf of bread, a date cake, and a raisin cake.

New Life Version                    He gave to every man and woman in Israel a loaf of bread, a share of meat, and a loaf of dried grapes.

New Living Translation           Then he gave to every man and woman in all Israel a loaf of bread, a cake of dates [Or, a portion of meat. The meaning of the Hebrew is uncertain] and a cake of raisins.

Revised English Bible            ...and distributed foot, a loaf of bread, a portion of meat, and a cake of raisins, to each Israelite, man or woman.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And he gave to everyone, every man and woman of Israel, a cake of bread, some meat, and a cake of dry grapes.

God’s Word                         He also distributed to every person in Israel-both men and women-a loaf of bread, a date cake, and a raisin cake.

HCSB                                     Then he distributed to each and every Israelite, both men and women, a loaf of bread, a date cake, and a raisin cake.

JPS (Tanakh)                         And he distributed to every person in Israel—man and women alike—to each a loaf of bread, a cake made in a pan, and a raisin cake. The meaning of the Hebrew for the latter two items is uncertain.

Today’s NIV                          Then he gave a loaf of bread, a cake of dates and a cake of raisins to each Israelite man and woman.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Updated Emphasized Bible    And he apportioned to every one of Israel, both man and woman, to every one, a loaf of bread, and a sweet drink [So Fuerst thinks; but the etymology and meanings are unknown], and a raisin cake.

English Standard Version      ...and distributed to all Israel, both men and women, to each a loaf of bread, a portion of meat, and a cake of raisins.

LTHB                                     ...even he passed out to every one of Israel, both man and woman, to each a loaf of bread, a portion, and a raisin cake.

MKJV                                     And he divided to every one of Israel, both man and woman, to every one a loaf of bread and a portion, and a raisin cake.

New King James Version       Then he distributed to everyone of Israel, both man and woman, to everyone a loaf of bread, a piece of meat, and a cake of raisins.

Young’s Updated LT             And he gives a portion to every man of Israel, both man and woman: to each a cake of bread, and a measure of wine, and a grape-cake.


What is the gist of this verse? David saw to it that everyone had rations to take with them on their return to their hometowns.


1Chronicles 16:3a = 2Samuel 6:19a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

châlaq (חָלַק) [pronounced chaw-LAHK]

to divide, to apportion, to allot; to distribute, to disperse

3rd person masculine singular, Piel imperfect

Strong’s #2505 BDB #323

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

Yiserâêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

God prevails; contender; soldier of God; transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 & #3479 BDB #975

2Samuel reads to all the people, to all the multitude of Israel; instead of just to all Israel. The writer of Chronicles obviously did a little editing here.


Translation: He apportioned to all Israel... David did not send care packages throughout all Israel. However, there were a number of Israelites who had gathered there for the moving of the Ark, at great expense to themselves. Recall that the Philistines had conquered portions of Israel and had killed their king Saul. So, for some period of time, portions or all of central and northern Israel would have been paying tribute to the Philistines. Furthermore, you must understand that logically, the Philistines are not going to put a minor burden on Israel; they are going to be greedy and they will want to take as much as they can get away with. Having defeated Israel’s army in battle, this would be a relatively easy thing for the Philistines to do. The upshot of this is, having just come out from under Philistine rule (well, to be precise, it is very possible that David had not yet defeated the Philistines in his land, having just become ruler over northern Israel), we have a population of Jews who are, for the most part, quite poor. Therefore, David is going to see to it that they have enough foodstuffs to get them home.


1Chronicles 16:3b = 2Samuel 6:19b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

îysh (אִיש) [pronounced eesh]

a man, a husband; anyone; a certain one; each, each one, everyone

masculine singular noun (sometimes found where we would use a plural)

Strong's #376 BDB #35

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

׳ad (עַד) [pronounced ģahd]

as far as, even to, up to, until

preposition

Strong’s #5704 BDB #723

Together, min...wa ׳ad (וְעַד ... מִן) mean from...to or both...and; as in from soup to nuts or both young and old.

îshshâh (אִשָּה) [pronounced eesh-SHAW]

woman, wife

feminine singular noun

Strong's #802 BDB #61


Translation:...—both men and women—... Both the writer of 2Samuel (probably David) and the writer of Chronicles (who, no doubt, was using the Samuel manuscript along with other sources) thought it important to point out what was allotted to the people there and that both men and women were all given their share.


The Bible is mischaracterized as being misogynistic (against women; anti-woman). What is true is, the Bible has different roles for the man and the woman to play. When the feminist movement was at its zenith, one of their tenets appeared to be that men and women are not really different; and all of the differences between men and women are a matter of socialization. Most parents with at least 1 each of a boy and a girl can tell you that, for the most part, these are creatures from a different planet, no matter how they attempt to raise them. An activist can certainly attempt to emasculate his or her male children and to toughen up his or her female children—the parents have a great deal to do with the growth and socialization of their own children—but left to their own devices, with a reasonable amount of training, boys grow up to be men and girls grow up to be women (not exactly an earth shattering observation, I admit). In any normal marriage, both the man and the woman relate differently to their children and offer different things to their children. God, in the Bible, institutionalizes our gender roles, but never presents man as the superior gender or woman as the inferior gender. What we find in Scripture is, equality in the spiritual realm, and role differences for man and woman here on earth. Therefore, in instances like this, men and women are treated equally.


1Chronicles 16:3c = 2Samuel 6:19c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

îysh (אִיש) [pronounced eesh]

a man, a husband; anyone; a certain one; each, each one, everyone

masculine singular noun (sometimes found where we would use a plural)

Strong's #376 BDB #35

kikâr (כִּכָּר) [pronounced kik-KAWR]

a round, a round district, a round loaf, a round weight, a round talent

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #3603 BDB #503

The writer of Samuel uses a different word here for the kind of bread/cake which was distributed.

lechem (לֶחֶם) [pronounced LEH-khem]

literally means bread; used more generally for food

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #3899 BDB #536


Translation: ...to each one, a loaf of bread,... This should seem odd, for both the writer of Chronicles and of Samuel to tell us just exactly what David gave to these people. For this reason, we ought to consider what God the Holy Spirit is conveying to us. So there is no misunderstanding, these are literal, historical events which took place. These are the food items which David gave to the assembled Israelites. However, we may reasonably find more here than the surface meaning.


Bread is associated with basic sustenance and with spiritual food. The Jews in the desert, marching from Israel to the Land of Promise, complained about the lack of food, and God sent them bread from heaven, which both provided sustenance for them, and spoke of the True Bread from Heaven that He would send them. Our daily sustenance comes from Jesus Christ and our eternal sustenance comes from Him as well. Therefore, we get from this that God provides for us in every way.


1Chronicles 16:3d = 2Samuel 6:19d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

eshepâr (אֶשְפָר) [pronounced eshe-PAWR]

a measured portion; a measure [of something], a cup [of something]; a piece of meat; a date-cake, a cake, roll

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #829 BDB #80

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

eshîyshâh (אֶשִישָה) [pronounced ash-ee-SHAW]

[pressed] raisin-cake; pressed grape cakes

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #809 BDB #84

The writer of Samuel is somewhat more wordy here. Essentially, what is said is the same.


Translation: ...a [piece] of meat, and a raisin-cake. The second item which they received is unknown, this word being found only twice in the Bible, and, apparently, without clear cognates. As referenced above, the idea seems to be that we are dealing with a specific portion, and my guess is, this is a portion of meat (as is the assumption of many other exegetes). The reason we make this assumption is, many animals were sacrificed as the Ark made its way, step by step, into the city of Jerusalem. Therefore, the offerings made by David would then be distributed to the people there. It would make little sense to offer up all of these sacrifices and for the people not to be given a share of it.


The 3rd item which was received was a pressed grape cake which is, insofar as I know, a desert bar.


In the book of 2Samuel, it appears as though David distributes this food to the people for their journey home. Here, it appears to occur while they are around the gates of Jerusalem celebrating the Ark. Although the text is not clear, here or in 2Sam. 6, it appears as though the crowds of people must have followed the Ark into Jerusalem. I have no idea as to the size of Jerusalem, the size of the crowd, and whether or not they were all able to fit. This is not what we would call a fundamental doctrinal point, and, my own thinking is, they were all able to enter into the city of Jerusalem to complete the celebration.


There are a lot of animal sacrifices which are taking place (v. 2). The meat from these offerings was distributed to the people of Israel. It would make sense for the bread and raisin-cakes to be distributed at this time as well. Although we have no idea as to the timeline here, my guess is, all of this took much of the day. My guess would be 4–8 hours. Recall that, every 6 steps, 2 animals would be sacrificed (2Sam. 6:13), which, I would assume, would later be offered up as burnt offerings. There were psalms sung on the way to Jerusalem and after the Ark had been put in its place in Jerusalem.


Near the end of the ceremony, as the animals were offered up as burnt offerings, the meat would then be carved and distributed to the people. It would be reasonable for the bread and raisin cakes to be distributed at this time as well. This reasonably places the food distribution at the end of the ceremonies before the people are going home. Therefore, the placement in this chapter and in 2Sam. 6 is apt and there is no contradiction.


It is also worth pointing out that, 2Samuel completes this verse by saying, “And everybody went home.” 1Chron. 6 will say that at the end of this chapter, and the intervening 40 verses are unique to Chronicles.


The psalms in this chapter were no doubt performed after the Ark had been placed in the tent, and possibly while the people were being served. Whether they all sang or whether the Levites simply performed these psalms, we do not know. My guess is, there was a bit of both.


Obviously, you are wondering, what does this mean to me? The food is being distributed to everyone at such and such a time; so what? The burnt offering along with the meat which is distributed all represent Jesus Christ dying for our sins and the appropriation of His death to ourselves. The bread represents not just the bread of the Word but sustenance for our daily lives on this earth, which actually begins even before salvation. We must be kept alive to get to the point of salvation, and the bread represents basic support to the unbeliever, which is followed by logistical grace for the believer. Obviously, if Satan had his way, every single person who reached God consciousness would be killed at that point.


The final item, the grape-cakes, is probably a desert, and represents the blessings that we receive in life. That David gives these items to each and every person indicates that God has these provisions for each and every person. He brings us alive to the point of God consciousness and then to the point of gospel hearing; after we believe, we are sustained; and, after awhile, we are given great blessings in life. In other words, you may have thought that this is simply useless information being added in, but the author includes this, as it parallels the life of the believer.


This is something else I want you to notice: in the previous verse, David blesses the people. Now, for some, that can be relatively meaningless. “Bless you, my brother” can mean very little. When James addressed a similar situation, he said, “You don’t tell a hungry man, ‘be full.’ ” You feed him. David is doing the same thing; he is not just mouthing the words bless you; he is giving them blessings to take with them.


Application: This is similar to our lives as believers. If you are a growing believer, God is going to bless you, and it will be notable. That is, God does not simply say from on-high, “Bless you” and that is the end of it; God gives us rich blessings; He gives us blessings far beyond what we deserve. This does not mean that you will become a millionaire after believing in Jesus Christ, although that is not out of the question. It does not mean that everything you ever desired is going to be dropped off on your front porch next week. It does not mean that you will walk around with a smile on your face like some kind of a clown. But it does mean, you should be able to look at your life before believing in Jesus Christ and after, and notice a considerable change after a few years (assuming that you are growing spiritually; if you aren’t grow spiritually, then this does not apply).


Now let’s take a look back at these 3 verses and note what is going on underneath the surface:

The Hidden Parallels of 1Chron. 16:1–3

Scripture

Commentary

So they brought the Ark of Elohim [into Jerusalem] and placed it in the middle of the tent which David pitched for it.

The Ark of God represents Jesus Christ and placing it in a tent is analogous to Jesus Christ taking upon Himself true humanity. It is brought into Jerusalem, where our Lord culminated His earthly ministry.

Then they offered up burnt offerings and peace offerings before Elohim.

Burnt offerings represent Jesus dying for our sins (the burning represents judgment). Peace offerings represent the result peace between God and man.

[After] David finished from causing the burnt offering to go up as well as the peace-offerings, he then blessed the people in the name of Yehowah.

David is a type of Christ, and his blessing us represents our Lord blessing us after we have believed in Him.

He apportioned to all Israel—both men and women—to each one, a loaf of bread, a [piece] of meat, and a raisin-cake.

During our lives as believers, we are given logistical grace in order to get us from salvation to spiritual maturity. As we have already studied, even the very items which David hands out are significant.

This entire chapter is a description of our Christian existence. Now, properly, this applies to believers in the Age of Israel; however, we may also reasonably apply this to our own spiritual lives.

When examining Scripture, we must always bear in mind that God does not simply record a series of random events for us to study. Particularly, when there are parallel narratives, we need to pay close attention to what might be hidden right below the surface.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


——————————


At this point, we completely leave the text of 2Sam. 6 and we find material here which is exclusive to the book of Chronicles. Recall that the writer of Chronicles used genealogical records, the book of Samuel, and several other books from which to construct this history. The book of Nathan the Seer is mentioned, and it is reasonable to suppose that Nathan recorded this information originally, as this was around his time period.


And so he give to faces of an Ark of Yehowah from the Levites serving and to speak of and to give thanks and to praise Yehowah Elohim of Israel.

1Chronicles

16:4

He placed in front of the Ark of Yehowah [some men] from the ministering Levites [or, from the Levites (as) ministers] even to call to remembrance, to give thanks to and to praise Yehowah the Elohim of Israel.

He assigned some of the ministering Levites to walk in front of the Ark of Jehovah and they were placed there to call to remembrance, to give thanks to and to praise Jehovah the God of Israel.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text                       And so he give to faces of an Ark of Yehowah from the Levites serving and to speak of and to give thanks and to praise Yehowah Elohim of Israel.

Septuagint                              And he appointed before the ark of the covenant of the Lord, Levites to minister [and] lift up the voice, and to give thanks and praise the Lord God of Israel.

 

Significant differences:           The Greek adds in the phrase of the covenant. The Hebrew, Latin and Syriac lack these words.

 

The remainder of the differences are going to seem pretty picky. Both texts have 4 verbs at the very end of this verse—the Hebrew has 1 participle followed by 3 infinitives and the Greek has 3 participles followed by one infinitive (although my Online Bible says they are all participles, the verb form of the final verb is an infinitive). Explaining the difference is going to be moderately difficult. A participle can express continuous action, but it can also refer to a job which a person does. In the Hebrew, the Levites are the ministers to the Ark of God. That is their job. The infinitive often states a purpose, and, in the Hebrew, their purpose is to call doctrines to remembrance, to give thanks to and to praise Jehovah the God of Israel. That would be the 3 reasons David placed some of the Levites in front of the Ark.

 

Now, interestingly enough, even though we have 3 participles followed by an infinitive in the Greek, Brenton, whose English translation I use (and correct or update from time to time), translates these as 4 (English) infinitives. It is not a stretch to suggest that the participles in the Greek just indicate the actions which these Levites will be engaged in while being stationed in front of the Ark of God.

 

All that being said, I don’t know that any of these differences are significant.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       David appointed some of the Levites to serve at the sacred chest; they were to play music and sing praises to the LORD God of Israel.

The Message                         Then David assigned some of the Levites to the Chest of GOD to lead worship--to intercede, give thanks, and praise the GOD of Israel.

New Jerusalem Bible             He appointed some of the Levites as ministers before the ark of Yahweh, to extol, glorify and praise Yahweh, God of Israel;...


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Complete Apostles’ Bible      And he appointed before the ark of the covenant of the Lord, Levites to minister and lift up the voice, and to give thanks and praise the Lord God of Israel.

God’s Word                         David appointed some Levites to serve in front of the LORD'S ark by offering prayers, thanks, and praise to the LORD God of Israel.

New International Version      And he appointed some of the Levites to minister before the ark of the LORD, to commemorate, to thank, and to praise the LORD God of Israel:...

NIV – UK                                He appointed some of the Levites to minister before the ark of the LORD, to make petition, to give thanks, and to praise the LORD, the God of Israel:.

The Scriptures 1998              And he appointed some of the Lĕwites to serve before the ark of יהוה, to bring to remembrance, and to thank, and to praise יהוה Elohim of Yisra’ĕl:...

Today’s NIV                          He appointed some of the Levites to minister before the ark of the LORD, to extol [or, petition, invoke], thank, and praise the LORD, the God of Israel:...


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                He appointed Levites to minister before the ark of the Lord and to celebrate [by calling to mind], thanking and praising the Lord, the God of Israel:...

Updated Emphasized Bible    And he placed before the ark of Yahweh certain of the Levites, as attendants—to celebrate [or, to bring to remembrance], to give thanks and to render praise to Yahweh, God of Israel.

English Standard Version      Then he appointed some of the Levites as ministers before the ark of the LORD, to invoke, to thank, and to praise the LORD, the God of Israel.

LTHB                                     And he set before the ark of Jehovah ministers from the Levites, even to celebrate and to thank and to give praise to Jehovah the God of Israel:...

New King James Version       And he appointed some of the Levites to minister before the ark of the LORD, to commemorate, to thank, and to praise the LORD God of Israel:.

Young’s Updated LT             And he puts before the ark of Jehovah, of the Levites, ministers, even to make mention of, and to thank, and to give praise to Jehovah, God of Israel:...


What is the gist of this verse? David will make specific spiritual assignments, which is spoken of in general here, and named specifically in vv. 5–7 and 38–42.


Before I get started with this verse, I should point out that there are two sets of assignments: vv. 4–6 and vv. 37–42. Here is the difference in the assignments, and why there is some overlap: in vv. 4–6, we are dealing strictly with those whom God has placed in charge of the music with regards to the moving of the Ark. Once we get down to vv. 38–42, we see David’s full-time assignments regarding the Ark, the gates and the Tabernacle (which is in Gibeon at this time).


1Chronicles 16:4a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

nâthan (נָתַן) [pronounced naw-THAHN]

to give, to grant, to place, to put, to set; to make

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #5414 BDB #678

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

pânîym (פָּנִים) [pronounced paw-NEEM]

face, faces, countenance; presence

masculine plural construct (plural acts like English singular)

Strong’s #6440 BDB #815

Together, they mean upon the face of, before, before the face of, in the presence of, in the sight of, in front of. When used with God, it can take on the more figurative meaning in the judgment of. This can also mean forwards; the front part [or, the edge of a sword]. Lepânîym (לְפָּנִים) can take on a temporal sense as well: before, of old, formerly, in the past, in past times.

ărôwn (אֲרוֹן) [pronounced uh-ROHN]

ark, chest; Ark

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #727 BDB #75

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

Levîyyim (לְוִיּםִ) [pronounced le-vee-YIM]

joined to, attached; garland, crown; and is transliterated Levites

plural gentilic adjective with the definite article

Strong’s #3881 BDB #532

shârath ( ׂשָרַת) [pronounced shaw-RAHTH]

to serve, to minister

masculine plural, Piel participle

Strong’s #8334 BDB #1058


Translation: He placed in front of the Ark of Yehowah [some men] from the ministering Levites [or, from the Levites (as) ministers]... The he spoken of here is David. As king over Israel, he made the various spiritual assignments, as we will also see in 1Chron. 15:16 16:37–42 23:2–6 24:3. This in itself is quite interesting. The impression from much of 1Samuel is, Saul had very little to do with spiritual things—although he did some sacrifices when he shouldn’t have and he did wipe out the priest clan in Nob—but we do not have him appointing anyone to do anything. David, on the other hand, is closely involved with the spiritual aspects of his kingdom. He recognizes the importance of these things.


Application: Our leaders should also have a recognition of the importance of spiritual things as well as their own spiritual life. Quite obviously, so should we.


At this point in the narrative, we are no longer in a procession. The Ark is inside the Jerusalem walls inside the tent which David had prepared for it. However, in front of this tent, David stationed Levites, here either called ministering Levites or Levites who were placed there as ministers. Again, in these few verses, we are speaking of this particular celebration of the Ark, now that we are inside the Jerusalem walls.


Generally speaking, the job of the Levites was to minister to God in a variety of capacities, most of them having to do with the Tabernacle of God. However, since the Tabernacle of God is not in view here, they are going to act in association with the Tabernacle furniture, which, in this case, is the Ark. All Levites are, in effect, ministers to the Tabernacle of God by birth (Num. 1:50–53 18:1–6). However, David selected a few of them to place in front of the Ark to function as ministers during this celebration. Now, what does that mean? This is laid out in the rest of v. 4.


1Chronicles 16:4b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

zâkar (זָכַר) [pronounced zaw-KAHR]

to speak of; to remember, to cause to be remembered, to call to one’s own mind, to bring to remembrance [before someone]; to make mention of [often with praise and/or celebration], to offer a memorial offering

Hiphil infinitive construct

Strong’s #2142 BDB #269

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

yâdâh (יָדָה) [pronounced yaw-AWH]

give thanks, praise, celebrate; confess

Hiphil infinitive construct

Strong’s #3034 BDB #392

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

hâlal (הָלַל) [pronounced haw-LAHL]

to praise, to sing, to celebrate; to glory

Piel infinitive construct

Strong’s #1984 BDB #237

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

Ělôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural construct

Strong's #430 BDB #43

Yiserâêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

God prevails; contender; soldier of God; transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 & #3479 BDB #975


Translation: ...even to call to remembrance, to give thanks to and to praise Yehowah the Elohim of Israel. We have 3 infinitive verbs here which tell us what these Levites would do as ministers before the Ark of God. Their first assignment is to call to remembrance, to bring to mind...Jehovah the God of Israel. The exact method here is not clear. I assuming that, in this case, the Ark having been moved into Jerusalem, that they are going to sing psalms and lead the people there in the singing of psalms. The psalms which are chosen will call to remembrance what God has done for Israel; these psalms will give thanks to God, and they will praise God for all that He has done. These psalms may have been sung by individuals or sung by all those who are there or simply recited. In any case, when we examine the psalms spoken of in this chapter, it will be clear that all 3 things are accomplished by these psalms.


The final verb describing their responsibilities has them praising, singing, celebrating and/or glorifying God, which certainly involves singing psalms.


Based upon these verbs, I would assume that the Levites stationed in front of the Tent of the Ark would read from the Sacred Scriptures, from the psalms. They would probably sing and offer up prayers and sacrifices as well.


Interestingly enough, this brief description in v. 4, well summarizes all of the psalms performed, sung and/or read at this ceremony.

The Psalms Sung before the Ark Give Thanks, Praise and Call to Remembrance

1Chron. 16:4

Psalms Quoted in 1Chron. 16

Give thanks

O give thanks to Jehovah; call on His name; make known His deeds among the peoples (1Chron. 16:8).

Praise

Sing to Him, sing psalms to Him; tell of all His marvelous works. Glory in His holy name; let the heart of those seeking Jehovah rejoice (1Chron. 16:9–10).

Call to remembrance

Remember His wonders that He has done, His signs, and the judgments of His mouth, O seed of Israel, His servant; O sons of Jacob, His elect. He is Jehovah our God, His judgments are in all the earth. Remember His covenant forever, the Word He gave to a thousand generations, which He has made with Abraham, and His oath to Isaac; and He established it to Jacob for a statute, to Israel as a covenant forever, saying, I will give you the land of Canaan, the allotment of your inheritance; when you were few in number, even very few, and sojourners in it, and they went up and down, from nation to nation, and from one kingdom to another people. He has not allowed any to oppress them; yea, for their sake He has reproved kings: Touch not My anointed ones, and do My prophets no evil. Sing to Jehovah, all the earth, proclaim His salvation from day to day. Declare His glory among the nations, His wonders among all the peoples (1Chron. 16:12–24).

Praise

For great is Jehovah, and greatly to be praised; and He is to be feared above all gods. All gods of the peoples are nothings; yea, Jehovah has made the heavens. Honor and majesty are before Him; strength and gladness are in His place. Give to Jehovah, O families of the people, give to Jehovah glory and strength. Give to Jehovah the glory of His name; bring an offering and come before Him; worship Jehovah in the adornment of holiness. Tremble before Him, all the earth; yea, the earth is established, it shall not be moved! Let the heavens be glad, and let the earth rejoice; and let them say among nations, Jehovah reigns (1Chron. 16:25–31).

Give thanks, praise

Give thanks to Jehovah, for He is good; for His mercy endures forever. And say, O save us, God of our salvation; and gather us, and deliver us from the nations, that we may give thanks to Your holy name, that we may glory in Your praise (1Chron. 16:34–35).

Praise

Blessed be Jehovah, the God of Israel, from everlasting even to everlasting. And all the people said, Amen, and gave praise to Jehovah (1Chron. 16:36).

The psalms chosen and sung do exactly what this verse says.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Now, later on, at the end of this chapter, there will be permanent assignments, and it is a little less clear as to how the Ark will fit into the life of Jerusalem. The passage which describes what was to be done is equally vague. In this passage, for this celebration, we can pretty much figure out just exactly what these men are doing. When we get to v. 37, those assigned to the Ark full time have duties which are described even more generally. There is the possibility that they would explain just exactly what the Ark of God looks like, as well as giving some history of the Ark, but that is pure conjecture, and not even suggested by the text at the end of this chapter.


As has been mentioned in our studies of 2Samuel, what we do not find here is the Tabernacle of God. The reason for this is, David plans to build a Temple instead of a Tabernacle for God. He’s not going to, but those are his plans, and that is why David does not go out and fetch the Tabernacle as well.


Asaph the head and his second Zechariah; Jeiel and Shemiramoth and Jehiel and Mattithiah and Eliab and Benaiah and Obed-Edom [lit., a slave of Edom] and Jeiel in manufactured goods harps and in hand harps; and Asaph in a [pair of] cymbals causing to hear.

1Chronicles

16:5

Asaph [was] the head and second to him [was] Zechariah. Jeiel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Mattithiah, Eliab, Benaiah, Obed-Edom and Jeiel [were] on the manufactured musical instruments—the harps and hand-held harps; and Asaph sounded a pair of cymbals;...

Asaph was their musical leader and Zechariah was second to him. Jeiel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Mattithiah, Eliab, Benaiah, Obed-Edom and Jeiel played certain musical instruments—the harps and hand-held harps—and Asaph sounded a pair of cymbals;...


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text                       Asaph the head and his second Zechariah; Jeiel and Shemiramoth and Jehiel and Mattithiah and Eliab and Benaiah and Obed-Edom [lit., a slave of Edom] and Jeiel in manufactured goods harps and in hand harps; and Asaph in a [pair of] cymbals causing to hear.

Septuagint                              Asaph [was] the chief, and next to him Zacharias, Jeiel, Semiramoth, Jeiel, Mattathias, Eliab, and Banaeas, and Abdedom: and Jeiel sounding with musical instruments and lutes and harps, and Asaph sounding with cymbals. Brenton’s English text did not match the Greek text too well, so I made some changes in the English text to better reflect the Greek.

 

Significant differences:           There are a few minor differences: there are fewer and’s in the Greek except with regards to the musical instruments, where, in the Greek, it sounds as though there are 3 sets of instruments played by the group of Levites, and, in the Hebrew, it sounds like there are 2 sets of instruments (although this is not entirely clear, as the connective in the Greek could also mean even). As is the case in almost all discrepancies in the text, nothing affects any major or minor doctrine.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       Asaph was their leader, and Zechariah was his assistant. Jeiel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Mattithiah, Eliab, Benaiah, Obed-Edom, and another man named Jeiel were appointed to play small harps and stringed instruments. Asaph himself played the cymbals,...

Good News Bible (TEV)         Asaph was appointed leader, with Zechariah as his assistant. Jeiel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Mattithiah, Eliab, Benaiah, Obed Edom, and Jeiel were to play harps. Asaph was to sound the cymbals,...

The Message                         Asaph was in charge; under him were Zechariah, Jeiel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Mattithiah, Eliab, Benaiah, Obed-Edom, and Jeiel, who played the musical instruments. Asaph was on percussion.

New Century Version             Asaph, who played the cymbals, was the leader. Zechariah was second to him. The other Levites were Jaaziel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Mattithiah, Eliab, Benaiah, Obed-Edom, and Jeiel. They played the lyres and harps.

New Life Version                    Asaph was the leader, then Zechariah, Jeiel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Mattithiah, Eliab, Benaiah, Obededom, and Jeiel. They were to play harps. And Asaph played loud-sounding timbrels..

New Living Translation           Asaph, the leader of this group, sounded the cymbals. Second to him was Zechariah, followed by Jeiel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Mattithiah, Eliab, Benaiah, Obed-edom, and Jeiel. They played the harps and lyres.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             Asaph the chief, and second to him Zechariah, Uzziel and Shemiramoth and Jehiel and Mattithiah and Eliab and Benaiah and Obed-edom and Jeiel, with corded instruments of music; and Asaph, with brass instruments sounding loudly;...

Complete Apostles’ Bible      Asaph was the chief, and next to him Zechariah, then Jeiel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Mattithiah, Eliab, Benaiah, and Obed-Edom; and Jeiel sounded with musical instruments, lutes and harps, and Asaph with cymbals.

God’s Word                         Asaph was the head; Zechariah was second, then Jeiel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Mattithiah, Eliab, Benaiah, Obed Edom, and Jeiel with harps and lyres. Asaph played the cymbals.

Today’s NIV                          Asaph was the chief, and next to him in rank were Zechariah, then Jaaziel [See 1Chron. 15:18,20; Hebrew Jeiel, possibly another name for Jaaziel], Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Mattithiah, Eliab, Benaiah, Obed-Edom and Jeiel. They were to play the lyres and harps, Asaph was to sound the cymbals,...


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

English Standard Version      Asaph was the chief, and second to him were Zechariah, Jeiel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Mattithiah, Eliab, Benaiah, Obed-edom, and Jeiel, who were to play harps and lyres; Asaph was to sound the cymbals,...

Hebrew Names Version         Asaf the chief, and second to him Zekharyah, Ye`i'el, and Shemiramot, and Yechi'el, and Mattityah, and Eli'av, and Benayah, and Obed-Edom, and Ye`i'el, with psalteries and with harps; and Asaf with cymbals, sounding aloud;...

King James 2000 Version      Asaph the chief, and next to him Zechariah, Jeiel, and Shemiramoth, and Jehiel, and Mattithiah, and Eliab, and Benaiah, and Obed-edom: and Jeiel with lyres and with harps; but Asaph made music with cymbals;...

NASB                                     Asaph the chief, and second to him Zechariah, then Jeiel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Mattithiah, Eliab, Benaiah, Obed-edom and Jeiel, with musical instruments, harps, lyres; also Asaph played loud-sounding cymbals,...

New King James Version       Asaph the chief, and next to him Zechariah, then Jeiel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Mattithiah, Eliab, Benaiah, and Obed-Edom: Jeiel with stringed instruments and harps, but Asaph made music with cymbals;...

Young's Updated LT              Asaph the head, and his second Zechariah; Jeiel, and Shemiramoth, and Jehiel, and Mattithiah, and Eliab, and Benaiah, and Obed-Edom, and Jeiel, with instruments of psalteries, and with harps; and Asaph with cymbals is sounding.


What is the gist of this verse? This is a list of the main musicians involved in the celebration of the moving of the Ark.


1Chronicles 16:5a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

Âçâph (אָסָף) [pronounced aw-SAWF]

gatherer, collector and is transliterated Asaph

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #623 BDB #63

rôsh (רֹאש or רֹאֶש) [pronounced rohsh]

head [of a man, city, state, nation, place, family, priest], top [of a mountain]; chief, prince, officer; front, choicest, best; height [of stars]; sum

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #7218 BDB #910

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

misheneh (מִשְנֶה) [pronounced mishe-NEH]

double, copy, second

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #4932 BDB #1041

Zekareyâh (זְכַרְיָה) [pronounced zek-ahre-YAW]

Yah [Jah, Jehovah] remembers; transliterated Zechariah

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #2148 BDB #272


Translation: Asaph [was] the head and second to him [was] Zechariah. Periodically in the Bible—and in Chronicles particularly—believers are named, and, in so doing, given some recognition. This is somewhat fascinating to me, as many people like some measure of fame. I recall walking down 6th Street in Austin (200 miles from my home) with a lady friend and, out of nowhere, some kid yells my name loudly as he and some other lads drive on by. This was just the right amount of fame. The kid did not yell out “You suck” or anything like that; the woman I was with was clearly impressed that, even outside of my hometown, some people knew and honored me, and, I would not be surprised if she saw me in a different light after that, for at least another half hour or so. It was just the right amount of fame. God apparently allows for some of this, as He is, ultimately glorified when we take in doctrine and make a few good decisions. In fact, in the first ten or so chapters of Chronicles, that is all that we saw was name after name after name after name. These names here will stand forever, and, at some point in time, I am sure we will have the opportunity to meet these celebrities (they are celebrities by virtue of the fact that they reflect the glory of God). This further suggests that we, in the Church Age, will receive some measure of recognition as well. Now, don’t get confused here. God is not going to give out gold stars to each and every person in order to boost our self-esteem; many believers will stand before the Judgment Seat of Christ and have all their human good burned, and, apart from that, they have nothing. There will not be some memorial somewhere for the losers in the Christian life. They will be saved forever and spend eternity with God, but that is as far as it will go. There are other believers who will be rewarded for their time here on earth—and this reward will glorify God and, in some way, probably give them some measure of non-sinful fame. I base this on the book of Chronicles, where we have name after name of those who have believed in Jesus Christ. So, we might breeze through such a chapter, but, when our name is read or posted in special recognition, I am sure there is going to be some measure of satisfaction associated with that.


There are a lot of things which are gratifying in this life, which are a part of our shadow image of God (as we are created in the shadow image of Him). God is glorified by our application of doctrine while filled with the Spirit; and I am certain that there will be some corresponding measure of fame given to us, as reflections of His glory.


Along those same lines, I am designing and helping to build my own library and media room (along with some other rooms), and as these plans slowly come to fruition, it gives me great pleasure to look at them. God is the creator of everything, and we have some measure of that same creativity, as well as some measure of pleasure when we create something which we are proud of (I don’t mean pride in a sinful way). We are the shadow image of our Creator insofar as, we like to create and we like it when our creations turn out to look good. My point in this analogy is, we are reflections of our Creator, and therefore, there will be common aspects of our essence.


The meaning of Asaph’s name is given variously as convener, collector; assembler; one who gathers together; a collector of the people. Since we are looking at someone whom we find several times in Scripture, let’s examine the Asaph’s of Scripture.

The Asaph’s of Scripture

#

A Brief Biography

1.

A Levite, the son of Berechiah, and one of the leaders of David's choir (1Chron. 6:39). Psalm 50 and Psalms 73–83 are attributed to him. He is mentioned along with David as skilled in music, and a “seer” (2Chron. 29:30). Asaph is remembered generations later and immortalized once again, this time period that we are studying, being referred to as the days of David and Asaph (Neh. 12:46).

2.

The father of Joah, a scribe in the time of Hezekiah (2Kings 18:18, 37 Isa. 36:3, 22).

3.

The 3rd Asaph may have been an early forest ranger, called “keeper of the king's forest” in Neh. 2:8. Nehemiah requested from him timber to build the temple at Jerusalem (Neh. 2:8). He apparently served Artaxerxes. He may be the father of Zabdi mentioned in Neh. 11:17, although we do not know whether this Asaph is a Jew or not (or Zabdi either, for that matter). There is the possibility that Zabdi, hearing from his father about the building of the Temple, trekked to Jerusalem to be a part of this.

 

A special mention should be given to the “sons of Asaph,” who are found in 1Chron. 25:1 2Chron. 20:14 35:15 Ezra 2:41 3:10 Neh. 7:44. These would have either Asaph’s descendants (the Asaph of our passage), and/or a group of poets/musicians/singers who recognized him as their master.

M.G. Easton M.A., D.D., Illustrated Bible Dictionary; 1897; from e-Sword, topic: Asaph.

Andrew Robert Fausset, Fausset’s Bible Dictionary; from e-Sword, topic: Asaph.

Dr. William Smith, Smith’s Bible Dictionary; 1894; from e-Sword, topic: Asaph.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


One of the things about Asaph which I find fascinating, and am unable to explain, is he is mentioned back in 1Chron. 6:39 as a part of the genealogies; but here and 1Chron. 15 is the first time that we find something out about Asaph. He is not even mentioned at all in 2Samuel, and yet found about a dozen times in the book of Chronicles, so what is that? How did the historians who composed the book of Samuel (which probably included Samuel, David, Nathan and possibly even Saul and Jonathan) forget Asaph? I don’t doubt that somewhere, some person who has chosen not to believe in the Bible, has postulated that Asaph is a creation of the author of Chronicles. However, Jesus said, “The Scriptures cannot be broken” so, my thinking is, He probably has a better handle on this than does some critic bloviating hundreds of years later. There are times in history when those who actually make history are not properly recognized until years later. I think that President George Bush will fall into this category, just as his predecessor, touted by many as a wonderful president, will fall into the category of average, several decades from now. Footnote


Now, you may counter with, God the Holy Spirit is supposed to be the ultimate Author of Scripture; and indeed, He is. However, the Bible is written by men as inspired by the Holy Spirit. For this reason, we should never discount or downplay the man-ward side of Scripture. There is no inaccuracy involved, but this helps to explain why John’s gospel, for instance, is so much different from Luke’s. So, whoever wrote this parallel section of Samuel (probably David and/or Nathan), probably did not recognize the full spiritual importance of Asaph; however, a later writer, given all of the psalms which Asaph produced, no doubt recognized his importance to this time period. As is mentioned in the Asaph’s of Scripture, there is a scribe from the time of Hezekiah named Joah. He may have written or assembled historical documents which either became or were used when Chronicles was written. He would have a reason for wanting his ancestor Asaph to be recognized for his contributions to his time. Footnote


I mentioned fame earlier, and that we should expect, as believers in Jesus Christ, some modicum of fame to be given to some of us. Asaph illustrates this—to the historians of his time period, his contributions seemed to go unnoticed. Even David’s bitchy first wife, Michal is more prominent in the book of Samuel than is Asaph (who is not found there at all). The fact that we find Asaph mentioned several times in Chronicles attests to the fact that many very quiet believers will receive some recognition from God at some point in the future. There are believers in Jesus Christ whose gift it is to pray for others—and I am sure that there are those out there praying regularly for our country and our military—whose names and faces we will not know in our own lifetimes. Footnote I believe that there will be some eternal recognition of these believers, just as we find Asaph mentioned throughout Chronicles as a testimony to his impact on his generation.


Zechariah (not the same as the prophet) is also found several times in Chronicles, but not at all in Samuel. Again, maybe this was Joah a descendant of Asaph, a scribe from the days of Hezekiah, who recognized that Asaph and Zechariah made meaningful contributions to their generation (and to future generations), and wanted them to be known for their impact. It is the same principle as we covered with Asaph: we may not have a very prominent place in contemporary history—a hundred years from now, we may at most, be names in a genealogy. However, God knows our true grace impact on history and I believe that God will recognize us in some way.


Now, I don’t want you to get all tangled up and think that some measure of fame means that the sin of pride is involved. We are the products of grace. The Bible teaching we have received is grace. The ability to hear and take it in, is grace. The opportunity to apply Bible doctrine is also grace. So, whatever recognition we receive will no doubt be a reflection of the grace of God, much as the earth is a reflection of the sun, and the greatness of this earth depends entirely upon the sun. Speaking of which, let me pass along an email, which I have received from several sources: God’s Perspective of the Universe.


Zechariah means, memory of the Lord, Jehovah is renowned or remembered. There are nearly 30 Zechariah’s in the Bible.

The Zechariah’s of Scripture

#

A Brief Biography

1.

The most famous Zechariah is the prophet of Judah, the eleventh of the twelve minor prophets. Like Ezekiel, he was of priestly extraction. He describes himself in Zech. 1:1 as “the son of Berechiah.” In Ezra 5:1 and Ezra 6:14, he is called “the son of Iddo,” who was properly his grandfather.


Zechariah left Babylon, where he was born, at a very young age. He began prophesying as a young man (Zech. 2:4), in the eighth month, in Darius' second year (520 b.c.), which was about 16 years after the return of the first group from exile. He first prophesied with Haggai (who began two months earlier) in support of Zerubbabel and Shealtiel in the building of the Temple, which had been suspended under Pseudo–Smerdis Artaxerxes (Ezra 4:24 5:1–2 6:14).


The two, "Haggai the prophet and Zechariah the son of Iddo" the priest prophet, according to a probable tradition composed psalms for the liturgy of the temple: Psalms 137; 146 to 148, according to Septuagint; Psalm 125, 126 according to the Peshito; and Psalm 111 according to Vulgate.


He is probably the Zechariah mentioned in Neh. 12:16. Of this particular man, Fausset writes [He represents] Iddo the priest's family, in the time of Joiakim, son of Jeshua (Neh. 12:16); and is probably the same as Zechariah the prophet, son (descendant) of Iddo.

2.  

The son or grandson of Jehoiada, the high priest in the times of Ahaziah and Joash. After the death of Jehoiada he boldly condemned both the king and the people for their rebellion against God (2Chron. 24:20), which so stirred up their resentment against him that at the king's commandment they stoned him with stones, and he died “in the court of the house of the Lord” (2Chron. 24:21). Christ alludes to this deed of murder in Matt. 23:35 Luke 11:51 (Since there is no h in the Greek, he is called Zacharias in the New Testament).


Fausset adds: [He is the] son of Jehoiada, and so cousin of king Joash whom Jehoiada saved from Athaliah (2Chron. 24:20).

(Easton, Fausset: See ZACHARIAS [2]).

3.  

Zechariah, the son of Jeroboam, was a king who ruled over the northern kingdom for the short period of 6 months. 2Kings 14:29 15:8–11

4.  

Uzziah [the King] set himself to seek God in the days of Zechariah, who instructed him in the fear of God, and as long as he sought the LORD, God made him prosper (2Chron. 26:5). This Zechariah is also a prophet, who had “understanding in the seeing of God,” in the time of Uzziah, who was much indebted to him for his wise counsel.

5.  

A Levite who assisted in the celebration of the bringing up of the Ark from the house of Obededom (1Chron. 15:20–24); and probably equivalent to the Zechariah in our passage (1Chron. 16:5). Easton adds [He is] a Levite in the tabernacle choir under David, "with psalteries on Alamoth" (1Chron. 15:20); of the second order of Levites (verse 18), a porter or gatekeeper. He is the Zechariah of our passage.

6.  

The priest who fathered John the Baptizer (Luke 1:5–25 3:2).

Besides these, there is a large number of persons mentioned in Scripture bearing this name of whom relatively little known.

7.  

One of the chiefs of the tribe of Reuben apparently during the time of the exile of the northern kingdom or shortly thereafter (1Chron. 5:7). He was a chief in Tiglath Pileser's time, at Israel's captivity.

8.  

One of the porters of the tabernacle who returned from captivity (1Chron. 9:21). I have not examined this chapter yet, so it is unclear to me if the Tabernacle was set up first before the new Temple was built.

9.  

The king Jehoshaphat sent out men to teach the law to the people in Judah, and Zechariah was one of the teachers. Levites assisted them in these matters. 2Chron. 17:1–8

10.  

A Levite, a descendant of Asaph, during the time of Hezekiah, who took a stand in support of Hezekiah’s new policies (2Chron. 29:13).

11.  

Josiah refurbished the House of God, and one of his foremen was named Zechariah, a Merarite. (2Chron. 34:12). He is probably one of the chief officers of the House of God under Josiah (2Chron. 35:8). Fausset equivocates this man to Zephaniah in 2Kings 25:18.

12.  

One of the two reliable witnesses called for in Isa. 8:2. Of this man, Fausset writes: [This Zechariah is the] son of Jeberechiah, taken by Isaiah as one of the "faithful witnesses to record" when he wrote concerning Maher-shalal-hash-baz ("hasting to the spoil he hasteth to the prey".) The other witness was Uriah, or Urijah, a priest, whom Urijah used as his tool in copying the Damascus altar. (See URIJAH.) As Isaiah, in order to enforce upon Ahaz' attention the truth symbolized, namely, that Assyria whom Ahaz trusted would soon prey upon Judah, chose one witness from the king's bosom friends, so it is likely Zechariah the other witness was also a bosom friend of Ahaz.


Now 2Kings 18 informs us that the mother of Hezekiah, son of Ahaz, was Abi daughter of Zechariah; hence it appears Ahaz was Zechariah's son in law; Isaiah naturally chose him as the other of the two witnesses. The undesigned coincidence between the prophet Isaiah (Isa. 8:2) and the independent historian (2Kings 16:10; 2Kings 18:2) confirms the genuineness of both. (See Blunt's Undesigned Coincidences, 2:2). Thus the Zechariah of 2Chron. 34:9 35:8 2Kings 25:18 may be the same person as 2Chron. 29:1; or else he may have been the same as 2Chron. 29:13.


ISBE seems to suggest that there may be more than one author for the book of Zechariah, but having the same name. So, apparently, there are those who theorize that this Zechariah wrote portions of the book by his name (however, this would not be equivalent to Zechariah #1, as they lived several hundred years apart. Although I have not studied this particular assertion, my gut feeling is to reject it.

Genealogical listings and lists of names (some of these may be equivalent to Zechariah’s found elsewhere on this list):

There is not, by the way, a big difference between what I have categorized as a genealogical listing and those above.

13.

Hezekiah the son of Ahaz, king of Judah, began to reign at the age of twenty-five, and he reigned twenty-nine years in Jerusalem. His mother's name was Abi the daughter of Zechariah (2Kings 18:1b–2). This is repeated in 2Chron. 29:1, where Hezekiah’s mother is named Abijah.

14.  

Apparently a great uncle of King Saul’s (1Chron. 9:37). He is called Zacher in 1Chron. 8:31.

15.  

A Kohathite Levite (1Chron. 24:25). The context of this genealogy appears to be the sons of Aaron, from whom are the priests to Israel.

16.  

A gatekeeper and a descendant of Asaph. 1Chron. 26:1–2

17.  

A gatekeeper of the sons of Merari. 1Chron. 26:10–11, 14

Fausset equivocates #’s 8, 16 and 17.

18.  

From the half-tribe of Manasseh, the father of Iddo, who was a chief officer in the Israeli army. 1Chron. 27:21

19.  

And the Spirit of the LORD came upon Jahaziel the son of Zechariah, son of Benaiah, son of Jeiel, son of Mattaniah, a Levite of the sons of Asaph, in the midst of the assembly (2Chron. 20:14).

20.  

One of Jehoshaphat's sons, possibly equivalent to one of the teachers of the Law in 1Chron. 17:7. And killed by Jehoram in 2Chron. 21:2.

21.  

A man who went from Babylonia to Israel under Ezra. He was a son of Shecaniah, who was of the sons of Parish. Ezra 8:3

22.  

Zechariah ben Bebai was another who went with Ezra to Israel. Ezra 8:11

23.  

A chief of the people in the time of Ezra, who consulted him about the return from captivity (Ezra 8:16); and possibly equivalent to one of the two previously mentioned Zechariah’s (Ezra 8:3, 11). He may be the same men as mentioned in Neh. 8:4.


Fausset writes: [This Zechariah was] a chief, summoned by Ezra to the consultation at the river Ahava, before the second caravan returned (Ezra 8:16); at Ezra's left, in expounding the law (Neh. 8:4).

24.  

One of the sons of Elam, who had put away his heathen wife. Ezra 10:26

25.  

And in Jerusalem lived certain of the sons of Judah and of the sons of Benjamin. Of the sons of Judah: Athaiah the son of Uzziah, son of Zechariah, son of Amariah, son of Shephatiah, son of Mahalalel, of the sons of Perez;... Neh. 11:4

26.  

...and Maaseiah the son of Baruch, son of Col-hozeh, son of Hazaiah, son of Adaiah, son of Joiarib, son of Zechariah, son of the Shilonite. Neh. 11:5

27.  

...and their brothers who did the work of the house, 822; and Adaiah the son of Jeroham, son of Pelaliah, son of Amzi, son of Zechariah, son of Pashhur, son of Malchijah,... Neh. 11:12.

28.  

And in the days of Joiakim were priests, heads of fathers' houses:...of Iddo, Zechariah; of Ginnethon, Meshullam;.. (Neh. 12:12a, 16). This is probably a reference to Zechariah the prophet.

29.  

A son of Jonathan, one of the priests’ sons who played a trumpet. Neh. 12:35, 41.

M.G. Easton M.A., D.D., Illustrated Bible Dictionary; 1897; from e-Sword, topic: Zechariah. Much of the text was taken from Easton and then modified.

Andrew Robert Fausset, Fausset’s Bible Dictionary; from e-Sword, topic: Zechariah.

The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia; James Orr, Editor; ©1956 Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.; Ⓟ by Hendrickson Publishers; from E-Sword; Topic:  Zechariah. ISBE lists 30 Zechariah’s, even though several are combined. Smith lists 28.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


One of the amazing things is coming across famous Christian literature which I have not heard anything about, which would now include Blunt’s “Undersigned Coincidences.”


1Chronicles 16:5b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

Ye׳îyêl (יְעִיאֵל) [pronounced yeģ-ee-ALE]

carried away of El [God], El sweeps away; transliterated Jeiel

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #3273 & #3260 BDB #418

There are two other spellings of this name: Ye׳ûwêl (יְעוּאֵל) [pronounced yeģ-oo-ALE] (Strong’s #3260); Ye׳ivêl (יְעִואֵל) [pronounced ye-ģih-VALE].

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Shemîyrâmôwth (שְמִירָמוֹת) [pronounced shem-ee-raw-MOHTH]

a name of heights; transliterated Shemiramoth

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #8070 BDB #1029

Also spelled Shemârîymôwth (שְמָרִימוֹת) [pronounced shem-aw-ree-MOHTH].

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Yechîyêl (יְחִיאֵל) [pronounced yehkh-ee-ALE]

may El [God] live; transliterated Jehiel

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #3171 BDB #313

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Mattitheyâhûw (מַתִּתְיָהוּ) [pronounced maht-tithe-YAW-hoo]

gift of Yah [Jehovah]; transliterated Mattithiah

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #4993 BDB #682

Also spelled Mattitheyâh (מַתֹּתְיָה) [pronounced maht-tithe-YAW].

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Ĕlîyâbv (אֲלִיָב) [pronounced el-ee-AWBV]

God is father; transliterated Eliab

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #446 BDB #45

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Benâyâh (בְּנָיָה) [pronounced ben-aw-YAW]

Yah [Jehovah] has built up; transliterated Benaiah

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #1141 BDB #125

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

׳Ôbêd (עֹבֵד) [pronounced ģoh-BADE]

a slave, a servant

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #5744 BDB #714

Ědôwm (אֱדוֹם) [pronounced eh-DOHM]; also Ědôm (אֱדֹם) [pronounced eh-DOHM

reddish; and is transliterated Edom, Edomites

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #123 BDB #10

Together, these two words make up Obed-edom, which means a slave to the Edomite; a servant to Edom, which is Strong’s #5654.

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Ye׳îyêl (יְעִיאֵל) [pronounced yeģ-ee-ALE]

carried away of El [God], El sweeps away; transliterated Jeiel

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #3273 & #3260 BDB #418

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

kelîy (כְּלִי) [pronounced melee]

manufactured good, artifact, article, utensil, vessel, weapon, armor, furniture, receptacle; baggage, valuables

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #3627 BDB #479

nêbel (נֵבֶל) [pronounced NAYB-vel]

a portable harp, lute, guitar

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #5035 BDB #614

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

kinnôwr (כִּנּוֹר) [pronounced kin-NOHR]

hand-harp, lyre

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #3658 BDB #490


Translation: Jeiel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Mattithiah, Eliab, Benaiah, Obed-Edom and Jeiel [were] on the manufactured musical instruments—the harps and hand-held harps;... These men appear to be separate from Asaph and Zechariah, and they appear to all be musicians which play the harp and the hand-held harp.


There are two men on this list name Jeiel. Barnes suggests Footnote that the first one is a corrupt reading for “Aziel” (1Chron. 15:20) or “Jaaziel” (1Chron. 15:18). The first citation is quite close to our passage: And the singers were Heman, Asaph, and Ethan, to sound with cymbals of bronze; and Zechariah, and Aziel, and Shemiramoth, and Jehiel, and Unni, and Eliab, and Maaseiah, and Benaiah, with harps set to Alamoth (1Chron. 15:19–20). 1Chron. 18:5 reads: Asaph the head, and Zechariah his second; Jeiel, and Shemiramoth, and Jehiel, and Mattithiah, and Eliab, and Benaiah, and Obed-edom, and Jeiel, with instruments of harps, and with lyres; and Asaph was sounding with the cymbals. I have underlined the names which are the same, and bolded the two which Barnes believes to be the same person.


The Revised English Bible thinks Footnote that this should be Jaaziel, as per 1Chron. 15:18. So the Levites appointed Heman the son of Joel; and of his brethren, Asaph the son of Berechiah; and of their brethren the sons of Merari, Ethan the son of Kushaiah; and with them their brethren of the second rank. The gatekeepers: Zechariah, Ben, Jaaziel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Unni, Eliab, Benaiah, Maaseiah, Mattithiah, Elipheleh, Mikneiah, Obed-Edom, and Jeiel (1Chron. 15:17–18). Asaph [was] the head and second to him [was] Zechariah. Jeiel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Mattithiah, Eliab, Benaiah, Obed-Edom and Jeiel [were] on the manufactured musical instruments—the harps and hand-held harps; and Asaph sounded a pair of cymbals; and Benaiah and Jahaziel, [two] priests, at regular intervals, [played] the trumpets before the Ark of the Covenant of Elohim (1Chron. 18:5–6). Again, we have a veritable match-up in names, where I have underlined those names which are found in both passages and bolded the names which the REB believes to be the same.


It might help simply to see what these instruments may have looked like:

The Musical Instruments Played

nêbel (נֵבֶל) [pronounced NAYB-vel]

kînnôwr (כֹּנּוֹר) [pronounced kin-NOHR]

    nevel.jpg

    lyre-kinnor.jpg  

http://www.agt.net/public/kstam/temple/details/images/nevel.jpg

http://www.markdroberts.com/images/Lyre-kinnor.jpg

Quite frankly, I have no clue as to how close these are to the actual instruments, but there does seem to be a reasonable amount of agreement on these approximate images.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines

There are 3 Jeiel’s listed in this verse and we know little about them, apart from playing musical instruments. There are over 10 Jeiel’s and near-Jeiel’s in Scripture.

Like Asaph and Zechariah, there are several Jeiel’s in the Bible. Jeiel means treasured of God, snatched away by God; and ISBE lists the meaning as unknown.

The Jeiel’s of Scripture

#

A Brief Bio

1.  

A Reubenite, of the house of Joel. 1Chron. 5:7.

2. 

A Merarite Levite, one of the gate–keepers to the sacred tent. 1Chron. 15:18. His duty was also to play the harp, 1Chron. 15:21, or the psaltery and harp, 1Chron. 16:5, in the service before the ark. (B.C. 1043). Spelled Jehiah in 1Chron. 15:24. There are 3 Jeiel’s in our passage; and 2 in 1Chron. 15:18 (along with a Jaaziel as well). Therefore, it is likely that we are speaking of 2 or 3 different men in these passages (I vote for 3).

3. 

A Gershonite Levite, one of the Bene–Asaph, (that is, sons of Asaph), forefather of Jahaziel, in the time of King Jehoshaphat. 2Chron. 20:14. (B.C. 910).

4. 

The scribe, who kept the account of the numbers, of King Uzziah's irregular predatory warriors. 2Chron. 26:11. (B.C. 803).

5. 

A Gershonite Levite, one of the Bene–Elizaphan, (that is, sons of Elizaphan). 2Chron. 29:13.

6. 

There is a Jehiel in 2Chron. 29:14.

7. 

One of the chiefs of the Levites, in the time of Josiah. 2Chron. 35:9. (B.C. 623).

8. 

One of the Bene–Adonikam, (that is, sons of Adonikam), who formed part of the caravan of Ezra, from Babylon to Jerusalem. Ezra 8:13. (B.C. 459).

9.  

A layman of the Bene–Nebo, (that is, sons of Nebo), who had taken a foreign wife, and had to relinquish her. Ezra 10:43. (B.C. 459).

10.  

A descendant of Benjamin (1Chron. 8:29 9:35) and spelled Jehiel.

11.  

One of David’s mighty men (1Chron. 11:44; spelled Jehiel).

This time, I took most of the text from Dr. William Smith, Smith’s Bible Dictionary; 1894; from e-Sword, topic: Jeiel. What is quite helpful here is, he gives us an approximate date to hang our hats on.

Additional material from M.G. Easton M.A., D.D., Illustrated Bible Dictionary; 1897; from e-Sword, topic: Jeiel; and from The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia; James Orr, Editor; ©1956 Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.; Ⓟ by Hendrickson Publishers; from E-Sword; Topic:  Jeiel.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines

There are only two Shemiramoth’s in the Bible. The name means the height of the heavens, most high name

The Shemiramoth’s of Scripture

#

A Brief Bio

1.  

A Levite in David's time (1Chron. 15:18, 20 16:5).

2.  

A Levite in the reign of Jehoshaphat who was to teach the Word of God (2Chron. 17:8).

From: M.G. Easton M.A., D.D., Illustrated Bible Dictionary; 1897; from e-Sword, topic: Shemiramoth.

Andrew Robert Fausset, Fausset’s Bible Dictionary; from e-Sword, topic: Shemiramoth.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines

Jehiel means let God live. Only ISBE had separate listings for this name. I left out some of those already mentioned.

The Jehiel’s of Scripture

#

A Brief Bio

1.  

A Levite, one of the musicians appointed to play upon instruments at the bringing up of the ark by David (1Chron. 15:18, 20 16:5).

2.  

A Gershonite, head of a Levitical house (1Chron. 23:8 29:8).

3.  

Son of a Hachmonite; he was “with the king's (David's) sons,” i.e. their tutor (1Chron. 27:32).

4.  

A son of King Jehoshaphat (2Chron. 21:2).

5.  

In 2Chron. 29:14, Jehiel (Jehuel?), is a Hermanite Levite who took part in cleansing the temple in Hezekiah's reign.

6.  

An overseer in Hezekiah's reign (2Chron. 31:13).

7.  

One of the three “rulers” of the temple in Hezekiah's reign (2Chron. 35:8).

8.  

Father of Obadiah, a returned exile (Ezra 8:9) = “Jezelus” of 1 Esdras 8:35.

9.  

Father of Shecaniah (Ezra 10:2) = “Jeelus” of 1 Esdras 8:92. He was a “son” of Elam, and so probably the same as “Jehiel” in Ezra 10:26, one of those who had married foreign wives = “Jezrielus” of 1 Esdras 9:27.

10.  

A “son” of Harim, and one of those who had married foreign wives (Ezra 10:21) = “Hiereel” of 1 Esdras 9:21.

11.  

One of the mighty men of David’s army (1Chron. 11:44).

12.  

Genealogical listing: a chief father of the Levites and possibly an ancestor of Saul’s (1Chron. 9:35). It is unclear whether this man is a Levite, and we do know that Saul was a Benjamite.

13.  

Genealogical listings: 1Chron. 26:21–22 who appear to be brothers in 1Chron. 23:8. These may be equivalent to #1 above.

From: The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia; James Orr, Editor; ©1956 Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.; Ⓟ by Hendrickson Publishers; from E-Sword; Topic:  Jehiel. Only ISBE had a separate listing for Jehiel.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines

Jehiel means let God live. Only ISBE had separate listings for this name. I left out some of those already mentioned.

The Mattithiah’s of Scripture

#

A Brief Bio

1.  

One of those appointed by David to minister before the ark, and to “celebrate and to thank and praise Yahweh, the God of Israel” (1Chron. 16:4–5).

2.  

One of the Levites who ministered before the ark with harps 1Chron. 15:18, 21 25:2 (an alternate spelling?), 3, 11. I don’t quite know if these are different men in these passages or if one of them is equivalent to the Mattithiah above. Fausset lists them all as one man.

3.  

The Mattithiah of Neh. 8:4 (1st spelling) was one of those who stood at Ezra's right hand while he read the law (compare 1 Esdras 9:43). He may be the individual set over “things that were baked in pans” (1Chron. 9:31).

4.  

One of those who had foreign wives (Ezra 10:43). In 1 Esdras 9:35, “Mazitias.”

5.  

The son of Amos, and father of Joseph, in the genealogy of our Lord (Luke 3:25).

From: The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia; James Orr, Editor; ©1956 Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.; Ⓟ by Hendrickson Publishers; from E-Sword; Topic:  Mattithiah.

Additional material from M.G. Easton M.A., D.D., Illustrated Bible Dictionary; 1897; from e-Sword, topic: Mattithiah; and Andrew Robert Fausset, Fausset’s Bible Dictionary; from e-Sword, topic: Mattithiah.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


I have already covered the Eliab’s of Scripture in 1Chronicles 12; more specifically at:

http://kukis.org/Chronicles/1Chron12.htm#The%20Eliab%E2%80%99s%20of%20Scripture


Benaiah means made by the Lord; built up by the Lord; whom Jehovah builds up. Only ISBE had separate listings for this name. I left out some of those already mentioned.

The Benaiah’s of Scripture

#

A Brief Bio

1.

The son of Jehoiada, the chief priest (1Chron. 27:5), of the tribe of Levi, though a native of Kabzeel (2Sam. 23:20), set by David (1Chron. 11:25) over his body–guard. He is also mentioned in 2Sam. 8:18 20:23 1Kings 1:38 1Chron. 18:17.


This Benaiah is one of David’s mighty men (2Sam. 23:22–23 1Chron. 11:25 27:6). He earned his position by slaying "two lion-like men of Moab," and "a lion in a pit in a snowy day," and "an Egyptian of great stature” (2Sam. 23:20–21 1Chron. 11:22). He was captain of the host for the third month (1Chron. 27:5). Benaiah remained faithful to Solomon, during Adonijah's attempt on the crown, and he kills both Adonijah and Joab (1Kings 1:8, 10, 32–38, 44) and was raised unto the place of Joab, as commander–in–chief of the whole army (1Kings 2:35 4:4). 1005 b.c.

2.  

Benaiah, the Pirathonite, an Ephraimite, is another of David's thirty mighty men (2Sam. 23:30 1Chron. 11:31). He is the captain of the eleventh monthly course (1Chron. 27:14). Circa 1000 b.c.

3.  

A Levite, in the time of David, who "played with a harp on Alamoth" (1Chron. 15:18, 20 16:5). Circa 1000 b.c.

4.  

A priest, in the time of David, appointed to blow the trumpet, before the ark (1Chron. 15:24 16:6). The reason that this Benaiah is considered different from #3 if that he plays a different instrument, he is found in a continuation of this list begun in v. 5, and listed with a new guy in v. 6. All of these reasons taken together strongly suggest that #3 and #4 are different men. Circa 1000 b.c.

5.  

A Levite, of the sons of Asaph (2Chron. 20:14).

6.  

A Levite, in the time of Hezekiah (2Chron. 31:13).

7.  

One of the "princes" of the families of Simeon (1Chron. 4:36).

8–11.

Four laymen in the time of Ezra who had taken strange wives (Ezra 10:25, 30, 35, 43). Circa 460 b.c.

12.  

Father of Pelatiah, a prince of the people, who gave presumptuous counsel against Ezekiel's inspired warnings, and was visited with death (Ezekiel 11). Circa 590 b.c.

13.  

The father of Jehoiada (1Chron. 27:34), but see (1) above.

From: Dr. William Smith, Smith’s Bible Dictionary; 1894; from e-Sword, topic: Benaiah.

Additional material from The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia; James Orr, Editor; ©1956 Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.; Ⓟ by Hendrickson Publishers; from E-Sword; Topic:  Benaiah; and Andrew Robert Fausset, Fausset’s Bible Dictionary; from e-Sword, topic: Benaiah.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Obed-Edom was one of the many foreigners who allied himself with Israel and who rose to a high position based upon the grace of God. This is the man who watched over the Ark after David tried to move it the first time. This is one of the great stories of grace. I suspect that after he offered to keep the Ark and after David was informed as to his great prosperity (which was made manifest within weeks of taking on the Ark), David recognized that he was a man of grace and brought him in to his inner circle, you might say.


There is a great deal of similarity between the Israel of old and the United States. We are both client nations; we have both received great blessings and prosperity from God, and people from all over the world can come here and rise to positions of great power and wealth, depending upon their hard work and talent. I personally know a Chinese girl in Arkansas, who was very poor when being brought up in China, and has been very successful in the United States. The new governor of Louisiana, Bobby Jindal, is an Indian (from India) and he is 2nd generation American. Just as Obed-Edom rose to a great position of prominence in Israel 3000 years ago, so we have men from almost every nation on earth living very successful and rewarding lives in the United States.


I will, at some point, cover Obed-Edom’s life in much greater detail, but he is a symbol of Gentile salvation. He is closely associated with the Ark of God, which is a shadow image of Jesus Christ. Because of this association, the king (again, a shadow of Christ to come) brings Obed-Edom into his kingdom with rewards and some measure of fame. I want you to also notice that his service to God which brought him these great rewards was a grace service. He did nothing but house the Ark of God for a few months (obviously, in a respectful manner). He received temporal blessings (his home was blessed) and he will receive eternal blessings (represented by his relationship with David).


1Chronicles 16:5c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Âçâph (אָסָף) [pronounced aw-SAWF]

gatherer, collector and is transliterated Asaph

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #623 BDB #63

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

metsiletayim (מִצֹלְתַּיִם) [pronounced mets-ihl-TAH-yihm]

[a pair of] cymbals

feminine dual noun (only found as a dual noun) with the definite article

Strong’s #4700 BDB #853

shâma׳ (שָמַע) [pronounced shaw-MAHĢ]

to cause to hear, to let hear; to announce, to tell; to call, to summon; to sing; to play [instruments]

Hiphil participle

Strong's #8085 BDB #1033


Translation: ...and Asaph sounded a pair of cymbals;.... It is unclear whether this is the Asaph who is the orchestra leader or whether this is another Asaph. If only this verse is taken by itself, we might lean toward this Asaph being the Asaph who began this verse. However, this verse continues into v. 6, where Benaiah (same name as someone in v. 5) and Jahaziel (a new name) are both mentioned as blowing trumpets. Since Zechariah, the second in authority, is not spoken of as playing a particular instrument, and since we have this new guy mentioned in the next verse, it suggests to us that this Asaph and the Benaiah from the next verse, are different men from the Asaph and Benaiah originally mentioned.


And Benaiah and Jahaziel the priests in the trumpets continually to faces of an Ark of a covenant of the Elohim.

1Chronicles

16:6

...and Benaiah and Jahaziel, [two] priests, at regular intervals, [played] the trumpets before the Ark of the Covenant of Elohim [throughout the day].

...and the two priests, Benaiah and Jahaziel, at regular intervals, sounded the trumpets before the Ark of the Covenant of God throughout the day.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text                       And Benaiah and Jahaziel the priests in the trumpets continually to faces of an Ark of a covenant of the Elohim.

Septuagint                              ...and Banaeas and Oziel the priests [sounding] continually with trumpets before the ark of the covenant of God.

 

Significant differences:           Brenton adds the phrase in that day, which is not found in the Greek in that verse, but they are the first words of the next verse in both the Hebrew and the Greek. There is actually no difference between the Greek and the Hebrew.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       ...and the two priests Benaiah and Jahaziel were to blow trumpets every day in front of the sacred chest.

Good News Bible (TEV)         ...and two priests, Benaiah and Jahaziel, were to blow trumpets regularly in front of the Covenant Box.

The Message                         The priests Benaiah and Jahaziel blew the trumpets before the Chest of the Covenant of God at set times through the day.

New Century Version             Benaiah and Jahaziel were priests who blew the trumpets regularly before the Ark of the Agreement with God.

New Life Version                    The religious leaders Benaiah and Jahaziel sounded the horns all the time in front of the special box with the Law of God.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And Benaiah and Jahaziel the priests, blowing horns all the time before the ark of the agreement of God.

Complete Apostles’ Bible      And Benaiah and Jahaziel the priests sounded continually with trumpets before the ark of the covenant of God in that day.

The Scriptures 1998              ...and Benayahu and Yaḥazi’ĕl the priests continually blew the trumpets before the ark of the covenant of Elohim.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

English Standard Version      ...and Benaiah and Jahaziel the priests were to blow trumpets regularly before the ark of the covenant of God.

Young's Literal Translation     ...and Benaiah and Jahaziel the priests are with trumpets continually before the ark of the covenant of God.


What is the gist of this verse? The priests, Benaiah and Jahaziel, stood before the Ark of God with trumpets.


1Chronicles 16:6

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Benâyâh (בְּנָיָה) [pronounced ben-aw-YAW]

Yah [Jehovah] has built up; transliterated Benaiah

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #1141 BDB #125

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Yachăzîyêl (יַחֲזִיאֵל) [pronounced yahkh-uh-zee-ALE]

El [God] sees; seen of El transliterated Jahaziel

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #3166 BDB #303

kôhên (כֹּהֵן) [pronounced koh-HANE]

priest

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong's #3548 BDB #463

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

chătsôtserâh (חֲצֹצְרָה or חֲצוֹצְרָה) [pronounced khuts-oh-tser-AW]

clarion, trumpet

feminine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #2689 BDB #348

tâmîyd (תָּמִיד) [pronounced taw-MEED]

continuously, continuity; at regular intervals; continuity, perpetuity

masculine singular noun/adverb

Strong’s #8548 BDB #556

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

pânîym (פָּנִים) [pronounced paw-NEEM]

face, faces, countenance; presence

masculine plural construct (plural acts like English singular)

Strong’s #6440 BDB #815

Together, they mean upon the face of, before, before the face of, in the presence of, in the sight of, in front of. When used with God, it can take on the more figurative meaning in the judgment of. This can also mean forwards; the front part [or, the edge of a sword]. Lepânîym (לְפָּנִים) can take on a temporal sense as well: before, of old, formerly, in the past, in past times.

ărôwn (אֲרוֹן) [pronounced uh-ROHN]

ark, chest; Ark

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #727 BDB #75

berîyth (בְּרִית) [pronounced bereeth]

pact, alliance, treaty, alliance, covenant; contract

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #1285 BDB #136

Ělôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong's #430 BDB #43


Translation: ...and Benaiah and Jahaziel, [two] priests, at regular intervals [played] the trumpets before the Ark of the Covenant of Elohim. In these past two verses, several names have been repeated. This does not mean that we are referring to the same people. Benaiah is spoken of before as one who plays a harp (some sort of stringed instrument—1Chron. 15:20 16:5); here Benaiah is playing a trumpet as well as in 1Chron. 15:24. This does not necessarily mean that we are speaking of different men, but this Benaiah is further qualified by calling him a priest. And, also as mentioned, we have a new guy here, Jahaziel, who also plays the trumpet. If this was simply a second duty for Benaiah, then we would have expected a repetition of one of the other names for his partner by the Ark.


These men are standing outside of the tent which David had constructed for the Ark of God. It makes little sense for them to be playing non-stop, so I think it is reasonable to assume that they played at regular intervals. Now, quite obviously, these men were on the payroll. God, in the theocracy of Israel, made certain that the Levites and priests were remunerated for their religious functions. However, this does not mean that we as a nation hire a significant portion of the population (1/12th) to perform religious rites. Now, apparently, over the years, we have a few positions like this (in the armed forces, at the Capitol, and perhaps at most state capitols), but we are in a different dispensation. The United States is not a theocracy, even though God has blessed us unlike any nation has ever before been blessed. However, this blessing is a result of spiritual Atlas’s throughout the United States, who listen to doctrine, who learn the Word of God, and grow.


Application: Let me take this one step further. The more you grow spiritually, the more likely your spiritual gift will function. The more that you function in your spiritual gift, the more you and your family and your city and your nation prosper. Thieme used to give the illustration many years ago of some huge business, occupying an entire high rise in downtown Houston, and they gather together to celebrate the latest figures of their growth and profit, and they are phenomenal, and they think that they are so brilliant, but what has blessed this company is some lone janitor who walks the floors at night, whose name almost no one knows, who is a man who believes in Jesus Christ and is taking in doctrine on a regular basis. This man may make close to minimum wage and seem to be the lowest shovel of dirt in the company, but it is his spiritual growth which has energized and profited this great company.


Application: Let me offer you my own example. At the school where I used to teach, this was a wonderful strong academic school with great discipline. This did deteriorate over the years, but even my last year there, they enjoyed the highest scores in the standardized tests (TAAS tests at that time) that they had ever enjoyed. I was asked to leave. Two years later, their standardized test scores plummeted 30 points and the very principal who asked me to leave was asked to leave. Now, obviously, there are a number of forces here at work—however, God timed the greatest blessing for this school to occur while I was there, and God timed things so that the greatest drop in test scores occurred after I left (and after all of my former students had graduated). In the made-up example from the huge business in Houston, there are a number of things which occurred in order ot prosper this company. However, God chose to make these things happen so long as that lone spiritually mature janitor walked the floors of that building at night, sweeping up dust, carrying out trash, and cleaning the toilets. His shiny floors may have had nothing to do directly with the prosperity of the company, but God saw to it that the company prospered because one of His Own was there.


I have gone out on a series of tangents. Back to our passage: I have covered the Jahaziel’s of Scripture back in 1Chron. 12:4.


Now, you may be wondering, what about this list of names and what about the list of names back in 1Chron. 15? What is the delio? Why don’t we just have one list? In the previous chapter, we covered the celebration of moving the Ark from Obed-Edom’s house to the gates of Jerusalem. In that celebration, there was a lot which went on, and various people had various responsibilities. In our passage, we are now within the walls of Jerusalem, the Ark has been placed in the tent which David prepared for it, and there is more celebration which takes place, now that the Ark is inside of Jerusalem. David delegated the musical preparations to Asaph, and Asaph had a variety of things going on, both when the Ark was being carried to Jerusalem, and after the Ark was there in Jerusalem. His marching band, Footnote as it were, outside the gates of Jerusalem, was not exactly the same as his performance band within the gates of Jerusalem. This is why there is some overlapping with regards to the names of the people in both passages; but also why these lists are not exactly the same. The writer of Chronicles is not simply repeating the same list in chapter 16 because he forgot that he already named these musicians back in chapter 15.

 

Keil and Delitzsch offer some commentary about this: In 1Chron. 16:5 and 1Chron. 16:6 there follow the names of the Levites appointed for this purpose, who have all been already mentioned in 1Chron. 15:19–21 as accompanying the ark in its transmission; but all who are there spoken of are not included in our list here. Of the chief singers, only Asaph is mentioned, Heman and Ethan being omitted; of the singers and players of the second rank, only nine; six of the eight nebel–players (1Chron. 15:20. יעיאל is a transcriber's error for יעזיאל, 1Chron. 15:18), and only three of the six kinnor–players; while instead of seven trumpet–blowing priests only two are named, viz., Benaiah, one of those seven, and Jehaziel, whose name does not occur in 1Chron. 15:24. Footnote Although I think that Keil and Delitzsch got the name mixup wrong, you can see in the Hebrew just how close these two names are.


It is possible that the next couple words actually belong with v. 6:


1Chronicles 16:7a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article)

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

Together, these are literally translated in the day; however, we may understand it to mean in that day; in this very day; at once, presently; lately; by day; in the daytime; throughout the day; in this day, at this [that] time; now; before that. These interpretations often depend upon when the action of the verb takes place.

If placed with the previous verse, the idea would probably be that, Benaiah and Jahaziel blew their trumpets at regular intervals during the daytime.


Translation (vv. 6–7a): ...and Benaiah and Jahaziel, [two] priests, at regular intervals [played] the trumpets before the Ark of the Covenant of Elohim in that day [or, during the daytime; throughout the day]. I must admit, this interpretation has a nice flow to it, and the next verse does not get backed up with temporal particles and phrases.


I should add, in case you are not aware, that the separation of verses occurred perhaps a thousand years after these words were first penned. Therefore, now and again, there will be phrases and words which are misplaced, and this may be one of those times.


——————————


There area couple of things to keep in mind as we examine this next verse: (1) Are the first words (in that day) more properly placed with v. 6? (2) Is v. 7 complete in itself or does it introduce the verses which follow? A lawyer knows never to ask a witness a question that the lawyer does not already know the answer to. That is the safest way to win a victory in court. However, I pose these questions as they come to me, whether I know the answer or not, and I generally write them out, so that, they stay in the forefront of my mind, and, if I am unable to answer them, perhaps in the forefront of your mind. The question at hand is not an earth-shattering question: Were those who played the various musical instruments before the Ark do so in that day, or did David assign Asaph and his relatives to give thanks to the Lord in that day?


In the day then gave David in the head to give thanks to Yehowah in a hand of Asaph and his brothers.

1Chronicles

16:7

At that time, David first gave thanksgiving and praise [lit., to give thanks] to Yehowah by means of Asaph and his brothers.

This was the first time that David gave thanks to Jehovah by Asaph and his brothers.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text                       In the day then gave David in the head to give thanks to Yehowah in a hand of Asaph and his brothers.

Septuagint                              Then David first gave orders to praise the Lord by the hand of Asaph and his brethren.

 

Significant differences:           None


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       That same day, David instructed Asaph and his relatives for the first time to sing these praises to the LORD:...

Good News Bible (TEV)         It was then that David first gave Asaph and the other Levites the responsibility for singing praises to the LORD.

The Message                         That was the day that David inaugurated regular worship of praise to GOD, led by Asaph and his company.

New American Bible              Then, on that same day, David appointed Asaph and his brethren to sing for the first time these praises of the Lord:...

New Century Version             That day David first gave Asaph and his relatives the job of singing praises to the Lord.

New Life Version                    Then on that day David first called upon Asaph and his brothers to give thanks to the Lord.

New Living Translation           On that day David gave to Asaph and his fellow Levites this song of thanksgiving to the Lord:...

Revised English Bible            It was then that David first ordained the offering of thanks to the Lord by Asaph and his kinsmen:...


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             Then on that day David first made the giving of praise to the Lord the work of Asaph and his brothers.

Complete Apostles’ Bible      Then David first gave orders to praise the Lord by the hand of Asaph and his brethren.

JPS (Tanakh)                         Then, on that day, David first commissioned Asaph and his kinsmen to give praise to the Lord.

NIRV                                      That day was the first time David gave Asaph and his helpers this psalm of thanks to the Lord.

New International Version      That day David first committed to Asaph and his associates this psalm of thanks to the LORD :...

Today’s NIV                          That day David first appointed Asaph and his associates to give praise to the LORD in this manner:...


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                Then on that day David first entrusted to Asaph and his brethren the singing of thanks to the Lord [as their chief task]:...

English Standard Version      Then on that day David first appointed that thanksgiving be sung to the LORD by Asaph and his brothers.

MKJV                                     Then on that day David first delivered this psalm into the hand of Asaph and his brothers in order to thank Jehovah:...

NASB                                     Then on that day David first assigned Asaph and his relatives to give thanks to the LORD.

New King James Version       On that day David first delivered this psalm into the hand of Asaph and his brethren, to thank the LORD:...

A Voice in the Wilderness      On that day David first gave this psalm by the hand of Asaph and his brethren, to give thanks unto Jehovah:...

WEB                                      Then on that day David first ordained to give thanks to Yahweh, by the hand of Asaph and his brothers.

Young's Updated LT              On that day then, David gave at the beginning to give thanks to Jehovah by the hand of Asaph and his brothers:...


What is the gist of this verse? It was at this time that David first set up Asaph and his brothers in their positions as musicians to Jehovah Elohim.


1Chronicles 16:7

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

yôwm (יוֹם) [pronounced yohm]

day; time; today (with a definite article)

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

Together, these are literally translated in the day; however, we may understand it to mean in that day; in this very day; at once, presently; lately; by day; in the daytime; throughout the day; in this day, at this [that] time; now; before that. These interpretations often depend upon when the action of the verb takes place.

If the words above are placed with the previous verse, the idea would probably be that, Benaiah and Jahaziel blew their trumpets at regular intervals during the daytime. It makes less sense to place them with v. 7, which is where they are found in the Hebrew. This will be discussed in more depth in a table below.

âz (אָז) [pronounced awz]

then, at that time, in that case (when following an if or though), now, as things are; that being so

adverb

Strong’s #227 BDB #23

nâthan (נָתַן) [pronounced naw-THAHN]

to give, to grant, to place, to put, to set; to make

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #5414 BDB #678

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

rôsh (רֹאש or רֹאֶש) [pronounced rohsh]

head [of a man, city, state, nation, place, family, priest], top [of a mountain]; chief, prince, officer; front, choicest, best; height [of stars]; sum

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #7218 BDB #910

BDB says this means at first. It is variously rendered at first (none that I could find); first (The Amplified Bible, NASB, NCV, NKJV, TNIV, and almost all other translations); the first time (CEV, God’s Word™, NIRV). The NLT ignores this phrase. This is for 1Chron. 16:7.

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

yâdâh (יָדָה) [pronounced yaw-AWH]

to profess, to confess; to show or point out [with the hand extended]; to give thanks, to praise, to celebrate

Hiphil infinitive construct

Strong’s #3034 BDB #392

The lâmed with an infinitive construct generally expresses purpose or result, although it can have three other common uses with the infinitive: (1) It can have a gerundial or adverbial sense to explain the circumstances of a previous action; (2) it can act as a periphrastic future in nominal clauses; and, (3) it can behave as a gerund, in the sense of is to be, must be, ought to be. Footnote (4) Lâmed with the infinitive can connote shall or must. Footnote

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

yâd (יָד) [pronounced yawd]

generally translated hand

feminine singular construct

Strong's #3027 BDB #388

This combination of the bêyth preposition and hand literally means in [the] hand of; and can be rendered in the power of; by the power of; with; through, by, by means of; before, in the sight of.

Âçâph (אָסָף) [pronounced aw-SAWF]

gatherer, collector and is transliterated Asaph

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #623 BDB #63

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

âch (אָח) [pronounced awhk]

brother, kinsman or close relative

masculine plural noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #251 BDB #26


Translation: At that time, David first gave thanksgiving and praise [lit., to give thanks] to Yehowah by means of Asaph and his brothers. When it comes to the translation of this verse, something has to give. First thing is, we have too many temporal phrases and particles. For this reason, I placed in that day with the previous verse. However, that is not quite enough. We have a normal temporal markers, a subject and a verb, which all fits together nicely: At the time, David first gave... What we expect to find is a direct object somewhere in this verse. That is how it should work. When you have a verb which demands a direct object then you ought to find a direct object. Now, it is okay to have the preposition to, but we would expect it to be followed by a noun. We do not generally expect to find another verb. The form of the verb here is a Hiphil infinitive construct. The lâmed preposition with an infinitive construct generally expresses purpose or result, although it can have three other common uses with the infinitive: (1) It can have a gerundial or adverbial sense to explain the circumstances of a previous action; (2) it can act as a periphrastic future in nominal clauses; and, (3) it can behave as a gerund, in the sense of is to be, must be, ought to be. Footnote (4) Lâmed with the infinitive can connote shall or must. Footnote A verb in the construct state can serve in any nominal capacity: subject, predicate, object of a preposition. Footnote In other words, we may be dealing with a purpose or a result where the verb is used more like a noun than like a verb. So, literally, we have to give thanks but I have rendered this thanksgiving and praise (nominal meanings for this verb). Again, the main verb demands a noun which may follow the lâmed preposition, which allows for the infinitive construct to function as a noun (if nothing else really fits the bill). The end result is, we do not necessarily translation the lâmed preposition, and we translate the infinitive construct (a verb) as a noun. This gives us: At that time, David first gave [the acts of] thanksgiving and praise to Jehovah... We may even get a little more creative with our main verb, and render this: At that time, David first assigned [acts of] thanksgiving and praise to Jehovah...


The verb itself probably refers back to v. 4, where the Levites were going to call to remembrance, to give thanks and to praise Jehovah. It is the same verb in the same morphology as the second verb above of v. 4. So I believe that writer of Chronicles is referring back to all of these things here, and representing them with the one verb.


Again, we might expect a noun to follow, but we then have by the hand of, which can also mean by means of. The idea is that, Asaph and his brothers would function in this capacity. David is learning to delegate spiritual matters to others when it comes to nation Israel. Now, this is a tough thing to do. Let me give you an illustration, and I am going to try to give this without stepping on any toes: R. B. Thieme Jr. fired a lot of assistant pastors over the years and finally decided not to have one. Now, I think that part of the problem was, Thieme had come from a military background such that, when you laid out the orders to an underling, they needed to follow them. With an assistant pastor, you do not necessarily have the same response. With an assistant pastor without a military background, their response is going to be even less authority oriented. Now, I have none of the particulars, nor do I care to, and I am certain that various assistant pastors made mistakes over the years, did things that they were not supposed to do, etc., because, after all, they have sin natures as well. However, incompetence does not remove the need for delegation of authority. A person cannot do it all, and David clearly could not go from leading a few hundred men to leading a nation, and still retain every bit of his spiritual function. If Mike Huckabee became president, we would not expect him to function as the president, and yet hold church services a few days a week. Footnote


Anyway, David was predominantly the spiritual leader, the spiritual Atlas of Israel, and he was willing at this time, for the first time, to delegate this authority. This, no doubt, was a difficult thing for him to do. This may account for the difficult sentence structure here, which draws our attention to this verse.


Now, why did David make this decision? Bible doctrine. Recall, David tried to move the Ark of God, one of the men caretaking the Ark died as a result, and David stopped the process and began to read the Bible. Well, he not only finds out how the Ark is supposed to be moved, but he no doubt read about the function of the Levites, which explains why they play such a part in this celebration. This also helps us to understand something else. Have you ever prepared a party for say, 10 or more people, and you are constantly running around, making sure the food is out, that everyone has a drink, that the music is proper for the occasion, that those who are not conversing are drawn into a conversation with others. You are at a party, but you have no chance to enjoy the party. Now, if you hire a party planner, and they are there, and they handle all of these details, you can relax a little and enjoy your own party. Now, I am not making a pitch for party planners, nor am I offering up my services as one; I am saying that, David delegated some authority to others, which gave him the opportunity to cut loose, as it were, and to enjoy this procession. So, back in 2Samuel, we find him dancing around as the Ark is brought into Jerusalem. David is able to enjoy this celebration because he is not trying to do everything. He is a musician and he also writes music. David could have performed musically at this time, but he did not. He has delegated the responsibility for many of the spiritual matters to Asaph and his brothers, particularly in the area of music.


The phrase Asaph and his brothers does not refer to Asaph’s actual brothers, but to his fellow Levites, as the word brother here has a wider application than to apply to two men from the same mother and father. We know who these men are because they have been named in the previous two verses.


This unresolved issue is, where to we place the phrase in that day? Should it be placed back with vv. 5–6 or should it remain with v. 7, as we find in the Hebrew Bible. To be honest with you, I really did not expect to resolve this question, but it actually sorts out rather neatly.

Where Goes in that Day?

Arguments to place it with vv. 5–6

Arguments to keep it with v. 7

Asaph the head, and Zechariah his second; Jeiel, and Shemiramoth, and Jehiel, and Mattithiah, and Eliab, and Benaiah, and Obed-edom, and Jeiel, with instruments of harps, and with lyres; and Asaph was sounding with the cymbals; and Benaiah and Jahaziel the priests were continually with trumpets before the ark of the covenant of God on that day.

On that day then David first gave by the hand of Asaph and his brothers to give thanks to Jehovah.

Literally, on that day, these musicians played the instruments which are spoken of.

David did not suddenly assign these duties to Asaph and his brothers on that day. We would have to take this phrase less literally to mean at that time.

This way we have one temporal phrase associated with each set of events.

We have two temporal phrases applied to this one verse: on that day and at that time (then).

One temporal phrase associated with vv. 5–6 leads into the next temporal word with v. 7.

We need, for some reason, to twice remark when David chose to make this assignment. That would seem to imply more of a literal understanding. When you emphasize something, you often are emphasizing the literal understanding of it.

The proper translation of this verse should be: Asaph [was] the head and second to him [was] Zechariah. Jeiel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Mattithiah, Eliab, Benaiah, Obed-Edom and Jeiel [were] on the manufactured musical instruments—the harps and hand-held harps; and Asaph sounded a pair of cymbals; and Benaiah and Jahaziel, [two] priests, at regular intervals, [played] the trumpets before the Ark of the Covenant of Elohim throughout the day. At that time, David first gave thanksgiving and praise [lit., to give thanks] to Yehowah by means of Asaph and his brothers.

The LXX properly sorts this out. It is surprising just how few modern translations properly rendered this passage. In my own personal collection, only the Complete Apostles’ Bible—which is an English translation of the LXX—properly translates this passage.

In order for Bullinger to sort this out, he keeps on that day with v. 7, but he presents it as an ellipsis (that is, something is missing from this verse). Then, on that day, David delivered first [this psalm] to thank Jehovah... Footnote


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


——————————


For this reason, what is sung at this celebration are psalms written by Asaph. We have already studied them, and we will reproduce them here, according to the Chronicles text, comment, and note any differences from the text found in the psalms.


At this point, we are going have portions of 3 psalms inserted here into the book of Chronicles. Just to get the overall picture, let me tell you what is here and what it matches up with.

Matching the Psalms with Chronicles

1Chronicles

Psalms (linked to full exegesis of Psalm)

1Chron. 16:8–22

Psalm 105:1–15

1Chron. 16:23–33

Psalm 96:1–13

1Chron. 16:34–36

Psalm 106:1, 47–48

For this reason, it is my strong recommendation that you study these three psalms first, and then come back to this chapter of Chronicles.

These Psalms are located at:

http://kukis.org/Psalms/Psalm105.htm

http://kukis.org/Psalms/Psalm096.htm

http://kukis.org/Psalms/Psalm106.htm

The PDF versions:

http://kukis.org/Psalms/Psalm105.pdf

http://kukis.org/Psalms/Psalm096.pdf

http://kukis.org/Psalms/Psalm106.pdf

The PDF versions are so large, you may need to download them to your computer in order to view them. This is done by right clicking the link and choosing save as. The PDF versions preserve the Hebrew and the original format more accurately than does the HTML document. If these are not issues to you, then the HTML version will more quickly load in your web browser.

I should also mention that, Matthew Henry sees this as one long psalm (song) which David composed. I personally do not buy into this theory, and one reason is, there is a stark difference between vv. 22 and 23. They do not flow one into the other. Secondly, it seems pretty weird that there would only be one song performed. In most of our churches, we see songs performed by soloists, by a choir and by the congregation. It is quite reasonable to suppose that there was any combination of this occurring outside of Jerusalem (1Chron. 15) and inside of Jerusalem (1Chron. 16).

Although these psalms are distinctly different, as reproduced in Chronicles and in their original form, they have areas of continuity as well: God’s name (vv. 8, 10, 29, 35); God’s holiness or integrity (vv. 10, 29, 35); and the nations (vv. 20, 24, 31, 35). Footnote The first two areas of continuity are understandable, but the third one? Israel comes into her own under David and Solomon, so why are the nations involved? David and Solomon both represent Jesus Christ in His 1st and 2nd Advents and His Millennial reign, and God surely does not cast away vast quantities of people for no reason. Israel has been a light to the people around them. David’s armies are filled with men from other countries. Under Solomon, people will come to Israel for his wisdom. And, as we will find in the Church Age, a number of Gentile nations will become client nations to God. So speaking of the Gentile nations at the beginning of Israel’s greatness is appropriate. The God of Israel is God over all the nations.

Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines

This does bring me to a question, which I don’t think I can answer: why do we have psalms clearly specified in 1Chron. 16, but not 15? We can make some very educated guesses as to which psalms were sung outside of Jerusalem during 1Chron. 15; but they are not listed with that chapter.

A Question about these Psalms

Why does the human author only include specific psalms within the text of 1Chron. 16 but not 15; and why does God the Holy Spirit include only psalms in 1Chron. 16?

 I can only answer this from the human perspective: the original author heard a lot of songs and sung many of them, and those which he recalled were the last ones which he heard (or sung). God the Holy Spirit, by logical deduction, will lead us to several psalms which were probably sung during the first part of this service; and in this chapter, He makes it easy by listing them.

Perhaps by listing them, God the Holy Spirit is telling exegetes, “If psalms were sung during the 2nd half of this service, then, obviously, they were sung using the 1st part as well. You figure it out from there.”

A second possible explanation is, the time for great rejoicing is the Millennium, when our Lord is on the earth. However, His 1st Advent would have also been a great time for rejoicing. Furthermore, the 2nd half of this service more accurately ought to be matched up with our Lord’s entry into Jerusalem.

So, a third explanation occurs to me: this is the one time that we have singing and celebration associated closely with Jesus Christ: when He is actually entering into Jerusalem.

I realize that none of these explanations may seem correct (although I do like the 3rd one); but as questions occur to me, I will state them, whether or not I can answer them.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines

 

People really seem to over-think the insertion of these psalms. I mentioned the Matthew Henry thinks that this is one long psalm. Clarke writes: Psalm 96, as it stands in the Chronicles, has thirty verses; and this is only a section of it, from the twenty-third to the thirty-third. It is very likely that this part was taken from the Psalm above mentioned, to be used at the dedication of the second temple. Psalm 105 is almost the same as that in Chronicles, but much more extensive. Where they are in the main the same, there are differences for which it is not easy to account. Footnote There are a few differences and there are reasonable theories for these differences (which I will cover as we go along).


As we see in the chart above, only the first 15 verses of Psalm 105 of 45 verses are found. In Psalm 96, the final verse is abbreviated. Obviously, a huge section of Psalm 106 was left out. It is not that big of a deal. Have you ever begun to sing a Christmas hymn in a group, and you got through the first stanza or two, and could not recall the words for the rest of the song? Perhaps the original author of this chapter of Chronicles listed that which he recalled from singing these psalms. Could he have forgotten parts of them? That is not out of the realm of possibility. Could he have made one or two errors in remembering these psalms? Of course. It is also possible that Asaph reworked these existing psalms or, when he wrote them down in their final version for the book of Psalms, made a few changes here and there. There are no differences which cause us to doubt any fundamental of Christian doctrine. It is not as if a Mormon or a Jehovah’s Witness took up the psalm and decided to partially rewrite it to emphasize their view of things. The differences are inconsequential, not of a doctrinal nature, and most people, if they read Psalm 96 and then 1Chron. 16:23–33, they might not even notice a difference.


Because this next section is poetry, it will be presented as such, and so formatted in the translation boxes.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Psalm 105:1–15

1Chronicles 16:8–23 = Psalm 105:1–15


The person who wrote Chronicles composed it sometime before 400 b.c. using a number of records (possibly royal records) which he had found. It is clear that he had access to genealogical records and the book of Samuel, but he apparently had other first-hand accounts as well at his disposal. We do not know how all of this came to pass. Israel, the Northern Kingdom, had been conquered and dispersed in 786 b.c. Judah, the Southern Kingdom, had been conquered and dispersed in 586 b.c. The walls of Jerusalem had been torn down, and the Temple had been razed as well. One possible thing which may have happened is, the royal library in Jerusalem was not burned or completely destroyed, but buried. In this library would have been the Word of God as well as hundreds of records and manuscripts. We know that, prior to the Judaic dispersion, the Word of God had been discovered by Hilkiah (2Chron. 34:14–21). We also know that the words of Jeremiah, for instance, were preserved when those of Judah returned to rebuild Jerusalem (Ezra 1:1). Therefore, somehow and in someway, there were a myriad of records discovered by the Chronicler, which he apparently sought to sort through, copy and correlate. Whether these records had somehow been preserved in a library which was not completely destroyed or whether the Jews were able to take these records with them into Babylon in 586 b.c., we do not know. We simply know that, somehow, the Chronicler has access to these records, as he writes this material after Judah returns from the dispersion.


This man who records the Chronicles, is a believer in Jehovah Elohim and in the Messiah to come and he believes God promises to Israel. Therefore, even though the writer of Samuel may have thought the inclusion of Psalm 105 unnecessary (I believe that David was the author and he recalls the singing and the dancing and the argument with his wife when he got home that evening), the psalms which were sung affect the chronicler deeply. He came out of the dispersion of Judah by the Babylonians and he was back in the Land of Promise, the land which God had promised to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. This strikes a deep emotional cord with the chronicler, and he is going to record the promises that God made to Abraham, which promises were sung that day of the Ark; and he is going to record the celebration of Jehovah Elohim from Psalm 96. This man, in his mind’s eye, could look backward in time, and see the Ark being carried to Jerusalem, and all of the singing and celebration which takes place; and including these psalms which were sung over 500 years prior to his writing transport this man back to that place and time. Therefore, he must include these psalms with the narrative of this event. David, who was there, remembers dancing all around as the Ark advances toward Jerusalem; and then he recalls the argument with his wife which essentially severed his relationship with her. The chronicler sees this as a trivial point; but is moved—even transported—by what the Levites and the people sung. Hence, he records for us the words which were sung in that day.


Bear in mind, this man has come out of exile; the Babylonians destroyed his city, and then removed him from the Land of Promise. So, when he reads the words of the promises which God made to Abraham, and here he is, sitting inside the newly constructed walls of Jerusalem, possibly inside of a library containing the history of his great country, you had better believe he is going to be deeply moved.


Let me put to rest two silly proposals: (1) this is one psalm, from here to v. 36; and (2) these psalms are similar to Psalms 96 105 106. Footnote This is not one psalm, as the subject matter changes radically with v. 23 (where a new psalm begins). These are not psalms similar to those named; these are those psalms. There have been a few changes here and there, but you cannot in any way think that someone just came up with these separate from those found in the book of Psalms. Through most of the following verses, these psalms are almost word-for-word the same as the Psalms 96 015 106. The most logical explanation is, David told Asaph to handle the music portion of this celebration, and Asaph took these psalms and altered them ever so slightly for the event. The chronicler may or may not have had the entire psalm set in the records that he worked from, but if they were complete, he just included enough verses to get the point across.


All that being said, what follows is Psalm 105:


Give thanks to Yehowah;

call in His name;

Make knows in peoples His deeds.

1Chronicles

16:8

Give thanks to Yehowah [and]

call upon His name;

make known His deeds among the peoples.

Give thanks to Jehovah and call upon His name.

Make His deeds known to all people throughout the world.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text                       Give thanks to Yehowah;

call in His name;

Make knows in peoples His deeds.

Septuagint                              Give thanks to the Lord, call upon him by his name, make known his designs among the people.

 

Significant differences:           No significant differences.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       Praise the LORD and pray in his name! Tell everyone what he has done.

Good News Bible (TEV)         Give thanks to the LORD, proclaim his greatness; tell the nations what he has done.

The Message                         Thank GOD! Call out his Name! Tell the whole world who he is and what he's done!

NET Bible®                             Give thanks to the LORD!

Call on his name!

Make known his accomplishments among the nations!.

New Century Version             Give thanks to the Lord and pray to him.

Tell the nations what he has done.

New Jerusalem Bible             Give thanks to Yahweh, call his name aloud,

proclaim his deeds to the peoples.

New Living Translation           Give thanks to the Lord and proclaim his greatness.

Let the whole world know what he has done.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             O give praise to the Lord; give honour to his name, talking of his doings among the peoples.

Complete Apostles’ Bible      Oh, give thanks to the Lord, call upon Him by His name, make known His designs among the people.

HCSB                                     Give thanks to the LORD; call on His name; proclaim His deeds among the peoples.

NIRV                                      Give thanks to the Lord. Worship him.

Tell the nations what he has done.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

MKJV                                     Give thanks to Jehovah, call on His name, make known His deeds among the people.

New King James Version       Oh, give thanks to the LORD!

Call upon His name;

Make known His deeds among the peoples!

Young's Literal Translation     Give thanks to Jehovah, call in His name, Make known among the peoples His doings.


What is the gist of this verse? The psalmist calls upon Israel to give thanks to Jehovah and to make His deeds known among all the Gentiles.


1Chronicles 16:8a = Psalm 105:1a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

yâdâh (יָדָה) [pronounced yaw-AWH]

give thanks, praise, celebrate; confess

2nd person masculine plural, Hiphil imperative

Strong’s #3034 BDB #392

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217


Translation: Give thanks to Yehowah... God is worthy of our praise. I am lucky to live in a nice neighborhood with some people who are really not all that nice (well, a few of the more militant ones; most of the people in this neighborhood are quite nice). We have a neighborhood association and there are people who get on these boards whose life mission is to isolate a few neighbors and rain hell down upon them. These are people who live in easily the top 1% of the world. Kings in previous centuries did not enjoy a lifestyle this good. And yet, they are panicked about the value of their property, people that they do not know or like, and a significant portion of their lives is devoted to this association and to driving away those whom they do not like. Now, I am fully aware of the arguments for and against these associations. I have lived in neighborhoods without them, and the value of those houses went up much faster, and people were able to figure out when they needed to mow and edge their lawns pretty much on their own, and when they needed to paint their houses. I also own a house in a neighborhood without such an association, and the houses are kept in crappy condition (which is also related to the value of the houses in this neighborhood as well).


Application: I have a neighbor who kept foster children and, to some extent, made a business out of it. In these sorts of neighborhoods, you cannot run a business out of your house, even though a significant number of homeowners here operate some sort of business, to some limited extent, from their houses. This apparently went on for about 3 years, and then this person made the mistake of telling a neighbor what he was doing. I live across the street from him and never noticed a thing. He had several foster children there, but I rarely saw them as he kept them inside 95% of the time. Anyway, when it became known that he was doing this, you would have thought he was running a half-way house for lepers. My neighbors were up in arms. I went to one of the meetings. One neighbor had taken it upon herself to sometimes follow this man with a video camera; she contacted the local lawn newspaper with updated information a few times a month (this story was on tv, in fact), and several of these neighbors felt that their property values had plummeted because of this man. Now, it is likely that it did become harder to sell property on this street, not because of anything this guy was doing, but because these busybody neighbors made such a fuss over it, that people from miles around knew about it; and I am sure that some did not buy a house on this street for that reason. Now, had they kept quiet about it, and raised a stink if there were actual problems as a result of these foster kids, no one would have been the wiser, as you had no idea what was going on inside this guy’s house. Footnote And these neighbors would call the police, ramble on about their odd suspicions, and the police would show up to investigate. Later, these same neighbors could declare, “And I have seen police cars outside of their house on several occasions!” The meeting I went to, to testify that, living across the street from this man was no different than living across the street from anyone else, was like stepping into a firestorm. There were an active contingent of people who were angry and vitriolic and we went from a street where we used to occasionally come out of our homes on a nice evening and say hello to one another and to briefly chat, to a neighborhood where this no longer occurs on this part of the street. The second item for discussion at that same neighborhood meeting was, what are we going to do about the boat dock? Here is my point: these people live in lovely houses and are never hungry and they drive new cars and they live like the top 1% of the world, and one of their great concerns is how to administer a boat dock; and yet, they are angry and filled with mental attitude sins (not all of them; just the few extremely vocal and active ones). Their problem is, they have no concept of being thankful for what they have. They do not recognize all that God has given them. Even though they might say prayers at Thanksgiving dinner, they are obsessed with the idea that their property may decrease 1% in value because of a neighbor.


1Chronicles 16:8b = Psalm 105:1b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

qârâ (קָרָא) [pronounced kaw-RAW]

to call, to proclaim, to read, to call to, to call out to, to assemble, to summon; to call, to name [when followed by a lâmed]

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperative

Strong's #7121 BDB #894

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

Although the bêyth preposition is primarily a preposition of proximity, it can also mean in, among, in the midst of; at, by, near, on, before, in the presence of, upon; with; to, unto, upon, up to; in respect to, on account of; because of; by means of, about, concerning.

shêm (שֵם) [pronounced shame]

name, reputation, character

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #8034 BDB #1027


Translation:...[and] call upon His name;... God ought to be a part of our daily lives. We ought to go to him in prayer, with our problems, and with our thanksgiving.


Jesus told us to pray continually, but the concept is, our thoughts should be focused upon God, and, at various intervals in our lives—several times a day, in fact—we should speak to God. We thank Him for each new day, we thank Him for our meals, we thank Him for our means of support (i.e., our jobs), we thank Him for our clothing and shelter, and for the many blessings which we have, and sometimes have no appreciation for. And, on those rare occasions when we have a problem, we go to God in prayer to deal with this problem.


This is being performed in front of thousands of people inside the Jerusalem walls, after the Ark has been placed in its tent. The musicians call upon all to celebrate what God has done for Israel and to call upon His name as a nation. This is what is know as, a corporate witness. All of these believers in Jehovah Elohim have gathered to celebrate the moving of the Ark into Jerusalem. They may not understand this significance—even David may not fully understand and fully appreciate the significance of this event—but they are there on faith, trusting God that this is the right thing to do.


Application: There are a lot of believers who have no concept of what to do or where to go, and even some of them thing they need a divine guidance system in their cars to cause them to turn left or right as is appropriate. If you are a new believer or a believer concerned about guidance, then it is simple: you go to church where doctrine is taught and you do so every day the doors are open. On the other days, you sit down with you notes from the previous night or with the teaching from an MP3 file, and you learn some more. You should recognize that, even though the rest of your life may leave you flummoxed, at least this short hour or so a day has you in the right place at the right time (as long as you are in fellowship). This gathering of believers in Israel may not fully understand or appreciate what is going on here, but they are where they need to be.


Now, in case you do not grasp what is going on, David, a mere man, has made a decision as to where the Lord of Glory, the Creator of all the Universe, will reign from. David, a mere man, has chosen Jerusalem for God’s throne during the Millennium. Can you grasp that? Can you imagine saying to God, as respectfully as possible, “This is where You will reign from”? David was doing this. David brought the Ark into Jerusalem, much like Jesus would, hundreds of years later, come into Jerusalem, in his temporary human body. Then Solomon would construct a permanent dwelling place for the Ark, which symbolizes Jesus reigning throughout the Millennium from Jerusalem, from a place that David had first chosen.


Application: Let me take this a step further: you might think, well, that was David, and he was this great spiritual guy, and I am nothing. You have a book filled with promises from God. You learn in Bible class God’s character. You can, at any time, with a soul filled with doctrine, call upon God to do this or that; you can claim a promise and expect for Him to come through. You have an individual relationship with God where you have the Creator of the Universe on your side. How do you think Paul faced human ruler after human ruler and was not intimidated? How do you think Paul sat for a year or more in the Mamertine dungeon, deserted by man of his friends, and yet, he wrote letters from this dungeon telling churches and telling various men how things ought to be done. The prison where Paul was held meant nothing. His spiritual life did not stop. He did not say, “Well, crap, I need to get out of here so that I can function again as a believer in Jesus Christ.” He focused on what God meant for him to do that day, regardless of his circumstances, and he did those things. If Paul found himself in jail unjustly, he did not rail against the corrupt Roman government; he did not call out to those who would listen, “Jerusalem is being ruled by rich white people!” When he found himself thrown in jail, unjustly, he exhausted all of his legal rights and he took the opportunity to witness to those he might not otherwise have the chance to witness to.


Application: How many of us end up at the raw end of some injustice and we just flip out and tell everyone we know and hire a lawyer or march with a sign to show our disapproval? Paul did not do that. He used the opportunity of this unjust situation to spread the gospel and to teach Bible doctrine. You may find yourself in a difficult circumstance or in an unjust situation; your spiritual life does not resume after you set everything aright; your spiritual life is designed to function in the midst of this difficult circumstance or unjust situation.


Application: One of the amazing thing of the jazz bands of the 50's and 60's is, they would either, as a group, or as individuals, go off into unchartered territory, as it were, during a live concert. They did not reproduce their records note for note. A 3 minute song on an album might be 12 minutes live. Now, if the saxophone player goes off in this or that direction, the drummer and the bassist must follow him in this rift. That is what made the jazz music magical. That is what made a live concert a thing of great beauty, because you never knew where they might take this or that song. Now, the drummer cannot, when the piano player goes off on a tangent, just flat out stop and wait for the piano player to come back a play a series of notes and chords with which he is familiar. The drummer does not just take a break, get a sandwich, and wait until things are the way he wants them to be, and then he plays the drums. The drummer has to be there wherever the music is; the bass player must be there where the music is. If one member of the band goes into unchartered territory, the rest of the band must go there too. You life is going to sometimes take detours or go off road, and it will be the best experience of your life—but you have to go where your life takes you. There are no accidents; there are no mistakes in God’s plan. You go where it takes you. At this moment, it is about 2:30 am; and I could not sleep. This is nighttime, and normally, I should be fast asleep; I’m not. So, I go with it—I get up and I write and study the Word of God. It actually ends up being a very important writing session. Although this is not as stimulating as being in a jazz band, and never knowing where you will go on this night with that song; but it is simply adjusting to circumstances, and functioning appropriately. Changing circumstances are not a time for you to put your spiritual life on hold until you get things sorted out; chancing circumstances provide you the opportunity to use your spiritual resources, much like a jazz musician leads or follows a musical tangent.


God, who created a universe so vast, we cannot even comprehend it; He created particles so small that we cannot fully appreciate their sub-microscopic size. The simplest of living creatures are far beyond our ability to fully understand. This same God, Who created these things, is with us every single day. If we have doctrine in our souls and promises in our memory bank, we can call out to Him at any time and ask anything of Him which is within His will and character, and God will respond to us.


Application: There cannot be anything more irritating to Satan and his angelic minions than for us, in groups, to call out to God, whether singing in church, or at a prayer meeting, intervening on behalf of those who are sick. Here, much of Israel was out in force, either singing along at this point, or listening and focusing on the fact that they are a corporate witness, a nation under God.


1Chronicles 16:8c = Psalm 105:1c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

yâda׳ (יָדַע) [pronounced yaw-DAHĢ]

to cause to know, to make one know, to instruct, to teach

2nd person masculine plural, Hiphil imperative

Strong’s #3045 BDB #393

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

׳ammîym (עַמִּים) [pronounced ģahm-MEEM]

peoples, nations; tribes [of Israel]; relatives of anyone

masculine plural collective noun with the definite article

Strong’s #5971 BDB #766

׳ălîylâh (עֲלִילָה) [pronounced ģal-ee-LAW]

actions, deeds; wanton acts

feminine plural noun with a 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5949 BDB #760


Translation: ...make known His deeds among the peoples. The God of the Jews is the God of the Bible, the God Who created heaven and earth. Here, the Jews are called upon to make God’s deeds known—not among themselves—but among the peoples or the nations. They were to make it known that they worshiped a real God.


Israel was to function as a missionary nation, and to tell the world of their God’s deeds; and, quite obviously, they were to tell their own children of His deeds.

Make His Deeds Known Among the People

Scripture

Incident

1Kings 8:43

You shall hear in Heaven, Your dwelling place, and You will do according to all that the stranger calls to You for, so that all the peoples of the earth may know Your name, to fear You like Your people Israel, and to know that Your name has been called on this house which I have built.

2Kings 19:19

And now, O Jehovah our God, we pray to You, save us out of his hand, and all the kingdoms of the earth shall know that You are Jehovah God, You alone.

Psalm 67:2–4

That Your way may be known on earth, Your salvation among all nations. Let the peoples thank You, O God; let all the peoples thank You. Oh let the peoples be glad and sing for joy; for You shall judge the peoples uprightly and govern the peoples on earth. Selah.

Psalm 78:1–7

O my people, listen to My law; bow your ears to the words of my mouth. I will open My mouth in a parable; I will pour forth dark sayings of old, those which we have heard and known, and our fathers have told us. We will not hide them from their sons; to declare to the coming generation the praises of Jehovah; yea, His strength and His wonderful works that He has done. For He raised a Testimony in Jacob, and He set a Law in Israel; which He commanded our fathers to make them known to their sons; so that a coming generation may know; sons shall be born; they will rise up and tell their sons, so that they might set their hope in God, and not forget the works of God, but keep His commandments.

Psalm 145:4–6

Generation to generation shall praise Your works; and shall declare Your mighty acts. I will muse on the glorious honor of Your majesty, and the things of Your wonderful works. And they shall speak of the might of Your awesome works, and I will declare Your greatness.

Passages mostly taken from Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge; by Canne, Browne, Blayney, Scott, and others about 1880, with introduction by R. A. Torrey; courtesy of E-sword, 1Chron. 16:8.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Recall what these musicians were supposed to do? They were to call to remembrance that which God has done; they were to offer up thanks and they were to praise God (v. 4). So note these first few words, sung publically: Give thanks to Jehovah and call upon His name. Make His deeds known to all people throughout the world. And so that you fully understand this: God is praised when people gather to study His Word; God is praised when groups of us stand and sing of His grace and love; God is praised when we call upon His name.


In most of the commentaries that I have read, the commentators write, “See Psalm 105:1 for my comments on this verse.” Why did God the Holy Spirit place these words here? Why did He just not direct the human author to say something along the lines of, “Then we sang Psalm 105.” This psalm is placed twice in the Bible for several reasons.

Why Do We Find Psalm 105 Twice in the Bible?

1.      We need to understand the setting of the performance of this psalm to both appreciate the psalm and to more fully appreciate the ceremony itself.

2.      For instance, sometimes in church, you will be singing a hymn, like A Mighty Fortress, and suddenly the truth of what is said strikes you and fits in with your life and with that day and time; and you recognize just how much God is there in your life. Perhaps we are speaking of an emotional reaction in some cases, but such a reaction is legitimate if you are in fellowship and your mind is thinking doctrine.

3.      These psalms had a time and place. Often, in the inscription, this time and place is noted, and this inscription gives us great insight into the life and thinking of this psalmist. A wonderful example of this is the lone psalm of Moses. When this is placed in its historical context, it explains so many things about Moses and his thinking and his trials with this stiff-necked people; and it explains the radical change in his final delivery of sermons in Deuteronomy. The psalm by itself says one thing; but place it into his historical context, and you have a completely new appreciation for it.

4.      In Psalm 105, we primarily concentrate on this psalm and what it has to say to us on its own. In 1Chron. 16, we see the context of this psalm and we appreciate when this psalm was sung, why it was chosen and what it meant to the people who heard it and sung it.

5.      We also note the minor differences between the text here and in Psalm 105. It is always fascinating to note that, even though there are problems with the text of the Bible, here and there, that this has no effect upon the fundamental doctrines of the faith. As an example of this, I was brought up to think that, some huge religious institution or organization (like the Catholic church) carefully weeded out all references to reincarnation out of the Bible. Since then, I have found this to be at best, a fairy tale and, at worst, a lie from Satan. We have too many manuscripts from too wide of a divergent set of manuscript sources (some of which were at odds with one another), for any one organization to have come along some point in history and to make sweeping changes to the Bible. If you read much of my Hebrew exegesis, now and again, you probably find yourself being worn out by this or that minor dispute or disagreement of text. I am sure some of you have no doubt said, “Hell’s bells, it doesn’t make a bit of difference; why bother to mention it?” This is one of the remarkable truths of Scripture: we may not always have exactly the correct text—there may be a variant here or there in this or that verse—and yet, there is no variation as to the meaning of the text. No place in the Bible do you come across two readings, and you say to yourself, “Hmmm, with one reading, this could mean that we are reincarnated; and in this alternate reading, that is removed.” That never happens. In the time that I have exegeted the Scriptures, I have come across maybe 3 times where there was a moderately significant difference in the text (King Saul, for instance, calls for the Ephod of God, but this is incorrectly called the Ark of God in the Hebrew text). This is one of the most glaring problems with the text of all of 1Samuel. The last half of the final chapter of Mark—also a problematic passage and which does not belong there.

6.      The minor differences between Psalm 105 and this text of it in 1Chron. 16 are probably not scribal errors, but a slight changing of the text, either for the public performance of the psalm or for the final writing out of the psalm itself.

For these reasons, when I exegete Psalm 105 and when I exegete this passage, I treat it as two separate sets of exegesis. Now, I did Psalm 105 first, and some of the commentary from Psalm 105 I carry on over to here. But there will be, at times, a lengthy discussion of this or that, while in this portion of 1Chron. 16, which is new material. In other words, if you have already studied Psalm 105, you are not excused and allowed to jump a dozen or so verses along in this chapter and pick up there. It will not all be review or repetition.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Sing to Him;

make music to Him;

communicate in all his incredible works.

1Chronicles

16:9

Sing to Him

[and] make music to Him;

declare [or, communicate] all of his wondrous works.

Sing to Him and make glorious music to Him;

declare aloud and communicate His wondrous works to all.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          Praise the Lord, and call upon His name: make known his doings among the nations.

Masoretic Text                       Sing to Him;

make music to Him;

communicate in all his incredible works.

Septuagint                              Sing [songs] to Him, and sing hymns to Him, relate to all [people] His wonderful deeds, which the Lord has done.

 

Significant differences:           The Greek and the Latin both add a few words at the end which are not found in the Hebrew or in Psalm 105:2. As is the case 99% of the time, these few extra words, whether a valid part of the text or not, have no effect on any established doctrine. The meaning of the verse is changed slightly in the Greek and in the Latin; but it should be obvious that with or without the text, there is no doctrinal affect on this passage.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       Sing praises to the LORD! Tell about his miracles.

Good News Bible (TEV)         Sing praise to the LORD; tell the wonderful things he has done.

The Message                         Sing to him! Play songs for him! Broadcast all his wonders!

New Jerusalem Bible             Chant to him, play to him,

sing about all his wonders!


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             Let your voice be sounded in songs and melody; let all your thoughts be of the wonder of his works.

Complete Apostles’ Bible      Sing songs to Him, and sing hymns to Him, relate to all people His wonderful deeds, which the Lord has wrought.

God’s Word                         Sing to him. Make music to praise him. Meditate on all the miracles he has done.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                Sing to Him, sing praises to Him; meditate on and talk of all His wondrous works and devoutly praise them!

LTHB                                     Sing to Him, sing psalms to Him; tell of all His marvelous works.

Young's Updated LT              Sing to Him, sing psalms to Him, Meditate on all His wonders.


What is the gist of this verse? Celebration should include singing and thinking about what God has done.


1Chronicles 16:9a = Psalm 105:2a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

shîyr (שִיר) [pronounced sheer]

to sing

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperative

Strong’s #7891 BDB #1010

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510


Translation: Sing to Him... This psalm continues with the 4th imperative. We are to either sing to God or with reference to Him. In any case, the content of the singing should be doctrinal and meaningful.


1Chronicles 16:9b = Psalm 105:2b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

zâmar (זָמַר) [pronounced zaw-MAHR]

to sing; to make music in praise of God, to make melody; properly to cut off (i.e., to divide up [a song] into its various parts)

2nd person masculine plural, Piel imperative

Strong’s #2167 & #2168 BDB #274

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510


Translation:...[and] make music to Him;... This appears to be a parallel command to the one above. My guess is, the music was quite rousing during this time period.


1Chronicles 16:9c = Psalm 105:2c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

sîyach (שִיַח) [pronounced SEE-ahkh]

communicate, declare, speak of, talk about; meditate, study

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperative

Strong’s #7878 BDB #967

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

pâlâ (פָּלָא) [pronounced paw-LAW]

things done wonderfully; therefore, incredible works, miracles, extraordinary acts

feminine plural, Niphal participle with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #6381 BDB #810


Translation: ...declare [or, communicate] all of his wondrous works. Although we are given several options here as to the meaning of the verb, it makes most sense for us to communicate, declare or to speak of all the wondrous acts of God, rather than to study them. However, in order to communicate what God has done, we obviously must first know what He has done.


Remember what the Levites are supposed to do? Remember God’s works and thank Him and praise Him. Note the words: Sing to Him [and] make music to Him; declare [or, communicate] all of his wondrous works. And this is followed by Praise His sacred name. So this is an ideal psalm to do these things.


This verse, along with some New Testament verses, tell us about what singing songs ought to be.

Singing in the New Testament

Scripture

Explanation

Be filled by the Spirit, speaking to one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord, giving thanks always for all things to God the Father in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ (Eph. 5:18b–20).

We sing psalms and spiritual songs while filled with the Spirit, giving thanks to God the Father and God the Son.

Let the Word of Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom, teaching and admonishing one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your hearts to the Lord (Col. 3:16).

The Word of God is to dwell in us richly, meaning that we have learned Bible doctrine as a part of singing psalms, and our interaction with others ought be involve grace orientation.

Is anyone among you afflicted? Let him pray. Is anyone cheerful? Let him sing psalms (James 5:13).

When we have problems, we turn to God in prayer; if we are happy, we sing to Him in celebration .

Note how each verse offers us a little more information.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Praise in a name of His holiness;

rejoices a heart of those seeking Yehowah.

1Chronicles

16:10

Keep on praising His sacred name [or, reputation].

The heart of those who seek Yehowah will rejoice.

Glorify His sacred name and reputation.

The heart of those who seek Jehovah will continually be glad.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text                       Praise in a name of His holiness;

rejoices a heart of those seeking Yehowah.

Septuagint                              Praise his holy name, the heart that seeks his pleasure shall rejoice.

 

Significant differences:           None


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       Celebrate and worship his holy name with all your heart.

Good News Bible (TEV)         Be glad that we belong to him; let all who worship him rejoice!

The Message                         Revel in his holy Name, GOD-seekers, be jubilant!

New Jerusalem Bible             Take pride in his holy name,

let your heart rejoice, you seekers of Yahweh!

Revised English Bible            Exult in his hallowed name;

let those who seek the Lord be joyful in heart.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             Have glory in his holy name; let the hearts of those who are searching after the Lord be glad.

Complete Apostles’ Bible      Praise His holy name, the heart that seeks His pleasure shall rejoice.

God’s Word                         Brag about his holy name. Let the hearts of those who seek the LORD rejoice.

HCSB                                     Honor His holy name; let the hearts of those who seek the LORD rejoice.

The Scriptures 1998              Boast in His set-apart Name, Let the hearts of those seeking יהוה rejoice!


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

MKJV                                     Glory in His holy name, let the heart of those who seek Jehovah rejoice.

Young's Updated LT              Boast yourselves in His holy name, the heart rejoices concerning those seeking Jehovah.


What is the gist of this verse? Keep praising His holy name, and let your heart rejoice if you are seeking Jehovah.


1Chronicles 16:10a = Psalm 105:3a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

hâlal (הָלַל) [pronounced haw-LAHL]

to be praised; to glory, to boast onself, to be celebrated

2nd person masculine plural, Hithpael imperative

Strong’s #1984 BDB #237

The Hithpael is generally known as the intensive reflexive. However, this is an oversimplification, and not applicable here. The Hithpael conveys the idea that one puts himself into the state or the action of the verb, which is an achieved state. Seow gives several uses: (1) Its primary use is reflexive—the verb describes action on or for oneself. That is, the subject of the verb is also the object of the verb. However, this does not completely convey the reflexive use, as there are examples where the verb takes on another object. These verbs are known as tolerative—the subject allows an action to affect himself or herself. (2) Reciprocal use: Occasionally, the Hithpael denotes reciprocity; that is, they worked with one another, they looked at one another. (3) The third use is known as iterative, which means that the Hithpael suggests repeated activity (he walked about, he walked to and fro, and turned back and forth). (4) The fourth use is known as estimative: the verb indicates how one shows himself or regards himself, whether in truth or by pretense (he pretended to be sick, they professed to be Jews). Footnote The Hithpael is intensive (and sometimes seen as an accomplished state).

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

shêm (שֵם) [pronounced shame]

name, reputation, character

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #8034 BDB #1027

qôdesh (קֹדֶש) [pronounced koh-DESH]

holiness, sacredness, apartness, that which is holy, holy things

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #6944 BDB #871

This word is occasionally use to mean a sacred [holy, set apart] place; a sanctuary. It is not used that way here, but its use may be significant.


Translation: Keep on praising His sacred name [or, reputation]. Or, Glory in His sacred name. We find a parallel verse in Jer. 9:23–24: Thus says Jehovah, Let not the wise glory in his wisdom, nor let the mighty glory in his might; let not the rich glory in his riches; but let him who glories glory in this, that he understands and knows Me, that I am Jehovah, doing kindness, justice, and righteousness in the earth; for in these things I delight, says Jehovah.


This is the 7th command, and the number 7 represents divine perfection or completion. I have been in churches where, periodically, people cry out, praise His holy name! or words to that effect. This is not a call to pepper your speech with holy-isms. God does not call upon us to do things with an empty head. In order to praise or glorify God’s name—which is a reference to His reputation or character—we need to know Him. Again, Let him glory in the fact that he understands and knows Me. We know God through Bible doctrine. Praising Him means that we recognize Who and What He is.


1Chronicles 16:10b = Psalm 105:3b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

sâmach (שָמַח) [pronounced saw-MAHKH]

to rejoice, to be glad, to be joyful, to be merry

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #8055 BDB #970

In the Hebrew text, this is clearly a Qal imperfect; however, the Latin, Greek and Syriac all render this as an imperative (at least, my English versions of the Latin and Syriac do, along with the Greek text). .

lêb (לֵב) [pronounced laybv]

heart, inner man, mind, will, thinking

masculine singular construct

Strong's #3820 BDB #524

bâqash (בָּקַש) [pronounced baw-KAHSH]

the ones seeking, those who are searching; the ones who desire, those attempting to get, the ones demanding (requiring, striving after, asking, seeking with desire and diligence)

masculine plural Piel participle

Strong’s #1245 BDB #134

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217


Translation: The heart of those who seek Yehowah will rejoice. The heart here refers to the thinking of the soul, and a person who seeks God is not someone who wanders around his house checking the closets for God. In our day and time, we find God in His Word—now, this does not necessarily mean that we read the Bible all the time or that we study commentaries—we learn God in church under the teaching of an accurate pastor-teacher. This kind of a person will be happy; you will be related in your thinking to the God Who created you. You will be related in your thinking to the God Who created everything around you. With this sort of relationship, you will be happy. You will not be filled with self-doubts, with anger, with frustration, with mental attitude sins towards other people; and you will not be plagued with guilt, loneliness, fear. You will understand your life, you will understand why you are here; you will understand your relationship to God. Know, the more you know God, the more true all of this is. Seek Jehovah while He may be found; call upon Him while He is near. Let the wicked forsake his way, and the unrighteous man his thoughts; and let him return to Jehovah, and He will have mercy on him; and to our God, for He will abundantly pardon (Isa. 55:6–7). And you shall seek Me and find Me, when you search for Me with all your heart (Jer. 29:13). I love those who love me, and those who seek me early find me (Prov. 8:17; me, in this verse, is Bible doctrine).


Seek Yehowah and His strength;

seek His faces continually.

1Chronicles

16:11

Seek Yehowah and His strength [and protection];

seek His face at regular intervals.

Seek Jehovah and His strength, power and protection;

seek Him at regular intervals.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text                       Seek Yehowah and His strength;

seek His faces continually.

Septuagint                              Seek the Lord and be strong, seek his face continually.

 

Significant differences:           The Greek has a second imperative verb in the middle of this verse—we are told to be strong in the Greek. The Hebrew, Latin and Syriac merely instruct us to Seek Jehovah and His strength.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       Trust the LORD and his mighty power. Worship him always.

Good News Bible (TEV)         Go to the LORD for help, and worship him continually.

The Message                         Study GOD and his strength, seek his presence day and night;.

NET Bible®                             Seek the LORD and the strength he gives!

Seek his presence [Hebrew: face] continually!

New Century Version             Depend on the Lord and his strength;

always go to him for help.

 

ew Life Version                      Look to the Lord and ask for His strength. Look to Him all the time.

New Living Translation           Search for the Lord and for his strength;

continually seek him.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             Let your search be for the Lord and for his strength; let your hearts ever be turned to him.

Complete Apostles’ Bible      Seek the Lord and be strong, seek His face continually.

God’s Word                         Search for the LORD and his strength. Always seek his presence.

HCSB                                     Search for the LORD and for His strength; seek His face always.

JPS (Tanakh)                         Turn to the Lord, to His might [i.e., the Ark; compare Psalm 78:61 132:8];

seek His presence constantly.

NIRV                                      Look to the Lord and to his strength.

Always look to him.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                Seek the Lord and His strength; yearn for and seek His face and to be in His presence continually!

Young's Updated LT              Seek Jehovah and His strength; Seek His face continually.


What is the gist of this verse? We are to seek God and His strength and His presence.


1Chronicles 16:11a = Psalm 105:4a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

dârash (דָּרַש) [pronounced daw-RASH]

to seek, to make inquiries concerning, to consult, to investigate, to study, to follow, to inquire

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperative

Strong’s #1875 BDB #205

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

׳ôz (עֹז) [pronounced ģohz]

strength, might; firmness, defense, refuge, protection; splendor, majesty, glory praise

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5797 BDB #738

The Septuagint, Vulgate Latin, and Syriac versions, render this, "seek the Lord, and be strengthened."


Translation: Seek Yehowah and His strength [and protection];... Again, seeking Jehovah does not require us to look around the house (unless we misplaced our set of doctrinal MP3 discs) nor do we need to go up great mountains or seek Him monasteries of various types. We look for and find God in His Word; this is also where find His strength.


Application: It is a mistake to think that God is somehow better found in a same-sex monastery of some sort or some retreat off in the hills. Now, there is nothing wrong with a Bible camp or a Bible conference held at ocean side or off in a beautiful forest—the key is, is the Word of God the focus? Now, I recall going to a beautiful retreat called the Asilomar with my church group in my youth. This was an apostate church where whatever classes I attended were worthless, but I must admit that the place was beautiful. Now, I as an unbeliever (I am assuming I was an unbeliever at this time; I really have no idea) did feel good in a place like this, and perhaps even closer to God, to my way of thinking back then. But, I really wasn’t. This just happens to be one of those beautiful places on this earth, and a wonderful retreat, with weather which often borders on being perfect. If there is a situation where there is a Bible conference and it just happens to be in a beautiful spot in the world, bonus. But, what is exterior is exterior. You may be in the most God-forsaken place in the world (the Middle East) or in one of the most beautiful places (the Sierra Nevadas or somewhere along the coast of California), and you can have the same inner happiness and the same spiritual growth, when you hear the words The Word of God is alive and powerful...


It takes power and strength to function in this life; and the more that God gives us, the more strength that we need. I have been in poor countries, and the population there is no more or no less happy than they are here, even though we have gobs more stuff, which they wish they had. However, what we do tend to have is very high suicidal rates among teens (probably across many of our demographics), even though teens have today more things than we could have ever imagined 30 years ago. They certainly face pressures, but we have always faced pressures. God’s strength is in His Word; we find strength and solace in His Word. Again, this is not a self-study deal—God has given many men the gift of pastor-teacher, and that is where we belong, under the authority of a pastor-teacher who teaches the Bible verse by verse, from the original languages, with a nod toward the history and culture of that day.


The Ark represented God’s presence and His strength, so singing these words—Seek Jehovah and His strength—were apropos to the settling of the Ark in Jerusalem.


1Chronicles 16:11b = Psalm 105:4b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

bâqash (בָּקַש) [pronounced baw-KAHSH]

seek, search out, desire, strive after, attempt to get, require, demand, ask, seek with desire and diligence

2nd person masculine plural, Piel imperative

Strong’s #1245 BDB #134

pânîym (פָּנִים) [pronounced paw-NEEM]

face, faces, countenance; presence

masculine plural noun (plural acts like English singular); with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #6440 BDB #815

tâmîyd (תָּמִיד) [pronounced taw-MEED]

continuously, continuity; regularly, at regular intervals; continuity, perpetuity

masculine singular noun/adverb

Strong’s #8548 BDB #556


Translation: ...seek His face at regular intervals. God is a Spirit and those who worship Him must worship Him in Spirit and in doctrine (John 4:24). Since God is a Spirit, we cannot seek His literal face; and it would follow that, this is even more difficult to do continually. However, we are urged here to seek His truth at regular intervals. This means Bible class at regular intervals; this means spiritual food at regular intervals.

 

McGee comments: James 4:8 tells us, “Draw near to God and He will draw near to you.” all we must do for salvation is to come to Christ and trust Him as our Savior. God has promised that we will be saved. However, that does not insure fellowship with God. We have to follow through with “seek the Lord and His strength, seek His face continually.”

 

Do you seek His face continually? What is the first thing you think about when you wake up in the morning? When you go to bed at night, what is the last thing you think about? Do you think about God all during the day? Or do you just leave God behind when you go to work or go to school or go to a social gathering?  Footnote


Now, even though the Ark of God had just been brought into Jerusalem, this does not mean that David is urging the people there to come to the Ark and to look at the Ark. We have had numerous individuals who have died for doing that. So, again, seeking God means to seek Him in His Word, not through our feelings and not through some external religious symbol, such as the Ark.


This begs the question, if we are not to seek God by looking at the Ark or worshiping the Ark, why does David even bring the Ark into Jerusalem? David recognizes the importance of the Ark, even though it may be unclear as to why it is important. We know, in retrospect, that the Ark represents Jesus Christ, and this is something we have already discussed at length. Apart from simple obedience to God, and apart from recognizing that the Ark of God was an extremely important religious symbol, I am not sure that I can give further reasons for David focusing in on the Ark, recognizing its importance, and bringing it into Jerusalem.

Why Did David Bring the Ark into Jerusalem?

1.      First of all, I should list why David did not bring the Ark into Jerusalem:

         a.      For good luck.

         b.      As the result of a vision or dream.

         c.      So that Israel could worship the Ark of God.

2.      David recognized that the Ark was historically important. God spoke directly to Moses and had him build this Ark to certain specifications. Therefore, relegating the Ark to being kept at some farmhouse for years on end did not make sense.

3.      David understood that the Ark was an integral part of the Tabernacle, despite the fact that the Ark was only seen by the High Priest once a year.

4.      David had in his mind to build a Temple to God—a permanent dwelling place—wherein, he would place the Ark. The simple part of this project was bringing the Ark to Jerusalem.

5.      Like all Old Testament saints, David could never fully appreciate the Ark and all that it stood for. He knew that it was an integral part of the worship of Jehovah in Israel, and therefor, needed to be brought to the forefront (although David continued to keep the Ark within a tent, so that no one would be tempted to go up to the Ark to touch it or to look inside of it).

6.      The Ark was the holiest of all the Tabernacle furniture, and, for that reason, should be located in Jerusalem, from where David would rule Israel.

7.      David, unlike his predecessor, was involved in several areas of religious reform. He recognized that King Saul had allowed the worship of Jehovah to lapse, so David reinstituted Levite involvement in worship, he established a group of Levites to minister at the Tabernacle, he established several to have a spiritual function in Jerusalem (via music), and he brought the Ark into Jerusalem as a part of this program.

8.      

As I have pointed out many times in the past, David had in his mind to build a Temple to Jehovah, and, for this reason, did not see any reason to relocate the Tabernacle in Jerusalem.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


Remember His incredible works which He has done;

His signs and laws of His mouth,...

1Chronicles

16:12

Call to mind His incredible works which He has done;

[remember] His signs [and proofs] and the laws He declared [lit., laws of His mouth],...

Call to mind the incredible works which He has accomplished;

remember the signs of His power and His spoken laws,...


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text                       Remember His incredible works which He has done;

His signs and laws of His mouth,...

Septuagint                              Remember his wonderful works which he has wrought, his wonders, and the judgments of his mouth;...

 

Significant differences:           None.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       Remember his miracles and all his wonders and his fair decisions.

Good News Bible (TEV)         You descendants of Jacob, God's servant, descendants of Israel, whom God chose, remember the miracles that God performed and the judgments that he gave.

The Message                         Remember all the wonders he performed, the miracles and judgments that came out of his mouth.

NET Bible®                             Recall the miraculous deeds he performed,

his mighty acts and the judgments he decreed [Hebrew: "and the judgments of his mouth"].

New Century Version             Remember the miracles he has done,

his wonders, and his decisions.

New Life Version                    Remember His great works which He has done. Remember the special things He has done and how He has judged,...

New Living Translation           Remember the wonders he has performed,

his miracles, and the rulings he has given,...


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             Keep in mind the great works which he has done; his wonders, and the decisions of his mouth;...

God’s Word                         Remember the miracles he performed, the amazing things he did and the judgments he pronounced,...

JPS (Tanakh)                         Remember the wonders He has done;

His portents and the judgments He has pronounced.

NIRV                                      Remember the wonderful things he has done.

Remember his miracles and how he judged our enemies.

The Scriptures 1998              Remember His wonders which He has done, His signs and the right-rulings of His mouth,...


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                [Earnestly] remember the marvelous deeds which He has done, His miracles, and the judgments He uttered [as in Egypt],...

Updated Emphasized Bible    Remember hHis wonders which He has done,

His splendid deeds and the just decisions [or, regulations] from His mouth.

English Standard Version      Remember the wondrous works that he has done, his miracles and the judgments he uttered,...

WEB                                      Remember his marvelous works that he has done, His wonders, and the judgments of his mouth,...

Young's Updated LT              Remember His wonders that He did, His signs, and the judgments of His mouth.


What is the gist of this verse? We are called upon to remember what God did and to recall what regulations and judgments He set up.


1Chronicles 16:12a = Psalm 105:5a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

zâkar (זָכַר) [pronounced zaw-KAHR]

remember, recall, call to mind

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperative

Strong’s #2142 BDB #269

pâlâ (פָּלָא) [pronounced paw-LAW]

things done wonderfully; therefore, incredible works, miracles, extraordinary acts

feminine plural, Niphal participle with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #6381 BDB #810

ăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

׳âsâh (עָשָֹה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWH]

to do, to make, to construct, to fashion, to form, to prepare

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #6213 BDB #793


Translation: Call to mind His incredible works which He has done;... The verb means to remember, to recall, to call to mind. This means, these things have to be in your mind to begin with. Often, when God calls upon believers to remember this or that, there is some sort of action attached to their remembrance. However, here, they are just to ruminate on what God has done for them in the past. When it comes to acting upon God’s will, we need to have, as Joe Griffin puts it, an inventory of ideas, a set of principles, groups of doctrines imbedded in our souls, so that we can trust God’s guidance and act upon it.


Application: There have been times when God has required believers to do some unusual things: one of the most unusual was when God asked Abraham to take his son Isaac for a 3-day walk to a mountain, and then to offer up his son as a human sacrifice. Since God views human sacrifice as deplorable, this is a highly unusual request. It is important that we recognize that God is not going to require us to do something which falls outside the realm of doctrine. We will not be required to offer up our firstborn. This was a one-time occurrence, which looked forward the God offering up His Own Son on our behalf. What we are going to be required to do will be based upon doctrine in our souls, not based upon God speaking to us directly, as He did to Abraham. What we are required to do is fundamentally in line with God’s Word. My point here is, we will be called to action based upon what we call to mind; but we will not be called upon to do that which is in opposition to His Word.


At the time that this was written, God’s most incredible works—those things which He did in bringing the Jews out of Egypt and into the Land of Promise—had happened centuries previous. Asaph, who had probably written this psalm, had not observed many of God’s incredible works. In fact, it is most likely that Asaph had not seen any great sign or wonder. This means that, Asaph learned like we learn—in whatever sort of Bible class that was held during that time. Aside from a few things, like Samuel’s school for prophets, it is unclear as to how the people of Israel learned doctrine. Training was supposed to take place at home, according to some portions of the Law, and perhaps this is where Asaph picked up all that he knew. In later times, there would by synagogues, but it is not clear if they existed at this time or not.


We often tend to look back on Bible times and we think of the glorious signs and wonders and all that occurred in those days. We think of the parting of the Red Sea, Joshua’s long day, or the miracles of Jesus. Percentage-wise, there were very few who observed these things. There were periods of time where a few signs or miracles Footnote took place and there were a limited number of people who observed these things. Most people in Bible times were aware of these things the same way that you and I are: through the teaching of the Word of God.


On the other hand, we in our generation, have begun see the unlocking of the incredible complexity of this world and of all the living things within it—including the most simple one-celled living things, which have become even more complex than we could have ever imagined. In other words, we see the great works of God every day, in His creation, where even the smallest part of creation is still too complex for science to completely understand.


Because we are made in God’s image, even man has made things which are too complex for any one person to completely understand (like a plane, a car, a computer).


1Chronicles 16:12b = Psalm 105:5b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

môwphêth (מוֹפֵת) [pronounced moe-FAITH]

a wonder, sign, miracle; a proof [of divine involvement], a sign [of a future event]

masculine plural noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #4159 BDB #68

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

mîshepâţîym (מִשְפָּטִים) [pronounced mishe-paw-TEEM]

laws; judgements; appeals; responsibilities; privileges; customs; justice; verdicts rendered by a judge, judicial decisions, judicial sentences

masculine plural construct

Strong's #4941 BDB #1048

peh (פֶּה) [pronounced peh]

mouth [of man, animal; as an organ of speech]; opening, orifice [of a river, well, etc.]; edge; extremity, end

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #6310 BDB #804


Translation:...[remember] His signs [and proofs] and the laws He declared [lit., laws of His mouth],... The verb from above is properly brought into this portion of v. 12, as the hearer is told to remember two more things: God’s signs (wonders, miracles, proofs) and His laws and judgments. Again, in order to recall these things, they must have been in your mind to begin with. God wants for us to walk through life with thinking which calls to mind what He has done and what He has said. God is involved in our daily lives, and, if we know a little doctrine, we can tell what He has done on our behalf throughout the years. This ought to be called to mind periodically. His laws and judgments are also spoken of here, but we may reasonably take this to refer to His written word.


This verse describes what Psalm 105 is going to be about: Call to mind the incredible works which He has accomplished; remember the signs of His power and His spoken laws. This is the subject of all of Psalm 105, about a third of which is found here in 1Chron. 16.


Now, a critic might say, someone just made all of these stories up. What we have in Scripture is a great deal of accuracy with regards to the culture of that day, history and archeology. Furthermore, we have this accuracy extending throughout all Scripture, which, even the most critical person must admit, was written by at least dozens of men (in fact, there are some who try to make the writings of Moses to be the work or 4 or more men or groups of men). Taking the position that someone just made this stuff up, means that it was not just someone, but several men over a period of hundreds if not thousands of years; and their writings maintained spot-on accuracy in the areas that we can check (history, geography and culture); and yet, for whatever reason, made up the other stuff.


The best place to go to is the New Testament and the life of Jesus. Most historians who do not believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, will generally admit that, not only was there an historical Jesus, but that He was revered by His followers as Christ the Son of God from the very beginning. And, during a time when there was a great deal of writing, and during a time when the state was outright hostile to our Lord, we do not have any refutations of His being the Christ, the Son of God. In fact, one of the heresies of that day, Gnosticism, had much more difficulty accepting that Jesus was a mere man. They could accept that He was God or a god of some sort (or a spirit of some sort), but their problem was, accepting that Jesus was fully man. If Jesus was a myth or a person that some other just made up or someone whose person just got exaggerated, there were thousands of witnesses who could have testified to this. We have writings of all kinds from this period of time and later; and His existence and His Deity (or, other-than-man personage) was never a subject of debate, as there were too many witnesses. It would be like me publishing a book claiming that President George Bush does not exist. People may have some wildly divergent opinions about him, but no one is making the argument that he is just a myth—that would just be dumb (and there are a lot of dumb things written about Bush, but nothing that dumb). It was the same thing during our Lord’s time on this earth and for the 50 or 60 years that followed (when there were witnesses still alive who saw Him). There may have been those in that day who argued that He was not really a man; but no one put forth the argument that Jesus did not exist and no one put forth the argument that the miracles attributed to Him did not occur. Had someone been able to make a case for either of those positions, I can guarantee you that the scribes, pharisees, Sadducees and the Roman government would have given great support to such writings, and would have done everything in their power to disseminate these writings. Who Jesus was during the first few centuries of this era, was a very big deal. Therefore, if a credible argument could have been made that (1) He did not exist or (2) He was a fraud of some sort (either being distorted by Himself or by His followers), then these arguments would have been made in the literature of that day, and it is further likely that this literature would have been promoted by both Jews and Romans. Since we have absolutely no record whatsoever of such writings existing, nor do we have records of counter-arguments (the modern version of this stuff is found by the boatload on www.Amazon.com), and since we have 26,000 complete and partial ancient manuscripts of the New Testament, we can reasonably conclude that such works were not produced because these arguments could not be put forth with a straight face. Now, 200 or 300 years into our future, someone might actually make an argument that President George W. Bush did not exist; and, although I doubt any publisher will touch it, he might even convince some people of this (like there are those who do not believe that the holocaust occurred; or at least think, there is some reasonable debate which can be made against it having occurred). However, no one in their right minds today would make this sort of an argument. It just wouldn’t fly.


Now, if the existence and miracles of our Lord are not something which we can reasonably question on the basis that no one in His lifetime or soon thereafter questioned these things; then it makes the Old Testament writings even more credible, as the miracles found therein are far less striking than those found in the gospels.


Let me summarize this in points.

The Argument for the Historicity of Miracles

1.      Some may try to argue that, the miracles and work of God found in the Bible was just stuff which religious guys made up to make themselves more cool.

2.      Jesus produced so many signs and miracles, that even a book could not fully contain all of them.

3.      There were thousands of witnesses to His Person and witnesses to these miracles and to His resurrection.

4.      There was a great deal of literature produced before, during and after the time of Jesus.

5.      There was a great deal of animosity toward Jesus during His 1st Advent and toward His followers called Christians, both from the Jews and from the Romans.

6.      Christians of that day believed that Jesus existed and that He was fully man and that He was fully God. They believed that He did many signs and wonders.

7.      Christians of that era were hated and persecuted.

8.      There would have been great support for any literature which disputed anything about Jesus Christ during or immediately after His 1st Advent. There would have been a great audience for such works and there would have been many men, hostile to Christianity, who would have been willing to produce such works.

9.      However, we have no writings, either arguing for or against, the existence and/or the miracles of Jesus Christ from the 1st century. With there being so many living witnesses to His person and to His miracles, arguing against these things would be like arguing today that President George W. Bush does not exist.

10.    What we do have is a philosophy which came out of this time period and soon thereafter which argues against Jesus being fully human; against His being a corporeal being.

11.    This suggests (1) that Jesus did actually exist and (2) He did many signs and wonders.

12.    Those 1st century people who believed in Jesus Christ, believed that He existed, that He did many miracles (many of them saw these things first-hand), and believed that He died on the cross and was resurrected. No historian then or today suggests that Christians of that day believed anything different than these fundamental historical events.

13.    Now, if the fact that God came to this earth and did great and miraculous things, and then died on the cross and was resurrected—if these things are not historically disputed by people at the time that these things occurred, then we must logically accept the historicity of these things. This was an era in which, if these things could have been easily disputed, they would have been disputed. The Roman government did not like Christians and routinely persecuted and killed them. The religious Jews did not like Christians either. Therefore, if you have historical events which may be reasonably disputed combined with thousands of people who hate Christians and would love to dispute these events, then why are there no books or writings to that effect?

14.    Furthermore, if we accept that Jesus did come to this earth and that He did many signs and wonders, then it is easier to believe that less miraculous things occurred during the history of the Jews. We have a population (Egyptians as well as Edomites) who would have been in an ideal place to dispute the historical events found in Jewish literature (the Old Testament); and yet, we have no instances of such writings either (obviously, writings from this more ancient era would have been less like to have survived).

15.    The stronger argument is in favor of Jesus, because more writing was going on at this time. What He did was far more miraculous than what occurred in the Old Testament.

16.    Furthermore, Jesus also accepted the Old Testament as fact, saying, “The Scriptures cannot be broken.”

17.    The documents which preserve these miracles have been shown again and again to be accurate with respect to science, history, psychology and archeology. There is no reason to think that the Bible is filled with statements which are historically and factually accurate, except when we come to the advent of miracles.

This is essentially a point-by-point summary made of the previous arguments.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Maps and Short Doctrines


...seed of Israel, His servant;

sons of Jacob, His chosen ones.

1Chronicles

16:13

...[remember these things] O seed of Israel, His servant,

[remember these things, you] sons of Jacob—His chosen ones.

...remember these things, O seed of Israel, His servant;

remember these things, you sons of Jacob, you chosen ones.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text                       ...seed of Israel, His servant;

sons of Jacob, His chosen ones.

Septuagint                              ...O seed of Israel His servants, O seed of Jacob His chosen ones.

 

Significant differences:           Note that, in the Greek, Latin and Syriac, servants is plural, referring to those who need to remember, rather than to Israel. Seed appears to be in the plural in the Syriac (I work from an English translation and not from the actual Aramaic).


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       You belong to the family of Israel, his servant; you are his chosen ones, the descendants of Jacob.

The Message                         Seed of Israel his servant! Children of Jacob, his first choice!

NET Bible®                             O children [Hebrew: seed] of Israel, God's [Hebrew: his; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity] servant,

you descendants of Jacob, God's [as above] chosen ones!

New Century Version             You are the descendants of his servant, Israel;

you are the children of Jacob, his chosen people.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             O you seed of Israel his servant, you children of Jacob, his loved ones.

God’s Word                         ...you descendants of Israel, his servant, you descendants of Jacob, his chosen ones.

HCSB                                     ...you offspring of Israel His servant, Jacob”s descendants—His chosen ones.

NIRV                                      Remember what he has done, you children of his servant Israel.

Remember it, you people of Jacob. You are God's chosen ones.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                O you offspring of [Abraham and] of Israel His servants, you children of Jacob, His chosen ones!.

LTHB                                     O seed of Israel, His servant; O sons of Jacob, His elect.

Young's Literal Translation     O seed of Israel, His servant, O sons of Jacob, His chosen ones!


What is the gist of this verse? The psalmist addresses the Jews; those who are descending from Jacob.


1Chronicles 16:13a = Psalm 105:6a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

zera׳ (זֶרַע) [pronounced ZEH-rahģ]

a seed, a sowing; an offspring, progeny, descendant; posterity

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #2233 BDB #282

Yiserâêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

God prevails; contender; soldier of God; transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 & #3479 BDB #975

The parallel passage in Psalm 105 has, instead of Israel, Abraham. In my opinion—and for both passages, Israel is the correct reading and Abraham is not. I have gone into more detail in the Psalm 105 text.

Aberâhâm (אַבְרָהָם) [pronounced ahbve-raw-HAWM]

father of a multitude, chief of a multitude; transliterated Abraham

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #85 BDB #4

׳ebed (עֶבֶד) [pronounced ĢEB-ved]

slave, servant

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5650 BDB #713

According to Rotherham’s The Emphasized Bible, which takes its lead from Ginsburg’s Hebrew Notes, this should be plural (as it is found in the Septuagint and the Syriac codices). The parallelism of this verse would not necessarily bear out such a view. In the Hebrew, it is singular, singular; plural, plural.


Translation: ...[remember these things] O seed of Israel, His servant,... This goes back to the previous verse and it speaks to whom needs to remember. Those who are descendants of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, God’s servants, need to recall His Words and His deeds.


1Chronicles 16:13b = Psalm 105:6b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

bên (בֵּן) [pronounced bane]

son, descendant

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

Ya׳ăqôb (יַעֲקֹב) [pronounced yah-ģuh-KOHBV]

supplanter; insidious, deceitful; to circumvent and is transliterated Jacob

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3290 BDB #784

bâchîyr (בָּחִיר) [pronounced baw-KHEER]

chosen, chosen ones, elect [ones]

masculine plural noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #972 BDB #104


Translation:...[remember these things, you] sons of Jacob—His chosen ones. Those who are supposed to remember these things are God’s chosen ones, Obviously, you cannot be chosen unless you believe in Jesus Christ (or, in their case, in the God of Israel).


One of the fascinating things is when we find the names Jacob and Israel together—Jacob, this grandson of Abraham, was renamed Israel by the Angel of God who wrestled him and permanently injured him. I have covered these different uses in Psalm 105 in the chart Jacob vs. Israel (The full web address is: http://kukis.org/Psalms/Psalm105.htm#Jacob%20vs.%20Israel).


He [is] Yehowah our Elohim;

in all the earth, His judgements.

1Chronicles

16:14

He [is] Yehowah our Elohim;

His judgments [and laws] [are] in all the earth.

He is Jehovah our God;

His justice and His laws are in all the earth.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text                       He [is] Yehowah our Elohim;

in all the earth, His judgements.

Septuagint                              He [is] the Lord our God; his judgments [are] in all the earth.

 

Significant differences:           None.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       The LORD is our God, bringing justice everywhere on earth.

Good News Bible (TEV)         The LORD is our God; his commands are for all the world.

The Message                         He is GOD, our God; wherever you go you come on his judgments and decisions.

New Century Version             He is the Lord our God.

His laws are for all the world.

New Jerusalem Bible             For he is Yahweh our God,

his authority extends throughout the world.

New Living Translation           He is the Lord our God.

His justice is seen throughout the land.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             He is the Lord our God: he is judge of all the earth.

God’s Word                         “He is the LORD our God. His judgments are pronounced throughout the earth.

HCSB                                     He is the LORD our God; His judgments govern the whole earth.

NIRV                                      He is the Lord our God.

He judges the whole earth.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Updated Emphasized Bible    Yahweh Himself is our God,

His just decisions are [manifest] through all the land.

Young's Literal Translation     He is Jehovah our God, In all the earth are His judgments.


What is the gist of this verse? Jehovah is the God of Israel, and His judgments are known and seen throughout the land.


1Chronicles 16:14a = Psalm 105:7a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

hûw (הוּא) [pronounced hoo]

he, it; himself as a demonstrative pronoun: that, this

3rd person masculine singular, personal pronoun

Strong’s #1931 BDB #214

This pronoun can be used in the emphatic sense.

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

Ělôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

gods, foreign gods, god; God; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun with the 1st person plural suffix

Strong's #430 BDB #43


Translation: He [is] Yehowah our Elohim;... We commonly put together the words Jesus Christ as if this were a first name and a surname. To have said this in the wrong crowd when He walked the earth was to invite persecution and death from the religious types of his era. Although using the name Jehovah Elohim would not get you stoned in Jerusalem, it might outside of Israel. This was the Jewish claim that their God, Yehowah, was God overall. It was common for various nations to have their own national gods. Remember, Satan counterfeits that which God does: the system of true Judaism—the worship of Jehovah Elohim through animal sacrifices and the like, with Jehovah being their God, and yet the God of the Universe—this was copied throughout that area and that period of time, so that many nations had their own god or gods with some sort of a sacrificial system. Since the dispensation of Israel gave way to the Church Age, Jehovah is no longer a local God and animal sacrifices are no longer required. What happens in the rest of the world? No more animal sacrifices and no more local god or gods (there are exceptions to this, but I am speaking of what is most common throughout the world.


In any case, in this psalm, Jehovah, the revealed member of the Trinity, is the God (Elohim) over all Israel.


1Chronicles 16:14b = Psalm 105:7b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

the whole, all of, the entirety of, all; can also be rendered any of

masculine singular construct followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

erets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #776 BDB #75

mîshepâţîym (מִשְפָּטִים) [pronounced mishe-paw-TEEM]

laws; judgements; appeals; responsibilities; privileges; customs; justice; verdicts rendered by a judge, judicial decisions, judicial sentences

masculine plural noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #4941 BDB #1048


Translation: ...His judgments [and laws] [are] in all the earth. This is a fascinating statement. Man is a fallen creature and Jehovah Elohim is not worshiped throughout the entire world. Since this is true and if evolution were true, why don’t we have radically different moral laws throughout the earth? The moral and civil laws, to be certain, are different, but if we laid out the laws of this land next to the laws of that land, there would be far more similarities than differences. This is because God has written His Law on the hearts of men (Rom. 2:15a). I have an acquaintance who refuses to acknowledge the concepts of evil or morality, but I guarantee you that, if someone did anything which was wrong to his family, this amoral guy would recognize it as wrong and he would seek justice—probably right there on the spot.


For argument’s sake, he will claim there is no such thing as evil in this world and that morality, but he knows that there is a line—at least with regards to his family—and on one side of the line, things are fine, and on the other side of that line, he would kill, if necessary, to protect his loved ones. Now, it is when we have gone too far as a people, that such evil and immorality no longer register. Paul warns in the book of Romans that there is a point at which some go, where they are without natural affection—and this has been reached in many hearts of the Middle East. There are a significant number of Muslims, both mothers and fathers, who would encourage their sons and daughters, at any age, to strap on explosives to their little bodies and walk into a restaurant and blow themselves up. Along the same lines, there are honor killings, where some member of the family has dishonored the family, and so a member of the family kills them. This is certainly not the entire Muslim world, but there are huge numbers who think like this. They have gone past the point of natural affection. My acquaintance, although he does everything he can to deny God’s laws, God’s laws are still written on his heart—he may be far gone philosophically, because of his negative volition toward Jesus Christ, but he knows there are things which are right and wrong when it comes to his family. God’s judgments are in all the earth. They show that the work of the law is written on their hearts, while their conscience also bears witness, and their conflicting thoughts accuse or even excuse them (Rom. 2:15).


There are also God’s laws with regard to matter and the forces of matter. God set up a chemical interactions, laws of motion, gravity, magnetism; biological functions which are quantifiable—and these laws are found throughout the earth. We do not find different kinds of men scattered throughout the earth, in various states of evolution—we find man, with an incredible variety of physical characteristics, but with the same souls. You can bring Jesus Christ to the deepest parts of Africa, and some will respond—there have been evangelistic meetings in Africa where people have walked for days to attend them. In fact, Africa is not as deep and as dark as we might think. A century ago, Christians made up 10% of African population; today, Africans are 50% Christian. Footnote This is because all men are brothers; we are all related. Our common ancestor is not Lucy, some primate, but he is Adam, every bit as human as we are, but created body and soul directly from the hand of God. From Adam comes the great variety of physical characteristics—as well as the sin nature found in every man—which physical characteristics function according to the biological laws of God.


Remember to long duration His covenant;

a word He commissioned to a thousand of a generation;...

1Chronicles

16:15

Remember His covenant forever;

the Word [which] He mandated for a thousand generations;...

Remember His covenant forever; remember His Word, which He mandated for a thousand generations;...


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text                       Remember to long duration His covenant;

a word He commissioned to a thousand of a generation.

Septuagint                              Remember His covenant forever, His word which He commanded to a thousand generations,.

 

Significant differences:           Although the Greek sounds smoother, with His word, both the Latin and Hebrew lack the possessive pronoun.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

CEV                                       We must never forget his agreement and his promises, not in thousands of years..

Good News Bible (TEV)         Never forget God's covenant, which he made to last forever,...

The Message                         He keeps his commitments across thousands of generations, the covenant he commanded,...

NET Bible®                             Remember [The Hebrew text has a masculine plural imperative, addressed to the people. Some LXX manuscripts harmonize the wording here to Psalm 105:8, which has זָכַר (zakhar), the perfect third masculine singular form of the verb, "He (the Lord) remembers" (so NIV; NEB reads "He called to mind his covenant")] continually his covenantal decree,

the promise he made [Hebrew "[the] word he commanded." The text refers here to God's unconditional covenantal promise to Abraham and the patriarchs, as vv. 16-18 make clear] to a thousand generations —...

New Century Version             He will keep his agreement forever;

he will keep his promises always.

New Life Version                    Remember His agreement forever, the Word which He gave to families and a thousand of their family groups to come.

New Living Translation           Remember his covenant forever—

the commitment he made to a thousand generations.

Revised English Bible            He is ever mindful of his covenant,

the promise he ordained for a thousand generations,...


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             He has kept his agreement in mind for ever, the word which he gave for a thousand generations;;...

God’s Word                         Remember his promise forever, the word that he commanded for a thousand generations,...

HCSB                                     Remember His covenant forever--the promise He ordained for a thousand generations,...

New International Version      He will keep his covenant forever.

He will keep his promise for all time to come.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

LTHB                                     Remember His covenant forever, the Word He gave to a thousand generations,...

Young’s Updated LT             Remember to the age His covenant, The word He commanded—To a thousand generations;...


What is the gist of this verse? In this ceremony of the Ark, the people are called upon to remember God’s covenant, which He has made to stand forever.


1Chronicles 16:15a = Psalm 105:8a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

zâkar (זָכַר) [pronounced zaw-KAHR]

to remember, to recall, to call to mind

2nd person masculine plural, singular, Qal imperative

Strong’s #2142 BDB #269

Psalm 105:8 reads instead:

zâkar (זָכַר) [pronounced zaw-KAHR]

to remember, to recall, to call to mind

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #2142 BDB #269

So, in Psalm 105:8, this reads, “He remembered his covenant forever;” in Chronicles, this reads, “Remember His covenant forever.” Some LXX manuscripts also read the same as Psalm 105:8.

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to, belonging to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

׳ôwlâm (עוֹלָם) [pronounced ģo-LAWM]

long duration, forever, perpetuity, antiquity, futurity

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #5769 BDB #761

׳ôwlâm together with the lâmed preposition mean forever, always.

berîyth (בְּרִית) [pronounced bereeth]