Genesis 19

Written and compiled by Gary Kukis

Genesis 19:1–38

The Judgment of Sodom/Perpetuation of Lot’s Line


These studies are designed for believers in Jesus Christ only. If you have exercised faith in Christ, then you are in the right place. If you have not, then you need to heed the words of our Lord, Who said, “For God so loved the world that He gave His only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son, so that every [one] believing [or, trusting] in Him shall not perish, but shall be have eternal life! For God did not send His Son into the world so that He should judge the world, but so that the world shall be saved through Him. The one believing [or, trusting] in Him is not judged, but the one not believing has already been judged, because he has not believed in the Name of the only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son of God.” (John 3:16–18). “I am the Way and the Truth and the Life! No one comes to the Father except through [or, by means of] Me!” (John 14:6).


Every study of the Word of God ought to be preceded by a naming of your sins to God. This restores you to fellowship with God (1John 1:8–10). If there are people around, you would name these sins silently. If there is no one around, then it does not matter if you name them silently or whether you speak aloud.


Document Navigation

Quotations

Preface

Outline of Chapter

Charts, Graphics, Short Doctrines

Doctrines Alluded to

Chapters Alluded to

Dictionary of Terms

Introduction and Text

Addendum


Links to the word-by-word, verse-by-verse studies of Genesis (HTML) (PDF) (that is what this document is). This incorporates 2 previous studies done in the book of Genesis. However, much of this material was thrown together without careful editing. Therefore, from time to time, there will be concepts and exegetical material which will be repeated, because there was no overall editing done once all of this material was combined.

 

There is a second, less complete set of weekly lessons of Genesis (HTML) (PDF). Every word of that study can be found in the word-by-word, verse-by-verse studies.

 

This study makes reference to a wide-range of sources. There are quotations from doctrinal teachers, of course; but from Catholic commentaries and from other sources as well. Wherever I found relevant truth, I quoted from it or was inspired by it. Even though it is clear that some churches have a better concept of our reason for being here, that does not mean that there is no truth to be found anywhere else. So, from time to time, I will quote from John Calvin, even though I do not subscribe to 5-point Calvinism; I will quote from some Catholic sources, even though I believe that they are very wrong regarding Mary, the pope, apostolic succession and other such doctrines. The intention is for this to be the most thorough and accurate study of Genesis available anywhere.

 

Also, it is not necessary that you read the grey Hebrew exegesis tables. They are set apart from the rest of the study so that you can easily skip over them (based upon the suggestion of a friend). However, if you ever doubt the translation of a word, phrase or a verse, these translation tables are then available.


Thomas Coke: [In this chapter,] Lot entertains two angels, who conduct him, with his wife and two daughters, out of the city which was about to be destroyed. Brimstone and fire fall from heaven upon Sodom and Gomorrah. Lot's wife becomes a pillar of salt. Lot flies from Zoar to the mountains, and has an incestuous commerce with his daughters.

 

genesis19.gif

J. Vernon McGee: The preceding chapter was a picture of blessed Christian fellowship with God. But now...In chapter 19 we have a picture of..."the blasted life." 

 

Edmund Burke quotation (graphic); from Notable Quotes; accessed November 26, 2015.

 

Matt Slick: 28% of homosexual men had more than 1000 partners.

 

Matt Slick: 79% of homosexual men say over half of sex partners are strangers.

 

Behold, this was the guilt of your sister Sodom: she and her daughters had pride, excess of food, and prosperous ease, but did not aid the poor and needy. They were haughty and did an abomination before me. So I removed them, when I saw it. (Ezek. 16:49–50; ESV)

 

And the angels who did not stay within their own position of authority, but left their proper dwelling, He has kept in eternal chains under gloomy darkness until the judgment of the great day--just as Sodom and Gomorrah and the surrounding cities, which likewise indulged in sexual immorality and pursued unnatural desire, serve as an example by undergoing a punishment of eternal fire. (Jude 6–7; ESV; capitalized)

 

For although they knew God, they did not honor Him as God or give thanks to Him, but they became futile in their thinking, and their foolish hearts were darkened. Claiming to be wise, they became fools, and exchanged the glory of the immortal God for images resembling mortal man and birds and animals and creeping things. Therefore God gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, to the dishonoring of their bodies among themselves, because they exchanged the truth about God for a lie and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever! Amen. For this reason God gave them up to dishonorable passions. For their women exchanged natural relations for those that are contrary to nature; and the men likewise gave up natural relations with women and were consumed with passion for one another, men committing shameless acts with men and receiving in themselves the due penalty for their error. And since they did not see fit to acknowledge God, God gave them up to a debased mind to do what ought not to be done. (Rom. 1:21–28; ESV; capitalized)

 

William Lane Craig: Does the Bible forbid homosexual behavior? ...You might not expect it to mention a topic like homosexual behavior, but in fact there are six places in the Bible-three in the Old Testament and three in the New Testament-where this issue is directly addressed-not to mention all the passages dealing with marriage and sexuality which have implications for this issue. In all six of these passages homosexual acts are unequivocally condemned.

 

Kukis: You may wonder, why do we bother with a man like Lot? As a believer, he is mediocre at best. Lot is our assurance of God’s love, protection and logistical grace. He is a righteous man because he believed in the God of Abraham. But beyond that, there is very little to recommend this man—and yet, God does not just look after him, God send two angels to rescue him from the destruction of Sodom.

 

Kukis: Our innate spirit tells us that there must be a final judgment. Sodom and Gomorrah show us that God will judge the world.

 

Thomas Coke: If God spared not the old world, but brought in a flood upon the ungodly, and, if, turning the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah into ashes, He has set forth the inhabitants thereof for an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal fire (Jude 1:7); being in all ages the same God of justice as well as mercy, He will not suffer iniquity ultimately to escape.

 

Kukis: Anyone with common sense recognizes that Lot’s attempt to diffuse this situation by offering up his daughters is a depraved approach. God includes this in the Bible so that we do not think that God is saving Lot and his family because Lot is a really great person. He’s not.

 

Amos 3:6b Does disaster come to a city, unless the LORD has done it? (ESV)

 

Jay Leno: If God doesn't destroy Hollywood Boulevard, he owes Sodom and Gomorrah an apology.

 

Yakov Smirnoff: Homosexuality in Russia is a crime and the punishment is seven years in prison, locked up with the other men. There is a three year waiting list.

Preface: For the growing believer, at least one time in his life, we will be faced with the great decision, do I believe the Word of God or do I continue to believe whatever it is that I believe? If you reject the Word of God or if you bend the Word of God until it no longer says to you what it clearly says, then you will stop growing. Every person who comes to Jesus Christ has some amount of human viewpoint that they carry around—some more than most—and there is going to be some verse, some passage or some chapter that just rubs you the wrong way. That is a true crossroads in the life of the believer. If you were born in 1980 or later, this might very well be the chapter that does it for you—the chapter the determines will you advance in the spiritual life or will you dig your feet in and refuse to move forward in the Christian life? You are the person who makes this decision for you; no one can make this decision for you.


Let me be specific here: many young people think that homosexual rights is the civil rights issue of their generation, and that is because this has been drilled into them by the media and by our educational system. As far as you are concerned, you might believe that homosexuality has absolutely nothing to do with choice; and that it is all about the way that you were born. Some people are born gay and others are born straight. If God made you gay, that cannot be a sin. If you think this, then you have bought into one of the big lies of today, and you are wrong. It does not matter that someone is attracted to their own gender—homosexual acts are still sins.


To prep you for this what is to come: we all have sin natures and each sin nature has a lust pattern, and what I desire to do that is sinful is not the same as what you desire to do that is sinful. Every person is born with a sin nature; and every person does have something (or some things) that they lust after. When they pursue these lusts, they are sinning. You may want power, I might want money, Charley Brown might chase skirt, and Lucy Van Pelt might also chase skirt. Simply because we have a desire to have something, that does not make that desire commendable or even legitimate. God sets up the boundary lines through revealed truth, and when we go outside of those lines, we are committing sin, no matter how many involved are consenting adults.


There are Christian believers who struggle with their homosexual desires; there are also Christian believers who struggle with their heterosexual desires. However, God has made it possible for all believers, despite the trends of the sin nature and despite their lust patterns, to grow spiritually and to have an incredible and eternal impact.


This study will be the most thorough and extensive examination of Gen. 19 available anywhere. Not only will you see a complete and thorough analysis or this chapter of the Word of God, but you will also be able to read every word of the original text.


Outline of Chapter 19:

 

Introduction

 

         vv.     1–10         Lot Attempts to Protect the Two Angels from Sodom

         vv.    11–14         The Angels Attempt to Save Lot and his Family

         vv.    15–17         The Escape from Sodom

         vv.    18–23         Lot Begs to Differ

         vv.    24–26         The Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah

         vv.    27–29         God Remembers the Prayer of Abraham

         vv.    30–38         Incest Begins the Tribes of Moab and Ammon

 

Addendum


Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines:

 

         Preface               Quotations

         Preface               Edmund Burke quotation (graphic)

         Introduction         The Prequel of Genesis 19

         Introduction         The Principals of Genesis 19

         Introduction         The Abrahamic Timeline for Genesis 19

         Introduction         A Synopsis of Genesis 19 (by Clarke and by Poole)

         Introduction         Matthew Henry’s Alternative Outline

         Introduction         Alternate Outline by Time

         Introduction         Robby Dean’s Introduction to Genesis 19

         Introduction         Grace Before Judgment

         Introduction         God’s Justice and God’s Grace in Genesis

         Introduction         Robby Dean’s Doctrinal Introduction to Genesis 19

 

         v.       1              The Physical Nature of Angels

         v.       1              The Christian and Politics

         v.       1              Parallels between Genesis 18 and Genesis 19

         v.       5              The Men of Sodom Come to Lot’s Home to Violate the Strangers (graphic)

         v.       5              A Few Points on Homosexuality

         v.       5              Guzik on Homosexuality

         v.       8              The Bible Query on, Why Did Lot Offer up his Daughters?

         v.       8              When Critics Ask: Was the sin of Sodom homosexuality or inhospitality?

         v.       9              The Abbreviated Doctrine of Homosexuality

         v.       9              Gay Marriage versus Natural Marriage and the Law (in a nutshell)

         v.       9              Symptoms

         v.       9              Symptoms Part II

         v.       9              Robby Dean’s Characteristics of Paganism

         v.      11              How the Men outside of Lot's Door Might be Blinded

         v.      11              Blindness in the Bible

         v.      13              Why does God want to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah?

         v.      13              Angels, an addendum

         v.      16              The 3 Categories of the Will of God

         v.      16              Lot Fleeing Sodom (a Painting) by Benjamin West

         v.      17              The 4 Angelic Commands Made to Lot

         v.      23              When Critics Ask on, the Sun Rising in the Bible

         v.      23              Lot and his daughters enter the town of Zoar; Art by John Martin

         v.      24              The Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, by John Martin, 1852

         v.      24              The Pulpit Commentary on the Southern Location of Sodom and Gomorrah

         v.      24              Dead Sea Asphalt Discharge (photo)

         v.      24              The Dead Sea Map

         v.      24              Commentary on the Nature of the Judgement of Sodom and Gomorrah

         v.      24              Keil and Delitzsch on the Possible Origins of the Dead Sea

         v.      24              The Dead Sea Scrolls

         v.      24              The National Geographic on the Discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls

         v.      24              CenturyOne Bookstores 25 Fascinating Facts on the Dead Sea Scrolls

         v.      24              Leon Levy Dead Sea Scroll Discovery Sites

         v.      25              Clarke on the Salt Sea and the Area of Sodom and Gomorrah

         v.      25              Sodom and the Final 3 Stages of National Discipline

         v.      25              Links to the 5 Cycles (Stages) of [National] Discipline

         v.      25              Last House Standing (Photograph)

         v.      26              Coffman on “Remember Lot’s Wife”

         v.      26              The Bible Query on Lot’s Wife Becoming a Pillar of Salt

         v.      26              Was God too Harsh with Lot’s Wife?

         v.      26              Photograph of Mount Sodom and Lot’s Wife

         v.      26              Salt-Encrusted Pillars at the Dead Sea

         v.      28              Maundrell's First-hand Description of the Salt Sea

         v.      29              A Few Points on Sodom and Gomorrah

         v.      29              Sodoma E Gomorra by Alessandro Bavari

         v.      29              Sodom and Gomorrah Postscript

         v.      29              Eschatological Vocabulary

         v.      29              Sodom and Gomorrah in the New Testament

         v.      29              Great spiritual works done in a city can turn that city around

         v.      29              Sodom and Gomorrah are evidence of a future, eternal judgment

         v.      29              God knows how to preserve the righteous and to level judgment on the wicked

         v.      29              Sodom is used to denote sexual deviance of the Beast in the end times

         v.      29              Offensive Nativity Scene (Cartoon)

         v.      29              Sodom and Gomorrah in the Old Testament

         v.      29              Sodom and Gomorrah lay in ruins for the entire history of ancient Israel, as a warning to them of God’s judgment

         v.      29              God judged Sodom; and He will judge His people if they engage in similar behavior

         v.      29              A Brief History of Israel

         v.      29              Chart of the Prophets

         v.      29              Believers should recognize the power of the Lord

         v.      29              Isaiah warns of the 5th stage of national discipline

         v.      29              Israel will reap the evil of their own sin, as did Sodom

         v.      29              God will judge unbelieving Jews, both in time and eternity. God will judge Babylon

         v.      29              Jeremiah speak of the destruction of Babylon

         v.      29              God gives those on negative volition and under discipline a second chance, and they still do not turn toward Him

         v.      29              The people of the southern kingdom to become like Sodom and Gomorrah to God as had already happened to the northern kingdom

         v.      29              God, through Jeremiah, laments the future destruction of Judah

         v.      29              Ezekiel Hammers the Northern and Southern Kingdoms, Referencing Sodom

         v.      29              Prophets use Sodom and Gomorrah to show that God will judge the nations

         v.      29              Prophets Speak of the Last Judgment

         v.      32              Did Lot and Family Carry Containers of Wine out of Sodom?

         v.      33              When Critics Ask, Does God Condone Incest?

         v.      35              Lot and his daughters - a painting by Peter Paul Rubens

         v.      35              Lot and His Daughters Giovanni Francesco Barbieri (a painting)

         v.      35              Hendrick van Somer - Lot and his Daughters (a painting)

         v.      35              Orazio Gentileschi - Lot and His Daughters (a painting)

         v.      38              The Abbreviated Doctrine of Moab and Ammon

         v.      38              Significant Failures in the Plan of God

         v.      38              The Authorship of Genesis

         v.      38              False Theories About the Authorship of Genesis

         v.      38              Who Wrote Genesis—from the Internet

 

         Addendum          Lot, an Addendum

         Addendum          A Summary of the Life of Lot

         Addendum          God gives specific plots of land to Moab and Ammon

         Addendum          Map of Canaan, Moab and the Negeb

         Addendum          God will destroy the enemies of Israel, even Moab and Ammon

         Addendum          Abraham and Lot—Compare and Contrast

         Addendum          Robby Dean’s Cosmic System

         Addendum          Why is Genesis 19 in the Word of God

         Addendum          What We Learn from Genesis 19

         Addendum          Josephus’ History of this Time Period

         Addendum          Edersheim Summarizes Genesis 19

         Addendum          A Complete Translation of Genesis 19

         Addendum          Word Cloud from a Reasonably Literal Paraphrase of Genesis 19

         Addendum          Word Cloud from Exegesis of Genesis 19


Chapter Outline

 

Charts, Graphics, Short Doctrines

Beginning of Document

Doctrines Covered or Alluded to

Chapters of the Bible Alluded to

Definition of Terms

Introduction and Text

Addendum

www.kukis.org

 

Exegetical Studies in Genesis


Doctrines Covered or Alluded To

 

Blessing by Association

Homosexuality

Human Viewpoint versus Divine Viewpoint

Additional doctrines and links are found in Definition of Terms below.


Chapters of the Bible Alluded To and/or Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Gen. 6

Gen. 11

Gen. 12

Gen. 14

Gen. 18

 

 

The Book of Ruth


Many who read and study this chapter are 1st or 2nd generation students of R. B. Thieme, Jr., so that much of this vocabulary is second nature. One of Bob’s contributions to theology is a fresh vocabulary along with a number of concepts which are theologically new or reworked, yet still orthodox. Therefore, if you are unfamiliar with his work, the definitions below will help you to fully understand all that is being said. Also, I have developed a few new terms and concepts which require definition as well.

In addition, there are other more traditional yet technical theological terms which will be used and therefore defined as well.

Sometimes the terms in the exegesis of this chapter are simply alluded to, without any in-depth explanation of them. Sometimes, these terms are explained in detail and illustrated. A collection of all these terms is found here: (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Definition of Terms

Addictive and Degenerate Sins

This is when a complex of sins takes over the life of a believer or an unbeliever. When committing these sins begins to be a priority in one’s life, that is the point at which these sins have become addictive. The ability to resist such sins becomes dramatically reduced, while the satisfaction from committing these sins is also lessened. Common addictions include alcoholism, drug addiction, gambling and sexual addiction (of various types). When addiction occurs, these sins have a degenerative effect: a person will neglect his own physical appearance, his own health, his family, his familial obligations, his work and/or his financial obligations. An addicted believer will often forgo his relationship to God (going to church, Christian fellowship, the exercise of his spiritual gift) in order to commit the sins that he is addicted to.

Divine Operating Assets

These are the things which God gives to the believer in the Church Age at the point of salvation. We have the ability to comprehend with all saints the nature of the plan of God and our place in it. We have the power of God the Holy Spirit (think of this as having power tools as opposed to having regular tools and no strength). We have the ability to grow spiritually and to make a difference in this world with the assets that God has given us. See 40 Grace Gifts Given at Salvation or 60 Grace Gifts Received At the Moment of Salvation.

Divine institutions

A divine institution speaks of the absolute social structures that have been instituted by God for the entire human race—for believers and unbelievers alike. The term divine emphasizes the fact that they have their origin in God. These are social structures that have been built into creation and into the nature of man by God. These divine institutions provide protection, perpetuation, orderly function, survival and blessing of the human race, and allow for the teaching of the gospel of Jesus Christ. For more information, see Divine Institutions (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Gloss

A word or phrase added in by way of explanation by a later author (or copyist). I include in this those people who might relay this narrative verbally.

Laws of Divine Establishment

Since the world appears to be made up of mostly unbelievers, God must have some kind of plan for the unbelievers while they are alive. These are called the laws of divine establishment, and they are applicable to both believers and unbelievers. These are the laws which protect the freedom of a nation, and allow for evangelism and for the teaching of the Word of God. See the Laws of Divine Establishment (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Logistical Grace

Logistical grace is the divine planning, divine support, divine provision and divine blessing which are designed by God to keep the believer alive so that we can properly execute or fulfill God's plan. (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Pivot

In nearly any nation, there will be believers and there will be mature believers (which is called a pivot. If these groups are large enough, a nation will be preserved and, in most cases, greatly prospered. If the pivot is small, or if there are very few mature believers in this pivot, then that nation will go down. The concept of a pivot of believers preserving a nation is found in Gen. 18:22–33 Matt. 5:13. For more information, see Bible Doctrine Resource or R. B. Thieme, Jr. (these appear to be identical).

Rebound (Restoration to fellowship with God)

In the New Testament, this is naming your sins to God, so that you are both restored to temporal fellowship with God and are then filled with the Spirit of God. In the Old Testament, naming your sins to God would result in a restoration of fellowship and, in some cases, the empowerment of the Holy Spirit once again (the Holy Spirit was not given to all Old Testament believers). See the Doctrine of Rebound (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

The Revealed God (or, the Revealed Lord)

We do not look within ourselves or do we build up some concept of God based upon our own experiences, but we first understand God as He has revealed Himself. Throughout the lives of the saints who have gone before us, God revealed Himself through the written Word and sometimes through direct contact. Once a foundation is laid, then we can see how God is understood through various experiences in our lives.


We do not look within to find God and we do not go out and search for God. He will reveal Himself to us. Those who look to other gods are simply worshiping that which others have defined as God; or, in many cases, they incorporate their own norms and standards into their belief of the God they choose to believe in. Essentially, such a person is making God in his own image.

Reversionism

A state of being or a set of actions where a person reverts back to a former state, habit, belief, or practice of sinning. Reversionism is the status of the believer who fails to execute the plan of God for the Church Age. He returns to his pre-salvation modus operandi and modus vivendi. This doctrine is covered at the Grace Bible Church website; at Angel Fire.com; at He-Ekklesia under the 8 Stages of Reversionism; and at the Lake Erie Bible Church website.

Scar Tissue on the Soul

Scar tissue of the soul is also called hardness of the heart, the uncircumcised heart, and stubbornness of heart. It is a divine judgment of the soul that restricts capacity for life and love. Unlike divine discipline that produces temporary suffering with no lasting side effects, scar tissue of the soul leaves a debilitating loss of capacity for life or love. However, since it is part of the soul's immaterial essence like emotion, it has no known physical properties. However, it does restrict the capacity of the soul. It blocks Spiritual light, which leads to affinity to the Cosmic System as well as soulish and physical ailments. Psychosis and psychopathic personality are examples of scar tissue of the soul. Although behavior can be altered by psychotherapy and psychiatric drugs, the only cure for such problems is the divine solution, which requires Rebound and application of Bible Doctrine. See Bible Doctrine Resource for more information.

Sin unto Death

When a believer continues to sin without rebound and without responding to warning discipline, God will often remove that believer from this life with the sin unto death. This is not a particular sin, but usually a series of sins, which may includes acts of human good and evil. Also see Bible Doctrine Resources for more information.

Stages of National Discipline

God set up a series of stages that He would go through to discipline the nation Israel, which stages are laid out in Lev. 26. These are called the cycles of discipline by R. B. Thieme, Jr. See the Doctrine of the Cycles of Discipline.

The 4th Stage of National Discipline

This is when a nation is controlled and/or taxed by an outside entity. In the Bible, this is called paying tribute.

The 5th Stage of National Discipline

The fifth cycle of discipline involves complete loss of personal and national sovereignty, the destruction of the family and the nation. Offerings to God are unacceptable. Nations which have undergone this destruction have experienced slavery, cannibalism, and the assimilation of its surviving citizens into other cultures.

The 6th Stage of National Discipline

This is when a country and its people are completely destroyed. This is what happened to Sodom and Gomorrah. This was never an outcome that Israel had to worry about. God’s promises depend upon the continuation of the Jewish people. Genesis 19 (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Synecdoche

A synecdoche [pronounced si-NEK-duh-kee] is a figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole or the whole for a part, the special for the general or the general for the special. If we read that David defeats the army of the Philistines, David is the part which represents the whole (that is, David’s army).

Some of these definitions are taken from

http://www.bibledoctrinechurch.org/?subpages/GLOSSARY.shtml

http://rickhughesministries.org/content/Biblical-Terms.pdf

http://www.gbible.org/index.php?proc=d4d

http://www.wordoftruthministries.org/termsanddefs.htm

http://www.realtime.net/~wdoud/topics.html

http://www.theopedia.com/


——————————


An Introduction to Genesis 19


I ntroduction: Most people have some familiarity with Gen. 19. Lot and his family are living in Sodom, and this is a city filled with sexual debauchery of the homosexual variety. The great sport of this city was to find new men who are traveling through and to gang rape them while many in the town would watch. This was their form of entertainment; this was their bloodsport. This was so offensive to God that God decided to destroy these cities and the people in them.


This destruction of Sodom is actually a carry-over from Gen. 14 (HTML) (PDF) (WPD) (when Abraham and his small army delivered Sodom from the kings of the east) and from the end of Gen. 18 (HTML) (PDF) (WPD), where Abraham prays on behalf of Sodom, in order to protect his nephew Lot.


You will recall that, in the previous chapter, Abraham actually bargained with God. God told Abraham that He would destroy Sodom and Gomorrah, and Abraham began to reason with God, asking, “Well, what if there are 50 believers there? Then how about 45? 40?” In fact, Abraham found that God would preserve this city, even if there were only 10 believers there. Abraham had calculated that this would be the least number of believers in this area, because Lot was there with his family.


Gen. 19 represents quite a change of focus for the book of Genesis. From Gen. 12–18, the focus has been Abraham. Even in the chapters which introduce this chapter, Abraham is still the focus. However, in this chapter, Abraham will only be mentioned after Sodom and Gomorrah have been destroyed. Abraham will come out and look in the direction of Lot and see the smoke and clouds billowing up from that area.


Lot is a righteous man. This is implied when Abraham says “Then Abraham drew near and said, "Will you indeed sweep away the righteous with the wicked [in Sodom]? Suppose there are fifty righteous within the city. Will you then sweep away the place and not spare it for the fifty righteous who are in it?” (Gen. 18:23–24; ESV) Lot’s faith in the Revealed Lord is confirmed in 2Peter 2:7, where Lot is called righteous, and delivered from God’s wrath in Sodom and Gomorrah (2Peter 2:4–9). 2Peter 2:9 assures us that: ...the Lord [surely] knows how to rescue godly people from trying situations, and to keep unrighteous people under [a sentence of] punishment [to be received] on the judgment day. (AUV–NT)


The sin of Sodom began with homosexuality and had become homosexual rape. One of the great evils in this world is homosexuality, which fact is testified to throughout the Bible, from the Old Testament to the New. A homosexual act is not just sinful, but it is a sin of addiction and degeneracy. One of the fascinating things in this world is how some in the homosexual movement have tried to use the Bible in order to justify their sin. So there is no confusion, it is not a sin to be tempted. It is not sinful to have homosexual leanings or desires. We all have temptations and strong desires to do a lot of things. It is only sinful when you act on these desires that the Word of God clearly reveals are sinful.


Bear in mind, this is the introduction to Gen. 19. All of the statements made herein will be covered, explained and justified in much greater depth in the study of this chapter.


What certain elements of the current homosexual movement attempt to do is, justify the sins that they commit, calling them legitimate human functions (and probably most of them honestly believe this). For many homosexuals, it angers them to be told that homosexual acts are sins, so that they have attempted to deal with the Bible in a variety of ways—from an outright attack by way of confrontations and lawsuits to infiltrating churches and religion to even starting and promoting their own brand of Christianity. They will not just attempt to justify their own sinful behavior but many will claim that the New Testament in general, and Jesus in particular, approve of homosexual acts and committed homosexual relationships, often through strained interpretations of the relevant passages from the Bible, as well as by distorting their own personal natures, desires and experiences to those who are not homosexual.


Because this is such a controversial topic today (40–50 years ago, there would have been no controversy over statements like these), these remarks will be expanded upon with a lot of Scripture thrown in to justify them in this study.


Every man and woman is tempted by something; and, in some cases, by a number of things. Just because a person really wants to do something does not mean that what he wants to do is therefore approved by God. Married men are tempted by women all the time; however, nothing is more destructive to a marriage and to a family with greater far-reaching affects than adultery. Adultery not only has the ability to dissolve a marriage, but it can negatively impact the lives of the children and their future relationships, thus impacting even the lives of their children in the future. So, simply having a strong desire to do something is not enough reason to follow through on that desire. And having a very strong desire does not make it legitimate or approved by God, even if all adults involved consent.


What we have in this chapter is attempted homosexual rape and strong homosexual desires; and it indicates the degree of degeneracy which these cities had descended to. Our salvation and our spiritual growth is obviously an individual matter, but God also deals with groups of men corporately, which concept we took a great deal of time to study already. A husband and wife form a corporate entity; a family is a corporate entity, those in a particular geographical area (the same nation, the same city, the same state, same family, same school, same business, same military unit) are all treated by God as corporate entities. God will treat the city of Sodom and the other nearby 4 cities as a corporate entity. These various entities can be blessed or cursed depending upon who is in them.


We do not know if this homosexual debauchery was the sin-de-jour of all these cities; but there was no doubt debauchery of some sort in all of them, as God destroyed them all.


You will recall in the previous chapter that the sin of Sodom and Gomorrah was great. Two angels left to walk to Sodom, and Abraham was left with the Lord, and he “talked” God into sparing Sodom if there were 10 righteous men in that city (a righteous man is one who has believed in the Revealed God, Who is the God of Abraham). Abraham figured how many people were in Lot’s family, added in a few converts (in-laws), and knew that there had to be 10 saved (righteous) people in Sodom. So when he got God to agree that 10 righteous would preserve the city, he believed that his nephew Lot was safe.


You may recall from Gen. 14 that God has already warned Sodom about their degeneracy, and they were almost removed from their land and placed into slavery. God, in His grace, delivered them by Abraham; but this warning was not heeded by them.


Although God would threaten to destroy 5 cities, only Sodom is spoken of in detail. We do not know the sins of Gomorrah or the other 3 smaller cities. They may have been exactly the same as Sodom’s; and they may be guilty of other sins of degeneracy. It would not be difficult to imagine that Sodom’s sexual degeneracy reached out and infected those other 4 cities.


Meanwhile, the angels approach Sodom, and Lot is hanging out at the city gate. This is where often court cases were tried, out in the open by the city gate. This suggests that Lot had gotten to a high political position in Sodom.


As an aside, we do not know who wrote this chapter of Genesis. From Lot and his daughters would come the people of Moab and Ammon. They had clear interaction with the children of Israel, but it was primarily one of animus (with some exceptions). So, it seems less likely that this information would have been preserved by the Moabites or Ammonites and then passed down to Moses or Joshua or whomever. Abraham will be mentioned in this chapter, but as observing the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah from afar. The details of this destruction could not have come from Abraham. So, that leaves Lot and his two daughters, who saw all of this go down. Lot, in particular, was both inside and outside the house. All we know about Lot and his daughters is found at the end of this chapter. Did they have any interaction with Abraham after the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah? We don’t know. So we are left with two possibilities: Lot did, at some point in time, reached out to Abraham and told him what happened (we have no evidence of Abraham and Lot ever speaking again, but we really do not know); or the angels who were there or the Angel of Yehowah revealed this information to Abraham, and he recorded it. Logically, this information would come from Lot (possibly from one of his daughters), from the two angels or from the Revealed Lord (they would have revealed this to Abraham, who would have then written it down).


There is an outside chance that this information was passed down to the Ammonite and Moabite tribes, and that one of them, at some point in time, made this information known Jacob or some believer after him. Although there were clearly a few Moabites and Ammonites who were well-disposed toward Israel (Ruth was a Moabitess); this information would have come to someone in Israel long after these events took place. On the other hand, this event seems to be well-integrated into the narrative of Abraham. Given the events of Genesis, it is not out of the question for a descendant of Lot to meet and speak with Abraham or with Isaac.


There is a third possibility. Abraham or a representative of his could have gone to this area and asked questions about what happened. Lot originally lived in Zoar (although it may have only been for a few days). So, there is the slim possibility that someone from Abraham’s camp coming to Zoar would have been re-directed into the hills to find Lot. In any case, the best we can do is speculate about the authorship of this chapter.


It is important to understand what has gone before.

The Prequel of Genesis 19

What cannot be forgotten is, God has warmed the people of Sodom already. Back in Gen. 14 (HTML) (PDF) (WPD), when Lot had separated from Abraham and was in Sodom, they had been conquered and they were paying tribute to Chedorlaomer, the king of Elam (Gen. 14:1–2). However, the people of Sodom rebelled against Chedorlaomer, which brought his wrath upon them. God allowed Chedorlaomer’s rule in order to put some restraints upon the people of Sodom and Gomorrah. However, God also allowed Abraham and his servants to deliver the people of Sodom, who had been taken captive and were going to go into slavery. This should have been a wake-up called to them, but it was not.

Although freed from possible slavery, the people of Sodom found themselves going further and further into degeneracy, to the point where, in this chapter of Genesis, they have actually developed a sport of attacking unsuspecting travelers who come to their city, and raping them and killing them. This was done before a large crowd of men, who watched and enjoyed this bloodsport. This is how far their immorality has taken them.

In Gen. 18 (HTML) (PDF) (WPD), there were two major events that are recorded. The Lord Jesus Christ in His Preincarnate form comes to Abraham with two angels and tells Abraham that his wife will give birth next year. Also, our Lord also tells Abraham that he will judge Sodom and Gomorrah, where Lot and his family lives.

At this point, Abraham bargains with God (so to speak), saying, “What if there are 50 righteous men there; will you destroy them with the city?” And God says no. Then Abraham lowers the number to 45 and then to 40, and God continues to say that, if there are that many righteous, then He will preserve the city. Abraham gets down to 10 righteous in the city, and God promises not to destroy the city for 10 righteous. Abraham was certain that Lot and his family (including in-laws) will be 10 or more in number; so Abraham does not take it any further. Although we are not given a specific head count, there are 3 or 4 righteous in Sodom (although some of Lot’s other family may have been righteous; but they do not heed Lot’s warning—that is a part of this chapter).

Gen. 19 will begin with two of the angels from Gen. 18 coming to Lot and his family in Sodom. They first walk into the entrance of Sodom, and Lot sees them and offers them a place to stay for the night.


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We need to know who the people are who populate this chapter.

The Principals of Genesis 19

Characters

Commentary

The two angels

These are angels and not Christophanies (the Angel of the Yehowah had gone with these two angels to Abraham in Gen. 18). These two angels were sent both to judge Sodom and to save Lot and his family.

Lot

Lot is Abraham’s nephew. He came with Abraham from Haran, and God greatly blessed both Abraham and Lot. However, when their holdings could not be kept separate, Lot and Abraham separated; and Lot took his holdings and family south to Sodom.

The townsfolk of Sodom.

Not all of the men of Sodom were homosexual. However, virtually all of them participated in the town’s bloodsport where the homosexuals of the city would hunt down and rape strangers to the city, who would then be killed. It is not clear how many men participated in the raping; but almost all knew about and watched this take place.

Lot’s wife

We are never given the name of Lot’s wife. She is almost an invisible player in this chapter until the angels take her and Lot to the edge of town and direct them to continue running. She will look back longingly to Sodom and be destroyed with Sodom (and he body will become a monument to her desire to remain in Sodom).

Lot’s two daughters

Lot’s two daughters are also not named. They are virgins and betrothed to be married to two men of the city. However, Abraham is unable to convince their fiancees to leave Sodom before Sodom is destroyed. There may be a daughter or two who do not live with Lot; and there may be a son or two who also do not live with Lot.

His sons-in-law

It appears that two of the daughters who lived with Lot were promised to be married to two of the men of Sodom. It is not clear whether they participated in the threatened rape outside of Lot’s house; but it is clear that Lot could not convince them to leave Sodom.

Sodom and Gomorrah

Strictly speaking, these are not principals in the Gen. 19 narrative. However, these two cities stand as a memorial to the judgment of God; and it is imperative that every Christian understand their importance in history and in relationship to the righteousness of God.

Moab and Ammon

These are the two sons born of incest to Lot’s two daughters.

 


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The Abrahamic Timeline for Genesis 19


Legend

Birth, death or marriage

God speaks with Abraham

Historical incidents (most of which are related to Abraham)

Parenthetical dates (2065 b.c.) simply refer to taking the date assigned by the chronologist and using Scripture to determine the next date.

The entire Abrahamic Timeline (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

The entire Patriarchal Timeline (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).


Brent MacDonald

Age of Abraham

Reese’s Chronology Bible

Scripture

Event/Description

2164 b.c.

0

1967 b.c.

Gen. 11:26–27

Abraham (Terah’s son) and Lot (Haran’s son) born in Ur of the Chaldeans. Abram would be the 43rd generation from Adam. Gen 11:26 Terah lived 70 years and fathered Abram, Nahor, and Haran.

2089 b.c.

75

1892 b.c.

Gen. 12:1–4

Abraham leaves for Promised Land from Haran, after being so instructed by God. Gen 12:4 So Abram went, as the LORD had told him, and Lot went with him. Abram was 75 years old when he left Haran.

 

 

1891 b.c.

1889 b.c. (Klassen)

Gen. 13:5–13

Abram and Lot separate from one another.

(2065 b.c.)

 

(1867 b.c.)

Gen. 18:1–15

Jehovah and two angels come to Abraham and promise that Sarah would have a child in a year’s time. Gen 18:10, 14 The LORD said, "I will certainly come back to you in about a year's time, and your wife Sarah will have a son!" Now Sarah was listening at the entrance of the tent behind him. Is anything impossible for the LORD? At the appointed time I will come back to you, and in about a year she will have a son."

(2065 b.c.)

 

(1867 b.c.)

Gen. 18:16–21

The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah is promised.

(2065 b.c.)

 

(1867 b.c.)

Gen. 18:22–33

Abraham intercedes on behalf of Sodom.

(2065 b.c.)

 

(1867 b.c.)

Gen. 19:1–23

The angels visit Lot and warn him of the coming destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah.

2065 b.c.

 

(1867 b.c.)

Gen. 19:24–29

Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim are destroyed by fire and sulfur and possibly by volcanic eruptions. Reese and others suggest that this is when the Dead Sea is formed.

 

 

1867 b.c.

Gen. 19:30–38

Lot’s daughters bear sons to their father Lot.


Bibliography

MacDonald’s timeline is from: http://www.bibleistrue.com/qna/qna63.htm accessed October 11, 2011.

See http://www.bibleistrue.com/qna/qna63dating.htm for his justification of his timeline.

From: http://www.christianshepherd.org/bible_study_guides/abram_to_the_exodus.pdf (Christian shepherd)

The Reese Chronological Bible; KJV translation; Editor: Edward Reese; ©1977 by Edward Reese and Klassen’s dating system ©1975 by Frank R. Klassen; Ⓟ1980 by Bethany House Publishers, South Minneapolis, MN; pp. 18–19, 54–74.


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Here is what to expect from Genesis 19:

A Synopsis of Genesis 19 (by Clarke and by Poole)

The two angels mentioned in the preceding chapter, come in the evening to Sodom (Gen. 19:1). Lot, who was sitting at the gate, invites them to enter his house, take some refreshment, and tarry all night; which they at first refuse (Gen. 19:2); but on being pressingly solicited, they at last comply (Gen. 19:3).

This is followed by abominable conduct of the men of Sodom (Gen. 19:4–5). Lot appears to have deep concern for the honor and safely of his guests, which leads him to make a most exceptionable proposal to those wicked men (Gen. 19:6–8). The violent proceedings of the Sodomites (Gen. 19:9).

Lot is rescued from the barbarity of the Sodomites by the angels, who strike them with blindness (Gen. 19:10–11). The angels exhort Lot and his family to flee from that wicked place, as God was about to destroy it (Gen. 19:12–13).

Lot makes a fruitless exhortation to his sons–in–law (Gen. 19:14). The angels hasten Lot and his family to depart (Gen. 19:15–16). Their exhortation (Gen. 19:17).

Lot’s request (Gen. 19:18–20). He is permitted to escape to Zoar (Gen. 19:21–23). Fire and brimstone are rained down from heaven upon all the cities of the plain, by which they are entirely destroyed (Gen. 19:24–25). Lot’s wife, looking behind, becomes a pillar of salt (Gen. 19:26).

Abraham, early in the morning, discovers the desolation of those iniquitous cities (Gen. 19:27–29).

Lot, fearing to continue in Zoar, went with his two daughters to the mountain, and dwelt in a cave (Gen. 19:30). The strange conduct of his daughters, and his unhappy deception (Gen. 19:31–36). Moab and Ammon are born, from whom sprang the Moabites and Ammonites (Gen. 19:37–38).

Poole’s Synopsis:

Two angels come to Sodom (Gen. 19:1). Lot invites them in; they at first refuse (Gen. 19:2). They enter; he entertains them, and they eat (Gen. 19:3). The men of Sodom demand to know them (Gen. 19:4–5). Lot dissuades them (Gen. 19:6–7); offers his daughters; urges reason (Gen. 19:8. The men of Sodom are obstinate; threaten, and press to break the door (Gen. 19:9). The angels pull Lot in, and shut to the door (Gen. 19:10); and smite the men with blindness (Gen. 19:11). The angels then advise Lot to depart with his kindred (Gen. 19:12). The reason Lot’s family needs to escape (Gen. 19:13). Lot speaks to his sons–in–law; they deride him (Gen. 19:14). The angels lay hold on Lot, his wife, and two daughters, and carry them out (Gen. 19:16); command them not to look back (Gen. 19:17). Lot requests to stay in Zoar; it is granted, with a command to hasten, because till they are gone the Lord can do nothing (Gen. 19:18–23). God rains brimstone and fire upon Sodom (Gen. 19:24–25). Lot's wife looking back becomes a pillar of salt (Gen. 19:26). Abraham looks towards Sodom (Gen. 19:27–28). God kind to Lot for Abraham's sake (Gen. 19:29). Lot and his two daughters remove to the mountain (Gen. 19:30). Lot's daughters contrive for an issue (Gen. 19:31–32). They make their father drunk, lie with him (Gen. 19:33–35); and are with child (Gen. 19:36). Moab and Ben–ammi, the two sons, born thereby (Gen. 19:37–38).

Like all chapters of the Word of God, you need more than just the simple plot outline to understand what God wants us to know.

From Adam Clarke, Commentary on the Bible; from e-Sword, Gen. 19 chapter summary. Edited.

Another good, one page synopsis can be found online in the Bridgeway Bible Commentary, accessed August 14, 2014. A synopsis helps one to enter into a complete exegesis like this, so that one retains an overall understanding of the events that take place, without being lost amid the details.


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My outline is often very similar to the section divisions of the NASB, which is quite similar to most other outlines. This time, I did not. Therefore, here is another outline.

Matthew Henry’s Alternative Outline

I.      It was found, upon trial, that Lot was very good (Gen. 19:1–3), and it did not appear that there was any more of the same character.

II.     It was found that the Sodomites were very wicked and vile (Gen. 19:4–11).

III.    Special care was therefore taken for the securing of Lot and his family, in a place of safety (Gen. 19:12–23).

IV.    Mercy having rejoiced therein, justice shows itself in the ruin of Sodom and the death of Lot's wife (Gen. 19:24–26), with a general repetition of the story (Gen. 19:27–29).

V.     A foul sin that Lot was guilty of, in committing incest with his two daughters (Gen. 19:30–36).

From Matthew Henry, Commentary on the Whole Bible; from e-Sword, Gen. 19 chapter comments (slightly edited).


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The author of this section is very keyed into time.

Alternate Outline by Time

Evening               Lot brings the angels home to protect them (vv. 1–3)

The two angels came to Sodom in the evening,... (Gen. 19:1a; ESV)

Night                   The angels at Lot’s house; attack of the homosexuals (vv. 4–14)

And they called to Lot, "Where are the men who came to you tonight? (Gen. 19:5a; ESV)

Dawning              The angels lead Lot and any companions out of Sodom (vv. 15–22)

As morning dawned, the angels urged Lot, saying, "Up!” (Gen. 19:15a; ESV)

Mid-Morning        Lot and family escape to Zoar while the angels destroy Sodom and Gomorrah (vv. 23–26)

The sun had risen on the earth when Lot came to Zoar. (Gen. 19:23; ESV)

Morning               Abraham observes the destruction of Sodom from afar (vv. 27–29)

And Abraham went early in the morning to the place where he had stood before the LORD. (Gen. 19:27; ESV)

The remainder of the chapter (vv. 30–38) make up a new unit.


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The parallel that Dean is making is the degeneracy and complacency of the people.

Robby Dean’s Introduction to Genesis 19

In 1787 Alexander Tyler, a classics in history professor at the university of Edinburgh was asked what contributed to the fall of the Athenian republic. He said, "A democracy is always temporary in nature. It simply cannot exist as a permanent form of government. A democracy will continue to exist up until the time the voters discover that they can vote themselves generous gifts from the public treasury. From that moment on the majority always votes for the candidate who promised the most benefits from the public treasury, with the result that every democracy will finally collapse due to loose fiscal policy which is always followed by a dictatorship. The average age of the world's civilizations from the beginning of history up to the present is about two hundred years. During those two hundred years these civilizations go through the following sequence. They begin in bondage, and so they move from bondage to spiritual faith, from spiritual faith to great courage, and from courage to liberty. From liberty to abundance, from abundance to complacency, from complacency to apathy, from apathy to dependence, and from dependence back into bondage."

Once people hit the prosperity test then it is easy to just forget about the Lord, easy to become complacent, it happens in individual lives and collectively it happens in cultures and in societies; and once you become complacent, that leads to apathy where you just don't care any more about getting the truth or even applying or living the truth. Once you do that then the guard is dropped and evil, human viewpoint and paganism begins to come in. So there is the move back toward dependency and into bondage, and this is ultimately a tyranny to the sin nature. We see a classic example of that in Genesis chapter nineteen.

Genesis chapter 19 gives us the story of God's judgment on Sodom, on the cities of the plain, because of their perversion. We now have to set some framework, some background, to understand why God destroyed these cities and in terms of being able to understand application. Application of the Scripture isn't always only about how to figure out our own spiritual life and deal with our own problems. When people today focus only on that they are merely manifesting the same traits as the rest of the culture. It is the whole counsel of God that teaches us how to think biblically and how to interact with the events that surround us so that we can have real discernment in our lives and can understand everything that is going on. So we have to study passages like this in terms of how they present God's viewpoint on society, on culture, and on history. As we look at this chapter we are going to pick up a lot of principles of application related to understanding culture and civilization, how God governs the affairs of men, and how establishment laws operate. God established certain principles which He built into the human race, into the warp and woof of creation so that even before the fall these were necessary to follow in order to provide stability for man. These divine institutions now in a post-fall environment are disobeyed, and then they are violated what happens is that cultures and societies, whether it is a family or a church or a small local area or business, fail to follow them then they become enmeshed in the tyranny of man's sin nature. It always leads to self-destruction.

From: http://phrasearch.com/Trans/DBM/setup/Genesis/Gen100.htm accessed August 15, 2014.


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A concept which R. B. Thieme, Jr. taught originally. This is from Robby Dean’s Genesis Series, Lesson Genesis #103 (09/6/05).

Grace Before Judgment

1)      No sin is too great for the grace of God. Even those in Sodom could have turned to the Lord up to this point. Remember, they had some common grace from the Lord in chapter fifteen after when were rescued after their defeat by the four kings from the east.

2)      God still protects the disobedient believer even when he is out of fellowship and living in the pig-pen. God is still watching over the prodigal son because he is in the family, but eventually it becomes time for the sin unto death.

3)      There is always forgiveness. If you are still alive God has a plan for your life. You can use 1John 1:9 to get back into fellowship, but the issue then is to stay in fellowship, to grow, to mature, to start applying doctrine and get out of the pig-pen. What happens so often is people get out, take a shower and then jump right back in, and they spend most of their Christian life in this cycle where they confess and get cleansed and jump right back into the pig-pen of the world's system, and they never advance because they are really not positive.

4)      Forgiveness doesn't necessarily erase the consequences of an impoverished and perverted soul. If there is no change through doctrine then the soul remains impoverished and perverted and there is no happiness and there is no capacity for life.

5)      Cosmic thinking destroys the divine institutions. It destroys the family, and that is exactly what we see in the next episode in verse 30.

This needs to be edited and added to.


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Calvary Chapel: When a person begins to compromise his faith there is a steady progression downward as we see here with Lot. Back in Genesis 13:10 we saw Lot looking towards Sodom, a city that was filled with wickedness. Then, in Genesis 13:12 we see Lot pitch his tent toward Sodom. He is getting closer and that is how sin works. By the time we get to Genesis 14:12 we see that Lot is now living in Sodom. And now here in Genesis chapter 19 he is sitting at the gate of the city, he was a judge in Sodom. The idea is, there is a progressive nature to sin.


There is a parallel between Lot slowly warming up to the idea of living in Sodom and the progressive degeneracy of the city itself. No city becomes degenerate overnight (although, it may seem that way). Sometimes, with each succeeding generation, degeneracy can show a dramatic increase (as occurred in my generation in the 1960's). As a city, Sodom has become more and more degenerate, and God has given them clear warnings (Gen. 14). However, Sodom continued on their downward spiral, despite having the opportunity to become more familiar with Abraham, the man who saved them from the kings of the east.


God reveals his righteousness and justice in the book of Genesis.

God’s Justice and God’s Grace in Genesis

The Sin

God’s Judgment

God’s Gracious Deliverance

The fall of Adam and the woman. They reject God’s commandment.

Adam and Eve were banished from the garden, banished from the tree of life, and they received one sin nature each.

God promises them that the seed of the woman would prevail over the serpent. The Seed of the woman is Jesus Christ.

The murder of Abel. Cain rejects the concept of Abel’s freedom and Abel’s life.

Cain is banished.

Cain is allowed to live.

The degeneracy of the earth; the unholy combination of humans and fallen angels.

The earth is destroyed by a flood.

Those in the ark are delivered. The ark represents Jesus Christ.

The degeneracy of Sodom in Gen. 14.

The 4th stage of national discipline shifts to the 5th stage of national discipline.

God allows Abraham to deliver the people of Sodom. Abraham, in his deliverance, is a type of Christ.

The degeneracy of Sodom in Gen. 18 reaches a point of no return.

God destroys Sodom and Gomorrah, which is the 6th stage of national discipline.

God allows for the deliverance of the righteous, if they want to be delivered. This is parallel to the end-time judgment.

This doctrine could use some fleshing out.


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Robby Dean provides an excellent introduction to this chapter of Genesis.

Robby Dean’s Doctrinal Introduction to Genesis 19

1.      In 2504 b.c. was the flood.

2.      The next major event comes between the flood and Abram and we don't know when it occurred: the tower of Babel. Bible references suggest that it occurred somewhere between 2300 and 2200 b.c.

3.      Abraham is born about 2166 b.c. Why worry about these dates? There is a progression and a deterioration that takes place during this time. As opposed to evolution society isn't gradually improving. What we see is a degradation that occurs in society after the flood, a deterioration. This occurs dramatically in these two to three hundred years between the flood and the tower of Babel.

4.      During the approximately two to three hundred years between the flood and Babel the human race multiplied incredibly to at least several million people. There would have been few deaths and if they had large numbers of children then they could easily have reached a population of several million. Some of them spread out throughout the Middle East but they really didn't scatter around the earth as God had commanded. They began to establish major urban areas and seemed to localize around Babel. That is when there was the episode of their rebellion, building the tower of Babel over against God's command to scatter.

5.      Spiritually that time period began with eight people who were all believers and who all understood the existence of God, the righteousness and justice of God, and the grace of God. They understood that He was a personal God, an infinite God.

6.      In three generations Nimrod is born, the grandson of Noah, and there was seen the start of the perversion of religion into nature religions and the worship of the forces of nature, and especially fertility and sexuality. This begins in that period between the flood and the tower of Babel.

7.      This degeneration is described for us in Romans chapter one.

         1)      Romans 1:18, "For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness." So what was going on in that period was that men were rejecting reality as God defined it. They are worshiping other gods and deifying nature, and they are suppressing the truth. They no longer want to look at the world as God said it is but are starting to twist and distort it and come up with alternate views and explanations of reality.

         2)      Verse 19, "Because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God hath showed it unto them. For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse." Now this is not stating the validity of the argument known as intelligent design. Those are philosophical arguments and they can be taken apart by any good logician at times and sometimes they are not stated very well. But what this is saying is that everything in creation is of such a nature and God has structured everything so that there is something in the human soul that receives a non-verbal testimony from the stars, the sun, the moon, and everything is broadcasting to man created in the image and likeness of God, that God exists. It is a non-verbal revelation. Everyone knows it so that in the last phrase of verse 20, "they are without excuse." No one can say they didn't know.

         3)      Verse 21, "Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful [this is the post-flood civilization]; but became vain in their imaginations [they structured creation myths that were foreign to reality], and their foolish heart was darkened."

         4)      Verse 22, "Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools." Some of those today who promote the evolution theories have multiple Ph Ds, tremendous IQs. Why are they fools? They said there is no God. Once you reject God then everything else starts to fall apart.

         5)      Verse 23, "And changed the glory of the incorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and four-footed beasts, and creeping things." This is the first stage in the development of human viewpoint religion after the flood. They began to worship nature, animals, and the forces of nature. Therefore, as a result of that comes the first cycle of divine judgment, v. 24: "Wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonour their own bodies between themselves."

         6)      Their immorality, the lust in their hearts, dishonoring their bodies among themselves, is all judgment on them because they rejected God. God begins to take the restraint off a society or group of people the more negative they become and it gets worse and worse sand worse. Verse 25, "Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen." Then in verse 26, the second cycle of degeneracy: "For this cause God gave them up unto vile affections: for even their women did change the natural use into that which is against nature [lesbianism]: and likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust one toward another; men with men working that which is shameful, and receiving in themselves that penalty of their error which was due."

         7)      We live in a society that has lost the impact of the shame, the stigma that should be there. That shows how even our souls become calloused to the sin that is around us. Verse 28, "And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient; being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity; whisperers, backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents, without understanding, covenant-breakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful." A perfect description of the post-modern society and a perfect description of what was going on in the Canaanite culture in the ancient world. We see it really played out in the book of Judges.

To understand what is happening we have to go back to a breakdown of the divine institutions. A divine institution is a social structure that God has established for the safety, security, perpetuation and stability of the human race.


The first divine institution is individual responsibility. Man is accountable to God, but what happens when man rejects God to whom do they then become accountable? They become accountable to whoever has the power to enforce whatever rules and laws there might be. That is called tyranny. So once there is a breakdown in individual responsibility man becomes subordinate to strong men, tyrants, despots, and that is really what there was after the flood when some of the most tyrannical leaders in human history developed in terms of the divine kings of Egypt and the kings of the Mesopotamian empires. These were men who were much more tyrannical and despotic than any of the despots of our era.


The second divine institution is marriage. The husband is the leader in the home. When that is perverted the home breaks down. The home is the institution in which values are perpetuated to the next generation. They are taught, they are handed down; parents discipline a child.


The third divine institution is the family where the parents are the authority.


These three divine institutions were all established before the fall, and they are what breaks down when we get into Sodom. There is no individual responsibility to God, there is no accountability to anybody, so we can do whatever we want to with our own bodies and with our culture. So marriage then becomes perverted resulting into all sorts of sexual sin and perversion. Then, third, the family breaks down once the marriage breaks down and as a result of this the whole society just becomes fragmented.


The fourth divine institution is governing judicial authority. God established with the Noahic covenant when He delegated the authority to take human life when someone has committed murder. That is such a tremendous responsibility that all other legal action flows from that. When man has the responsibility to take the life of another human being because they have committed murder then man has the right to execute justice and judgment in all lesser areas. So we have the delegation of judicial authority and that becomes the basis for human government.


The fifth comes out of the tower of Babel, which is when God divides the languages, divides man into various tribal groups, and it is that distinction that becomes nations. That is important for the perpetuation of the human race, and the ultimate authority there is back to God because God is the one who governs history. That is what we see in the breakdown in Sodom and Gomorrah: God is going to intervene because all the divine institutions have broken down and He is going to take them out as a national entity.

8.      As part of the religious degeneration we see that social and sexual degeneration develops. The biblical viewpoint is that these things always go together, and when man rejects God's authority he also rejects God's established institutions. Not only does man pervert himself but he perverts God's intention for society and the institutions for society.

9.      As a result of this degeneracy there is developed either anarchy or tyranny. Why? Because what happens is that there is a rejection of God as ultimate authority, and in the resulting vacuum, something has to move, something has to become the ultimate authority and it is always some element of creation or society or government. Therefore you end up with some kind of polar opposite, either tyranny or anarchy. If it is anarchy everything is in chaos and someone has to come in and bring order, so once again that goes right back to tyranny and some sort of bondage or tyrannical despotism that is established. This is exactly what we see in the earliest civilizations.

10.    As biblical truth impacts a culture it transforms that society with biblical norms and standards, establishment truth, and the result is stability, order, peace, prosperity, and cultural advance. The classic example of this is what happened during the Reformation. If we look at where western Europe was and where the Roman Catholic church had taken it in the late Middle Ages there were a number of different problems with society. People were basically down-trodden, there was no freedom, there was not a lot of economic growth. Things were starting to break out in the 1400s but that was because of the same factors that influenced and provided for the Reformation. There was a pre-Reformation, as it were, as a result of Wycliffe in London and his followers who were translating the Bible into the common language of the people. They were persecuted. There were the Hussites in Bohemia teaching the truth and were persecuted as well by the Roman Catholic church. But as the Reformation began to have its impact there was an environment established in western Europe for real freedom. If we were to identify the nations where we have experienced the greatest levels of freedom that would be North America, Britain, the English-speaking countries. Then in the next level of freedom we would identify other Reformation impacted nations such as Germany, Scandinavian countries, Switzerland. Then the next tier is the Roman Catholic countries like Spain, France, Italy, eastern Europe which never experienced the kind of economic freedom and prosperity or individual freedom that there was in either the Germanic countries, northern Europe that was impacted by Protestant theology or English-speaking. Then we look at the rest of the world which never developed concepts of freedom and never had the kind of economic prosperity across the board, available to every individual citizen, that there was at the other end of the spectrum, as for example, the United States of America and English-speaking countries. What makes the difference is ultimately theology. It is one of the most practical illustrations that theology matters when it permeates the culture. What came out of the Reformation was that there were leaders who were taking the Word of God and using it to think through all the different areas of life. That laid the foundation for modern civilization. That foundation was laid in the 16th century, 17th century, and on into the 18th century. It wasn't until the shift from the 18th century to the 19th century where pagan enlightenment ideas began to permeate the university structure of western civilization there were seen the start of the foreshadowings of our collapse. So the principle is that as biblical truth impacts the culture it transforms that society with biblical norms and standards and establishment truth, and the result is going to be stability, order, peace, and

11.    On the other hand, you have the opposite. As biblical truth is rejected and diluted biblical norms become demonized. The result is social instability, disorder, chaos, a loss of prosperity, and cultural decline.

12.    We have to recognize that there are biblical norms of divine establishment that God built into creation. These are established for everyone, both believer and unbeliever. The institution of marriage breaks down because of, among other things, sexual perversion. Sexual perversion is an outgrowth of self-absorption, a key element in arrogance. So the more arrogant a culture becomes, the more it is divorced from God, the more self-absorbed they are, the more they are interested in their own sexual pleasure. With this hyper-attention to their own sexuality there is a breakdown in marriage.

13.    As society utilizes and applies establishment principles it is going to stabilize, strengthen, and prosper.

14.    But when a society rejects these norms it is going to fragment, destabilize, and lose prosperity. It all starts falling apart.

15.    Sodom is a picture of what happens at the end of the cycle. Some principles from the chapter:

         1)      People are viewed in terms of how they can be used for the benefit and pleasure of others. As soon as these messengers go into Sodom the residents of Sodom want to sexually abuse them all night long. In this pagan culture people are viewed only in terms of how they can be used for benefit and personal pleasure of others. It is all about me!

         2)      Women and men are no longer viewed as individuals in the image of God, they are simply sex objects, objects of pleasure.

         3)      As paganism dominates a culture there is an increasing connection between sex and violence.

         4)      Sexual violence and abuse of women and men increases and becomes normative in a culture.

         5)      There is a rise of criminality with little concern for the victim.

         6)      Homosexuality and bi-sexuality, as well as sexual gratification outside of marriage are accepted and approved. These become normative in the degenerate society.

         7)      This emphasis on personal gratification is the eventual result of an increase in self-absorption and self-gratification that at its roots destroys the possibility of a healthy society.

         8)      We have to recognize that sex was not only designed for pleasure but for procreation. When we talk about procreation we are talking about the future, so it looks to the future of the race and the future of society. Homosexuality ignores the future and is willing to sacrifice the future for the pleasures of the

16.    Sodom pictures the end of the cycle. This is the most perverse culture that we have seen in human history and it was necessary for God to judge it and destroy it. The problems in Sodom and the cities of the plain are a microcosm of what is going on in the broader Canaanite culture as a whole and where that it headed.

17.    Which is why God destroys Sodom, not only as a warning to Israel but as a warning to all subsequent civilizations that if they allow themselves to deteriorate and follow this pattern then they are going to destroy themselves in the same way.

18.    Sodom is a direct refutation of the myth that sexual orientation and what goes on in the privacy of the bedroom is a neutral issue as far as society is concerned. That is the lie that we are told. For example, why do we have laws that make adultery illegal? Why do we have laws that make homosexuality illegal? It is because there was an understanding that if there was a permissiveness towards these acts then it was self-destructive for the culture, that they didn't just stay in the bedroom, that there was a connection between sexual activity and sexual orientation and spirituality and the integrity of the nation. Once the dyke is allowed to collapse in one area it affects all the other areas. What Genesis 19 and the book of Judges demonstrates is that it does affect us. It is both a cause and an effect.

19.    Divine viewpoint teaches that homosexuality is a direct attack on the first three divine institutions: on individual responsibility, on marriage, and on family. And it results in an assault on the fourth and fifth divine institutions.

20.    There are parallels between this episode in Sodom and the episode in Judges chapter nineteen.

From http://phrasearch.com/Trans/DBM/setup/Genesis/Gen100.htm and

http://phrasearch.com/Trans/DBM/setup/Genesis/Gen101.htm both accessed August 15, 2014.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


There are two incidents which occur in this chapter which have caused many Christians no little consternation: (1) Lot offers up his daughters to a murderous mob in order to save the two strangers and (2) Lot’s daughters engage in incest with their father in order to perpetuate his seed. Although these things will be dealt with in detail when we come to them, one needs to separate that which is prescriptive in the Bible (the Ten Commandments, for instance) and that which is descriptive (these two incidents). Just because the Bible tells us that Charley Brown cussed out his mother and then kicked his dog, does not mean that the Bible is telling us to cuss out our mothers or to kick our dogs. The Bible tells us what has happened in the lives of various people. Usually, the people in the Old Testament are related directly or peripherally to the line of promise (the genealogical line from Adam to Jesus Christ), to the history of Israel, or to the doctrines of the Word of God. Lot, as Abraham’s nephew, could have been in the line of promise, but he learned very little from his Uncle Abraham. However, one of Lot’s descendants, Ruth, will be in the line of promise; so it is important that we know a little about her genealogical background.


Lot has believed in the Revealed Lord. This does not mean that everything that he does is good and righteous. Even though we Christians are the ambassadors of Jesus Christ on earth, this does not mean that we always do a great job on His behalf. In fact, because we are saved by faith alone in Christ alone, there are some of us whose lives do not reflect any of what is within us. Therefore, when Lot does or says some boneheaded thing, that should not be a cause for you to become confused about the Christian faith or the Bible. Unless you have led a perfect life (and if you have, you are delusional), then you have reason to wonder about Lot. However, if you have made mistakes and have sinned knowingly, then you understand that Lot—a mediocre believer at best—is not necessarily a positive role model for us as believers.


Let me state this clearly, so that there is no misunderstanding: God will judge the earth and God will judge wickedness. In this chapter, God judges the evil of Sodom in time, in order to preserve the various nation-states around them.


——————————


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Lot Attempts to Protect the Two Angels from Sodom


Slavishly literal:

 

Moderately literal:

And so comes a pair of the messengers [or, angels] Sodom-ward in the evening and Lot is siting in a gate of Sodom. And so looks Lot and so he rises up to meet them. And so he bows himself down nostrils earthward.

Genesis

19:1

So two angels came to Sodom in the evening while Lot is sitting in the gate of Sodom. Lot observed [them arriving] and he rose up to meet them. Then he bowed his face to the ground [before them].

So two angels came to Sodom in the evening while Lot was sitting at the gate of Sodom. Lot looked and saw them, and then rose up to meet them. When he came closer to them, he bowed down before them.


Here is how others have translated this verse:

 

Ancient texts:                       Note: I compare the Hebrew text to English translations of the Latin, Syriac and Greek texts, using the Douay-Rheims translation; George Lamsa’s translation, and Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton’s translation as revised and edited by Paul W. Esposito, respectively. I often update these texts with non-substantive changes (e.g., you for thou, etc.). I often use the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible instead of Brenton’s translation, because it updates the English text.

 

The Septuagint was the earliest known translation of a book (circa 200 b.c.). Since this translation was made before the textual criticism had been developed into a science and because different books appear to be translated by different men, the Greek translation can sometimes be very uneven.

 

When there are serious disparities between my translation and Brenton’s (or the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible), I look at the Greek text of the Septuagint (the LXX) to see if a substantive difference actually exists (and I reflect these changes in the English rendering of the Greek text). I use the Greek LXX with Strong’s numbers and morphology available for e-sword. The only problem with this resource (which is a problem for similar resources) is, there is no way to further explore Greek verbs which are not found in the New Testament. Although I usually quote the Complete Apostles’ Bible here, I have begun to make changes in the translation when their translation conflicts with the Greek and note what those changes are.

 

The Masoretic text is the Hebrew text with all of the vowels (vowel points) inserted (the original Hebrew text lacked vowels). We take the Masoretic text to be the text closest to the original. However, differences between the Masoretic text and the Greek, Latin and Syriac are worth noting and, once in a great while, represent a more accurate text possessed by those other ancient translators.

 

In general, the Latin text is an outstanding translation from the Hebrew text into Latin and very trustworthy (I say this as a non-Catholic). Unfortunately, I do not read Latin—apart from some very obvious words—so I am dependent upon the English translation of the Latin (principally, the Douay-Rheims translation).

 

Underlined words indicate differences in the text.

 

Bracketed portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls are words, letters and phrases lost in the scroll due to various types of damage. Underlined words or phrases are those in the Dead Sea Scrolls but not in the Masoretic text.

 

The Targum of Onkelos is actually the Pentateuchal Targumim, which are The Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan Ben Uzziel. On the Pentateuch With The Fragments of the Jerusalem Targum From the Chaldee by J. W. Etheridge, M.A. Taken from http://targum.info/targumic-texts/pentateuchal-targumim/ and first published in 1862.

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so comes a pair of the messengers [or, angels] Sodom-ward in the evening and Lot is siting in a gate of Sodom. And so looks Lot and so he rises up to meet them. And so he bows himself down nostrils earthward.

Dead Sea Scrolls                   There are only a few words from two verses read are found in the Dead Sea Scrolls. So they will not be helpful in this chapter.

Targum of Onkelos                Two angels came to Sedom at the evening; and Lot sat in the gate of Sedom. And Lot saw, and rose up to meet them from the gate of the tabernacle. And he bowed his face to the ground,... [JERUSALEM. And Lot sat in the gate of Sedom, and he saw them, and ran and saluted them, and bowed with his face to the ground...]

Latin Vulgate                          And the two angels came to Sodom in the evening, and Lot was sitting in the gate of the city. And seeing them, he rose up and went to meet them: and worshipped prostrate to the ground.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    AND there came two angels to Sodom in the evening; and Lot was sitting at the gate of Sodom; and Lot saw them and rose up to meet them; and he bowed himself with his face toward the ground.

Septuagint (Greek)                And the two angels came to Sodom at evening. And Lot sat by the gate of Sodom. And Lot, having seen them, rose up to meet them, and he worshipped with his face to the ground, and said,....

 

Significant differences:           The proper name Sodom is found twice in the Hebrew; but only once in the Latin. The Hebrew does not speak of Lot worshiping these angels; the Latin and Greek appear to. The Greek adds that Lot will speak.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       That evening the two angels arrived in Sodom, while Lot was sitting near the city gate. When Lot saw them, he got up, bowed down low,...

Easy English                          The two *angels arrived at Sodom in the evening. Lot was sitting at the gate of Sodom city. Lot stood up when he saw the *angels. And he *bowed down to the ground to greet them.

Easy-to-Read Version            That evening the two angels came to the city of Sodom. Lot was sitting near the city gates and saw the angels. {Lot thought they were men traveling through town.} Lot got up and went to them and bowed down on the ground.

The Message                         The two angels arrived at Sodom in the evening. Lot was sitting at the city gate. He saw them and got up to welcome them, bowing before them...

New Berkeley Version           The two angels arrived in Sodom at evening as Lot was sitting in the gate [Lot’s sitting at the gate denotes considerable importance. His hearty welcome to strangers seems to have been exceptional in that lost city.] of Sodom. When Lot noticed them, he got up to meet them; he bowed his face to the ground...

New Century Version             Lot Leaves Sodom

The two angels came to Sodom in the evening as Lot was sitting near the city gate. When he saw them, he got up and went to them and bowed facedown on the ground.

New Living Translation           Sodom and Gomorrah Destroyed

That evening the two angels came to the entrance of the city of Sodom. Lot was sitting there, and when he saw them, he stood up to meet them. Then he welcomed them and bowed with his face to the ground.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          That evening, the two messengers [of God] arrived at Sodom and they found Lot sitting by the [city] gate. And when Lot saw them, he got up [and went] to meet them, bowing low with his face to the ground.

Ancient Roots Translinear      The two messengers came to Sodom in the evening. Lot dwelled in the gate of Sodom. Lot saw and rose to greet them. He bowed with his nose to the ground.

Christian Community Bible     The destruction of Sodom

When the two angels reached Sodom in the evening, Lot was sitting at the gate of the town. As soon as he saw them, he rose to meet them, bowed with his face to the ground,.

God’s Word                         The two angels came to Sodom in the evening as Lot was sitting in the gateway. When Lot saw them, he got up to meet them and bowed with his face touching the ground.

New Jerusalem Bible             When the two angels reached Sodom in the evening, Lot was sitting at the gate of Sodom. As soon as Lot saw them, he stood up to greet them, and bowed to the ground.

New Simplified Bible              That evening the two angels came to the entrance of the city of Sodom. Lot was sitting there as they arrived. When he saw them, he got up to greet them. Then he welcomed them and bowed low to the ground.

Today’s NIV                          Sodom and Gomorrah Destroyed

The two angels arrived at Sodom in the evening, and Lot was sitting in the gateway of the city. When he saw them, he got up to meet them and bowed down with his face to the ground.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And at nightfall the two angels came to Sodom; and Lot was seated at the way into the town: and when he saw them he got up and came before them, falling down on his face to the earth.

Complete Jewish Bible           The two angels came to S'dom that evening, when Lot was sitting at the gate of S'dom. Lot saw them, got up to greet them and prostrated himself on the ground.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 And two of the messengers came to Sodom at evening, when Lot was sitting at the gate of Sodom, and Lot saw and rose to invite them, and bowed his face to the ground,...

HCSB                                     The two angels entered Sodom in the evening as Lot was sitting at Sodom's gate. When Lot saw them, he got up to meet them. He bowed with his face to the ground...

Judaica Press Complete T.    And the two angels came to Sodom in the evening, and Lot was sitting in the gate of Sodom, and Lot saw and arose toward them, and he prostrated himself on his face to the ground.

NET Bible®                             The Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah

The two angels came to Sodom in the evening while [The disjunctive clause is temporal here, indicating what Lot was doing at the time of their arrival.] Lot was sitting in the city's gateway [Heb "sitting in the gate of Sodom." The phrase "the gate of Sodom" has been translated "the city's gateway" for stylistic reasons.] [The expression sitting in the city's gateway may mean that Lot was exercising some type of judicial function (see the use of the idiom in 2 Sam 19:8; Jer 26:10; 38:7; 39:3).]. When Lot saw them, he got up to meet them and bowed down with his face toward the ground. When it comes to making an actual material change to the text, the NET Bible® is pretty good about indicating this. Since most of these corrections will be clear in the more literal translations below and within the Hebrew exegesis itself, I will not continue to list every NET Bible® footnote.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                IT WAS evening when the two angels came to Sodom. Lot was sitting at Sodom's [city] gate. Seeing them, Lot rose up to meet them and bowed to the ground.

Concordant Literal Version    And coming are two of the messengers to Sodom in the evening. And Lot is sitting in the gateway of Sodom. And seeing them is Lot, and rising is he to meet them. And prostrating is he, nostrils to the earth.

A Conservative Version         And the two [heavenly] agents came to Sodom at evening, and Lot sat in the gate of Sodom. And Lot saw them, and rose up to meet them. And he bowed himself with his face to the earth,...

Context Group Version          And the two messengers came to Sodom at evening; and Lot sat in the gate of Sodom: and Lot saw them, and rose up to meet them; and he bowed himself with his face to the land { or earth }...

English Standard Version      The two angels came to Sodom in the evening, and Lot was sitting in the gate of Sodom. When Lot saw them, he rose to meet them and bowed himself with his face to the earth...

exeGeses companion Bible   SEDOM SCRAPED AWAY

And two angels come to Sedom at evening;

and Lot sits in the portal of Sedom:

and Lot sees and rises to meet them;

and he prostrates - nostrils to the earth;

Heritage Bible                        And there came two heavenly messengers to Sodom at dusk, and Lot was sitting in the gate of Sodom; and Lot saw them, and rose up to meet them; and he prostrated himself with his nostrils to the earth;...

Kretzmann’s Commentary    The Arrival of the Angels

And there came two angels to Sodom at even; and Lot sat in the gate of Sodom. And Lot, seeing them, rose up to meet them; and he bowed himself with his face toward the ground. The two angels, having left Hebron about noon, reached the city of Sodom about sundown. Lot was sitting in the gate, within the arched entrance to the city, where deep recesses on either side furnished seats, and where commercial and political business was transacted. With true Oriental hospitality, Lot arose to meet the approaching travelers, bowing himself down to the ground in token of the fact that they might consider him their servant in the matter of finding them a place of lodging.

NASB                                     The Doom of Sodom

Now the two angels came to Sodom in the evening as Lot was sitting in the gate of Sodom. When Lot saw them, he rose to meet them and bowed [Lit bowed himself] down with his face to the ground.

Syndein/Thieme                     {Verses 1-38: Characteristics of being Out of Fellowship with God} {Verse 1:A Believer Out of Fellowship - Wrong Perspective - Emphasizes Time instead of Eternity}

And there came two angels/messengers {mal'ak} to Sodom about dark. And Lot sat/'dwelled in prosperity' in the gate of Sodom {idiom implying he held the respectable position of judge}. And Lot 'seeing and perceiving' {ra'ah - means he knew they were from the Lord} rose up to meet them and he bowed himself with his face toward the ground.

Young’s Updated LT             And two of the messengers come towards Sodom at evening, and Lot is sitting at the gate of Sodom, and Lot sees [them], and rises to meet them, and bows himself—face to the earth.

 

The gist of this verse:          The two angels of the previous chapter arrive in Sodom and Lot meets them at the gate, where he is sitting. He bows down before them.


Genesis 19:1a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

bôwʾ (בּוֹא) [pronounced boh]

to come in, to come, to go in, to go, to enter, to advance

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #935 BDB #97

shenêy (שְנֵי) [pronounced shen-Ā]

two, two of, a pair of, a duo of

dual numeral construct

Strong’s #8147 BDB #1040

maleʾâke (מַלְאָ) [pronounced mahle-AWKe]

messenger or angel; this word has been used for a prophet (Isa. 42:19) and priest (Mal. 2:7)

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4397 BDB #521

Sedum (שֶׂדֹם) [pronounced sehd-OHM]

burning; which is transliterated Sodom

masculine singular locative noun with the directional hê

Strong’s #5467 BDB #690

The directive hê or the he locale often indicates direction and puts somewhat of an adverbial spin on the noun. Essentially, it answers the question where? The directional hê indicates the direction in which something moves. It is often used with the noun heaven and the most literal rendering in the English would be heavenward. We can also indicate the existence of the hê directional by supplying the prepositions to or toward.

I have made it a habit to call the directive hê a directional hê. The latter is my nomenclature; the former is what is found properly in Hebrew textbooks.

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʿereb (עֶרֶב) [pronounced ĢEH-rebv]

evening, sunset

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #6153 BDB #787


Translation: So two angels came to Sodom in the evening... It is sunset and these two angels from Gen. 18—those who accompanied Yehowah to speak to Abraham—arrive in Sodom. You may recall that 3 angels came to speak with Abraham, of the promise of his son to be born. The Angel of Yehowah (the Lord Jesus Christ as the Revealed Lord) then told Abraham of the judgment to come to Sodom. The end of Gen. 18 is Abraham bargaining with God as to what He would do, depending on the number of righteous souls in Sodom.

 

These angels have come from Abraham’s compound down to Sodom. Nate Wilson comments on ancient world travel in this era: Travels of great distances were possible in Abraham's day. People regularly traveled the whole length of the "fertile crescent." Legal documents for the rental of carts in Babylon have been found containing the stipulation that the renter not take the cart all the way into Canaan! Thus a thirty mile (as the crow flies) distance between Abraham and Lot would be no great distance, and it was entirely possible for Abraham's army to pursue Lot's capturers for 150 miles to the Damascus area (Fisher).


The two angels which come to Lot are angels; they are not manifestations of God.


You will note the phrase in the evening. The author of this section of Genesis is very keyed in to the time of these incidents, so there are references to the time of day (or night) in vv. 1, 2, 4, 15, 23 and 27. There are references to time at the end of the chapter, but they are not used in the same way. See the Alternate Outline by Time.

 

Barnes: The two angels...are the two men who left Abraham standing before the Lord in Gen. 18:22. “Lot sat in the gate,” the place of public resort for news and for business. He courteously rises to meet them, does obeisance to them, and invites them to spend the night in his house.


Robby Dean made the following observations:

The Physical Nature of Angels

1.      We have to recognize that angels are created as non-material beings. They are not physically material as we are, they don't have to follow the same laws of biology, the same laws of physics.

2.      From several passages it appears that angels have bodies that are composed of light or something like light. For example, in Hebrews 1:7 they appear as flames of fire.

3.      Angels would have the ability to transform themselves into material creatures that possess all of the characteristics of material bodies. For all purpose, as far as Abraham can tell, they are material creatures. They eat they drink, they rest, they sleep. He is going to wash their feet. Later on we see that when they are trapped inside Lot's home and the Sodomite perverts outside are trying to pull them out into the street their hands are outside the door and they have to pull them back in. These are physical terms. So these immaterial creatures of light are able to transform themselves to have some kind of material bodies.

4.      From this we must conclude that angels are able to take on all biological functions of the material human body. This gives us an indication of what went on in Genesis chapter three when the sons of God (always a reference to angels in the Old Testament) looked on the daughters of men and took them as wives. This is further indicated in Jude 6 & 7. When we do the proper exegesis of these verses it indicates that the sin of Sodom and Gomorrah is imitating the immoral sexual sins of the angels of a previous time. "And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day. Even as Sodom and Gomorrah, and the cities about them in like manner, giving themselves over to fornication, and going after strange flesh, are set forth for an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal fire."

1.      Angels appear to exist primarily as non-material beings. They are not physically material as we are, they don't have to follow the same laws of biology, the same laws of physics.

2.      From several passages it appears that angels have bodies that are composed of light or something like light. For example, in Hebrews 1:7 they appear as flames of fire.

3.      Angels have the ability to transform themselves into material creatures that possess all of the characteristics of material bodies. For all intents and purposes, insofar Abraham can tell, the angels he meets are material creatures who appear to be men. They eat they drink, they rest, they sleep. He is going to wash their feet. Later on we see that when they are trapped inside Lot's home and the Sodomite perverts outside are trying to pull them out into the street their hands are outside the door and they have to pull Lot back in. These are physical terms. So these immaterial creatures of light are able to transform themselves to have some kind of material bodies. It appears that God determines when assuming a physical body is allowed.

4.      Back in Gen. 6, we had fallen angels and mankind cohabiting together, and such sexual unions resulting in pregnancies and children. This is also alluded to in Jude 6–7. The exegesis of these verses it indicates that the sin of Sodom and Gomorrah is imitating the immoral sexual sins of the angels of a previous time. "And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day. Even as Sodom and Gomorrah, and the cities about them in like manner, giving themselves over to fornication, and going after strange flesh, are set forth for an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal fire."

5.      From this we must conclude that angels are able to take on all biological functions of the material human body, apparently based upon God’s sovereignty.

I think the 2nd group of points are the good ones.

From Robby Dean’s Genesis study, lesson #98. http://phrasearch.com/Trans/DBM/setup/Genesis/Gen098.htm accessed May 7, 2012.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


So two angels came to Sodom in the evening... There are no chapter breaks in the Old Testament. So we go directly from Gen. 18 to this chapter, without any indication of a break or a change. Therefore, these were the two angels mentioned in the previous chapter.


In Gen. 18, the Lord and 2 angels came to Abraham and they fellowshipped together, they broke bread together. There is every indication that angels are brilliant; and that the stupidest angel and light years ahead of the smartest man in intellect. Yet, these angels would be pleased to fellowship with Abraham; to sit with God the Son and with Abraham for a meal.


Occasionally, the question is posed, “If you could enjoy a meal with any 3 (4,5 or 6) historical figures, who would they be?” Here, Abraham is enjoying a meal with the God of the Universe and with two angels who have the power to destroy 5 cities. Abraham has enjoyed that meal. It is pretty hard to beat that guest list. The Last Supper would be another tremendous meal.


Then the Revealed Lord looked to the angels and said, “Should I tell Abraham what I am about to do?” They were there to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah. They were there to destroy the city where Lot lived. So the Revealed God asks his angelic companions, what about Lot? What about Abraham’s feelings about Lot? These are the very angels that God asked these questions to.


And then God actually allowed this puny man, Abraham, to bargain with Him; to try to determine with God where the cut-off would be for destroying a city. God does not ask the angels whether or not the city ought to be destroyed; but He speaks to Abraham concerning this thing.


Bear in mind, when God engages a man in a conversation, millions of angels are there watching. I don’t know about you, but I recognize that I am certainly one of the least in Christ’s kingdom. And yet, I have been granted the ability, the medium, and the forum, along with all of the necessary tools, to plumb the depths of the Word of God. For me, this is an incredible thing! This is a great blessing, beyond the many other blessings I have received in life. Now, there may not be a million angels watching me; or reading this—but there are probably a couple, perhaps Bob and Roscoe, angels of the 5th tier, who have some appreciation for this privilege I enjoy.


So these are certainly the two angels who set out from there, and they looked down toward Sodom (Gen. 18:16b; ESV)


It is fascinating that angels are sent, from time to time, to do the works of God. When they speak God’s Word, we can relate to that; we can pretty much understand that. However, when the text speaks of them doing the works of God, like destroying this city, we do not know exactly how they are involved. We know that it will rain down sulfur upon the people in Sodom and Gomorrah; but we do not have much else information by way of detail.


One thing that we do know, when God has pronounced judgment, this judgment is certain.


Genesis 19:1b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Lôwţ (לוֹט) [pronounced loht]

hidden; a covering, a veil; wrapped up; transliterated Lot

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #3876 BDB #532

yâshab (יָשַב) [pronounced yaw-SHAHBV]

inhabiting, staying, remaining, dwelling, sitting

Qal active participle

Strong's #3427 BDB #442

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

shaʿar (שַעַר) [pronounced SHAH-ģahr]

gate [control of city can be implied]; area inside front gate; entrance

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #8179 BDB #1044

Sedum (שֶׂדֹם) [pronounced sehd-OHM]

burning; which is transliterated Sodom

masculine singular locative noun

Strong’s #5467 BDB #690


Translation: ...while Lot is sitting in the gate of Sodom. Whereas we may think of Lot as a man with nothing to do, this is actually a place of prominence, and Lot had an official city position, to be at the gate. It is possible that he was even a judge (court was held at the gates of the city).

 

Jamieson, Fausset and Brown: In Eastern cities [the city gate; the city entryway] is the market, the seat of justice, of social intercourse and amusement, especially a favorite lounge in the evenings, the arched roof affording a pleasant shade. Keil and Delitzsch: The gate, generally an arched entrance with deep recesses and seats on either side, was a place of meeting in the ancient towns of the East, where the inhabitants assembled either for social intercourse or to transact public business (vid., Gen. 34:20; Deut. 21:19; Deut. 22:15, etc.).

 

Peter Pett: The gate of the city is probably a tower gate, possibly with two gates (compare 2Samuel 18:24) so that there is a space between the gates, protecting the way in. During the day it would be used for business and as a courtroom for the trial in public of local offenders. In the evening men would gather there, especially the elders of the city.


Matthews points out that the entryway to the city is also where merchants would have set up booths and stalls to sell their produce. This produce would have been bartered fro bread, pottery, leather goods, and clothing. Sometimes, exotic items from all over the eastern world would be available as well (such as, Egyptian jewelry, Phœnician furnishings, perfumes from Arabia, etc.


Given that this is a gate for the city; that implies that there are walls around this city, which was common in this time period.

 

Guzik: There has been a steady progression of compromise in Lot's life. He went from looking toward Sodom (Genesis 13:10), to pitching his tent toward Sodom (Genesis 13:12), then to living in Sodom (Genesis 14:12) and losing everything. Now Lot sits in the gate of Sodom, indicating he is a civic leader.


Lot once had a thriving business in cattle. Where is it? Why is Lot at the city gate? Lot is not some degenerate with nothing to do, hanging out in front of the city gate, just as some kids with nothing to do might hang out in front of a convenience store. Lot appears to have become a judge or a city official. It is at the city gates where he would pass judgment in court cases. Whatever the position, Lot is no longer overseeing this great company of livestock. Despite this position, he does not seem to have any respect from the people of Sodom, as we will later find out.


When it comes to a business, a small number of people are actually able to run a business and to do what is necessary to make the business prosper. This is Abraham. He had a huge cooperative with Lot, but he was the brains of the business. He was also well-motivated. Lot, apparently, was not. Abraham possessed experiential righteousness; and Lot did not. So, here we are, 23 years down the road (see the abbreviated timeline), and Abraham still has a thriving business and Lot is at the city gate of a degenerate city. Lot may have been one of those men who really did not want to run a business. He sort of inherited what he had through Abraham; he built it up in conjunction with Abraham, and God blessed him because he was associated with Abraham. But now, years later, he does not appear to be in charge of the great business, and, let me suggest, that Lot sold it and parlayed his wealth into some sort of political influence, as a judgeship, perhaps. Given his age and wealth, he became a city father or a city official—a judge, in fact—and that has become his interest in life (Gen. 19:9). He apparently parlayed his business into a home and property as well.

 

J. Vernon McGee: Notice that Lot was sitting in the gate of Sodom. I cannot let that go by without calling attention to the fact that the ones who sat in the gate of a city were the judges. This man Lot not only moved to Sodom, but he also got into politics down there. Here he is, a petty judge sitting in the gate.


There was a time when it was assumed by historians that Sodom and Gomorrah were legendary cities, allegorical at best. Historians want to see anything which is in the Bible verified by outside sources, or they will not recognize its historicity. This is because they operate under human viewpoint and would naturally be skeptical and/or antagonistic toward the Bible. However, we have recently discovered what are known as the Ebla tablets which date back to the 24th century b.c. There are references to commercial trade between Ebla and Sodom and Gomorrah.


L. M. Grant has some comments which require appending: Lot was sitting in the gate, the place of a judge. He was a believer making an effort to control the evil natures of ungodly men. Many Christians since that time have attempted to make the world better by their entering politics, but the Christian is "not of this world;" rather he has a message of grace that has power to deliver people "out of this present evil world" (Galatians 1:4), and give them an eternal inheritance in heavenly places. For the world is destined to the judgment of God (Acts 17:31): If we are faithful witnesses we shall warn sinners of this and tell them of the only possible escape through faith in the Lord Jesus Christ. Rather than doing this, Lot settled in Sodom with apparently some hope of improving it. He was a righteous man, but he "tormented his righteous soul from day to day by seeing and hearing their lawless deeds" (2Peter 2:8). He was simply in the wrong place, and rendered himself incapable of warning the people of God's judgment against evil.

The Christian and Politics

1.      It is too easy to read this quotation and make the wrong application.

2.      We have to make a living in this world and we have to support those who depend upon us.

3.      Believers are not confined to “Christian” jobs—working at a church or at a Catholic hospital or at a private Lutheran school. Firstly, there are not enough of those jobs available and secondly, God has not called for us to physically separate from the world (that is, we are not to live lives completely separate from unbelievers).

4.      Jesus interacted with tax collectors and soldiers—He did not implore each one of these to leave their vocation and follow Him. The Roman centurion with great faith, for instance, was praised for his faith; and yet nothing negative was said of his profession. If Jesus wanted all believers out of the military, here was a good place to make that known. Jesus was said to hang out with prostitutes and tax collectors—should there not have also been a sermon where Jesus urged tax collectors to leave their profession? If that is God’s plan, then yes.

5.      God wants us to work in whatever profession He places before us; some of us are lucky enough to fully enjoy our chosen profession and some of us do not get that privilege. But God does expect us to work.

6.      Logically, then it makes sense that some believers will be called into politics. This does not mean we see it as our job to clean up the devil’s world, but if you understand that it is a good idea to clean up the trash in and around your house, then have a job in government as a bureaucrat or at some level of politics is not outside of God’s plan. It is not wrong to have believers in the system. However, it is much better if you have some kind of clue as to why God keeps you alive.

7.      If a believer has doctrine and is in politics, then he will best know how to do his or her job. We have the positive illustration of that with General Douglas MacArthur, who called for Bibles and missionaries to be sent to a conquered Japan; and we have a negative illustration of this in Iraq and Afghanistan where even personal evangelism and the handing out of Bibles was discouraged by official military policy under President George Bush. All indications are that both MacArthur and Bush are believers in Jesus Christ. One understood that Bibles and missionaries were necessary and the other did not.

8.      We do not force Christianity upon anyone; nor could we as a nation. However, it is a good thing to allow Christian evangelism in the wake of our army.

9.      What is difficult for the believer in politics is his behavior as a politician. If you lie, if you make deals with the devil (so to speak), if you do a number of untoward things in power or in order to get into power, then you are compromising yourself. If you have to do that which you know is wrong in order to be elected, then it is better that you not get elected.

10.    It is a good idea that you vote if you understand Bible doctrine and you understand the issues and the candidates. It is a good idea that you do not vote if you lack an understanding of either one.

11.    The believer needs to understand that our country, which appears to be in free fall right now, will not be delivered by a great set of political candidates—it will be delivered by Bible doctrine in the souls of believers of all ages spread out across the land. This does not preclude you from running for office, for working in someone’s campaign, or from supporting a candidate. There are two things you need to always keep in mind: (1) politics will not deliver this nation; Bible doctrine will; and (2) if your involvement in politics (no matter how) keeps you from learning Bible doctrine daily, then you need to get out of it. This is true of anything that you are involved in—but the illustration here is politics.

The principals here can pretty much be applied to almost anything in life. Is it wrong or right to have a well-landscaped, manicured yard? Is it wrong or right to be a lawyer, a CEO, a greeter at Walmart? The same basic principles apply. If it takes you away from spiritual growth, that is a negative thing. If that vocation or interest still allows you time to grow spiritually, then it is fine.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


So far, v. 1 reads: So two angels came to Sodom in the evening while Lot was sitting at the gate of Sodom. It is not improbable that Lot has come to realize that strangers are being slaughtered when they come to Sodom, and Lot is out there at the city gates, hoping to keep this from happening. He is a one-man crusade in this way. So, on the one hand, being a judge in this city is probably his position; but he remained here at the gate just in case some visitor needed protection.


Genesis 19:1c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

râʾâh (רָאָה) [pronounced raw-AWH]

to see, to look, to look at, to view, to behold; to perceive, to understand, to learn, to know

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #7200 BDB #906

Lôwţ (לוֹט) [pronounced loht]

hidden; a covering, a veil; wrapped up; transliterated Lot

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #3876 BDB #532


Translation: Lot observed [them arriving]... Lot looks out and notices something moving, so he focuses on whatever it is until he can tell that it is two men. From the previous chapter, we know that these angels took the form of man.


Genesis 19:1d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

qûwm (קוּם) [pronounced koom]

to stand, to rise up, to get up; to establish, to establish a vow, to cause a vow to stand, to confirm or to fulfill a vow

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #6965 BDB #877

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

qârâʾ (קָרָא) [pronounced kaw-RAW]

to encounter, to befall, to meet; to assemble [for the purpose of encountering God or exegeting His Word]; to come, to assemble

Qal infinitive construct with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong’s #7122 & #7125 BDB #896


Translation: ...and he rose up to meet them. It appears that Lot either doubled as ambassador of the city or he was just a friendly person, so he gets up to meet them. Or, this may have been his one-man crusade to preserve the lives of strangers coming into Sodom.


Interestingly enough, we do not have Lot running out to meet them—perhaps he did go to them, but that is not in the text. So, it is just as possible that Lot waited right there, sitting in whatever sort of chair that he had, as they came toward the city gate.


Genesis 19:1e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

shâchah (שָחַה) [pronounced shaw-KHAW]

to bow down, to prostrate oneself, to do obeisance to; to honor [with prayers]; to do homage to, to submit to

3rd person masculine singular, Hithpael imperfect

Strong’s #7812 BDB #1005

ʾaphayim (אַפַיִם) [pronounced ah-fah-YIM]

face; noses, nostrils, but is also translated brows, face; anger, fierce anger, fierce wrath

masculine dual noun

Strong’s #639 BDB #60

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earthward (all or a portion thereof), on [toward, upon] the earth; on [upon, toward] the land [territory, country, continent; ground, soil]

feminine singular noun with the directive hê

Strong's #776 BDB #75

The directive hê or the he locale often indicates direction and puts somewhat of an adverbial spin on the noun. Essentially, it answers the question where? The directional hê indicates the direction in which something moves. It is often used with the noun heaven and the most literal rendering in the English would be heavenward. We can also indicate the existence of the hê directional by supplying the prepositions to or toward.


Translation: Then he bowed his face to the ground [before them]. As the arrive, Lot gets up and then bow his faces to the ground before them.


Sitting where he was indicates that Lot occupied some position of authority in the city of Sodom. When these two strangers arrive, Lot is not worshiping them but he is behaving in a polite way. This was their customary form of civility. These are strangers to this area and Lot will show some of the training and upbringing that he has had. As we will see, he is probably the only person in all of Sodom who would greet strangers in this manner.


It strikes me as though the author means to set up a parallel between the beginning of this chapter and the beginning of Gen. 18:

Parallels between Genesis 18 and Genesis 19

Genesis 18

Genesis 19

 Yehowah appears unto Abraham [lit., him] by the Oaks of Mamre while he is sitting [at] the opening of [his] tent at the time of the heat of the day. Abraham lifts up his eyes and looks up [lit., and so he lifts up his eyes and so he looks] and, behold, [there are] three men standing beyond [over?] him. So he looks and then he runs to meet them from the opening of the tent. Then he bowed down toward the earth,...

 So two angels came to Sodom in the evening while Lot is sitting in the gate of Sodom. Lot observed [them arriving] and he rose up to meet them. Then he bowed his face to the ground [before them].

Abraham runs to meet the 3 men (2 angels and the Lord).

The two angels come into Sodom and Lot rises up to meet them. The Lord is not with them.

Abraham bows before them.

Lot bows before them.

Abraham appears to be taking a siesta.

Lot appears to be at work.

Abraham will enjoy the fellowship of God and the two angels.

Lot will have to talk the two angels into coming to his home.

There actually appears to be a great many parallels here, which we may study further along in this chapter.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines

Barnes 1-3

——————————


And so he says, “Lo, please, my lords: turn aside, please, unto a house of your servant and lodge (the night) and wash your [two] feet and you have risen early and you have gone to your way.” And so they say, “No for in the plaza we will lodge (for the night).”

Genesis

19:2

Then Lot [lit., he] said, “Listen, if you would, my lords: turn aside, now, to the house of your servant and lodge [there with my family for] the night and wash your feet. Then you can wake up early and go on your way.” But they said, “No, because we will spend tonight in the plaza.”

Then Lot said to them, “Listen, if you would, my lords: come with me, now, to my home, and you may stay there tonight and wash your feet and see to your other needs. Then you can wake up early tomorrow and be on your way.” However, they refused, saying, “No, we will spend tonight in the open plaza.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so he says, “Lo, please, my lords: turn aside, please, unto a house of your servant and lodge (the night) and wash your [two] feet and you have risen early and you have gone to your way.” And so they say, “No for in the plaza we will lodge (for the night).”

Targum of Onkelos                ...and said, I beg now, my lords, turn now hither, and enter the house of your servant, and lodge, and wash your feet; and you will arise and proceed on your way. And they said to him, No; for in the street we will lodge.

Jerusalem targum                  ...And wash your feet, and wash you in the morning, and go to your tents in peace. And they said to him, No; for in the open place of the city we will lodge.

Latin Vulgate                          And said: I beseech you, my lords, turn in to the house of your servant, and lodge there: wash your feet, and in the morning you shall go on your way. And they said: No, but we will abide in the street.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And he said, My lords, turn aside, I pray you, into your servant's house and spend the night and wash your feet; then rise up early in the morning and go on your way. And they said, No, we will spend the night in the street.

Septuagint (Greek)                And he says, Lo! My lords, turn aside to the house of your servant, and rest from your journey, and wash your feet, and having risen early in the morning you shall depart on your journey. And they said, No, but we will lodge in the street. In the Greek, and he says is included in v. 1.

 

Significant differences:           None, apart from the division of the verses in the Greek.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       ...and said, "Gentlemen, I am your servant. Please come to my home. You can wash your feet, spend the night, and be on your way in the morning." They told him, "No, we'll spend the night in the city square."

Easy-to-Read Version            Lot said, “Sirs, please come to my house, and I will serve you. There you can wash your feet and stay the night. Then tomorrow you can continue your journey.”

Good News Bible (TEV)         ...and said, "Sirs, I am here to serve you. Please come to my house. You can wash your feet and spend the night. In the morning you can get up early and go on your way." But they answered, "No, we will spend the night here in the city square."

The Message                         ...and said, "Please, my friends, come to my house and stay the night. Wash up. You can rise early and be on your way refreshed." They said, "No, we'll sleep in the street."

New Berkeley Version           ...and said, “Look here, my masters, please turn aside to your servant’s home and stay overnight. Wash your feet, then rise early to be on your way.” But they said, “No, we will spend the night outdoors.”

New Century Version             Lot said, "Sirs, please come to my house and spend the night. There you can wash your feet, and then tomorrow you may continue your journey."

The angels answered, "No, we will spend the night in the city's public square."

New Living Translation           "My lords," he said, "come to my home to wash your feet, and be my guests for the night. You may then get up early in the morning and be on your way again."

"Oh no," they replied. "We'll just spend the night out here in the city square."


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          And he said, 'Look here, my lords; come to the house of your servant and rest from your journey. [Then you can] wash your feet and get up early in the morning to continue on your way.'

However, they said, 'No, we will just sleep in the street.' The AEB actually follows the LXX here and places and he said with v. 1.

God’s Word                         He said, "Please, gentlemen, why don't you come to my home and spend the night? You can wash your feet there. Then early tomorrow morning you can continue your journey." "No," they answered, "we'd rather spend the night in the city square."

New American Bible              ...he said, "Please, my lords,* come aside into your servant's house for the night, and bathe your feet; you can get up early to continue your journey." But they replied, "No, we will pass the night in the town square." Heb 13:1-2.

New Jerusalem Bible             'My lords,' he said, 'please come down to your servant's house to stay the night and wash your feet. Then you can make an early start on your journey.' 'No,' they said, 'we shall spend the night in the square.'

New Simplified Bible              »My lords,« he said, »come to my home to wash your feet, and be my guests for the night. You may get up in the morning as early as you like and be on your way again.« »Oh no,« they said, »We will spend the night out here in the city square.«


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And he said, My masters, come now into your servant's house and take your rest there for the night, and let your feet be washed; and early in the morning you may go on your way. And they said, Not so, but we will take our night's rest in the street..

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 ...and said, “See now, my good sirs, turn aside to the house of your servant, and rest yourselves, and wash your feet, and quench you thirst, and you can then proceed on your journey.’

But they replied, “No; for we must go further.”

HCSB                                     ...and said, "My lords, turn aside to your servant's house, wash your feet, and spend the night. Then you can get up early and go on your way." "No," they said. "We would rather spend the night in the square."

NET Bible®                             He said, "Here, my lords, please turn aside to your servant's house. Stay the night [The imperatives have the force of invitation.] and wash your feet. Then you can be on your way early in the morning [These two verbs form a verbal hendiadys: "you can rise up early and go" means "you can go early."]." "No," they replied, "we'll spend the night in the town square [The town square refers to the wide street area at the gate complex of the city.]."



Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And saying is he, "Behold, pray, my lords! Withdraw, pray, to the house of your servant and lodge and wash your feet, and rise early and go on your way.And saying are they, "No, for in the square will we lodge.

Context Group Version          ...and he said, Look now, my lords, turn aside, I beg of you { pl }, into your { pl } slave's house, and stay all night, and wash your { pl } feet, and you { pl } shall rise up early, and go on your { pl } way. And they said, No; but we will stay in the street all night.

Darby Translation                  ...and he said, Behold now, my lords, turn in, I pray you, into your servant's house, and lodge, and wash your feet; and ye shall rise up early, and go on your way. And they said, No; but we will pass the night in the open place.

English Standard Version      ...and said, "My lords, please turn aside to your servant's house and spend the night and wash your feet. Then you may rise up early and go on your way." They said, "No; we will spend the night in the town square."

exeGeses companion Bible   ...and he says, Behold I beseech, my adonim,

turn in, I beseech you, into the house of your servant

and stay overnight and bathe your feet

and start early and go on your ways.

And they say, No;

but we stay in the wideway overnight..

Fred Miller’s Revised KJV     And he said, Behold now, my lords I beseech you turn in into your servant's house and tarry all night and wash your feet and you shall rise up early and go on your ways. And they said, No; but we will abide in the street all night.

Heritage Bible                        And he said, Behold now, my lords, please turn into your servant’s house, and spend the night, and wash your feet, and load up early, and walk on your way. And they said, No! And we will stay in the street.

LTHB                                     And he said, Behold, now, my lords, please turn in to your servant's house and lodge, and wash your feet; and rise early and go to your way. And they said, No, for we will lodge in the street.

Syndein                                  {Verses 2-3:A Believer Out of Fellowship - Has Unhappy Household}

And he said {'amar}, "Behold now, my lords, turn in, I pray you {if it pleases you}, into your servant's house, and spend/pass the night {luwn}, and wash your feet {idiom for enter and stay in my house}, and you shall rise up early, and go on your ways." And they said, "Absolutely not, we will spend the night in the street." {Note: RBT says this indicates that Lot's home was not a pleasant one. Apparently Lot and his wife were constantly fighting. This is a picture of baby believers out of fellowship.}

Webster’s Bible Translation  And he said, Behold now, my lords, turn, I pray you, into your servant's house, and tarry all night, and wash your feet, and ye shall rise early, and go on your ways. And they said, Nay; but we will abide in the street all night.

World English Bible                ...and he said, "See now, my lords, please turn aside into your servant's house, stay all night, wash your feet, and you will rise up early, and go on your way." They said, "No, but we will stay in the street all night."

Young’s Updated LT             And he says, “Lo, I pray you, my lords, turn aside, I pray you, unto the house of your servant, and lodge, and wash your feet—then you have risen early and gone on your way;” and they say, “Nay, but in the broad place we do lodge.”

 

The gist of this verse:          Lot asks these strangers to stay at his home and then to continue their journey in the morning. They answer that they were planning on staying out the town square.


Genesis 19:2a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

hinnêh (הִנֵּה) [pronounced hin-NAY]

lo, behold, or more freely, observe, look here, look, listen, pay attention, get this, check this out

interjection, demonstrative particle

Strong’s #2009 (and #518, 2006) BDB #243

nâʾ (נָא) [pronounced naw]

now; please, I pray you, I respectfully implore (ask, or request of) you, I urge you

a primitive particle of incitement and entreaty

Strong's #4994 BDB #609

Although BDB gives a list of several passages where these are found together (Gen. 12:11 16:2 18:27, 31 19:2, 8, 19, 20 27:2 Judges 13:3 19:9 1Sam. 9:6 16:15 2Sam. 13:24 2Kings 2:16, 19 4:9 Job 13:18 33:2 40:15–16), all they offer is behold, I pray as a translation of the two together. Gesenius offers behold, now!

ʾădônây (אֲדֹנָי) [pronounced uh-doh-NAY]

Lord (s), Master (s), my Lord (s), Sovereign; my lord [master]; can refer to the Trinity or to an intensification of the noun; transliterated Adonai, adonai

masculine plural noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #113 & #136 BDB #10

There are actually 3 forms of this word: ʾădônây (אֲדֹנָי) [pronounced uh-doh-NAY]; ʾădônay (אֲדֹנַי) [pronounced uh-doh-NAY]; and ʾădônîy (אֲדֹנִי) [pronounced uh-doh-NEE].

This is a form of Strong’s #113, where there are three explanations given for the yodh ending: (1) this is a shortened form of the plural ending, usually written -îym (נִים) [pronounced eem], an older form of the pluralis excellentiæ (the plural of excellence), where God’s sovereignty and lordship are emphasized by the use of the plural; (2) this is the actual, but ancient, plural of the noun, which refers to the Trinity; or (3) this is the addition of the 1st person singular suffix, hence, my Lord (the long vowel point at the end would distinguish this from my lords).

There are points of grammar which speak to the options above, but not so that we may unequivocally choose between the three. (1) When we find ʾădônay (אֲדֹנָי) [pronounced uh-doh-NAH] (note the difference of the vowel ending), it always means my lords. (2) Jehovah calls Himself ʾădônây (אֲדֹנָי) [pronounced uh-doh-NAY] in Job 28:28 Isa. 8:7; however, many of the Job manuscripts read Yehowah and 8 ancient Isaiah manuscripts read Yehowah instead. This suggests, that either ancient Scribes were confused about this form of Adonai or that they simply substituted Adonai for Yehowah, which was not an abnormal practice (in oral readings, the ancient Tetragrammaton was not spoken, but Lord was said instead). And even If every manuscript read Adonai, then we may also reasonably conclude that one member of the Trinity is addressing another member of the Trinity (although the idea of God saying my Lord would be theologically confusing, even if addressing another member of the Trinity; although Jesus did refer to God the Father as our Father).


Translation: Then Lot [lit., he] said, “Listen, if you would, my lords:... Lot speaks to these angels, not realizing that they are angels or that they have a mission directly related to him and to his city. What Lot says is very similar to what Abraham had said to these people. He asks for their attention, but is polite about it, and calls them my lords, which is simply a sign of respect. This does not mean that he knows that they are from God or anything like that.


Genesis 19:2b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

çûwr (סוּר) [pronounced soor]

turn aside, depart, go away

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperative

Strong's #5493 (and #5494) BDB #693

nâʾ (נָא) [pronounced naw]

now; please, I pray you, I respectfully implore (ask, or request of) you, I urge you

a primitive particle of incitement and entreaty

Strong's #4994 BDB #609

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

bayith (בַּיִת) [pronounced BAH-yith]

house, residence; household, habitation as well as inward

masculine singular construct

Strong's #1004 BDB #108

ʿebed (עֶבֶד) [pronounced ĢEB-ved]

slave, servant

masculine singular noun with a 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #5650 BDB #713


Translation: ...turn aside, now, to the house of your servant... Lot gives them three commands, but these commands were softened by using the particle of entreaty as well. So, these are clearly strong and polite requests. Lot wants these two men to come into his house. As we will see, his motivation is to provide them with a modicum of safety.


I have not been very complimentary to Lot, and part of this is because he is put in side-by-side with Abraham. However, everyone in this city knows what the fate will be for these two men; and only Lot tries to do something about it. Despite his shortcomings and the many mistakes that Lot has made, he should be recognized for this act of kindness at the very least.


Genesis 19:2c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

lûwn (לוּן) [pronounced loon]

to lodge, to pass the night, to spend the night, to lodge for the night, to abide

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperative

Strong’s #3885 BDB #533

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

râchats (רָחַץ) [pronounced raw-BAHTS]

to wash, to bathe (oneself), to wash off (away); possibly to declare oneself innocent

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperative

Strong’s #7364 BDB #934

regel (רֶגֶל) [pronounced REH-gel]

foot, feet

feminine dual noun with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

Strong’s #7272 BDB #919


Translation: ...and lodge [there with my family for] the night and wash your feet. Lot strongly requests that these men lodge the night at his home and to wash their feet there. Although they would literally wash their feet, what is implied is whatever other things were necessary when a person rests for the night anyway.


Genesis 19:2d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

shâkam ( ָכַםש) [pronounced shaw-KAHM]

to start, to rise, to rise early, to make an early start; morning (in the Hiphil infinitive absolute)

2nd person masculine singular, Hiphil perfect

Strong’s #7925 BDB #1014

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

hâlake (הָלַךְ) [pronounced haw-LAHKe]

to go, to come, to depart, to walk; to advance

2nd person masculine plural, Qal perfect

Strong’s #1980 (and #3212) BDB #229

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

dereke (דֶּרֶך׃) [pronounced DEH-reke]

way, distance, road, path; journey, course; direction, towards; manner, habit, way [of life]; of moral character

masculine singular noun with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #1870 BDB #202


Translation: Then you can wake up early and go on your way.” The 3 strong requests are followed with 2 logical results, employing the prophetic perfect. “You will rise up early and you will depart on your way.” The perfect tense indicates that this is a foregone conclusion.


Lot knew what was in store for strangers in Sodom. Any male stranger faced the probability of male rape and Lot was trying to get them into his home where they would be safe and from whence they could depart the next morning early. The angels are certainly aware of this; even though they are not omniscient, angels can scoot around fairly quickly—not subject to the same physical laws which we are, so they know what goes on in Sodom. Sodom is a party town, a town with a high percentage homosexual or bisexual population who stay up late, drink, imbibe, and engage in homosexual hedonistic practices. The angels know this.


Lot has a real concern for strangers and has likely seen strangers accosted who were probably raped and killed. Lot is trying to see that this sort of thing did not happen. You'll note that he and Abraham are both brought up to take in strangers and to treat strangers with kindness and deference.


Genesis 19:2e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

There are several ways this negation is used. (1) It is an absolute no given to a question. (2) It can be used as an interrogative when an affirmative answer is expected. 2Kings 5:26 Job 2:10 Jer. 49:9. (3) It can be used to mean without. 1Chron. 2:30 Psalm 59:4 Job 12:24 34:24. (4) It can be translated not yet. 2Kings 20:4 Psalm 139:16. (5) The negative is prefixed to adjective to negate them; to substantives to indicate that they are not that thing. Although some claim that this negation can stand on its own to mean nothing; there is no clear proof of that.

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

rechôwb (רְחוֹב) [pronounced rekh-OHBV]

broad open place, plaza, open square

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #7339 BDB #932

lîyn (לִין) [pronounced leen]

to lodge, to pass the night, to spend the night, to lodge for the night, to abide

1st person plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #3885 BDB #533


Translation: But they said, “No, because we will spend tonight in the plaza.” However, these two men (angels) refused Lot’s hospitality. This suggests that it was common for traders and travelers and strangers to lodge nights in the town square—that this was generally accepted and a custom of most cities.


Some say that the remark of the angels about spending the night out in the street is known as peirastic irony; the words, or in this case, the question, is not spoken in the normal sense of irony but are said in order to test Lot. I do not believe that the angels are testing Lot here. God knows Lot’s heart. I think that this was simply the back-and-forth which would be expressed between two sets of people. It is not unlike two sets of people reaching for the check.

 

Jamieson, Fausset and Brown: Where there are no inns and no acquaintance, it is not uncommon for travellers to sleep in the street wrapped up in their cloaks. The unfortunate catch is, if these were just men, they would have completely lacked safety even in the midst of the city.

 

J. Vernon McGee: They had brought out something when they said, "We'll stay on the street and just sleep in the park," and Lot says to them, "You don't do that in Sodom. It's dangerous! Your life wouldn't be worth a thing if you did that." May I say that maybe Los Angeles ought to change its name to Sodom. It would not be safe for you to sleep on the streets of Los Angeles; in fact, it is not safe at all to be on the streets of Los Angeles at night. Many women who live alone will not come out to church at night. One dear saint of God told me, "I just lock my door at dark, Brother McGee, and I do not open that door until the next morning at daylight. It's not safe in my neighborhood to even walk on the street." The days of Sodom and Gomorrah are here again, and practically for the same reason.


This portion of the conversation between Lot and the angels is interesting to me. Although I would like to say, these angels really do not want to hang out with Lot, I think their back and forth represents more of the traditions of the day, rather than the angels not wanting to have anything to do with Lot. Why do the angels do this? They blend in physically and culturally. There is no reason for Lot or anyone else to think of these angels as anything but human. Whether or not they like Lot is immaterial; they will have to rescue him from the judgment to come. That is part of their mission.


Gen 19:2 Lot then said, "My lords, please turn aside to your servant's house and spend the night and wash your feet. Then you may rise up early and go on your way." They said, "No; we will spend the night in the town square."


Lot knows what will happen. He knows that if these men (whom he does not see as angels) will be raped and probably killed by the town’s residents if they remain in the town square. Lot has spiritual deficiencies, but his concern for strangers here is important. Lot may have a sorry spiritual life, but he has not been completely given over to the evil ways of his city.


As this chapter unfolds, bear in mind that, Lot is a judge; and yet, this city is lawless and immoral. This ought to be evidence that, a great president cannot do much good when faced with a lawless and immoral population.


There are a lot of problems with our war on drugs; but the chief problem is a lack of morality among the population. Most people who use drugs are aware of the mass killings which are occurring south of the U.S. border and yet, they still purchase drugs which, in many cases, help fund these murders. This is a lack of personal morality—which is necessary to the survival and prosperity of a nation—and a large segment of our population lacks any.


When a significant population lacks such morality, God sometimes intervenes directly (as He will in Sodom and Gomorrah) or He works through other agencies, e.g. natural disasters or other countries. As has been alluded to on several occasions, God has a set of steps that He goes through with Israel when they get out of line.


I find it interesting that these angels refused Lot’s offer of hospitality. I would have thought that this would have been valued by the angels, as they certainly understood that Lot was a part of their mission. However, they refused Lot at first. They had no reason to be afraid of the local population, as the average person would; but this refusal has to make you wonder, did they simply have no interest in spending time with Lot and his family? Could these angels find Abraham interesting company, but Lot, not so much? How well do they know Lot? Have they been observing him over the years?


Several commentators indicate that this was simply the way people interacted in these times.


——————————


And so he urges in them greatly and so they turn aside unto him and so they come in unto his house. And so he makes for them a feast (with drinking) and unleavened cakes he had baked; and so they ate.

Genesis

19:3

However, Lot [lit., he] strongly urged them so they turned aside to him and they went into his house. He then made a drinking feast for them with unleavened cakes that he had baked, and they ate.

However, Lot strongly urged them to reconsider, so they changed their minds and went with him to his house. Lot them prepared a drinking feast for the with some unleavened cakes that he had already baked, and they ate.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so he urges in them greatly and so they turn aside unto him and so they come in unto his house. And so he makes for them a feast (with drinking) and unleavened cakes he had baked; and so they ate.

Targum of Onkelos                And he persuaded them earnestly, and they turned aside to be with him; and they entered his house, and he made a repast for the, and prepared unleavened cakes. And it seemed to him as if they did eat. [JERUSALEM. And it appeared as if they ate and drank.]

Latin Vulgate                          He pressed them very much to turn in unto him: and when they were come into his house, he made them a feast, and baked unleavened bread, and they ate.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    But Lot urged them greatly; and they turned in to him and entered into his house; and he made them a feast and baked unleavened cakes and they ate.

Septuagint (Greek)                And he constrained them, and they turned aside to him, and they entered into his house, and he made a feast for them, and baked unleavened cakes for them, and they did eat.

 

Significant differences:           None.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           He pleaded earnestly with them, so they went with him and entered his house. He made a big meal for them, even baking unleavened bread, and they ate.

Contemporary English V.       But Lot kept insisting, until they finally agreed and went home with him. He baked some bread, cooked a meal, and they ate.

Easy English                          However, Lot urged them strongly. So they came and stayed at Lot's house. Lot prepared a big meal and he baked bread without *yeast. And they at.

Easy-to-Read Version            But Lot continued to ask them to come to his house. So the angels agreed to go to Lot’s house. They went to Lot’s house. Lot gave them something to drink. Lot cooked some bread for the angels, and they ate it.

Good News Bible (TEV)         He kept on urging them, and finally they went with him to his house. Lot ordered his servants to bake some bread and prepare a fine meal for the guests. When it was ready, they ate it.

The Message                         But he insisted, wouldn't take no for an answer; and they relented and went home with him. Lot fixed a hot meal for them and they ate.

New Century Version             But Lot begged them to come, so they agreed and went to his house. Then Lot prepared a meal for them. He baked bread without yeast, and they ate it.

New Living Translation           But Lot insisted, so at last they went home with him. Lot prepared a feast for them, complete with fresh bread made without yeast, and they ate.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          But [Lot] kept insisting, so they went with him to his house. Then he baked yeast-free bread and made a feast for them, which they ate.

Ancient Roots Translinear      He urged them a hundredfold, and they turned to him, and came into his house. He made them a banquet with baked unleavened-bread, and they ate.

Beck’s American Translation But he urged them so much they came with him and went into his home. He made a dinner for them, baked bread without yeast, and they ate it.

Christian Community Bible     But so strongly did he insist that they went with him to his house; there he prepared a meal for them, baking bread without yeast. This they ate.

God’s Word                         But he insisted so strongly that they came with him and went into his home. He prepared a special dinner for them, baked some unleavened bread, and they ate.

New American Bible              He urged them so strongly, however, that they turned aside to his place and entered his house. He prepared a banquet for them, baking unleavened bread, and they dined.

New Jerusalem Bible             But he pressed them so much that they went home with him and entered his house. He prepared a meal for them, baking unleavened bread, and they had supper.

New Simplified Bible              Lot insisted, so at last they went home with him. He set a great feast before them, complete with fresh unleavened (unfermented) bread.

Revised English Bible            But Lot was so insistent that they accompanied him into his house. He prepared a meal for them, baking unleavened bread for them to eat.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             But he made his request more strongly, so they went with him into his house; and he got food ready for them, and made unleavened bread, of which they took.

Complete Jewish Bible           But he kept pressing them; so they went home with him; and he made them a meal, baking matzah for their supper, which they ate.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 Then he pressed them much; so they turned with him, and came to his house; and he made them a repast with unleavened cakes, and they partook of them.

NET Bible®                             But he urged [The Hebrew verb pâtsar (פָּצַר) [pronounced paw-TSAHR], ("to press, to insist") ironically foreshadows the hostile actions of the men of the city (see v. 9, where the verb also appears). The repetition of the word serves to contrast Lot to his world.] them persistently, so they turned aside with him and entered his house. He prepared a feast for them, including bread baked without yeast, and they ate.

NIV – UK                                But he insisted so strongly that they did go with him and entered his house. He prepared a meal for them, baking bread without yeast, and they ate.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                [Lot] entreated and urged them greatly until they yielded and [with him] entered his house. And he made them a dinner [with drinking] and had unleavened bread which he baked, and they ate.

Concordant Literal Version    And urging them is he exceedingly. And withdrawing are they to him, and coming to his house. And making is he for them a feast, and he bakes unleavened bread, and they are eating.

Darby Translation                  And he urged them greatly; and they turned in unto him, and entered into his house. And he made them a repast, and baked unleavened cakes; and they ate.

English Standard Version      But he pressed them strongly; so they turned aside to him and entered his house. And he made them a feast and baked unleavened bread, and they ate.

exeGeses companion Bible   And he urges them mightily;

and they turn in to him and enter his house;

and he works them a banquet and bakes matsah

and they eat.

Kretzmann’s Commentary    And he pressed upon them greatly; and they turned in unto him, and entered into his house; and he made them a feast, and did bake unleavened bread, and they did eat. Lot did his duty as Oriental host. His invitation becoming so very urgent, the angels consented to remain in his house overnight, where he personally superintended their entertainment. This is one of the instances to which the writer to the Hebrews has reference when he writes: "Be not forgetful to entertain strangers; for thereby some have entertained angels unawares." Heb. 13:2.

Syndein                                  And he kept on pressing upon them greatly. And they 'kept on changing their minds' {cuwr} toward him {means they were considering the best thing to do and decided to stay with Lot}, and entered into his house. And he {Lot} made them a banquet, and did bake unleavened bread {matstsah}, and they kept on eating {'akal}.

World English Bible                He urged them greatly, and they came in with him, and entered into his house. He made them a feast, and baked unleavened bread, and they ate.

Young’s Updated LT             And he presses on them greatly, and they turn aside unto him, and come in unto his house; and he makes for them a banquet, and has baked unleavened things; and they do eat.

 

The gist of this verse:          Lot urges the angels to come with him, so they do go with him to his house. He prepares a dinner for them with unleavened bread.


Genesis 19:3a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

pâtsar (פָּצַר) [pronounced paw-TSAHR]

properly, to beat, to make blunt; but means, to push, to press, to urge

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #6484 BDB #823

This is commonly followed by the bêyth preposition, which indicates the person being pressed or urged.

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #88

meʾôd (מְאֹד) [pronounced me-ODE]

exceedingly, extremely, greatly, very

adverb

Strong’s #3966 BDB #547


Translation: However, Lot [lit., he] strongly urged them... In many Bibles, we find the proper name Lot, but here, we simply have the verb in the 3rd person masculine singular form. The idea here is, because we are dealing with one individual speaking to two men, they are easily kept separate in the narrative using the singular or plural forms of verbs. However, with the way that we think and hold a narrative together, we are used to seeing a person’s name thrown in from time to time, so that is what has been done here.


Lot urges them, which is the imperfect tense, which indicates that he spent some time trying to change their minds.


I have been pretty tough on Lot throughout most of the book of Genesis, and rightly so. However, the man did have some decency. Here were two strangers coming into the city—whose lives would be threatened by the male population of Sodom—and Lot is concerned for their lives. We read in 2Peter 2:7–8 And God delivered righteous Lot, who had been oppressed by the behavior of the lawless in lustfulness. For that righteous one living among them day after day, in seeing and in hearing, his righteous soul was tormented with their lawless deeds. Lot was no spiritual giant; but he was righteous. This means, he had believed in Yehowah-Elohim, and was therefore made righteous (Gen. 15:6). He had good training under Abraham, whom he separated from. So, what happened in Sodom disturbed him, and he had this chance here to spare these two men (Lot does not know that these are angels), and he takes this chance. His soul, as messtup as it was, was tormented with the lawless deeds of the men of Sodom; he felt oppressed by their lawless lustfulness. Here is the one good thing that he can do, and Lot takes the chance on saving these two men (not realizing that they were there to save him).


Genesis 19:3b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

çûwr (סוּר) [pronounced soor]

turn aside, depart, go away

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong's #5493 (and #5494) BDB #693

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied) with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #413 BDB #39


Translation: ...so they turned aside to him... To turn aside indicates that these two men (angels) apparently had an agenda, and they were going in this or that direction; and Lot wants them to go with him, which is a different direction. The idea is, they have the volition to do this; but he wants them to do that. So they agree. Although this means a change of direction; it can simply refer to a change in volition.


Genesis 19:3c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

bôwʾ (בּוֹא) [pronounced boh]

to come in, to come, to go in, to go, to enter, to advance

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #935 BDB #97

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

bayith (בַּיִת) [pronounced BAH-yith]

house, residence; household, habitation as well as inward

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #1004 BDB #108


Translation: ...and they went into his house. Lot suggested that they come to his house, so they go into his house.


John Wesley suggests that Lot has two motivations: (1) to protect these men from being surrounded and gang-raped by the men of his city; and (2) to enjoy conversation with people who are not entirely reprobate. Although Lot’s motivation is not clearly stated in this chapter, these are quite reasonable.


Regarding his first motivation, I don’t think that Lot fully appreciated just how deeply degenerate his city had become. This will become more apparent to him as the night progresses.


Genesis 19:3d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʿâsâh (עָשָֹה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWH]

to do, to make, to construct, to fashion, to form, to prepare, to manufacture

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #6213 BDB #793

The full set of Qal meanings from BDB: to do, work, make, produce; to do; to work; to deal (with); to act, act with effect, effect; to produce; to prepare; to make (an offering); to attend to, put in order; to observe, celebrate; to acquire (property); to appoint, ordain, institute; to bring about; to use; to spend, pass.

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

mishteh (מִשְתֶּה) [pronounced mishe-TEH]

a feast, a drink, a drinking bout, a party, a banquet

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #4960 BDB #1059

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

matstsâh (מַצָּה) [pronounced mahts-TSAWH]

unfermented bread, unleavened bread, unleavened cakes; sweet unleavened bread

feminine plural noun

Strong’s #4682 BDB #595

ʾâphâh (אָפָה) [pronounced aw-FAW]

to bake, to cook

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #644 BDB #66


Translation: He then made a drinking feast for them with unleavened cakes that he had baked,... Here is where we have some clues as to what is going on. The word for feast often indicates a drinking party; a party where people may or may not eat; but they certainly will drink. Now, that required some preparation. However, the food aspect of this was some unleavened bread which Lot had already baked (perfect tense; accomplished action). I am not saying that Lot just hauled out some old moldy bread and they ate that; I am simply indicating that there is no fatted calf here which is slaughtered, no new bread baked. It is sort of, “Here’s what I have on hand; enjoy.” You have guests to your home and you open a can of beans and dump them out on a plate and bring in a 12 pack of Coors and say, “Enjoy.”


Also, bear in mind that Lot did not want to cause a scene with these strangers. He did not want to be seen out at the side of his house barbequeing, having killed the fatted calf. So, eating what had already been prepared was not necessarily a matter of Lot being a lousy host, compared to Abraham, but safety concerns may have been an issue here.


Now, Lot was certainly more poor than Abraham; that is clear. Whereas, Abraham could pretty much retire if he wanted, Lot had a city job at the gate of Sodom. However, the use of this noun suggests that Lot’s emphasis was going to be on the drinking aspect of this feast. The idea is, Lot is willing to share; he is hospitable. He is certainly not going the extra mile in any way; and the emphasis of the word used is upon drinking. This suggest that Lot did a lot of drinking, and this will be confirmed for us at the end of this chapter. It is possible that Lot was an alcoholic, but this is not clearly stated.


Genesis 19:3e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâkal (אָכַל) [pronounced aw-KAHL]

to eat; to devour, to consume, to destroy

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #398 BDB #37


Translation: ...and they ate. Although there is nothing said about drinking, the angels ate what was placed in front of them. There is a verb that means to drink, and that is not used here.


Gen 19:3 But he pressed them strongly; so they turned aside to him and entered his house. And he made them a feast and baked unleavened bread, and they ate.


It does not appear as if Lot warned them about what exactly would happen, but he insists that they come into his house that night.


Lot celebrates them being there with a great meal (interestingly enough, it appears that angels can enjoy fine dining). At this point, Lot appears to be very similar to Abraham, in the way that he is entertaining guests, and our only misgivings about Sodom at this point come from the fact that we know God will destroy it (unless, of course, you have been reading ahead).


When a city is unsafe, and when the people of the city will tolerate other people raping and murdering, such a city is no longer a corporate entity which God can allow. I mentioned all of the murders in Mexico. It appears as though some law enforcement agencies in Mexico decided to turn a blind eye to some of the drug violence, at its outset, in part because it was drug-gang on drug-gang violence. Even if this was the case, the violence spread to all segments of their population.


As we have discussed, God has warned this city. We know that they have been under the 4th stage of national discipline (subjugation to an outside power) and were nearly put under the 5th stage of national discipline (where an outside power removed them from their homeland and would have placed them into slavery—Gen. 14). However, at this point, they will face the 6th stage of national discipline, which is complete destruction of the population. This topic will be looked at in a doctrinal format when we come to v. 25.


We have a very similar thing occurring in the Middle East right now. There are many cities where a Jew or a Christian cannot live. The government does not protect them; in fact, in many cases, there are laws which allow the government to prosecute them. At the same time, the people of these cities will oppress Jews and Christians as a part of their religious expression. They kill families and celebrate. God will not allow this to go on forever.


What God desires to see in a national entity is law and order (that is, the laws of divine establishment), the spreading of the gospel of Jesus Christ, and the teaching of Bible doctrine. God is not concerned if the government is a democracy or run by a vicious dictator or run by an outside country or run by a racial minority in that country. We as men have all kinds of opinions with regards to these things; but, within a national entity, God wants law and order, the gospel openly revealed and Bible doctrine taught. When people are not allowed to hear the gospel; when people are not allowed to worship Him; God has a problem with that.


What we are seeing with Islam is the unrestrained religious soul gone wild. We often picture the unrestrained soul as going wild with sex and drugs (or, in the case of Sodom and Gomorrah, homosexual rape), but, in Islam, we have a people here nearly wholly given over to the worship of Satan. Essentially, they believe in a continual struggle, until everything around them is controlled by Islam. I personally believe that in this century, we are going to see literally millions of Muslims killed in war. We may see entire cities obliterated and more. There is a reasonable chance that, in defense of an attack, that Israel will use nuclear weapons. If Muslim countries like Iran have atomic weapons, we can be certain that they will use them. And if we have a president at that time with any stones, he will back up Israel with nuclear weapons as well. My point is—and it is based upon what we learn from this passage—God will only put up with corporate behavior like this for so long.


Now, as an aside, God does use some evil nations to discipline other nations, and allows evil nations to live. However, wherever there is strong positive volition toward the gospel and toward Bible doctrine, there will be an oasis of blessing (South Korea, for example, which sends out Christian missionaries all over the world).


Here is a corrected translation of what we have studied so far:


Gen. 19:1–3 So two angels came to Sodom in the evening while Lot is sitting in the gate of Sodom. Lot observed [them arriving] and he rose up to meet them. Then he bowed his face to the ground [before them]. Then Lot [lit., he] said, “Listen, if you would, my lords: turn aside, now, to the house of your servant and lodge [there with my family for] the night and wash your feet. Then you can wake up early and go on your way.” But they said, “No, because we will spend tonight in the plaza.” However, Lot [lit., he] strongly urged them so they turned aside to him and they went into his house. He then made a drinking feast for them with unleavened cakes that he had baked, and they ate.


The two angels, who enjoyed a meal with the Revealed Member of the Trinity and with Abraham, went to Sodom, a city about to be destroyed by God, and they met Lot, Abraham’s nephew, at the city gate. He insisted that they come home with him, which they agree to do.

 

Guzik comments about Lot: Lot himself was a righteous man who was grieved by the sin he saw around him (2 Peter 2:7-8), but because of his compromise few of his family and none of his friends were saved. Compromise destroyed his testimony.


——————————


Before they lay down and men of the city—men of Sodom—have surrounded the house—from youth and even to old—all the people from an extremity.

Genesis

19:4

Before they lay down, the men of the city—the men of Sodom—surrounded the house—both young and old—all the people from the whole [city]—...

Before the angels went to bed, the men of the city—these men of Sodom—had surrounded the house—both young and old—all of the people from the entire city area.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        Before they lay down and men of the city—men of Sodom—have surrounded the house—from youth and even to old—all the people from an extremity.

Targum of Onkelos                They had not yet lain down, when the wicked men of the city, the men of Sedom, came round upon the house, from the youth to the old man, all the people throughout.

Latin Vulgate                          But before they went to bed, the men of the city beset the house, both young and old, all the people together.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    But before they lay down, the men of the city, that is, the men of Sodom, surrounded the house, both young and old, all the people of the town.

Septuagint (Greek)                But before they went to sleep, the men of the city, the Sodomites, surrounded the house, both young and old, all the people together.

 

Significant differences:           The targum describes the men as wicked (not found anywhere else, but accurate). The Latin leaves out the word Sodom. The final word of this verse may require some discussion.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       Before Lot and his guests could go to bed, every man in Sodom, young and old, came and stood outside his house...

Easy English                          Before Lot and the *angels had gone to bed, the other men in Sodom city surrounded Lot's house. There were both young men and old men.

Easy-to-Read Version            That evening, just before bedtime, men from every part of town came to Lot’s house. The men from Sodom stood around the house and called to Lot. They said,...

The Message                         Before they went to bed men from all over the city of Sodom, young and old, descended on the house from all sides and boxed them in.

New Berkeley Version           But before they lay down, the men of the city, the Sodomites, young and old, all the people from every direction, surrounded the house,...

New Century Version             Before bedtime, men both young and old and from every part of Sodom surrounded Lot's house.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          [Well, that evening], before they went to bed, the men of the city of Sodom encircled the house. all of them, both the young and the old.

Beck’s American Translation Before they lay down, the men of the town of Sodom, young and old, everybody from all parts of the town, surrounded the house.

God’s Word                         Before they had gone to bed, all the young and old male citizens of Sodom surrounded the house.

New American Bible              Before they went to bed, the townsmen of Sodom, both young and old-all the people to the last man-surrounded the house. [Gen. 19:4-9] Judges 19:22-25; Jude 7.

NIRV                                      Before Lot and his guests had gone to bed, all of the men came from every part of the city of Sodom. Young and old men alike surrounded the house.

New Jerusalem Bible             They had not gone to bed when the house was surrounded by the townspeople, the men of Sodom both young and old, all the people without exception.

Revised English Bible            Before they had lain down to sleep, the men of Sodom, both young and old, everyone without exception, surrounded the house.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             But before they had gone to bed, the men of the town, all the men of Sodom, came round the house, young and old, from every part of the town; ...

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 It was not yet time for sleep, when the men of the city, the men of Sodom, surrounded the house, from youths to old men; in fact all the people of the neighborhood;...

HCSB                                     Before they went to bed, the men of the city of Sodom, both young and old, the whole population, surrounded the house.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               They had not yet lain down, when the townspeople, the men of Sodom, young and old—all the people to the last man—gathered about the house.

Judaica Press Complete T.    When they had not yet retired, and the people of the city, the people of Sodom, surrounded the house, both young and old, the entire populace from every end of the city.

New Advent Bible                  But before they went to bed, the men of the city beset the house, both young and old, all the people togethe.

NET Bible®                             Before they could lie down to sleep [The verb shâkab (שָכַב) [pronounced shaw-KAHBV] means "to lie down, to recline," that is, "to go to bed." Here what appears to be an imperfect is a preterite after the adverb ţerem (טֶרֶם) [pronounced TEH-rem]. The nuance of potential (perfect) fits well.], all the men — both young and old, from every part of the city of Sodom — surrounded the house [Heb "and the men of the city, the men of Sodom, surrounded the house, from the young to the old, all the people from the end [of the city]." The repetition of the phrase "men of" stresses all kinds of men.].


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    Ere they are lying down, then mortals of the city, mortals of Sodom, surround the house, from the lad even unto the elder, the entire people, from the outmost parts.

English Standard Version      But before they lay down, the men of the city, the men of Sodom, both young and old, all the people to the last man, surrounded the house.

exeGeses companion Bible   But ere they lie down,

the men of the city - the men of Sedom

surround the house

- from aged to lad

- all the people from every extremity:...

Green’s Literal Translation    Before they had laid down, even the men of the city, the men of Sodom, circled the house; from the young to the aged, all the people from its limits.

LTHB                                     Before they had laid down, even the men of the city, the men of Sodom, circled the house; from the young to the aged, all the people from its limits.

Modern KJV                           But before they lay down, the men of the city, the men of Sodom, surrounded the house, both old and young, all the people from every quarte.

NASB                                     Before they lay down, the men of the city, the men of Sodom, surrounded the house, both young and old, all the people from [Or without exception; lit from every end] every quarter;...

Syndein                                  As they were laying down, the men of the city - even the men of Sodom - compassed the house round, both old and young, all the people from every quarter {came from all over the city}.

Third Millennium Bible            But before they lay down, the men of the city, even the men of Sodom -- both young and old, all the people from every quarter --compassed the house around.

Young's Updated LT              Before they lie down, the men of the city--men of Sodom--have come round about against the house, from young even unto aged, all the people from the extremity.

 

The gist of this verse:          Before it is even time for bed, men from all over the city surrounded this house where the angels were.


Genesis 19:4a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ţerem (טֶרֶם) [pronounced TEH-rem]

not yet; before, from before, before that, previously; before the beginning

an adverb of time, sometimes used in the negative sense

Strong’s #2962 (and #2958) BDB #382

shâkab (שָכַב) [pronounced shaw-KAHBV]

to lie down, to lie down [to sleep, to have sexual relations, to die; because of sickness or humiliation]; to relax

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect; pausal form

Strong’s #7901 BDB #1011


Translation: Before they lay down,... News of these strangers spread throughout this city like wildfire. Even though only Lot is the one spoken of, as though he is the only one who notices these men (these angels); everyone in town noticed that they were there. So the news of these men in the city and where they would stay spreads throughout the entire city.


As I have mentioned in previous passages, sometimes a word here or there is used in order to foreshadow what is coming. Here we have a verb which can means to lay down; but it can also mean to have sexual relations with. These angels were going to sleep at Lot’s home; but the men of the city desired to have sexual relations with these men.


Genesis 19:4b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾănâshîym (אֲנָשִים) [pronounced uh-NAW-sheem]; also spelled ʾîyshîym (אִישִים) [pronounced ee-SHEEM]

men; inhabitants, citizens; companions; soldiers, followers

masculine plural construct

Strong's #376 BDB #35

ʿîyr (עִיר) [pronounced ģeer]

encampment, city, town

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #5892 BDB #746


Translation: ...the men of the city... The men of the city knew what had happened. Two strangers wandered into Sodom, and this fact is spread around the city.


We have two different words translated from the same word in the Hebrew. Males and men are both ʾănâshîym (אֲנָשִים) [pronounced uh-NAW-sheem]; also spelled ʾîyshîym (אִישִים) [pronounced ee-SHEEM] (this is the plural form; and this means man as different from woman. There is often an emphasis upon sexual distinction and function.


Application: There seems to be a lot of confusion about the male homosexual—as if perhaps he should have been born a woman. This is silly. A man is a man is a man. Male homosexuals behave like men (although some may adopt a persona from time to time); the chief difference being is, they are attracted to other men and they act upon it. It is not impossible for a Christian male to have or have had attractions to some males in their life; the key is, you do not act upon it; you do not experiment.


Genesis 19:4c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾănâshîym (אֲנָשִים) [pronounced uh-NAW-sheem]; also spelled ʾîyshîym (אִישִים) [pronounced ee-SHEEM]

men; inhabitants, citizens; companions; soldiers, followers

masculine plural construct

Strong's #376 BDB #35

Sedum (שֶׂדֹם) [pronounced sehd-OHM]

burning; which is transliterated Sodom

masculine singular locative noun

Strong’s #5467 BDB #690

çâbab (סָבַב) [pronounced sawb-VAHBV]

to turn oneself, to be caused to go around, to be turned around; to surround, to encompass

3rd person plural, Niphal perfect

Strong’s #5437 BDB #685

There is hostility implied when this is followed by the adverb ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl].

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

bayith (בַּיִת) [pronounced BAH-yith]

house, residence; household, habitation as well as inward

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #1004 BDB #108


Translation:...—the men of Sodom—surrounded the house... The men of Sodom have surrounded this house. The verb is in the perfect tense, indicating an action from the perspective of its final result. No doubt that, as evening came, men begun to wander over to Lot’s house, but they kept a distance away, standing off in the bushes or trees or whatever. Soon more and more men joined them, although, the verb looks at this as a finished event rather than at a process.


The idea is, they look outside, and there are men all around them. This is the stuff of some vampire movies or undead movies—the protagonists are off in this cabin in the woods, and suddenly, they feel this eerie chill in their bones, and they look out the window and they see all of these people around—all of these men. These are men that Lot knows—he may have even made rulings on some of them in court. He has no doubt spoken to some of them. And now these men are around his house, willing and able to kill him to satisfy their sexual lusts.

 

Robbie Dean writes: Darkness has already come and darkness is often a shroud for the sinful activities of man.


Genesis 19:4d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

naʿar (נַעַר) [pronounced NAH-ģahr]

boy, youth, young man; personal attendant; slave-boy

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #5288 & #5289 BDB #654

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʿad (עַד) [pronounced ģahd]

as far as, even to, up to, until

preposition

Strong’s #5704 BDB #723

Together, min...wa ʿad (וְעַד ... מִן) mean from...to or both...and; as in from soup to nuts or both young and old.

zâqên (זָקֵן) [pronounced zaw-KANE]

old, elderly, aged

masculine singular adjective

Strong’s #2205 BDB #278


Translation:...—both young and old... The idea here is, this is not just a handful of homosexual men, but everyone in the city, including the young and old.


Lot learned about these men long ago and had a fairly well fortified house. He does not open his door at night. Obviously, someone saw the angels accompany Lot to his home, and after some drinking and hanging out, the men decided to pay Lot a visit at his house. They call out to Lot, because he does not open his door at night to strangers; in fact, he doesn't even open the door to people that he knows. These violent homosexuals do not even deal with any cordial greetings; it is: “Where are the men? Bring them out so we can gang rape them.” If all of the men are out in front of the door of Lot's house, this causes me to rethink the population. This would make me think that there are perhaps 100-800 men who have reached sexual maturity (above age 10). This would indicate a population in Sodom of perhaps slightly less than a 200 to maybe 1500. I am thinking what is likely based upon this incident and what Abraham interceded to the Lord with in the previous chapter.


What was to transpire was the great entertainment of this city. The younger men would be involved in the violence and the homosexual rape; the older, still drive by lust, even though they can no longer participate, show up for the entertainment. This is not as strange as you might think. Most of our movies seem to be about physical conflict; so it is not impossible to imagine a population who like to view the same thing, but as a real event.


Genesis 19:4e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

the whole, all of, the entirety of, all; can also be rendered any of

masculine singular construct followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

ʿam (עַם) [pronounced ģahm]

people; race, tribe; family, relatives; citizens, common people; companions, servants; entire human race; herd [of animals]

masculine singular collective noun with the definite article

Strong’s #5971 BDB #766

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

qâtseh (קָצֶה) [pronounced kaw-TSEH]

end, extremity, border, outskirts; the whole [which includes the extremities]; at the end of [a certain time]; the sum

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #7097 BDB #892


Translation:...—all the people from the whole [city]—... The final word is unusual and often used in the construct state. Here, it stands on its own, and should likely be understood in the sense of, this takes in the entire city and all of the nearby surrounding areas. The entire male population of the city was participating in this. They all wanted to rape these angels; or to watch them being raped.


We do not have the entire population of Sodom here, assuming that there are some women in its population; however, this verse indicates that we are dealing with the entire or very nearly the entire male population of Sodom.

 

Matthew Henry remarks: Either they had no magistrates to keep the peace, and protect the peaceable, or their magistrates were themselves aiding and abetting.


Gen 19:4 But before they lay down, the men of the city, the men of Sodom, both young and old, all the people to the last man, surrounded the house.


So the angels are at Lot’s home, eating and being made welcome. However, before it was bedtime, the men of the city of Sodom knew about these angels (who appeared to be attractive men to them) and they physically desired them.


We mistakenly believe that homosexuality is simply males being attracted to other males rather than to females, as simple a genetic aberration. There is one very dramatic difference—all situation comedies with homosexual male characters aside—it is not unusual for a male homosexual to have 100 sexual partners; in fact, it is not unusual for them to have 1000 partners or more. Furthermore, we are led to believe that sexual preference is simply innate. However, it is not unusual for homosexuals, males and females, to have had sex with members of the opposite sex, to be attracted to members of the opposite sex, and to have been in love with members of the opposite sex.


However, a male who is sexually attracted to both males and females is going to find more opportunities for sexual encounters with other males who have similar attractions. Furthermore, a woman who finds out that this man is having sex with other males is not going to want to continue a sexual relationship with him.


There also appears to be a part played in the male’s development, if he is exposed to homosexual behavior by another more powerful or older male, that can sometimes result in the association of sexual pleasure with a homosexual act.


As a further aside, the key to love is in the soul, not in the body. The key to a committed lifetime relationship is one male soul paired up with one female soul. It is the souls that are made to coalesce, and the bodies, for a portion of this marriage, express this soul coalescence. The male soul without the female soul tends to get out of control; and the female soul without the male soul tends to get out of control. They are moderated by one another. Just as the souls of their children are moderated by the two parents, jointly and singly.


——————————


And so they call out unto Lot and they say to him, “Where [are] the men who came to you this night? Bring them out unto us and we may know them.”

Genesis

19:5

...and they called out to Lot and said to him, “Where [are] the men who came to you tonight? Bring them out to us so we can know them.”

And they called out to Lot and said to him, “Where [are] the men who came to you tonight? Bring them out to us so that we may know them.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so they call out unto Lot and they say to him, “Where [are] the men who came to you this night? Bring them out unto us and we may know them.”

Targum of Onkelos                And they cried to Lot, and said to him, Where are the men who entered with thee to-night? Bring them out to us, and we will lie with them.

Latin Vulgate                          And they called Lot, and said to him: Where are the men that came in to you at night? bring them out here, that we may know them.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And they called to Lot and said to him, Where are the men who came to you tonight? Bring them out to us that we may know them.

Septuagint (Greek)                And they called out Lot, and said to him, Where are the men that came to you this night? Bring them out to us, that we may be with them.

 

Significant differences:           In this context, the verb to know indicates sexual relations. Different euphemisms are used in the Latin and Greek (apparently).


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           ...and called to Lot, "Where are the men who arrived tonight? Bring them out to us so that we may know them intimately."

Contemporary English V.       ...and started shouting, "Where are your visitors? Send them out, so we can have sex with them!"

Easy-to-Read Version            “Where are the two men (angels) that came to you tonight? Bring them out to us. We want to have sex with them.”

The Message                         They yelled to Lot, "Where are the men who are staying with you for the night? Bring them out so we can have our sport with them!"

New Berkeley Version           ...shouting to Lot, “Where are the men who came to you this night? Bring them out to us, so we may rape them!”


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Then they shouted for Lot and asked him, 'Where are the men that came to your home this evening? Send them out to us so we can [have sex] with them!'

Ancient Roots Translinear      They called to Lot, and said to him, "Where are the men which came to you tonight? Proceed them to us, to know them."

Christian Community Bible     They called Lot and said to him, “Where are the men who arrived here tonight? Send them out so that we may have sex with them.”

New American Bible              They called to Lot and said to him, "Where are the men who came to your house tonight? Bring them out to us that we may have sexual relations with them."

New Jerusalem Bible             Calling out to Lot they said, 'Where are the men who came to you tonight? Send them out to us so that we can have intercourse with them.'


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And crying out to Lot, they said, Where are the men who came to your house this night? Send them out to us, so that we may take our pleasure with them.

Complete Jewish Bible           They called Lot and said to him, "Where are the men who came to stay with you tonight? Bring them out to us! We want to have sex with them!"

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 ...and called out to Lot, and said to him, “Where are the men who came to you to-night? Bring them out to us, that we may ravish them.”

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               And they shouted to Lot and said to him, “Where are the men who came to your tonight? Bring them out to us, that we may be intimate withthem.”

Judaica Press Complete T.    And they called to Lot and said to him, "Where are the men who came to you tonight? Bring them out to us, and let us be intimate with them."

New Advent Bible                  And they called Lot, and said to him: Where are the men that came in to you at night? Bring them out hither, that we may know them.

NET Bible®                             They shouted to Lot [The Hebrew text adds "and said to him." This is redundant in English and has not been translated for stylistic reasons], "Where are the men who came to you tonight? Bring them out to us so we can have sex [The Hebrew verb yâdaʿ (יָדַע) [pronounced yaw-DAHĢ] (which means, "to know") is used here in the sense of "to lie with" or "to have sex with" (as in Gen 4:1). That this is indeed the meaning is clear from Lot's warning that they not do so wickedly, and his willingness to give them his daughters instead.] [sn The sin of the men of Sodom is debated. The fact that the sin involved a sexual act (see note on the phrase "have sex" in 19:5) precludes an association of the sin with inhospitality as is sometimes asserted (see W. Roth, "What of Sodom and Gomorrah? Homosexual Acts in the Old Testament," Explor 1 [1974]: 7-14). The text at a minimum condemns forced sexual intercourse, i.e., rape. Other considerations, though, point to a condemnation of homosexual acts more generally. The narrator emphasizes the fact that the men of Sodom wanted to have sex with men: They demand that Lot release the angelic messengers (seen as men) to them for sex, and when Lot offers his daughters as a substitute they refuse them and attempt to take the angelic messengers by force. In addition the wider context of the Pentateuch condemns homosexual acts as sin (see, e.g., Lev 18:22). Thus a reading of this text within its narrative context, both immediate and broad, condemns not only the attempted rape but also the attempted homosexual act.] with them!"

The Scriptures 1998              And they called to Lot and said to him, “Where are the men who came to you tonight? Bring them out to us, and let us ‘knowʼ them.”


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                And they called to Lot and said, Where are the men who came to you tonight? Bring them out to us, that we may know (be intimate with) them.

Concordant Literal Version    And calling are they to Lot, and saying to him, "Where are the mortals who came to you tonight? Bring them forth to us, and we will know them.

Kretzmann’s Commentary    ...and they called unto Lot and said unto him, Where are the men which came in to thee this night? Bring them out unto us that we may know them. The evening meal having been eaten, the people of Lot's household, together with their guests, were about to retire for the night, when they were rudely disturbed. Emphasis is laid upon the fact that all the people, even down to the last man, took part in this shameless demand, openly stating that they wanted to abuse the guests of Lot in a violation of nature which was one of the greatest curses of heathenism, the sin of pederasty. All the men of Sodom were guilty of this lustful abomination, of this demonic error. Cf Rom. 1:27.

New King James Version       And they called to Lot and said to him, "Where are the men who came to you tonight? Bring them out to us that we may know them carnally."

Syndein                                  And they kept on calling out {qara'} unto Lot, and said {'amar} unto him, "Where are the men which came in to you this night? Bring them out unto us, that we may have sexual relations with them {yada` - idiom: literally 'to know intimately' - here means 'for homosexual activity'}.

World English Bible                They called to Lot, and said to him, "Where are the men who came in to you this night? Bring them out to us, that we may have sex with them."

Young’s Updated LT             And they call unto Lot and say to him, “Where are the men who have come in unto you to-night? bring them out unto us, and we know them.”

 

The gist of this verse:          The men of Sodom call out to Lot, asking where the newcomers are. They ask Lot to bring these men out so that they may know them.


Genesis 19:5a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

qârâʾ (קָרָא) [pronounced kaw-RAW]

to call, to proclaim, to read, to call to, to call out to, to assemble, to summon; to call, to name [when followed by a lâmed]

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong's #7121 BDB #894

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied)

Strong's #413 BDB #39

Lôwţ (לוֹט) [pronounced loht]

hidden; a covering, a veil; wrapped up; transliterated Lot

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #3876 BDB #532


Translation: ...and they called out to Lot... Interestingly enough, these men do not appear to come to the door and knock on it (or whatever they did in that day and age). They call out to Lot; and this is an imperfect tense, indicating that several people called to him. “Lot;” “Hey, Lot;” “Lot, can you hear us?”


This suggests that there might be a courtyard and a door to the courtyard (with another door to the house itself).


Genesis 19:5b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾayyêh (אַיֵּה) [pronounced ahy-YAY]

where

interrogative adverb

Strong's #346 BDB #32

ʾănâshîym (אֲנָשִים) [pronounced uh-NAW-sheem]; also spelled ʾîyshîym (אִישִים) [pronounced ee-SHEEM]

men; inhabitants, citizens; companions; soldiers, followers

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong's #376 BDB #35

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

bôwʾ (בּוֹא) [pronounced boh]

to come in, to come, to go in, to go, to enter, to advance

3rd person masculine plural, Qal perfect

Strong’s #935 BDB #97

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

layelâh (לַיְלָה) [pronounced LAY-law]

night; that night, this night, the night

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3915 BDB #538


Translation: ...and said to him, “Where [are] the men who came to you tonight? They ask Lot where the men are. They do not know that these are angels. Furthermore, most of these men have never seen them. It is not as if someone took a couple of pictures of them with their cellphone and emailed the pics to everyone. All we know is, everyone was told, in some way or another, that there are 2 new men in this city—two strangers. And so, these men are calling out to Lot, “Where are those men who came to you tonight?”


Genesis 19:5c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

yâtsâʾ (יָצָא) [pronounced yaw-TZAWH]

to cause to go out, to lead out, to bring out, to carry out, to draw out, to take out; [of money:] to put forth, to lay out, to exact; to promulgate; to produce

2nd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperative with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #3318 BDB #422

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied) with the 1st person plural suffix

Strong's #413 BDB #39


Translation: Bring them out to us... All of the men of this city have surrounded Lot’s home. Several of them are calling out to Lot and there are perhaps 100 or even a 1000 men there. Can you imagine? It is dusk, there are men everywhere around them, surrounding this house. And they demand here, “Bring them out to us.”


It is the most dangerous situation that Lot has been in, and it is indicative of the depths of lawlessness to which this place has fallen.


Genesis 19:5d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

With a voluntative, cohortative or jussive, the wâw conjunction means that, so that. It expresses intention. The wâw conjunction can express informal inference or consequence (so, then, therefore); especially at the beginning of a speech.

yâdaʿ (יָדַע) [pronounced yaw-DAHĢ]

to know, to perceive, to acquire knowledge, to become acquainted with, to know by experience, to have a knowledge of something; to see; to learn; to recognize [admit, acknowledge, confess]

1st person plural, Qal imperfect with the cohortative hê

Strong’s #3045 BDB #393

BDB also has these Qal meanings: . to find out and discern; to discriminate, distinguish; to consider; to be (come) acquainted with; to know (a person carnally); to know how, be skillful in; to have knowledge, be wise.

The hê at the end is called a voluntative hê and the verb itself is known as a cohortative and is often translated with the additional word let, may, might, ought, should.

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated mark of a direct object; occasionally to, toward

affixed to a 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #853 BDB #84


Translation: ...so we can know them.” This is their desire. “Bring these men out so that we can get to know them.” The verb used here is most commonly to simply mean to know, to perceive, to become acquainted with. We don’t even have to understand this as meaning, “We want to know them sexually.” It is much more likely the innocent sounding, “We’d just like to get to know these guys.” And there are 100—perhaps as many as 1000—men standing out there, in the dark, off in the woods, surrounding this house so that no one can leave. “We’d like to meet these newcomers. We’d like to get to know them.”


The word yâdaʿ (יָדַע) [pronounced yaw-DAHĢ], which has a wide variety of applications (it takes up over 4 columns in BDB). It means to know, to announce, to indicate, to discriminate, to distinguish, to have sexual relations with. Context indicates when it this word has a sexual connotation, as it does here.

 

Peter Pett: The enthusiasm for evil that epitomises Sodom is brought out here....they had all gathered for the sport. They intended to take the men and practise their sexual perversions on them as both participants and spectators. There was no limit to their evil. Then Pett asks: How many innocent strangers in the past had suffered in this way, including children? We will never know. But, in the light of this, who can doubt that God's way was right? These people had no redeeming feature.

 

J. Vernon McGee: This is a sickening scene which reveals the degradation of this city - the city of Sodom. The name that has been put on this sin from that day to this is sodomy. Apparently there was no attempt made in the city of Sodom to have a church for this crowd and to tell them that they were all right in spite of the fact that they practiced this thing. May I say to you that the Word of God is specific on this, and you cannot tone it down. Sodomy is an awful sin. McGee continues: When this man Lot had gone down into the city of Sodom, he did not realize what kind of city it was - I'm sure of that. He got down there and found out that perversion was the order of the day, and he brought up his children, his sons and daughters, in that atmosphere. When he earlier had pitched his tent toward Sodom, he had looked down there and had seen the lovely streets and boulevards and parks and public buildings. And he had seen the folk as they were on the outside, but he had not seen what they really were. The sin of this city is so great that God is now going to judge it. God is going to destroy the city.

 

Thomas Coke: The men of this abandoned city, being informed of the arrival of these strangers (who probably were of a very beautiful appearance) flocked from all quarters of the town, numbers of every age, with the most infamous purpose, shocking to relate or think of. Their crime, though exquisitely horrid in itself, became, if it were possible, still more so, by being attempted upon the persons of strangers, to violate whom has been accounted a sacrilege in all nations. What an idea does this give us of the total depravation and corruption of this people! One end of Infinite Wisdom, says Dr. Delaney, in recording this history of the destruction of Sodom, was to give us a true idea of that guilt which drew down the Divine vengeance upon this devoted people, and to convey this knowledge to us in a way worthy of infinite wisdom and goodness. Here was a habit of guilt, the most monstrous and unnatural that can be imagined; a crime not to be named among men, and much less to be explained or described: and yet there was a necessity that it should be known, that it should be seen in all its aggravation, in all its horror, in order to vindicate the justice of God in so dreadful a chastisement of it; and that this chastisement should be a terror to all succeeding generations, to guard them against a sin so shameful and so detestable.


Vv. 4–5 read: Before the angels went to bed, the men of the city—these men of Sodom—had surrounded the house—both young and old—all of the people from the entire city area. And they called out to Lot and said to him, “Where [are] the men who came to you tonight? Bring them out to us so that we may know them.”

 

005-sodom-gomorrah.jpg

Joseph Benson: No description which could be given of their vile and abominable conduct, however laboured, could possibly have conveyed so striking an idea of their unparalleled wickedness, as this simple narrative of facts. Here were old and young, all from every quarter - Collected for practices too shameful to be mentioned! Either they had no magistrates to protect the peaceable, or their magistrates themselves were aiding and abetting.


The Men of Sodom Come to Lot’s Home to Violate the Strangers. From Free Bible Artwork, accessed August 9, 2014.


To me, one of the most disturbing aspects of our prisons is the prospect of homosexual rape. It would seem right that offenders should be executed. However, here we have the entire male population of five cities who are capable of such behavior. This is why God will destroy these five cities.


There is no difference between the Old Testament God and the New Testament God; He did not become more gracious after the birth of Jesus. What we have here is incredible, almost unthinkable degeneracy, of which we are able to only glimpse a small portion of the depths of their degeneracy. We have possibly teens and pre-teens here who have been warped by their fathers into this kind of activity. This population needs to be destroyed.

 

Robbie Dean: When a culture deteriorates so much that it removes restraint from these sins that have tremendous social consequences then that culture is already on the path to self-destruction, and it becomes necessary in the plan of God at times to remove that culture.


When Lot exits, he immediately closes the door behind him; knowing that they would just enter and attack the male guests. He attempts to reason with them, to appeal to them. These men have no conscience, no concept of right and wrong, no relationship to God. There is no reason, insofar as they are concerned, not to act upon their perverted lusts. This goes beyond homosexuality; this combines homosexuality and crime. When we begin with the law, then we will look more carefully at homosexuality. However, just a few points should suffice:

A Few Points on Homosexuality

       Homosexuality is condemned as a sin in the Old and New Testaments.

       Being born with homosexual tendencies does not excuse the sin of homosexuality.

       Most men have had (1) homosexual urges, (2) an homosexual experience, and/or (3) have experienced some mixed signals in their sexuality. This does not excuse homosexual behavior, which is a sin.

       It is likely that some men develop very early in life a tendency toward child molestation, toward sexual proclivity, or toward homosexuality. This does not make any of these behaviors acceptable or right in God's sight.

       Jesus Christ died for all mankind, regardless of their level of degeneracy and regardless of how they view themselves and their own lifestyle. Any homosexual, child molester, rapist and any person with any deviant behavior whatsoever can be saved by believing in Jesus Christ.

       Having known several homosexuals and having liked them (not like liked), I would, within limits, like to give them the right to be homosexuals with full approval from God; however, this is not the way it is. Homosexual acts are clearly sinful as per the Bible.

       What might be easiest to understand is that there are some men who have a tendency to desire more than one woman, and even after committing to one woman, even in full sincerity, still fail in their marriage vows and commit adultery. It is a completely natural process and rooted in lusts that they have had since birth. Most men, particularly after several years of marriage, have some lusts toward other women. This is absolutely normal and common. However, being natural or common does not make it right or acceptable in God's sight. Homosexuality is viewed in the same way by God, although adultery, if anything, is seen by God as being worse (as it is in the Ten Commandments).

       In this context, homosexual behavior and criminality were linked, making it far more degenerate and requiring divine intervention.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Guzik: The sin of the men of Sodom is plainly connected to their homosexuality. There is no doubt the Bible declares homosexual conduct is sin (Romans 1:26-28).

Guzik on Homosexuality

1.      The Bible condemns homosexuality in the same context as it condemns incest and bestiality (Leviticus 18:22, 20:13). If we ignore the word of God at the point of homosexual conduct, then we have no standing to say any of the other three sins are sin.

2.      Homosexual advocates have an interest in saying homosexuals are exactly like everyone else, except they love people of their own sex. But when the conduct of homosexuals is observed, this is not the case.

3.      We can bring out statistics on the number of partners homosexuals have: 43% of homosexuals say they have had 500 or more sexual partners in their lifetime. Only 1% of homosexuals say they have had four or less sexual partners in their lifetime. According to the United States Department of Health and Human Services, 77% of homosexuals say they have met sexual partners in a city park, 62% in a homosexual bar, 61% in a theater, 31% in a public restroom. Only 28% of homosexuals said they had known their partners for at least a week before participating in homosexual sex.

4.      Undoubtedly, one of the reasons why males pursue and give in to homosexual desires is because they want to immerse themselves in a lifestyle of dangerous sex with no inhibitions or obstacles, and sense that sex with other men is an easier path to this. No wonder Paul connects "burning lust" and a debased mind with male homosexuality in Romans 1:27-28.

5.      Homosexuals also have an interest in saying that up to 10% of the population is homosexual. But the most reliable statistics show only 2.3% of men in their 20's and 30's report ever having had a homosexual experience. Only 1.1% reported being exclusively homosexual. These low figures agree with several other recent surveys and surveys done in Britain and France.

6.      Homosexuals also have an interest in saying they were "born that way." All attempts thus far to prove this have been based more on wishful thinking than solid biological research, but if it is found to be the case, so what? The Bible teaches we are all born with a predisposition to sin. It shouldn't surprise us that some 2% of the population finds this predisposition expressed in homosexual desire.

7.      Homosexuals also have an interest in defining themselves as "gay," a word that used to mean "happy" or "carefree," but it is a poor description of a lifestyle that has such a high rate of death, disease, and suicide.

The point of these statistics is not to overwhelm you with statistics, but so that you can clearly see that the homosexual lifestyle is much different than that which we see portrayed on tv or in the movies.

All of this is from David Guzik’s Commentary on the Old Testament; courtesy of e-sword; ©2006;  Gen. 18:4–9.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines

 

Calvary Chapel: What about those who say that they were born that way, that they were born homosexuals? I believe that is true! Now hear me out on this. There is no biological research to prove that people are born homosexuals, but they are born with a sin nature and thus, we all have a predisposition or a tendency to sin at whatever capacity or depravity that may be! It does not make it right nor did God create a person that way, they choose to go down that path. And folks, homosexuals make up a very small proportion of the population...But the rest of the population is no different, they just commit other sins and apart from Christ they are dead in their trespasses and sins, they will die in their sins.


When commentators from the 1800's or most of the 1900's commented on homosexual behavior, very little was said about its sinfulness, as that was understood. They would certainly point out that homosexual rape was what the sin was here; but it is not until the end of the 20th century when commentators began to bolster their commentary with science and statistics.

 

J. Vernon McGee: Let's draw a sharp line here. There is a new attitude toward sin today. There is a gray area where sin is not really as black as we once thought it was. The church has compromised until it is pitiful. In Southern California we have a church made up of those who are homosexuals, and, lo and behold, they all admit that the pastor of the church is one also! May I say to you, the lesson of Sodom and Gomorrah is a lesson for this generation. God is not accepting this kind of church. McGee continues: The idea today seems to be that you can become a child of God and continue on in sin. God says that is impossible - you cannot do that, and this city of Sodom is an example of that fact. Paul asks the question: "Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound?" And the answer is "God forbid," or, Let it not be (see Rom. 6:1-2).


Now, let’s explain this: we are saved by faith in Christ alone—there are no good works, there are no promises that we can make, there is no good thing that we can do in order to be saved. So, let’s say that you have an addictive sin prior to salvation. What happens if you return to that sin? You do not lose your salvation, but something is brand new: God is now your Father, and as your Father, God will discipline you. God can take this to the point of the sin unto death.


There is the possibility that, at the point of faith in Christ, you start from scratch—that is, you are not consummated with the addictions of before. This is something which I have personally experienced at salvation, when there was addictive behavior which I engaged in at that time that I was able to set aside. There was some will power involved, but not the sort required of an addicted person to set aside his addiction.

 

Robert McLaughlin: As unbelievers, we had accumulated Scar Tissue in the soul. Scar Tissue is synonymous with "hardness of the heart" in the Scriptures. Scar Tissue develops from the influence of evil on your left (mind) and right (heart) lobes. As Scar Tissue accumulates, false doctrine moves rapidly into the left lobe and puts pressure on the right lobe. It prevents us from having any permanent peace and happiness in life and is accumulated through residing in Satan's cosmic system. It must be removed before we can receive divine blessing. At the moment of salvation, all Scar Tissue is removed from our souls (Isa. 43:22,25). As believers, however we can re-accumulate Scar Tissue through our involvement in the cosmic system. So, even though you can leave your addictions behind, it is possible that you will return to them simply out of habit, and develop scar tissue again.


Gen 19:5 And they called to Lot, "Where are the men who came to you tonight? Bring them out to us, that we may know them."


I want you to get a picture of this in your mind—there are dozens and perhaps hundreds of homosexuals gathered around Lot’s home. Notice what they do not do. They do not have an orgy among themselves; they want to have sex with those who have come into their city or to observe them being raped and to be titillated by that. Monogamous sex among male homosexuals is rare. A 1981 study showed that only 2% of homosexuals were monogamous or semi-monogamous (which is generously defined as having 10 or fewer lifetime partners). When it comes to variety, if you will, a 1978 study found that 43% of male homosexuals estimated having sex with 500 or more partners and that 28% estimated their having sex with 1000 or more partners. So, even though these men surrounding Lot’s house are filled with homosexual lust, it is for the two strangers, not for one another.


This in itself would suggest that there is more of an addiction involved here than is admitted to.


This is because a man has a male soul with male weaknesses. A woman who is aware of her male significant other or husband sleeping around with 500 other partners is going to call it quits somewhere between #1 and #10. Almost no woman would tolerate this. Two males together will tolerate infidelity, simply because they recognize that the other person is a male with male weaknesses. This toleration includes the fact that even in a committed relationship, going outside of it (which is common in homosexual relationships) could result in bringing a deadly disease into the relationship.


In this particular circumstance, there are probably other things involved: the desire to exert power over others, the desire to hurt and injure others. However, the means of doing this will be by committing homosexual rape.


When it comes to “committed” homosexuals, a very possible AIDS infection is thrown into the mix, meaning a “committed” homosexual relationship (or an uncommitted one, for that matter) is like playing Russian roulette. There is a very strong possibility that some miscellaneous male partner will be infected with the AIDS virus. The reason that the AIDS virus seemed to happen so suddenly and so dramatically, is because you have the average homosexual male hooking up with 10, 20, 50 or 100 or more partners every single year—many of whom were strangers—and those men are also doing the same thing. Promiscuity is less restrained when there are two men involved.


Gen 19:5 And they called to Lot, "Where are the men who came to you tonight? Bring them out to us, that we may know them."

 

Enter the Bible has a fairly updated view of this chapter: Many traditional interpretations of the sins of Sodom have focused on same-sex activity (19:5-8). At the same time, the text specifically states that the threat against the angelic visitors comes from every man in the city (19:4). If all these men had succeeded in doing what they had threatened to do, the result would have been gang rape, abusive violence, and savage inhospitality. The text thus does not speak of nonviolent sexual behavior or of homosexual orientation and activity as such. The abusive activity is thus best seen as parallel to male/male rape in time of war (witness, say, Bosnia) or in prisons, where the resident prisoners thereby seek to dominate newcomers (see also the similar story in Judges 19). Whereas, strictly speaking, this is true—the sins intended here are force homosexual rape—this is the result of a society which has tolerated homosexual activity. How many prisons began with a defacto policy of overlooking homosexual activity; and then this morphed into the rape of other prisoners?


In any case, even though homosexual rape is what is in view here, homosexual acts are clearly sinful in God’s eyes.


Homosexuality has not reached this sort of a fever pitch here in the United States; but it is addictive behavior, and let me explain why. Every time two men have sex—especially if this is a sexual union between relative strangers—they are risking their lives. An AIDS test on Wednesday does not mean that you are free of AIDS on Friday. Condoms are not a 100% guard against the spread of AIDS (or other venereal diseases); and yet, it is common for homosexuals to have had 500, 1000 or 2000 sexual partners (even if they are in a committed relationship). Having hundreds of partners for a homosexual is much different than for a heterosexual—for heterosexuals, it might be 1 man in 5000 who has 500 partners or more. According to one survey, the median number of lifetime female sexual partners for men was seven; the median number of male partners for women was four (and we live in a highly sexualized society). Still, 25% of women and 17% of men report having no more than one partner of the other sex in their lifetime. However, when it comes to homosexuals, a Dutch study found that men who had a steady partner still engaged in sexual activity with an average of 8 partners a year. Bell and Weinberg, in their classic study of male and female homosexuality, found that 43% of white male homosexuals had sex with 500 or more partners, with 28 percent having one thousand or more sex partners. To most heterosexual males (and females), this is amazing and almost incomprehensible. So, in that committed homosexual relationship, both partners are out there about 8 times a year with another man, a man who might introduce a debilitating disease to both of them in this “committed relationship,” and yet they still do it. That is what makes this additive behavior. When you regularly do something that risks your life and the life of your loved ones, that is classic addictive behavior. When your desire to do something exceeds reason and potentially could change everyone’s life for the worst, and yet, you still do it, that is addictive behavior.


You may wonder why gays are so militant. It may seem weird to you that they march with banners and push their agenda on everyone. They are both addicted to the frequency and to the variety and to the very act of homosexuality; so they are going to lay the groundwork for them to be able to pursue frequency and variety in any way possible.


My point is, these men in Sodom are addicted. Now, you would think that, a homosexual group of 8 or 20 men might choose to keep their behavior within this group? They don’t. They are constantly going outside, to meet new men—virtual strangers—to have sex with. Again, remember that hundreds of sexual partners for a homosexual is the norm. So, when new males come into Sodom, all of the males become charged up with the desire to have them—even if they rape them to the point that they die.


Now, you may think that this is unrealistic, that men would never behave in this fashion. Then you do not know the power of lust, the desire to dominate and just how far man is able to fall. In prison, in a study done in 2007, it is reported that 4.5% of the prisoners had been subjected to sexual victimization, either by other prisoners or by their guards. From an article on Human Rights Watch: Human Rights Watch documented vicious and brutally violent male rapes in prison as well as other more common, less overtly violent forms of coerced sex. This sort of activity tends to be more common in our culture in prisons, where the inmates are not properly supervised and protected, and among a prison population which is going to still identify itself as heterosexual. When the supervision of prisoners is more lax, then this sort of thing occurs more often—12.2% in a prison in Nebraska. My point is, in an environment where such a thing is not policed at all—like Sodom—this sort of behavior is not an exaggeration. What happened here is Sodom is no different than would happen in that prison in Nebraska, if all supervision stopped. As far as we can tell, there are no restraints in Sodom, apart from Lot.


——————————


And so goes out unto them Lot the doorway and the door he shut behind him.

Genesis

19:6

So Lot went out to them through the doorway, having shut the door behind him.

So Lot went out to these men through the doorway, having shut the door behind him.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so goes out unto them Lot the doorway and the door he shut behind him.

Targum of Onkelos                And Lot went out to them to the gate, and shut the door after him.

Latin Vulgate                          Lot went out to them, and shut the door after him, and said... A couple of Bibles placed the and said with v. 6.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And Lot went out at the door to them; and he shut the door after him.

Septuagint (Greek)                And Lot went out to them to the porch, and he shut the door after him,...

 

Significant differences:           The Latin has gate and the Greek has porch rather than doorway.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       Lot went outside and shut the door behind him.

Easy English                          So Lot went outside, but he shut the door behind him.

The Message                         Lot went out, barring the door behind him,...

New Living Translation           So Lot stepped outside to talk to them, shutting the door behind him.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      Lot proceeded to them at the opening, and closed the door after him...

New American Bible              Lot went out to meet them at the entrance. When he had shut the door behind him,...

New Jerusalem Bible             Lot came out to them at the door and, having shut the door behind him,...

New Simplified Bible              Lot stepped outside to talk to them, shutting the door behind him.

Revised English Bible            Lot went out into the doorway to them, and, closing the door behind him,...


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And Lot went out to them in the doorway, shutting the door after him.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 Lot however went out to them to the porch; and the doors were closed behind him;...

HCSB                                     Lot went out to them at the entrance and shut the door behind him.

Judaica Press Complete T.    And Lot came out to them to the entrance, and he shut the door behind him.

NIV – UK                                Lot went outside to meet them and shut the door behind him...


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And forth to them is Lot faring, to the portal, yet the door he closes after him.

English Standard Version      Lot went out to the men at the entrance, shut the door after him,...

exeGeses companion Bible   And Lot goes to them at the portal

and shuts the door after him,...

LTHB                                     And Lot went out to them, to the door, and he closed the door behind him.

New King James Version       So Lot went out to them through the doorway, shut the door behind him,...

New RSV                               Lot went out of the door to the men, shut the door after him,...

World English Bible                Lot went out to them to the door, and shut the door after him.

Young’s Updated LT             And Lot goes out unto them, to the opening, and the door has shut behind him,...

 

The gist of this verse:          Lot comes outside to talk with these men, closing the door behind him.


Genesis 19:6a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

yâtsâʾ (יָצָא) [pronounced yaw-TZAWH]

to go out, to come out, to come forth; to rise; to flow, to gush up [out]

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #3318 BDB #422

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied) with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #413 BDB #39

Lôwţ (לוֹט) [pronounced loht]

hidden; a covering, a veil; wrapped up; transliterated Lot

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #3876 BDB #532

pethach (פֶּתַח) [pronounced PEH-thahkh]

opening, doorway, entrance, gate [for a tent, house, or city]; metaphorically, gate [of hope, of the mouth]

masculine singular noun with the definite article and the directive hê

Strong’s #6607 BDB #835

The directive hê or the he locale (which I have dubbed the directional hê) often indicates direction and puts somewhat of an adverbial spin on the noun. Essentially, it answers the question where? The directional hê indicates the direction in which something moves. It is often used with the noun heaven and the most literal rendering in the English would be heavenward. We can also indicate the existence of the hê directional by supplying the prepositions to or toward.


Translation: So Lot went out to them through the doorway,... Lot has lived in this area for sometime. This is about 20 years after Lot and Abraham separated; so it is reasonable to assume that Lot had become quite acclimated to this general area and that these people knew him.


It is unclear whether he felt safe or not, going out to speak with these men, but he did so anyway. Since he has lived among them for so long, it is only reasonable that he expected to be able to reason with them.


What is likely the case is, Lot was aware of what occurred in this city—that strangers were being raped and killed—but this is the first time that he finds himself in the middle of all this. Like many, he probably assumed that, with the right words, he might be able to dissuade the townsfolk.


Genesis 19:6b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

deleth (דֶּלֶת) [pronounced DEH-lehth]

door, gate; figuratively for a door [gate] [to crocodile jaws]; door [lid of a chest]; lips of men; door [to an easily-accessible woman]

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #1817 BDB #195

çâgar (סָגַר) [pronounced saw-GAHR]

to shut up, to close up

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #5462 BDB #688

ʾachărêy (אַחֲרֵי) [pronounced ah-kuh-RAY]

behind, after; following; after that, afterwards; hinder parts

preposition; plural form with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong’s #310 BDB #29

The plural form of this preposition occurs more often than the singular, although I am uncertain as to any difference in meaning when used as a preposition.

There is a slight difference in the spelling here, where the final vowel is â rather than ê. Although I did not find that alternate form in Gesenius (I did not spend a long time doing this), I don’t think that there is any sort of problem here. It is possible that this is a simple alternate spelling.


Translation: ...having shut the door behind him. It is quite obvious that Lot does not trust these men, and that he closes the door behind him. Although we might presume he said, “Do not let anyone through this door except for me” that is only conjecture. Similarly, it is reasonable to assume that there is some way of bolting or locking the door, which Lot instructed those inside the house to do.

 

Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge: Two words are here used for door. the first pethach, which is the door-way, at which Lot went out; the latter, deleth, the leaf of the door, which he shut after him when out.


Gen 19:6 Lot went out to the men at the entrance, shut the door after him,


Lot has lived among these people for over two decades. Therefore, he feels reasonably safe with stepping outside of his door and attempting to reason with them. He has probably had to deal with many of these men in court and they undoubtedly showed some respect for his position at one time.


However, you will note two things: he insisted that the two angels lodge with him, which would have been protection for them; and he shuts the door behind him in this verse, again taking steps to protect them and his family.


——————————


And so, he says, “Do not, please, my brothers, do evil.

Genesis

19:7

He said, “Please do not do [this] evil, my brothers.

Then he said, “Please, do not do this evil thing, my brothers.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so, he says, “Do not, please, my brothers, do evil.

Targum of Onkelos                And he said, I pray, my brethren, do not thus wickedly.

Latin Vulgate                          Do not so, I beseech you, my brethren, do not commit this evil.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And Lot said to them, I pray you, my brethren, do not so wickedly.

Septuagint (Greek)                ...and said to them, By no means, brethren, do not act so wickedly.

 

Significant differences:           None.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           ...and said, "My brothers, don't do such an evil thing

Contemporary English V.       Then he said, "Friends, please don't do such a terrible thing!

Easy-to-Read Version            Lot said to the men, “No! Friends, I beg you, please don’t do this evil thing!

The Message                         ...and said, "Brothers, please, don't be vile!

New Life Bible                        He said, "My brothers, please do not be so sinful.

New Living Translation           "Please, my brothers," he begged, "don't do such a wicked thing.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          ...and said: 'Absolutely not, brothers! Don't do this wicked thing!

Ancient Roots Translinear      ...saying, "Please, brothers, do- no evil

God’s Word                         "Please, my friends, don't be so wicked," he said.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And he said, My brothers, do not this evil.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 ...and he said, “My friends, do not commit such wickedness.

HCSB                                     He said, "Don't do this evil, my brothers.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               ...and said, “I beg you, my friends, do not commit such a wrong.

Judaica Press Complete T.    And he said, "My brethren, please do not do evil.

New Advent Bible                  Do not so, I beseech you, my brethren, do not commit this evil.

NET Bible®                             He said, "No, my brothers! Don't act so wickedly [Heb "may my brothers not act wickedly."]!


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                And said, I beg of you, my brothers, do not behave so wickedly.

Context Group Version          And he said, I beg of you { pl }, my brothers, don't act so wickedly.

English Standard Version      ...and said, "I beg you, my brothers, do not act so wickedly.

exeGeses companion Bible   ...and says, I beseech you, brothers, vilify not:

Fred Miller’s Revised KJV     And said, I beseech you, brothers, do not so wickedly.

Kretzmann’s Commentary    ...and said, I pray you, brethren, do not so wickedly. This was the consequence of Lot's having settled in the midst of a godless and wicked people. Lot, having gone out and locked the door behind him in order to protect his guests, confronted a mob that had gone crazy with unnatural lust. His plea, in which he addressed them as brethren and begged them not to act in such a wicked manner, fell on deaf ears.

World English Bible                He said, "Please, my brothers, don't act so wickedly.

Young’s Updated LT             And he says, “Do not, I pray you, my brothers, do evil.

 

The gist of this verse:          Lot calls these men my brothers and asks that they not do evil.


Genesis 19:7

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

ʾal (אַל) [pronounced al]

no, not; nothing; none; neither, nor; do not, let not [with a verb];; let there not be [with an understood verb];

adverb of negation; conjunction of prohibiting, dehorting, deprecating, desire that something not be done

Strong’s #408 BDB #39

ʾal can mean ➊ nothing; ➋ it can act as the adverb of negative, much like μὴ; ➌ it can take on the idea of nay [do not do so]; ➍ it is used simply as a negative, but, like the Greek μὴ, it is put only in what a re called subjective propositions, and thus is only found with the imperfect tense (the other negative in the Hebrew is not so confined); ➎ ʾal is used most often as a conjunction of prohibiting, dehorting, deprecating, wishing that anything not be done. It can be used in an imprecation. ➏ It can be used interrogatively, meaning whether when a negative reply is expected; have [you] not.

nâʾ (נָא) [pronounced naw]

now; please, I pray you, I respectfully implore (ask, or request of) you, I urge you

a primitive particle of incitement and entreaty

Strong's #4994 BDB #609

Nâʾ is used for a submissive and modest request. It is used to express a wish (Job 32:21: “Oh, that I may not respect any man’s person”); to incite or to urge (Jer. 5:24); it is depreciatory when affixed to the 2nd person with a particle of negation (do not, I implore you—see Gen. 33:10 19:18); with the it expresses a wish or request (Psalm 124 129:1 SOS 7:9), a challenge (Jer. 17:15), asking leave (Gen. 18:4), and depreciation with a negation (Gen. 18:32). In many of these examples, we would express this with the addition of the word let.

ʾâch (אָח) [pronounced awhk]

brother, kinsman or close relative

masculine singular noun with the 1st person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #251 BDB #26

râʿaʿ (רָעַע) [pronounced raw-ĢAHĢ]

to make evil, to do evil, to do ill, to cause to do evil, to cause something injurious to be done, to do harm

2nd person masculine plural, Hiphil imperfect

Strong’s #7489 BDB #949


Translation: He said, “Please do not do [this] evil, my brothers. Lot is standing there, at his door, which is closed behind him. He knows what these men have in mind. This suggests that this has happened before. Lot did not insist that these men come home with him, simply because he suspected that there might be a problem. This had to occur on several occasions. These men must have done this same thing before, where they gathered around a stranger or strangers and raped and killed them. Lot has good reason to be concerned for these men (angels) who are with him.


Lot is selfish and self-serving, used to always getting his way, but living in Sodom, even he stands out as saintly next to these. Lot is mentioned in two passages in the New Testament. In Luke 17:28–29, our Lord is describing to the general population what the end times will be like. He does not focus in on the wickedness of the peoples of Sodom and the surrounding areas but upon their complete disregard for God and things spiritual. Those of Lot's day were eating, drinking, buying, selling, planting and building. None of these things are inherently wrong. All of these things should be taking place in any normal population. However, the implication in this passage is that these were their only concerns; they had no thoughts of God, of their relation to Him or their responsibilities. Peter deals with the degeneracy of those in Sodom and Gomorrah in 2Peter 2:6–10. Lot is said to be vexed or oppressed and tormented by the sexual conduct and lawlessness of those around him.


Lot calls these men brothers, simply suggesting that they are of the same community; the same city. This is almost a term of endearment, hoping to perhaps remind them of their mutual ties.


Vv. 6–7: So Lot went out to them through the doorway, having shut the door behind him. He said, “Please do not do [this] evil, my brothers. He is pleading with them not to do ill to a man's guests; not to abuse strangers who have come upon their city, not to break the laws and rules of hospitality, and especially not to commit that unnatural sin they were bent upon.


I don’t believe that Lot realized the depths that the people of Sodom had sunk to. I don’t think it occurred to him that his own life would be in danger by taking in these two men. I don’t believe that he expected that his house would be surrounded; and I don’t think he realized that he could not reason with these men.


Application: It is difficult to figure out the current president (I write this in 2014 and Barack Obama is president of the United States). He appears to be as unthinking as Lot is here, not realizing that he cannot reason with Muslims or with Vladimir Put in. In so many words, his message to the world seems to be, “Look, I am not George Bush; I am not looking to get into military confrontations. We are more than willing to back off, if you would just be reasonable and civil.” But there is no reasoning with the devil; there is no shaming the devil. The people that we are dealing with out in the world are cruel, heartless and any quarter given will not be seen as a way to peace, but as a sign of weakness.


Application: There are some people that you cannot reason with. You are wasting your breath.


——————————


Gen 19:7 and said, "I beg you, my brothers, do not act so wickedly.


At first, we look at Lot and think, this is a marvelous guy. He takes strangers in off the streets to protect them. He attempts to reason with the radical members of his community. But then, he does this:


Behold please: to me, a pair of daughters who have not known a man—let me please bring them out unto you [all] and you do to them as the good in your two eyes. Only to the men the these, you will not do a word, for upon this they have come in a shade of my rafters.”

Genesis

19:8

Listen, please: I have [lit., to me] a pair of daughters who have not known a man—please let me bring them out to you and you do to them as is good in your eyes. Only, with regards to these men, you will not do a thing, for they have come under the protection [lit., shadow] of my roof.”

Listen to me, please: I have a pair of daughters here who are virgins—please allow me to bring them out to you and you do with them what you want. However, do not do a thing to these men, for they are under the protection of my home.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        Behold please: to me, a pair of daughters who have not known a man—let me please bring them out unto you [all] and you do to them as the good in your two eyes. Only to the men the these, you will not do a word, for upon this they have come in a shade of my rafters.”

Targum of Onkelos                Behold, now, I have two daughters who have had no dealing with a man; I would now bring even them out to you to do to them as is meet before you, rather than you should do evil to these men, because they have entered in to lodge under the shadow of my roof.

Latin Vulgate                          I have two daughters who, as yet, have not known man; I will bring them out to you, and abuse you them as it shall please you, so that you do no evil to these men, because they are come in under the shadow of my roof.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    Behold now, I have two daughters who have, not known man; let me bring them out to you, and do to them whatever you please; only to these men do nothing; for they have come under the protection of my roof.

Septuagint (Greek)                But I have two daughters, who have not known a man. I will bring them out to you, and use them as it may please you, only do no injury to these men, since this is the reason they have come under the shelter of my roof.

 

Significant differences:           The Latin lacks behold now. The word translated please can also be translated now. The translations above idiomatically translate and you d to them as the good in your two eyes. The targum adds an extra phrase.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       I have two daughters who have never been married. I'll bring them out, and you can do what you want with them. But don't harm these men. They are guests in my home."

Easy English                          Look. I have two daughters that have never had sex. Let me bring them out to you. You can do to them what you want. However, do not touch these visitors. They have come into my house and I must protect them.'

Easy-to-Read Version            Look, I have two daughters who have never slept with a man before. I will give my daughters to you. You can do anything you want with them. But please don’t do anything to these men. These men have come to my house, and I must protect them.

Good News Bible (TEV)         Look, I have two daughters who are still virgins. Let me bring them out to you, and you can do whatever you want with them. But don't do anything to these men; they are guests in my house, and I must protect them."

The Message                         Look, I have two daughters, virgins; let me bring them out; you can take your pleasure with them, but don't touch these men--they're my guests."

New Berkeley Version           Look here, I have two virgin daughters; let me bring them out to yoiu, and you do with them as you like; but do nothing to these men, because they have come for shelter under my roof.” A degree of protection to guests what surpasses our sense of propriety


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          I have two daughters who have never [had sex] with a man. I will bring them out to you and you can do whatever you want with them. However, don't do these men any harm! Why, it was to avoid such a thing that they came under the shelter of my roof!'

Ancient Roots Translinear      Please, my two daughters here know no man. Please, I will proceed them to you. Do to them as is good in your eyes. Only to these men do no word, for they came so toward the shadow of my logs."

God’s Word                         "Look, I have two daughters who have never had sex. Why don't you let me bring them out to you? Do whatever you like with them. But don't do anything to these men, since I'm responsible for them."

NIRV                                      Look, I have two daughters. No man has ever made love to them. I'll bring them out to you now. Then do to them what you want to. But don't do anything to these men. I've brought them inside so they can be safe."

New Jerusalem Bible             Look, I have two daughters who are virgins. I am ready to send them out to you, for you to treat as you please, but do nothing to these men since they are now under the protection of my roof.'

New Simplified Bible              »I have two virgin daughters. Do with them as you wish, but leave these men alone, for they are under my protection.«


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             See now, I have two unmarried daughters; I will send them out to you so that you may do to them whatever seems good to you: only do nothing to these men, for this is why they have come under the shade of my roof.

Complete Jewish Bible           Look here, I have two daughters who are virgins. Please, let me bring them out to you, and you can do with them what seems good to you; but don't do anything to these men, since they are guests in my house."

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 Look now, I have two virgin daughters; I will bring to you, and you can do to them whatever you like; only to these men do not such a thing; for as a protection from it, they came to the shelter of my roof.”

HCSB                                     Look, I've got two daughters who haven't had sexual relations with a man. I'll bring them out to you, and you can do whatever you want to them. However, don't do anything to these men, because they have come under the protection of my roof."

Judaica Press Complete T.    Behold now I have two daughters who were not intimate with a man. I will bring them out to you, and do to them as you see fit; only to these men do nothing, because they have come under the shadow of my roof."

New Advent Bible                  I have two daughters who, as yet, have not known man; I will bring them out to you, and abuse you them as it shall please you, so that you do no evil to these men, because they have come in under the shadow of my roof.

NET Bible®                             Look, I have two daughters who have never had sexual relations with [Heb "who have not known." Here this expression is a euphemism for sexual intercourse.] a man. Let me bring them out to you, and you can do to them whatever you please [Heb "according to what is good in your eyes."]. Only don't do anything to these men, for they have come under the protection [Heb "shadow."] of my roof." This chapter portrays Lot as a hypocrite. He is well aware of the way the men live in his city and is apparently comfortable in the midst of it. But when confronted by the angels, he finally draws the line. But he is nevertheless willing to sacrifice his daughters' virginity to protect his guests. His opposition to the crowds leads to his rejection as a foreigner by those with whom he had chosen to live. The one who attempted to rescue his visitors ends up having to be rescued by them.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                Look now, I have two daughters who are virgins; let me, I beg of you, bring them out to you, and you can do as you please with them. But only do nothing to these men, for they have come under the protection of my roof.

Concordant Literal Version    Behold, pray, my two daughters who have not known a man. Pray, forth will I bring them to you, and do you to them as is good in your eyes. But to these mortals you must not do anything evil, for therefore come they into the shadow of my rafters.

Context Group Version          Look now, I have two daughters that haven't known { had sex with } a man; let me, I beg of you { pl }, bring them out to you { pl }, and do to them as is good in your { pl } eyes: only to these men do nothing, since they have come under the shadow of my roof.

exeGeses companion Bible   ...behold, I beseech,

I have two daughters who know no man;

I - I beseech you, I bring them out to you

and you work to them as is good in your eyes:

only work no word to these men;

and so they come under the shadow of my beams.

Heritage Bible                        See, there are two daughters to me who have not known man; let me, please, bring them out to you, and do to them as is good in your eyes; only do not this word to these men, because they came under the shadow of my roof..

LTHB                                     Behold, now, I have two daughters who have not known a man; please let me bring them out to you and do to them as you see fit; only do not do a thing to these men, on account of this they came into the shade of my roof.

Modern KJV                           Behold now, I have two daughters which have not known man. I pray you, let me bring them out to you, and you do to them as you see fit. But do nothing to these men, for this is why they came under the shadow of my roof.

Syndein                                  "Behold now, I have two daughters who have not 'had sexual relations'/known {yada} man. Let me, please/'I pray you', bring them out unto you, and do/manufacture {'asah - vile things out of their lust} yourself to them as . . . {is} good {towb} in your eyes {`ayin - pure human viewpoint - in Lot and in the mob}. Only unto these men do/manufacture {'asah - out of respect for Lot} nothing, for therefore came they under the shadow of my roof." {Note: Lot is thinking only of his reputation in the town. If these strangers are abused while under his personal protection, then his reputation will be destroyed. So, out of fellowship, he would rather give his young virgin daughters to this mob - for them to abuse.}.

World English Bible                See now, I have two virgin daughters. Please let me bring them out to you, and do you to them as is good in your eyes. Only don't do anything to these men, because they have come under the shadow of my roof."

Young's Updated LT              Lo, I pray you, I have two daughters, who have not known any one; let me, I pray you, bring them out unto you, and do to them as is good in your eyes; only to these men do not anything, for therefore have they come in within the shadow of my roof.'

 

The gist of this verse:          Lot offers up his daughters instead of the men who are with him.


Genesis 19:8a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

hinnêh (הִנֵּה) [pronounced hin-NAY]

lo, behold, or more freely, observe, look here, look, listen, pay attention, get this, check this out

interjection, demonstrative particle

Strong’s #2009 (and #518, 2006) BDB #243

nâʾ (נָא) [pronounced naw]

now; please, I pray you, I respectfully implore (ask, or request of) you, I urge you

a primitive particle of incitement and entreaty

Strong's #4994 BDB #609

Although BDB gives a list of several passages where these are found together (Gen. 12:11 16:2 18:27, 31 19:2, 8, 19, 20 27:2 Judges 13:3 19:9 1Sam. 9:6 16:15 2Sam. 13:24 2Kings 2:16, 19 4:9 Job 13:18 33:2 40:15–16), all they offer is behold, I pray as a translation of the two together. Gesenius offers behold, now!

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 1st person singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

shetayim (שְתַּיִם) [pronounced shet-TAH-yim]

two, two of, a pair of, a duo of

feminine numeral construct

Strong’s #8147 BDB #1040

Spelled here shettêy (שְתֵּי) [pronounced sheht-TAY].

bath (בַּת) [pronounced bahth]

daughter; village

feminine plural noun

Strong's #1323 BDB #123

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced uh-SHER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

yâdaʿ (יָדַע) [pronounced yaw-DAHĢ]

to know, to perceive, to acquire knowledge, to become acquainted with, to know by experience, to have a knowledge of something; to see; to learn; to recognize [admit, acknowledge, confess]

3rd person plural, Qal perfect

Strong’s #3045 BDB #393

ʾîysh (אִיש) [pronounced eesh]

a man, a husband; anyone; a certain one; each, each one, everyone

masculine singular noun (sometimes found where we would use a plural)

Strong's #376 BDB #35


Translation: Listen, please: I have [lit., to me] a pair of daughters who have not known a man—... Lot has his back up against the wall, and he is well aware that he is in a life-or-death situation. It is reasonable to assume that these men have done this before—that they have raped other men who had wandered into their city. As previously discussed, Lot is certainly aware of this, as he insisted that the two strangers did not spend the night in the public court. No doubt, Lot either expected no direct confrontation or he expected that he could certainly reason with the people of his city.


Genesis 19:8b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

yâtsâʾ (יָצָא) [pronounced yaw-TZAWH]

to cause to go out, to lead out, to bring out, to carry out, to draw out, to take out; [of money:] to put forth, to lay out, to exact; to promulgate; to produce

1st person singular, Hiphil imperfect with the cohortative hê

Strong's #3318 BDB #422

The hê at the end is called a voluntative hê and the verb itself is known as a cohortative and is often translated with the additional word let, may, might, ought, should.

nâʾ (נָא) [pronounced naw]

now; please, I pray you, I respectfully implore (ask, or request of) you, I urge you

a primitive particle of incitement and entreaty

Strong's #4994 BDB #609

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated mark of a direct object; occasionally to, toward

affixed to a 3rd person feminine plural suffix

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied) with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #413 BDB #39


Translation: ...please let me bring them out to you... I must admit to initially being confused by Lot’s offer—offering up his own daughters to be ravaged by this mob of sexual addicts. His daughters would have grown up among these townsfolk, and perhaps Lot hoped this would snap them back to the reality of what they are doing.


Furthermore, these daughters are engaged to men of Sodom (or of that area) and this would have been known to some of the men there. So, even though these men are overcome with homosexual lust, Lot is hoping to reach into the hearts of some of them, that they might dissuade the others. If there are friends or relatives of the husbands-to-be, this may snap them back to reality.


Don’t misunderstand me here, I am not trying to make excuses for Lot or to see him in the best possible light. I am simply trying to get into his brain as much as possible and to explain what is going on, and suggesting some of the psychology that Lot may be employing.


On the other hand, this offer could be a sincere proposal by Lot of what he was truly willing to do, to give up his own daughters to be raped. The purpose of this is not simply to protect the angels, but to protect his own life as well.


There is no doubt that this threatened Lot’s entire household, and he may have even considered that, better to give up his two daughters than to have the entire home and everyone in it destroyed.


Genesis 19:8c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʿâsâh (עָשָֹה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWH]

to do, to make, to construct, to fashion, to form, to prepare, to manufacture

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperative

Strong's #6213 BDB #793

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 3rd person feminine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

kaph or ke (כְּ) [pronounced ke]

like, as, just as; according to; about, approximately

preposition of comparison or approximation

No Strong’s # BDB #453

ţôwb (טוֹב) [pronounced tohbv]

pleasant, pleasing, agreeable, good, better; approved

masculine feminine singular adjective which can act like a substantive; with the definite article

Strong’s #2896 BDB #373

As a noun, this can mean the good thing, that which is good [pleasing, approved, kind, upright, right]; goodness, uprightness, kindness, right; that which is fair [beautiful].

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʿêynayim (עֵינַיִם) [pronounced ģay-nah-YIM]

eyes, two eyes, literal eye(s), spiritual eyes; face, appearance, form; surface

feminine dual noun with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

Strong’s #5869 (and #5871) BDB #744

This phrase is literally in your eyes, but it can be translated in your opinion, in your estimation, to your way of thinking, as you see [it]. The dual and plural forms of this word appear to be identical. Possibly, this could also mean, as you please, as you want, as you desire, whatever you think is right.


Translation: ...and you do to them as is good in your eyes. Lot suggests that these men take his daughters and do what is good and agreeable in their eyes. Again, is Lot proposing a real trade? Is he trying to calm them down, to make them realize what it is they are doing? Does he fear for his life at this time?


It is reasonable to suppose that, since Lot shut the door behind him, he was seriously concerned about what this group of men might do.

 

Matthew Henry: It is true, of two evils we must choose the less; but of two sins we must choose neither, nor ever do evil that good may come of it. He reasoned with them, pleaded the laws of hospitality and the protection of his house which his guests were entitled to; but he might as well have offered reason to a roaring lion and a raging bear as to these head-strong sinners, who were governed only by lust and passion.


Genesis 19:8d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

raq (רַק) [pronounced rahk]

only, provided, altogether, surely—this adverb carries with it restrictive force

adverb

Strong’s #7534 & #7535 BDB #956

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾănâshîym (אֲנָשִים) [pronounced uh-NAW-sheem]; also spelled ʾîyshîym (אִישִים) [pronounced ee-SHEEM]

men; inhabitants, citizens; companions; soldiers, followers

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong's #376 BDB #35

For reasons I do not quite grasp, there seems to be a relationship between Strong’s #376 and #582; the word is the same word, spelled the same way. In E-Sword, there are 2 KJV+ versions, and one lists one number and the other lists the other. I have the same spelling listed under both, in the plural, although with the slightly different meanings.

ʾănâshîym (אֲנָשִים) [pronounced uh-NAW-sheem]

mortals, mortal men, mankind; fallen men, depraved men, feeble men [liable to disease and calamity]; peons, hoi polloi, the great unwashed, rabble

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong's #376 (& #582?) BDB #35

When this word is used for man, the emphasis is either a reference to man in his fallen state (the emphasis does not have to be upon sin; it can be upon man’s fragility and mortal nature) or upon the lower classes of man, the peons, peasants, hoi polloi, the great unwashed, rabble.

However, in times like this, the reference is to angels. My educated guess here is, they have taken upon the form of mortal man. To anyone else, they could not be distinguished from mortal men.

ʾêlleh (אֵלֶּה) [pronounced ALE-leh]

these, these things

demonstrative plural adjective with the definite article

Strong's #428 BDB #41

This is actually not the word found here. What is found here is hâʾêl. Hâ is the definite article and ʾêl is the word; which would make little sense, because the words similar to ʾêl are a negation or a preposition, neither of which would be affixed to a definite article. When this passage is read aloud, the word hâʾêlle is read, which appears to be an abbreviated form of ʾêlleh above. Because of this problem, Strong gives it its own Strong’s # (411), but that is not even listed in Gesenius, because, they concluded that this, as written, is simply a more rare alternate spelling of ʾêlleh.

This is also followed by one of those similar words. That may have had an affect upon the copyist or the speaker when such words are found together. Bear in mind, in the original language, before the vowels were added, these words would have appeared to be identical, apart from the definite article prefix.

ʾal (אַל) [pronounced al]

no, not; nothing; none; neither, nor; do not, let not [with a verb];; let there not be [with an understood verb];

adverb of negation; conjunction of prohibiting, dehorting, deprecating, desire that something not be done

Strong’s #408 BDB #39

ʿâsâh (עָשָֹה) [pronounced ģaw-SAWH]

to do, to make, to construct, to fashion, to form, to prepare, to manufacture

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong's #6213 BDB #793

dâbâr (דָּבָר) [pronounced dawb-VAWR]

word, saying, doctrine, thing, matter, command

masculine singular noun

Strong's #1697 BDB #182


Translation: Only, with regards to these men, you will not do a thing,... Lot attempts to talk them out of their intentions here. Lot’s bargain to them is, his virgin daughters for these strangers. Again, it is my guess that Lot has figured that such an offer might calm these men down and might cause a few of them to try to dissuade the others from this evil.


Genesis 19:8e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

when, that, for, because

explanatory conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl ]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

kên (כֵּן) [pronounced kane]

so, therefore, thus; then, afterwards; upright, honest; rightly, well; [it is] so, such, so constituted

properly, an active participle; used primarily as an adverb

Strong's #3651 BDB #485

kîy ʿal kên (כֵּן עַל כִּי) [pronounced kee ahl KANE], which means, literally, for therefore. together they mean inasmuch (as), forasmuch as, since, because.

bôwʾ (בּוֹא) [pronounced boh]

to come in, to come, to go in, to go, to enter, to advance

2nd person masculine plural, Qal perfect

Strong’s #935 BDB #97

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, at, by, near, on, with, before, against, by means of, among, within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

tsêl (צֵל) [pronounced tzale]

shadow; shade; metaphorically, when combined with a word like roof, it means protection, shelter, care (see Gen. 19:8 Judges 9:15 Psalm 36:7 Jer. 48:45)

masculine singular construct

Strong's #6738 BDB #853

qôwrâh (קוֹרָה) [pronounced koh-RAW]

rafter, beam, joist

feminine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #6982 BDB #900

Many Bible versions translate this roof, because that is closer to an expression that we might use in the English.


Translation: ...for they have come under the protection [lit., shadow] of my roof.” Lot knew that there was potential trouble, which is why he invited these strangers to stay with him at his house. His speaking to them and their going to his house was obviously observed and this information was sent throughout the town, and these men stood outside of his house motivated by pure homosexual lust.


When one noun is used to actually stand for another noun to which it is related, that is called a metonymy [pronounced meh-TAHN-ih-mee]. However, when two metonymies are involved and only one is actually expressed, then the figure of speech is called a double metonymy. Roof here stands for the entire house (of which the roof is a part); and then the house (which is not named) stands for protection. The shelter or the shadow of the roof stands for the protection afforded the angels by Lot.


Lot is a confused person, but then he is put into a very difficult situation. He does not have any idea how to prevent what could happen. There might be a full scale riot based upon homosexual lust, and there is nothing that can be done about it. Lot is a compromiser when it comes to his own character; he is willing to give up his daughters, which is also wrong. He has mixed intentions, some good, some wrong. He would like to preserve these angels (which he probably thinks are just male strangers) and provide them with a safe haven. On the other hand, he is willing to allow his daughters to be raped by this degenerate gang. Their reaction tells us that their hearts have become hardened. I believe that homosexuality is one of those degenerate sins that the more often one engages in it, the more difficult it is to come back to heterosexual behavior. That is, if a person who from birth has homosexual tendencies, if he does not give in to these tendencies, then God has provided a right woman or a life of celibacy for him (which are the two options for all men). However, each homosexual act hardens their heart in this regard and places them in a position of unrestrained homosexuality.


Gen 19:8 Behold, I have two daughters who have not known any man. Let me bring them out to you, and do to them as you please. Only do nothing to these men, for they have come under the shelter of my roof."


Lot despicably offers up his own daughters instead. Quite obviously, I was not there. I don’t know how many homosexual rapists were threatening Lot. Obviously, he was in a panic, and he apparently had not faced a situation quite like this before.


Why he offers up his own daughters, is a complete mystery to me. However, under difficult circumstances where snap decisions have to be made, some people do and say the wrong thing. Everyone in his household is being threatened.


Obviously, this is a question that many commentators have grappled with.

The Bible Query on, Why Did Lot Offer up his Daughters?

Question: In Gen 19:8, why did Lot offer his virgin daughters to a crowd? (An atheist asked this.)

Answer: Scripture does not tell us of Lot’s motives for this evil action, but we can see three things.

 

         1.      Lot was in a desperate situation, and he perhaps panicked.

         2.      The men of Sodom had no interest in his daughters.

         3.      Lot had lived in Sodom for a long time, and Lot probably knew these men had no interest in his daughters. Lot was probably trying to stall them.

 

The Bible does not condone Lot’s action here; it merely records it. If the Bible were merely "propaganda", you would expect it to record every positive thing and never mention anything negative. However, the Bible is not propaganda, but God’s true word, and it honestly talks about people’s lives, warts and all.

From Bible Query March 2006 version. Copyright (c) Christian Debater(tm) 1997-2006. All rights reserved except as given in the copyright notice; from e-sword.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


A better question might be, why is this in the Bible? What do we learn from it? Lot will appear to be dealt a lousy hand at the end of all this; but this reveals to us that, even though Lot tried to look out for these two men, he still lacked character. God does rescue him, but Lot should have separated long before this.


It is also important to note that Lot is a very imperfect man, and yet God goes to a great deal of trouble to deliver him. No one can support Lot offering up his own daughters to this mob (although one ancient commentator said that this was the law of hospitality to protect one’s guests above all else). But anyone with common sense recognizes that Lot’s attempt to diffuse this situation by offering up his daughters is a depraved approach. God includes this in the Bible so that we do not think that God is saving Lot and his family because Lot is a really great person. He’s not.


Furthermore, what we have in Sodom is a failed state; a lawless state. There are no laws or no enforcement of laws to protect the innocent. Even Lot, the most righteous man in Sodom, had no idea how to deal with this situation; and he opted for a very bad choice.


 

When Critics Ask: Was the sin of Sodom homosexuality or inhospitality?

Was the sin of Sodom homosexuality or inhospitality?

PROBLEM: Some have argued that the sin of Sodom and Gomorrah was inhospitality, not homosexuality. They base this claim on the Canaanite custom that guarantees protection for those coming under one’s roof. Lot is alleged to have referred to it when he said, “don’t do anything to these men, for they have come under the protection of my roof ” ( Gen. 19:8 , NIV ). So Lot offered his daughters to satisfy the angry crowd in order to protect the lives of the visitors who had come under his roof. Some also claim that the request of the men of the city to “know” (Gen. 19:5 ) simply means “to get acquainted,” since the Hebrew word “know” ( yada ) generally has no sexual connotations whatsoever (cf. Psalm 139:1 ).

SOLUTION: While it is true that the Hebrew word “know” ( yada ) does not necessarily mean “to have sex with,” nonetheless, in the context of the passage on Sodom and Gomorrah, it clearly has this meaning. This is evident for several reasons.

 

1.      10 of the 12 times this word is used in Genesis it refers to sexual intercourse (cf. Gen. 4:1 , 25 ).

2.      It means to know sexually in this very chapter. For Lot refers to his two virgin daughters as not having “known” a man (Gen. 19:8 ), which is an obvious sexual use of the word.

3.      The meaning of a word is discovered by the context in which it is used. And the context here is definitely sexual, as is indicated by the reference to the wickedness of the city (Gen. 18:20 ), and the virgins offered to appease their passions (Gen. 19:8 ).

4.      “Know” cannot mean simply “get acquainted with,” because it is equated with a “wicked thing” (Gen. 19:7).

5.      Why offer the virgin daughters to appease them if their intent was not sexual. If the men had asked to “know” the virgin daughters, no one would have mistaken their sexual intentions.

6.      God had already determined to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah, as Genesis 18:16–33 indicates, even before the incident in Gen. 19:8. Consequently, it is much more reasonable to hold that God had pronounced judgment upon these cities for the sins they had already committed, namely homosexuality, than for a sin they had not yet committed, that is inhospitality.

Norman Geisler and Thomas Howe, When Critics Ask; Victor Books; taken from e-Sword, Gen. 19:8 (slightly edited).


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


I would simply chalk this up for Lot being unable to make a good decision when under pressure like this. There may be no good decision to be had at this point. I should say, there is no way out of this. There is no human solution to this. What Lot offers here is despicable, but it also reveals that this is a desperate offer, and possibly to save himself.


Compared to the evil Sodomites, he comes off looking like a saint. However, that does not mean that he is able to make mature, spiritually-adept decisions. He did not know much about God or God’s provisions for his life; he did not know about God’s protection of him. He was trying to do a good thing, but in a wrong way, which make the thing he is trying to do wrong.


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And so they say, “Come here, afar off.” And so they say, “The one has come to temporarily reside and he judges [in] judging now. We will do evil to you more than them.” And so they pushed against the man, against Lot exceedingly and so they drew near to break the door.

Genesis

19:9

They said, “Come near, out there.” And they said, “This one has come [here] to temporarily live and now acting as a judge, he judges. [Listen], we will do more harm to you than to them.” They pushed against the man, against Lot, forcefully, drawing near to break the door.

They first said, “Come out here; step aside!” Then they said, “This one first came here to reside temporarily and now he acts as a judge. Listen, we will do more harm to you than to them [the angels].” They continued pushing against Lot with great force, drawing near to break the door.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so they say, “Come here, afar off.” And so they say, “The one has come to temporarily reside and he judges [in] judging now. We will do evil to you more than them.” And so they pushed against the man, against Lot exceedingly and so they drew near to break the door.

Targum of Onkelos                And they said, Give up this. And they said, Did not this come alone to sojourn among us? and, behold, he is making himself a judge, and judging the whole of us. But now we will do worse to thee than to them. And they prevailed against the man, against Lot, greatly, and came near, to shatter the door.

Latin Vulgate                          But they said: Get you back there. And again: You came in, said they, as a stranger, was it to be a judge? Therefore we will afflict you more than them. And they pressed very violently upon Lot: and they were even at the point of breaking open the doors.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And they said, Get away. And they said again, This fellow came to sojourn among us, and now he tries to judge us; and they said to Lot, Now we will deal worse with you than with them. Then Lot fought desperately with them, and they drew near to break the door.

Septuagint (Greek)                And they said to him, Stand back! You came here to sojourn, was it also to judge? Now then we would harm you more than them. And they pressed hard on the man, even Lot, and they drew near to break down the door.

 

Significant differences:           The first thing that they say is somewhat difficult to understand. What is underlined above is not that different from the Hebrew. When they say something else, the Latin and Syriac add again, which is not in the Hebrew. The Greek does not even include the phrase and so they said [again]. The Hebrew doubles up on the verb to judge (which is often to intensify that verb). The targum keeps the two verbs and adds an object on found in the Hebrew, as does the Syriac. The Latin and Greek simply indicate that he has become a judge.

 

The Syriac has Lot fighting them back at the end.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           They said, "Get out of the way!" And they continued, "Does this immigrant want to judge us? Now we will hurt you more than we will hurt them." They pushed Lot back and came close to breaking down the door.

Contemporary English V.       "Don't get in our way," the crowd answered. "You're an outsider. What right do you have to order us around? We'll do worse things to you than we're going to do to them." The crowd kept arguing with Lot. Finally, they rushed toward the door to break it down.

Easy English                          Then the crowd said, `Get out of the way. You came to live here as a stranger. Now you tell us what we should do! Now we shall do worse things to you than to those men.' Then they pushed Lot in a strong way and they went to break the door..

Easy-to-Read Version            The men surrounding the house answered, “Then, you come here!” The men said to themselves, “This man Lot came to our city as a visitor. Now he wants to tell us how we should live!” Then the men said to Lot, “We will do worse things to you than to them.” So the men started moving closer and closer to Lot. They were about to break down the door.

Good News Bible (TEV)         But they said, "Get out of our way, you foreigner! Who are you to tell us what to do? Out of our way, or we will treat you worse than them." They pushed Lot back and moved up to break down the door.

The Message                         They said, "Get lost! You drop in from nowhere and now you're going to tell us how to run our lives. We'll treat you worse than them!" And they charged past Lot to break down the door.

New Berkeley Version           They said, “Out of the way,” and went on, “This fellow came here as an immigrant and he keeps acting as a judge. Now we shall treat you worse than them.” Then they crowded Lot dangerously and nearly broke down the door;...

New Century Version             The men around the house answered, "Move out of the way!" Then they said to each other, "This man Lot came to our city as a stranger, and now he wants to tell us what to do!" They said to Lot, "We will do worse things to you than to them." They started pushing him back and were ready to break down the door.

New Life Bible                        But they said, "Get out of our way. This man came to live here from another land. And already he acts like a judge. Now we will do worse things to you than to them." So they pushed hard against Lot and almost broke down the doo.

New Living Translation           "Stand back!" they shouted. "This fellow came to town as an outsider, and now he's acting like our judge! We'll treat you far worse than those other men!" And they lunged toward Lot to break down the door.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          But they replied, 'Get out of the way! You came to live among us, and are you now our judge? Why, we're going to harm you more than we will them!'

Then they pushed up against Lot and were ready to break down the door. The AEB placed a portion of this verse with v. 10. As an aside, there is nothing magic about the separation of verses; it was done long after these words were first “put to paper.” There are a number of individual verses which would be better changed here and there.

Ancient Roots Translinear      They said, "Approach forward!" They said, "This one came to stay, and judges as a judge! Now we will do-evil with you, more than with them." They urged the man, Lot, a hundredfold and approached to break the door.

Christian Community Bible     But they replied, “Get out of the way! This fellow is a foreigner and he wants to play the judge! Now we will do worse with you than with them.” They pressed hard against Lot and drew near in order to break the door..

God’s Word                         But the men yelled, "Get out of the way! This man came here to stay awhile. Now he wants to be our judge! We're going to treat you worse than those men." They pushed hard against Lot and lunged forward to break down the door.

New American Bible              They replied, "Stand back! This man," they said, "came here as a resident alien, and now he dares to give orders! We will treat you worse than them!" With that, they pressed hard against Lot, moving in closer to break down the door. Gn 13:12; 2 Peter 2:7-8.

New Jerusalem Bible             But they retorted, 'Stand back! This fellow came here as a foreigner, and now he wants to play the judge. Now we shall treat you worse than them.' Then they forced Lot back and moved forward to break down the door.

New Simplified Bible              »Stand back!« they shouted. »Who do you think you are? We let you settle among us, and now you are trying to tell us what to do! We will treat you far worse than those other men!« They pushed Lot and began breaking down the door.

Today’s NIV                          "Get out of our way," they replied. "This fellow came here as a foreigner, and now he wants to play the judge! We'll treat you worse than them." They kept bringing pressure on Lot and moved forward to break down the door.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Bible in Basic English             And they said, Give way there. This one man, they said, came here from a strange country, and will he now be our judge? now we will do worse to you than to them; and pushing violently against Lot, they came near to get the door broken in.

Complete Jewish Bible           "Stand back!" they replied. "This guy came to live here, and now he's decided to play judge. For that we'll deal worse with you than with them!"Then they crowded in on Lot, in order to get close enough to break down the door.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 But they replied, “Be off with that! This fellow came here a foreigner, and he dictates decisions; now it shall be worse for you than for them.”

Then they rushed to the man Lot with a vengeance, and attempted to break the gates.

HCSB                                     "Get out of the way!" they said, adding, "This one came here as a foreigner, but he's acting like a judge! Now we'll do more harm to you than to them." They put pressure on Lot and came up to break down the door.

New Advent Bible                  But they said: Get you back there. And again: You came in, said they, as a stranger, was it to be a judge? Therefore we will afflict you more than them. And they pressed very violently upon Lot: and they were even at the point of breaking open the doors.

NET Bible®                             "Out of our way [Heb "approach out there" which could be rendered "Get out of the way, stand back!"]!" they cried, and "This man came to live here as a foreigner [Heb "to live as a resident alien."], and now he dares to judge us [Heb "and he has judged, judging." The infinitive absolute follows the finite verbal form for emphasis. This emphasis is reflected in the translation by the phrase "dares to judge."]! We'll do more harm [The verb "to do wickedly" is repeated here (see v. 7). It appears that whatever "wickedness" the men of Sodom had intended to do to Lot's visitors - probably nothing short of homosexual rape - they were now ready to inflict on Lot.] to you than to them!" They kept [Heb "and they pressed against the man, against Lot, exceedingly."] pressing in on Lot until they were close enough [Heb "and they drew near."] to break down the door.

NIV – UK                                Get out of our way, they replied. And they said, This fellow came here as an alien, and now he wants to play the judge! We'll treat you worse than them. They kept bringing pressure on Lot and moved forward to break down the door.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                But they said, Stand back! And they said, This fellow came in to live here temporarily, and now he presumes to be [our] judge! Now we will deal worse with you than with them. So they rushed at and pressed violently against Lot and came close to breaking down the door.

Concordant Literal Version    Yet saying are they, "Come close you, beyond. And saying are they, "The one who came to sojourn is judging, even as a judge! Now we will do more evil to you than to them. And urging are they the man Lot exceedingly, and close are they coming to break the door.

Context Group Version          And they said, Stand back. And they said, This one fellow came in to sojourn and always judges: now we will deal worse with you, than with them. And they pressed intensely on the man, even Lot, and drew near to break the door.

Darby Translation                  And they said, Back there! And they said [again], This one came to sojourn, and he must be a judge? Now we will deal worse with thee than with them. And they pressed hard on the man -- on Lot; and drew near to break the door.

exeGeses companion Bible   And they say, Draw back.

And they say, This one came in to sojourn

and in judging, he judges:

now we vilify you, rather than them.

And they urge mightily on the man, Lot

and come near to break the door.

Green’s Literal Translation    And they said, Stand back! And they said, This one came in to visit, and must he always judge? Now we will do evil to you rather than to them. And they pressed on the man, upon Lot violently, and drew near to break the door.

Heritage Bible                        And they said, Stand back. And they said, First, he came in to reside temporarily, and judging, shall he be judge? Now we will do evil to you, rather than to them. And they pressed furiously upon the man, even Lot, and came near to break the door.

Kretzmann’s Commentary    And they said, Stand back, that is, stand aside, make room for us to enter. And they said again, This one fellow came in to sojourn, and he will needs be a judge. Now will we deal worse with thee than with them. Their coarse objection is that this single man, the one that had come and was living as a stranger among them with their permission, now was passin