2Samuel 23

 

2Samuel 23:1–39

David’s Last Psalm/David’s Military Heroes


These studies are designed for believers in Jesus Christ only. If you have exercised faith in Christ, then you are in the right place. If you have not, then you need to heed the words of our Lord, Who said, “For God so loved the world that He gave His only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son, so that every [one] believing [or, trusting] in Him shall not perish, but shall be have eternal life! For God did not send His Son into the world so that He should judge the world, but so that the world shall be saved through Him. The one believing [or, trusting] in Him is not judged, but the one not believing has already been judged, because he has not believed in the Name of the only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son of God.” (John 3:16–18). “I am the Way and the Truth and the Life! No one comes to the Father except through [or, by means of] Me!” (John 14:6).


Every study of the Word of God ought to be preceded by a naming of your sins to God. This restores you to fellowship with God (1John 1:8–10). If there are people around, you would name these sins silently. If there is no one around, then it does not matter if you name them silently or whether you speak aloud.


These exegetical studies are not designed for you to read each and every word. For instance, the Hebrew exegesis is put into greyish tables, so that if you want to skip over them, that is fine. If you question a translation, you can always refer back to the appropriate Hebrew tables to sort it all out.

 

The intent is to make this particular study the most complete and most accurate examination of 2Samuel 23 which is available in writing. The idea is to make every phrase, verse and passage understandable; and to make application of all that is studied.

 

Besides teaching you the doctrinal principles related to this chapter, this commentary is also to help bring this narrative to life, so that you can understand the various characters, their motivations, and the choices that they make. Ideally, you will be able to visualize the peoples and armies as they move across the landscape of the Land of Promise.


Kukis: Time and life only go in one direction. No matter who you are, there will come a time when you are able to exercise your spiritual gift for the last time.

 

Kukis: Men of God, who come to the end of their lives, often have words of great significance to share. They are far different from those of the atheist or the agnostic, whose life portrays the sentiment, “I don’t know why I am here; I don’t know what my life was all about. And I don’t know where I’m going.”

 

J. Vernon McGee, commenting Footnote on this chapter: If David had gotten his just deserts, God would never have made a covenant with him. Neither would God have saved you or me if it had been on the basis of merit. And yet He made an everlasting covenant with David. God has made a covenant with us, too. It is recorded in John 3:16 : "For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life." Now I hold on to that. God has made that covenant. I never asked Him to make it. He did not make it because of who we are. He did not wait for you or me to make a suggestion. He did it 1900 years ago. He said, "Here it is; take it or leave it." I take it, by the way. I rest upon that.

 

He is like the light of morning at sunrise

    on a cloudless morning,

like the brightness after rain

    that brings grass from the earth.'

(2Sam. 23:4; NIV)

 

Jesus said, "There is no greater love than this: that a man who would lay down his life for the sake of his friends." (John 15:13) This is what the second portion of this chapter is all about.

 

Kukis: Great leadership inspires greatness. Poor leadership does not inspire.

 

Kukis: This chapter is about the great leadership of David, even though he is only mentioned incidentally. His leadership is reflected in the gallantry of these soldiers. This chapter is about the grace of God, Who guided these men to David, Who graced David out with such loyal men.

 

Robert L. (Bob) Deffinbaugh (Bible.org): The man who stood up to Goliath was surrounded with courageous men who would gladly take on Goliath's descendants (see 2Samuel 21:15-22). Courage inspires courage, and David was a man of courage. No wonder we find so many heroes among those closest to him. Footnote

 

Kukis: The Bible does not list the greatest pacifists of all time or from this era or from that era; but it does list the greatest soldiers from David’s army here and in 1Chron. 11. The Bible clearly respects the military, the military profession and military men.


Outline of Chapter 23:

 

Introduction

 

         vv.     1–7           David’s Last Psalm

         vv.     8–39         David’s Greatest Soldiers

The Introduction to 2Samuel 23:8–39

         vv.     8–17                  The Three

         vv.    18–23                  The Two

         vv.    24–39                  The “Thirty”

 

Addendum


Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines:

 

         Introduction         The Principals of 2Samuel 23

         Introduction         The Prequel of 2Samuel 23

         Introduction         The Abbreviated Davidic Timeline

         Introduction         A Synopsis of 2Samuel 23

 

         v.       1              Famous Last Words

         v.       2              The Shortened Doctrine of Inspiration

         v.       3              Doctrine of the Rock in the New Testament

         v.       3              1Peter 2:6–7 (graphic)

         v.       3              Exercising Justice and Righteousness in Israel

         v.       4              Painting of 2Samuel 23:4

         v.       4              The Doctrine of Light

         v.       4              Jesus Christ is our Light

         v.       4              2Samuel 23:4 (graphic)

         v.       4              2Samuel 23:4 (graphic2)

         v.       5              Maranatha Church’s “The Davidic Covenant”

         v.       6              The Doctrine of Thorns

         v.       6              2Samuel 23:6 (graphic)

         v.       7              Grace Bible Church’s “The Baptism of Fire”

         v.       7              Peter Pett’s Organization of David’s Last Psalm

         v.       7              Comparing Balaam’s Words to Those of David

         v.       7              David and Jesus

         v.       8              David’s Mighty Men (a graphic)

         v.       8              Beast Barracks under David

         v.       8              Pett’s Organization of 2Samuel 23:8–39

         v.       8              Keil and Delitzsch Introduce 2Samuel 23:8–39

         v.       8              Observations Made by Various Commentators Regarding 2Samuel 23:8–39

         v.       8              Various Readings of 2Samuel 23:8

         v.       8              Catholic Bible Translations

         v.       8              Who can be saved?

         v.       8              Why are there doctrinal differences between teachers?

         v.       8              How does one choose between so many different Bible teachers?

         v.       8              Jashobeam and a Summary of Observations of 2Samuel 23:8

         v.      10              The Parallel Texts of 2Samuel 23:9–10 and 1Chronicles 11:12–14

         v.      13              From the Cave of Adullam (a graphic)

         v.      13              Map of the Valley of Rephaim

         v.      13              ISBE and Smith on the Valley of the Rephaim

         v.      17              David Pours out the Water Procured by his Mighty Men (graphic)

         v.      18              Canonicity Special

         v.      18              Canonicity Charts

         v.      18              Links to Various Works on Canonicity

         v.      19              Abishai

         v.      20              Barnes Brief Bio of Benaiah

         v.      20              Benaiah, the Son of Jehoiada (a graphic)

         v.      24              Robert L. (Bob) Deffinbaugh on the Characteristics of Heroes

         v.      24              Matching the Names for 2Samuel 23:24–28

         v.      24              Why Don’t the Names Match Exactly?

         v.      24              Is Asahel a Member of the Thirty?

         v.      27              No Greater Love (graphic)

         v.      29              Matching the Names for 2Samuel 23:29–33

         v.      34              Matching the Names for 2Samuel 23:34–39

         v.      36              The Igal’s of Scripture

         v.      36              The Bani’s of Scripture

         v.      39              Pett Compares the Lists of Samuel and Chronicles

         v.      39              Why God the Holy Spirit Includes this List in the Word of God

         v.      39              Counting up the Heroes

 

         Addendum          Why 2Samuel 23 is in the Word of God

         Addendum          What We Learn from 2Samuel 23

         Addendum          Josephus’ History of this Time Period

         Addendum          Edersheim Summarizes 2Samuel 23

         Addendum          A Complete Translation of 2Samuel 23

         Addendum          Peter Pett’s Chiastic Organization of 2Samuel 21:1-24:25

         Addendum          Word Cloud from a Reasonably Literal Paraphrase of 2Samuel 23

         Addendum          Word Cloud from Exegesis of 2Samuel 23


Chapter Outline

 

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines

Beginning of Document

Doctrines Covered and Alluded to

Chapters of the Bible Alluded to or Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Definition of Terms

Introduction

Addendum

www.kukis.org

 

Exegetical Studies in Samuel


Pre-Introduction Links

Doctrines Covered and Alluded To

Chapters of the Bible Alluded To or Psalms Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Definition of Terms


Doctrines Covered

Doctrines Alluded To

Baptism of Fire

 

Davidic Timeline

Inspiration, Study of

Light

Intercalation

Jesus is not a liberal

Laws of Divine Establishment

Rock in the New Testament

Liberalism, Conservativism and Christianity

Military Doctrines Related to the Word of God

Rock in the Old Testament

Thorns

Tongues

Trinity in the Old Testament

Typology


Chapters of the Bible Alluded To or Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

2Sam. 7

2Sam. 10

 

2Samuel 22

1Chron. 11

1Chron. 16

Psalm 89

 


Many who read and study this chapter are 1st or 2nd generation students of R. B. Thieme, Jr., so that much of this vocabulary is second nature. One of Bob’s contributions to theology is a fresh vocabulary along with a number of concepts which are theologically new or reworked, yet still orthodox. Therefore, if you are unfamiliar with his work, the definitions below will help you to fully understand all that is being said. In addition to this, I will use a number of other more traditional technical theological terms which will be used and therefore defined as well.

Definition of Terms

1st and 2nd Advents of Jesus

When Jesus first came to walk on this earth, that was the 1st Advent. When He returns to destroy the nations who are about to invade Israel, that will be the 2nd Advent.

Baptism of Fire

The baptism of fire is the removal of all unbelievers from the earth at the end of the Tribulation. See Doctrine of the Baptism of Fire (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Canon of Scripture

The set of books that, over time, were organically determined to be authoritative and inspired by God, and therefore make up the books of the Bible that we have today. It is more correct to say that each book in the canon was recognized as being a part of God’s Word, rather than determined to be God’s Word.

Chiasmos

This is a psalm where the first passage can be matched to the final passage; the second passage can be matched to the second-to-the-last passage, etc. It is called a chiasmos (or, chiasmus) based upon the letter chi (Χ). Many times, this structure can be used to find the key element of the psalm or to rearrange the psalm.

Inspiration, Biblical

Biblical inspiration may be defined as human authors wrote as moved by the Holy Spirit, so that, without waving their human intelligence, their vocabulary, their personal feelings, their literary style, their personality, their environmental influences or their individuality, they recorded God’s complete and connected message to man with perfect accuracy in the original languages of Scripture, the very words bearing the authority of divine authorship. Footnote The is known as the verbal, plenary view of inspiration.

Laws of Divine Establishment

Since the world appears to be made up of mostly unbelievers, God must have some kind of plan for the unbelievers while they are alive. These are called the laws of divine establishment, and they are applicable to both believers and unbelievers. These are the laws which protect the freedom of a nation, and allow for evangelism and for the teaching of the Word of God. See the Laws of Divine Establishment (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Millennium

The Millennium is the dispensation of the 1000 year reign of Christ over the earth, following the Great Tribulation, where all unbelievers will be removed from the earth (which is known as the Baptism of Fire). See the Doctrine of the Millennium.

Progressive Revelation

Progressive revelation means that, each additional truth builds upon, expands, and better explains that which was already taught. New revelation does not supersede, replace or nullify previous revelation, but builds upon that which is past and that which is foundational.

Rebound (Restoration to fellowship with God)

In the New Testament, this is naming your sins to God, so that you are both restored to temporal fellowship with God and are then filled with the Spirit of God. In the Old Testament, naming your sins to God would result in a restoration of fellowship and, in some cases, the empowerment of the Holy Spirit once again (the Holy Spirit was not given to all Old Testament believers). See the Doctrine of Rebound (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

The Revealed God (or, the Revealed Lord)

We do not look within ourselves or do we build up some concept of God based upon our own experiences, but we first understand God as He has revealed Himself. Throughout the lives of the saints who have gone before us, God revealed Himself through the written Word and sometimes through direct contact with them. Once a foundation is laid, then we can see how God is understood through various experiences in our lives.

Type, Antitype, Typical

A type is a preordained representation wherein certain persons, events, and institutions of the O.T. stand for corresponding persons, events, and institutions of the N.T. Types are pictures or object lessons by which God has taught His redemptive plan. They are a shadow of things to come, not the image of those things (Col. 2:17 Heb. 8:5 10:1). Footnote See the Doctrine of Typology (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Some of these definitions are taken from

http://gracebiblechurchwichita.org/?page_id=1556

http://www.bibledoctrinechurch.org/?subpages/GLOSSARY.shtml

http://rickhughesministries.org/content/Biblical-Terms.pdf

http://www.gbible.org/index.php?proc=d4d

http://www.wordoftruthministries.org/termsanddefs.htm

http://www.realtime.net/~wdoud/topics.html

http://www.theopedia.com/


——————————


An Introduction to 2Samuel 23


I ntroduction: For all intents and purposes, 2Sam. 23 is really two chapters—the first is David’s last psalm and the second is a list of the great military men under David. There is no overlap in these two topics. David makes clear and unequivocal references to inspiration and then goes forward with his final psalm. The bulk of the chapter is all about David’s great military heroes, 36 of whom are named—although the 2Sam. 23:39 says there are 37, suggesting that one name was dropped out of the text (the numbering of these men will be discussed at the very end of this chapter).


Personally, I approach every chapter in a very similar fashion, whether it is a psalm or a list of names I do the translation first; then I go back and add in about 20–30 English translations (trying to list as many different views as possible); and, then I go back and take from 4 particular translations (The Berkeley Version, Beck’s translation, the newest Tanakh, and the REB), which I must transcribe word-by-word, as they are not found anywhere else but in written form. All during this time, I am writing commentary on each verse and developing doctrines and approaches, as the text leads me. Sometimes I feel it necessary to add in historical or geographical information from ZPEB, ISBE or Smith. I have about 11 or more commentaries available to me on e-sword and The Word, which I look at next, to see if I have missed anything important. Then I go to about 20 or so commentaries available to me on the internet, which I consider and sometimes quote. Finally, if this is a chapter covered by R. B. Thieme, Jr., then I take a look at what he had to say, in case I missed anything else.


I have certain pre-set topics and doctrines for each chapter, such as The Principals of ___ and Why is ___ included in the Bible? Throughout this exercise, I attempt to fill in these tables and doctrines. While writing, these sorts of things are on my mind the entire time. Why is this chapter of Samuel (or, whatever) in the Holy Bible? At the very end, I place an abbreviated look at the chapter in both book’s links and in the Topics and Doctrines list. Sometimes doing this suggests adding a few points or more explanation. The ultimate intention is to include all of the relevant information to any chapter, without getting too bogged down; so that the end result is the most complete and thorough exegetical approach to that chapter done at any time. And even when it is just a list of names, as we have at the very end of this chapter, there are spiritual lessons to be learned. I endeavor to find those lessons and to cover them.


Much of this chapter is a list of names, and I can understand the reticence of the Bible student to embrace and study such a chapter. As a commentator, I approach a chapter like this with great trepidation. Will I find anything worthwhile in this text? Is this nothing more than just a list of names? I think that you will be quite surprised as to how packed this chapter is with spiritual information. God the Holy Spirit did not make a mistake, making this chapter a part of the canon of Scripture.


We need to know who the people are who populate this chapter.

The Principals of 2Samuel 23

Characters

Biographical Material

King David

David is the ruling king of Israel, about whom most of the book of Samuel is about. However, he plays an incidental role in this chapter. The psalm which begins this chapter is written by David (his last psalm); and the men named in the second part of this chapter are military men who are loyal to David.

Joab

Joab is David’s general and he appears to have taken over all of David’s duties after David retired from going out to war (this appears to have happened when David faced off a giant from Philistia, when suddenly, he realized that he had nothing to give. Because of this, his soldiers demanded that David no longer go out with the military; and Joab stepped into this position. It is very possible that Joab composed both this and the list of great soldiers found in 1Chron. 11.

Knights of the 1st class

3 men are named as the greatest soldiers of Israel: Josh, Eleazar, and Shammah.

Knights of the 2nd class

Only 2 men are named as members of this group: Abishai and Benaiah. It is speculated that originally, Ahithophel would have been included in this group, but he deserted David and served Absalom.

Knights of the 3rd class

31 or 32 soldiers are named here. Many of the men in these 3 groups possibly were with David as far back as the Stronghold, where David hid out from Saul, and many men came to him.

Although there are 36 or 37 men actually named in this chapter, we will wait until we come to them to look at them individually.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


It is important to understand what has gone before.

The Prequel of 2Samuel 23

The first part of this chapter is David’s last psalm. We do not know the circumstances which precede this psalm. Did David himself recognize that he would not write any more psalms after this? Did his son Solomon reveal this information after the fact? So, we actually have no prequel to this section, other than, the writing of this psalm had to occur near the end of David’s life.

The second part of this chapter is a list of the great military men of Israel, which list includes some of the exploits of these great men. Because of the location of two fallen soldiers at the beginning and end of the list of the thirty, we have supposed that this list was put together after the death of Uriah, which was by the order of David (one of the lowest things that David has ever done). Whether David and/or Joab put together this list, we do not know. This seems like the kind of list that Joab would have put together at David’s order. The fact that Ahithophel is not named in this list, but that he is mentioned by name, suggests that this list was put together after the Absalom revolution had been put down.

In other words, unlike previous chapters, we can make good educated guesses about the background to this chapter, but it is difficult to be unequivocal about it. However, I think that the prequel for the second part of 2Sam. 23 is reasonably explained above.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


This timeline is simply a shortened version of the Davidic Timeline (HTML) (PDF), with a few principle events of David’s life recorded, along with the events of this chapter. Bracketed dates are derived from the Scripture, based upon author’s original premises.

The Abbreviated Davidic Timeline

Fenton-Farrar

(F. L. Smith)

Bible Truth 4U

Reese’s Chronology Bible

Scripture

Narrative

[1085 b.c.]

1040 b.c.

[1055 b.c.]

Ruth 4:22

David is born.

1062 b.c.

 

1029 b.c.

1Sam. 17

David defeats Goliath.

1055 b.c.

(c. 1010 b.c.)

1010 b.c.

1025 b.c.

2Sam. 2:1–4

David becomes king over Judah (the southern kingdom). David is 30. 2Sam. 5:4 David was 30 years old when he began to reign. He reigned 40 years.

1048 b.c.

(c. 1004 b.c.)

1003 b.c.

1018 b.c.

2Sam. 5:1–3

1Chron. 11:1–3

David becomes king over all Israel. He is still ruling from Hebron. David is approximately 37 years old, according to Bible Truth 4U.

1035 b.c.

 

1005 b.c.

c. 1016 b.c. (Klassen)

2Sam. 11:2–25

David’s sin with Bathsheba. He has her husband, Uriah the Hittite, killed in battle.

1024 b.c.

979–961 b.c. (?)

994–993 b.c.

2Sam. 15

Absalom rebels against David and David goes into exile. 2Sam. 15:6–10 And in this way Absalom did to all Israel that came to the king for judgment. And Absalom stole the hearts of the men of Israel. And it happened at the end of 40 (4?) years, Absalom said to the king, Please let me go and pay my vow which I have vowed to Jehovah in Hebron. For your servant vowed a vow while I lived at Geshur in Syria, saying, If Jehovah will indeed bring me again to Jerusalem, then I will serve Jehovah. And the king said to him, Go in peace. And he arose and went to Hebron. But Absalom sent spies throughout all the tribes of Israel, saying, As soon as you hear the sound of the ram's horn, then you shall say, Absalom reigns in Hebron! Many have said that this reading is corrupt and ought to be 4 years. Footnote

The Modern Language Bible Footnote dates this chapter 970 b.c.; the Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge Footnote dates this chapter 1015 b.c.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


This chapter is very neatly divided into two sections: David’s last psalm and David’s great military heroes. We may assume that the first section was written near the end of his life. It is more difficult to place the last second of this chapter, given the differences between it and its parallel passage in 1Sam. 11.


 

A Synopsis of 2Samuel 23

David’s final psalm is recorded here. These are not his final words, but the final psalm which he composed and distributed. David looks at the promises made to him by God, the future of these promises, and the destruction at the 2nd advent of God’s enemies.

36 or 37 of the great men in David’s military are named here. They are broken down into three groups: the Knights of the 1st class, the Knights of the 2nd class (2 are named), and the Knights of the 3rd class. Exploits of the men in the first 2 classes are given.

 


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


One of the fascinating things about getting the right reading is, in this chapter, we are helped out by the LXX and by the parallel passage in 1Sam. 11 more than by the Dead Sea Scrolls. There are only a few verses in the Dead Sea Scrolls which can be read, and none of them offer anything different than what we find in the Masoretic text. Footnote


——————————


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


David's Last Psalm


This psalm is not found in the book of Psalms.

 

William R. Nicoll waxes poetically about this psalm: If Jacob when he died foresaw the fate of a family, and Joseph the fate of a nation, David saw, and rejoiced to see, the destiny of mankind. His dying eyes were fixed on that great advent which changed the old world into the new world in which we live, on the dawn of that new Christian day which has come to the earth like the clear shining of the sun after rain and clothed it in fresh, tender green. Footnote


Kukis slavishly literal:

 

Kukis moderately literal:

And these words of David the last ones—a declaration of David ben Jesse—and a declaration of the man was raised up high. An anointed of Elohim of Jacob and pleasant of songs of Israel.

2Samuel

23:1

These words of David [are] [his] last ones:

“[These words are] the oracle of David ben Jesse

and an oracle of the man [who] was raised up high [by God]

—[the man who is] the anointed [one] of the Elohim of Jacob

and [the composer of] delightful psalms of Israel.

Kukis not so literal:

These are the last words of David,

“An oracle of David the son of Jesse; even the oracle of a man who was promoted by God,

who is chosen for the task by the God of Jacob, to be the respected psalmist of Israel.


Here is how others have translated this verse:

 

Ancient texts:                       Note: I compare the Hebrew text to English translations of the Latin, Syriac and Greek texts, using the Douay-Rheims translation Footnote ; George Lamsa’s translation, and Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton’s translation as revised and edited by Paul W. Esposito, respectively. I often update these texts with non-substantive changes (e.g., you for thou, etc.). I often use the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible instead of Brenton’s translation, because it updates the English text.

 

The Septuagint was the earliest known translation of a book (circa 200 b.c.). Since this translation was made before the textual criticism had been developed into a science and because different books appear to be translated by different men, the Greek translation can sometimes be very uneven.

 

When there are serious disparities between my translation and Brenton’s (or the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible), I look at the Greek text of the Septuagint (the LXX) to see if a substantive difference actually exists (and I reflect these changes in the English rendering of the Greek text). I use the Greek LXX with Strong’s numbers and morphology available for e-sword. The only problem with this resource (which is a problem for similar resources) is, there is no way to further explore Greek verbs which are not found in the New Testament. Although I usually quote the Complete Apostles’ Bible here, I have begun to make changes in the translation when their translation conflicts with the Greek and note what those changes are.

 

The Masoretic text is the Hebrew text with all of the vowels (vowel points) inserted (the original Hebrew text lacked vowels). We take the Masoretic text to be the text closest to the original. However, differences between the Masoretic text and the Greek, Latin and Syriac are worth noting and, once in a great while, represent a more accurate text possessed by those other ancient translators.

 

In general, the Latin text is an outstanding translation from the Hebrew text into Latin and very trustworthy (I say this as a non-Catholic). Unfortunately, I do not read Latin—apart from some very obvious words—so I am dependent upon the English translation of the Latin (principally, the Douay-Rheims translation).

 

Underlined words indicate differences in the text.

 

Bracketed portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls are words, letters and phrases lost in the scroll due to various types of damage. Underlined words or phrases are those in the Dead Sea Scrolls but not in the Masoretic text.

 

I will only list the translation from the Dead Sea Scrolls if it exists and if it is different from the Masoretic text.


Ancient texts:

 

Dead Sea Scrolls                   Now these are the las[t] words of David, [the oracle of David son of Jesse, the oracle of] the man God [4QSama LXX. MT uses an alternate word for God or misspells.] lifted up, the anointed of [the Go]d of J[acob, the sweet Psalmist of Israel:...

Latin Vulgate                          Now these are David's last words. David the son of Isai said: The man to whom it was appointed concerning the Christ of the God of Jacob, the excellent psalmist of Israel said:...

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And these words of David the last ones—a declaration of David ben Jesse—and a declaration of the man was raised up high. An anointed of Elohim of Jacob and pleasant of songs of Israel.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    NOW these are the last words of David. David the son of Jesse, the anointed one whose rule has been established, the one whom the God of Jacob has made the sweet psalmist of Israel said,...

Septuagint (Greek)                And these are the last words of David. Faithful is David the son of Jesse, and faithful is the man whom the Lord has raised up to be the anointed of the God of Jacob, and beautiful are the psalms of Israel.

 

Significant differences:           The Latin, Greek and Syriac all lack declaration (oracle, revelation) in the second phrase. The Greek has faithful instead. The Latin and Syriac appear to be missing the third phrase (and a declaration of a man was raised up high); and the Greek has faithful again, instead of declaration.

 

The word Christ in the Latin is the same as anointed in the Hebrew. Both the Latin and Syriac speak of David being a sweet psalmist rather than make reference to the psalms themselves.

 

You will note that the Dead Sea Scrolls do not help us much here, as what is in brackets comes from the Masoretic text and cannot be read in the Dead Sea Scrolls. As is generally the case, I accept the Hebrew text as the accurate text, representing the inspired Word of God.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           David's last words

These are David's last words:

This is the declaration of Jesse's son David,

the declaration of a man raised high,

a man anointed by the God of Jacob,

a man favored by the strong one of Israel.

Contemporary English V.       These are the last words of David the son of Jesse. The God of Jacob chose David and made him a great king. The Mighty God of Israel loved him. When God told him to speak, David said:...

Easy English                          David's last words

These are the last words of David.

David was the son of Jesse.

David was the man whom God made great.

David was the person whom the God of Jacob *anointed.

David was the lovely singer of *Israel.

David said,...

Easy-to-Read Version            These are the last words of David:...

Good News Bible (TEV)         David son of Jesse was the man whom God made great, whom the God of Jacob chose to be king, and who was the composer of beautiful songs for Israel. These are David's last words:...

The Message                         These are David's last words: The voice of the son of Jesse, the voice of the man God took to the top, Whom the God of Jacob made king, and Israel's most popular singer!

New Berkeley Version           970 b.c.

These, then, are the last words of David: [More than just a farewell, this song, like the final blessing of Jacob (Gen. 49), is an inspired prophecy of the Messiah to come and of the saving covenant of which He would be the Mediator. In form, David’s song seems patterned on the similarly prophetic last message of Balaam (Num. 24:15–24)]

The statement of Jesse’s son David,

the word of the man who was raised on high,

anointed of the God of Jacob,

and noted as Israel’s sweet psalmist:...

New Century Version             David's Last Words

These are the last words of David.

This is the message of David son of Jesse.

The man made great by the Most High God speaks.

He is the appointed king of the God of Jacob;

he is the sweet singer of Israel:...

New Life Bible                        Now these are the last words of David. David the son of Jesse, the man who was raised on high, the chosen one of the God of Jacob, the sweet song writer of Israel, says,...

The Voice                               Here are the last words of David, son of Jesse: the words of the one raised up, the anointed one of Jacob's True God, the sweet songwriter of Israel.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          And these were the last words of David.

David (the son of Jesse) was a trustworthy man whom the Lord elevated to the position of the anointed of the God of Jacob. He also wrote many of the beautiful psalms of IsraEl. such as:...

Christian Community Bible     These are the last words of David:

The oracle of David, son of Jesse, the oracle of the man whom God exalted, the anointed of the God of Jacob, the singer of the songs of Israel:...

God’s Word                         These are the last words of David: "Here is the declaration by David, son of Jesse- the declaration by the man whom God raised up, whom the God of Jacob anointed, the singer of Israel's psalms:...

New Advent (Knox)Bible        These are the words of David's last psalm. Thus speaks David, son of Jesse, thus speaks the man whom the God of Jacob swore to anoint, he who sang as none other sang in Israel.

New American Bible (2002)   These are the last words of David: "The utterance of David, son of Jesse; the utterance of the man God raised up, Anointed of the God of Jacob, favorite of the Mighty One of Israel.

New American Bible (2011) Footnote              The Last Words of David.* [The last words of David: the text of this short composition is difficult in places; it views David's career in retrospect.]

These are the last words of David:

The oracle of David, son of Jesse;

the oracle of the man God raised up,

Anointed of the God of Jacob,

favorite of the Mighty One of Israel [1 Kgs 2:1-9].

NIRV                                      David's Last Words

Here are David's last words. He said,

"I am David, the son of Jesse. God has given me a message.

The Most High God has greatly honored me.

The God of Jacob anointed me as king.

I am Israel's singer of songs.

New Jerusalem Bible             These are the last words of David: Thus speaks David son of Jesse, thus speaks the man raised to eminence, the anointed of the God of Jacob, the singer of the songs of Israel:...

New Simplified Bible              These are the last words of David: Here is the declaration by David, son of Jesse. The declaration by the man whom God raised up, whom the God of Jacob anointed, the singer of Israel’s psalms:...

Revised English Bible            These are the last words of David:

The word of David son of Jesse,

the word of the man whom the High God raised up,

the anointed of the God of Jacob

and the singer of Israel’s psalms;...

Today’s NIV                          David's Last Words

These are the last words of David: "The inspired utterance of David son of Jesse, the utterance of the man exalted by the Most High, the man anointed by the God of Jacob, the hero of Israel's songs:...


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      These are the last words of David, the declaration of David the son of Jesse, the declaration the fellow raised as the anointed by the God of Jacob over a pleasant melody for Israel:...

Bible in Basic English             Now these are the last words of David. David, the son of Jesse, says, the man who was lifted up on high, the man on whom the God of Jacob put the holy oil, the loved one of Israel's songs, says:...

English Jubilee 2000              Now these are the last words of David. David, the son of Jesse, said, and the man who was raised up high, the anointed of the God of Jacob, and the sweet cantor of Israel, said,...

The Expanded Bible              David's Last Words

These are the last words of David.

This is the ·message [declaration; oracle; inspired words] of David son of Jesse.

The man ·made great by the Most High God [raised high/exalted by God] speaks.

He is the ·appointed king of [anointed by] the God of Jacob;

he is the sweet ·singer [psalmist; or hero] of Israel:...

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 And these are the last words of David,

Says David the son of Jessai,

And the speech of the man raised on high,

And whom Jacob's God had approved,

And sweetly to Israel who sings,...

HCSB                                     These are the last words of David: The proclamation of David son of Jesse, the proclamation of the man raised on high, the one anointed by the God of Jacob, the favorite singer of Israel:...

NET Bible®                             David's Final Words

These are the final words of David:

"The oracle of David son of Jesse,

the oracle of the man raised up as

the ruler chosen by the God of Jacob [Heb "the anointed one of the God of Jacob."],

Israel's beloved [Or "pleasant."] singer of songs:. When it comes to making an actual material change to the text, the NET Bible® is pretty good about indicating this. Since most of these corrections will be clear in the more literal translations below and within the Hebrew exegesis itself, I will not continue to list every NET Bible® footnote.

NIV – UK                                David's last words

These are the last words of David:

`The inspired utterance of David son of Jesse,

the utterance of the man exalted by the Most High,

the man anointed by the God of Jacob,

the hero of Israel's songs:...


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           Here are David's last words: "This is the speech of David the son of Yishai, the speech of the man who has been raised up, the one anointed by the God of Ya'akov, the sweet singer of Isra'el.

exeGeses companion Bible   THE FINAL WORDS OF DAVID

And these are the final words of David

- an oracle of David the son of Yishay;

an oracle of the mighty raised on high;

the anointed of the Elohim of Yaaqov

and the pleasantness of the psalms of Yisra El.

Hebrew Names Version         Now these are the last words of David. David the son of Yishai says, the man who was raised on high says, the anointed of the God of Ya`akov, the sweet psalmist of Yisra'el:...

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               These are the last words of David:

The utterance of David [Meaning of much of this poem (vv. 1–7) uncertain.] son of Jesse,

The utterance of the man set on high [4QSama reads “God raised up.”],

The anointed of the God of Jacob,

The favorite of the songs of Israel [Meaning of Hebrew uncertain]:...

Orthodox Jewish Bible           Now these be the last devarim of Dovid. Dovid Ben Yishai said, the gever (man) who was raised up above, the Moshiach Elohei Ya'akov, and the singer of zemirot (songs) of Yisroel, said,...

The Scriptures 1998              And these are the last words of Dawi, the saying of Dawi son of Yishai, the saying of the man raised up on high, the anointed of the Elohim of Yaʽaqo, and the sweet singer of Yisraʼĕl:...


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    And these [are] the last words of David:--`The affirmation of David son of Jesse--And the affirmation of the man raised up--Concerning the Anointed of the Elohim of Jacob, And the Sweetness of the Songs of Israel.

Emphasized Bible                  Now, these, are the last words of David,—The oracle of David, son of Jesse, Yea the oracle of The man raised up on high, The Anointed of the God of Jacob, the Delight of the Songs of Israel:...

English Standard Version      Now these are the last words of David: The oracle of David, the son of Jesse, the oracle of the man who was raised on high, the anointed of the God of Jacob, the sweet psalmist of Israel: ...

English Standard V. – UK       The Last Words of David

Now these are the last words of David:

The oracle of David, the son of Jesse,

the oracle of the man who was raised on high [ch. 7:8, 9; Ps. 78:70, 71],

the anointed of the God of Jacob [See ch. 22:51 above]; [1 Sam. 16:12, 13; Psalm 89:20],

the sweet psalmist of Israel:...

The Geneva Bible                  Now these [be] the last words [Which he spoke after he had written the psalms.] of David. David the son of Jesse said, and the man [who was] raised up on high, the anointed of the God of Jacob, and the sweet psalmist of Israel, said.

Green’s Literal Translation    And these are the last words of David, the saying of David the son of Jesse, and the saying of the man raised on high, the anointed of the God of Jacob, and the sweet singer of Israel:...

Kretzmann’s Commentary    David's Last Prophetic Song

Now, these be the last words of David. David, the son of Jesse, said, he uttered a divine, oracular saying based on immediate inspiration, and the man who was raised up on high, from his lowly position as the son of a shepherd, the anointed of the God of Jacob, who had the royal dignity conferred on him by God, and the sweet psalmist of Israel, he who was pleasant in the praise-songs of Israel, said, all in the power of the Holy Spirit,...

NASB                                     David's Last Song

Now these are the last words of David.

David the son of Jesse declares,

The man who was raised on high declares, [2 Sam 7:8, 9; Ps 78:70, 71]

The anointed of the God of Jacob, [1 Sam 16:12, 13; Ps 89:20]

And the sweet psalmist of Israel,...

New King James Version       David's Last Words

Now these are the last words of David.

Thus says David the son of Jesse;

Thus says the man raised up on high,

The anointed of the God of Jacob,

And the sweet psalmist of Israel:...

New RSV                               Now these are the last words of David:

The oracle of David, son of Jesse,

the oracle of the man whom God exalted [Q Ms: MT who was raised on high],

the anointed of the God of Jacob,

the favourite of the Strong One of Israel:...

Syndein/Thieme                     {Dying Words of David is Chapter 23 - Remembrance of Things in His Life} {Verses 1-5: David Always Kept 'Elohiym/Godhead and His Doctrine First in His Life}

Now these are the last words {dabar} of David. David, the son of Jesse, proclaimed { n@'um} . . . and the man who was raised up on high {SuperGrace Status}, the anointed of the 'Elohiym/Godhead of Jacob, and the pleasant psalmist of Israel, proclaimed { n@'um},...

World English Bible                Now these are the last words of David. David the son of Jesse says, The man who was raised on high says, The anointed of the God of Jacob, The sweet psalmist of Israel:...

Young's Literal Translation     And these are the last words of David: --`The affirmation of David son of Jesse--And the affirmation of the man raised up--Concerning the Anointed of the God of Jacob, And the Sweetness of the Songs of Israel:...

 

The gist of this verse:          These are the final words of David; meaning the final psalm that he wrote.


2Samuel 23:1a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêlleh (אֵלֶּה) [pronounced ALE-leh]

these, these things

demonstrative plural adjective with the definite article (often the verb to be is implied)

Strong's #428 BDB #41

debârîym (דְּבָרִים) [pronounced dawb-vawr-EEM]

words, sayings, doctrines, commands; things, matters, affairs; reports

masculine plural construct

Strong's #1697 BDB #182

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

ʾachărôwn (אַחֲרוֹן) [pronounced ah-kha-ROHN]

coming after, behind, later, following, last; end

masculine plural adjective (or substantive) with the definite article

Strong’s #314 BDB #30


Translation: These words of David [are] [his] last ones. This is the final psalm that David composed. Whereas, it is certainly possible that David spoke these from his deathbed, it is more likely, given the context, that this is simply the last psalm which he penned.


Just as, it is unlikely that David had anything to do with this addendum to the book of Samuel; he likely did not include or say, “Don’t forget to include this psalm.” Someone, after the fact—possibly after the first few chapters of Kings took place—added this appendix to the book of Samuel, with the original comment, These are David’s last words.


In the previous chapter, we studied a psalm that was possibly written by David over his entire life; and this is the final psalm that he writes. It is an interesting contrast, between an overview of his life and compared to David’s final thoughts placed into a psalm.

 

Keil and Delitzsch: These “last words” contain the divine seal of all that he has sung and prophesied in several psalms concerning the eternal dominion of his seed, on the strength of the divine promise which he received through the prophet Nathan, that his throne should be established for ever (2Samuel 7). These words are not merely a lyrical expansion of that promise, but a prophetic declaration uttered by David at the close of his life and by divine inspiration, concerning the true King of the kingdom of God. Footnote


We do not have a separation of chapters in the Hebrew as we do in the English. I look at the top of this page in my Bible and I see 2Samuel 23, with this as the first verse. That was not the case in the original Hebrew. 2Sam. 22:51 is followed immediately by 2Sam. 23:1. 2Sam. 22 was a psalm and this part of 2Sam. 23 is a psalm. Therefore, there needs to be a buffer in between these two psalms, to indicate that 2Sam. 23:1–7 is not simply a continuation of the previous psalm. Therefore, we have these few words: These words of David [are] [his] last ones. The Hebrew reader saw those words and realized that the psalm of 2Sam. 22 had been completed, but it would be followed by another psalm written at another time.


It is very likely that whoever added this appendix to Samuel also wrote the sentence above, simply to provide the buffer and to indicate that this is David’s last psalm.


Application: Time and life only go in one direction. No matter who you are, there will come a time when you are able to exercise your spiritual gift for the last time. This is David’s final psalm, one of his many gifts being the privilege of writing down portions of the Word of God.


Interestingly enough, we do not get any specific background. David, for some psalms, would talk about a particular escape from Saul, or another incident which prompted him to write that psalm. Here, there was not an incident of his life specifically which caused him to write this psalm—he simply began to write, inspired by the Person of the Revealed God.


It is a matter of speculation whether David himself wrote that these are his last words or whether a later editor added this. It makes perfect sense for the editor who added this appendix to be the one who wrote this initial line. It makes little sense for David to write this. How many of us realize, this is the last act of divine good that we get to do before we die?


As has been discussed, these final few chapters are an addendum to the rule of David. Regarding the historical narrative, 2Sam. 20 essentially closes out the book of Samuel and 1Kings 1 picks up the narrative about 8 years later. Apparently, someone after David’s death added these final 4 chapters, which would suggest that it is this later editor who tells us that these are David’s final words. This chapter is particular significant because it contains David’s last psalm and an account and list of his bravest soldiers (with exploits not recorded elsewhere in Samuel).


Given all that David has written in the psalms, it would not be difficult to imagine that he wrote much of the book of Samuel, with contributions from a few others (like Jonathan). However, given the placement of these psalms, just randomly added on to the end, it seems highly unlikely that David himself added them. The narrative of Samuel is fairly linear (that is, it is in chronological order, for the most part). These final 4 chapters are just simply added, with the idea that, “You cannot tell the story of David and leave this part out.”


As an aside, during this interim of 8 years, we may wonder, what is going on. This interim is one of the most important periods of David’s life, but we do not have a narrative telling us that David did this and then he did that. However, much of what David did is revealed in Proverbs—he prepared the next generation. With regards to his first set of children, David blew it. He did not train them, he did not discipline them, he did not raise them up in such a way to be the foundation for the next generation. However, as is certainly the case with Solomon—and likely the case with his younger brothers—David took the time to raise, train and discipline them. Therefore, when David dies, he has laid the groundwork for the next generation.


Before this time, David screwed up and he screwed up big time. He took the married woman Bathsheba, had her husband killed, and then faced, for about 10 years, the collateral damage of the mistakes of his life (as did much of Israel). That we studied in great depth (2Sam. 11–20). Through God’s firm hand, David turned his life around for these final years; but bear in mind, the people of Israel did not all forgive David nor did they move on spiritually as he did.


It ought to be noted that David does not appear to have had direct contact with God at any time, in the same way that, say, Abraham has contact with God. At least a half dozen times, God came to Abraham (probably in human form) and spoke directly with him. David appears to have encountered God through prophets, through His Word, and through things like the Ephod and the Ark. However, God was just as real to David as He was to Abraham. In this way, David is very much like us. This is our relationship to God. We don’t have burning bushes, clouds overhead guiding us, a voice from on high, or a man appearing to us as God. People who experience such things today are mentally unstable. Now, you may have some weird dreams, but that is beside the point—and those dreams are not God talking to you nor are they somehow related to God guiding you.


As an aside, a great deal is made out of the many times that Abraham interacted with God or all of the miracles which Moses saw and participated in. However, Abraham had a relationship with God which began before he is 75 years old, and ended sometime before his death at age 175. During that 100 years or so, God appeared to Moses on a half dozen or so occasions. In other words, God did not contact Abraham once a month to check in and to talk things out. Every 10 or 20 years, God would manifest Himself to Abraham and they would speak. My point is, this did not happen very often.


When it comes to the miracles that Moses saw with the people of Israel, there may have been 2 dozen miracles, spread out over a period of 40+ years. Now, these a big miracles, meaning that, they could be observed by all, but they average out to a miracle about every 2 years. So, even though a great many miracles took place when Moses led the people out of Egypt, in terms of the number of miracles over those 40 years, it was not something which seemed to be happening all the time.


When it comes to the life of David, miracles and contact with God are even less frequent. There is no period of time that I can recall where David and God spoke directly to one another. There is no set of miracles that David observed, even though God was with him throughout his life. So our lives are much more like David’s life; and we ought to be able to relate to David more intimately than we can to Abraham or to Moses. Furthermore, David screws up his own life big time—and most of us can certainly relate to that.


In the Church Age, our relationship to God is through His Word and through His Holy Spirit (which is not an experiential phenomena). Now, from time to time, our understanding of the plan of God may relate to our own life in such a way as to result in an emotional response—but our guidance from God comes through the Word of God and through the Holy Spirit. This is why spiritual growth is related to understanding the Word of God.


Application: We do not have to see God to know Him; we do not have to have some sort of special contact with God to understand Him and to appreciate Him. Personally, I am very wary of anyone who touts this or that experience with God—apart from a lifelong experience where God is known through His Word. For whatever reason, few Christians really appreciate the power of God’s Word in us.


David, almost like no other saint, teaches us the importance of the Word of God.


The Bible has many last words given by a variety of believers. There is a great amount of similarity in what these men have to say.

Famous Last Words

Person/Passage

Summary

Jacob in Gen. 49:1–32

These are his last words given to his sons, blessing them and prophesying the future of their descendants.

Jacob in Gen. 47:29–31

And when the time drew near that Israel must die, he called his son Joseph and said to him, "If now I have found favor in your sight, put your hand under my thigh and promise to deal kindly and truly with me. Do not bury me in Egypt, but let me lie with my fathers. Carry me out of Egypt and bury me in their burying place." He answered, "I will do as you have said." And he said, "Swear to me"; and he swore to him. Then Israel bowed himself upon the head of his bed. (ESV)

Joseph in Gen. 50:22–26

So Joseph remained in Egypt, he and his father's house. Joseph lived 110 years. And Joseph saw Ephraim's children of the third generation. The children also of Machir the son of Manasseh were counted as Joseph's own. And Joseph said to his brothers, "I am about to die, but God will visit you and bring you up out of this land to the land that he swore to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob." Then Joseph made the sons of Israel swear, saying, "God will surely visit you, and you shall carry up my bones from here." So Joseph died, being 110 years old. They embalmed him, and he was put in a coffin in Egypt. (ESV)

Moses to the people of Israel in Deut. 31:1–6

So Moses continued to speak these words to all Israel. And he said to them, "I am 120 years old today. I am no longer able to go out and come in. The LORD has said to me, 'You shall not go over this Jordan.' The LORD your God himself will go over before you. He will destroy these nations before you, so that you shall dispossess them, and Joshua will go over at your head, as the LORD has spoken. And the LORD will do to them as he did to Sihon and Og, the kings of the Amorites, and to their land, when He destroyed them. And the LORD will give them over to you, and you shall do to them according to the whole commandment that I have commanded you. Be strong and courageous. Do not fear or be in dread of them, for it is the LORD your God who goes with you. He will not leave you or forsake you." (ESV; capitalized)

Moses to Joshua in Deut. 31:7–8

Then Moses summoned Joshua and said to him in the sight of all Israel, "Be strong and courageous, for you shall go with this people into the land that the LORD has sworn to their fathers to give them, and you shall put them in possession of it. It is the LORD who goes before you. He will be with you; He will not leave you or forsake you. Do not fear or be dismayed." (ESV; capitalized)

Moses in Deut. 33:1–29

Moses speaks of the relationship between God and Israel; and he also speaks of the future of the various tribes of Israel. "There's no one like your God, Jeshurun! He rides through the heavens to help you. In majesty he rides through the clouds. The eternal God is your shelter, and his everlasting arms support you. He will force your enemies out of your way and tell you to destroy them. So Israel will live securely. Jacob's spring will be left alone in a land of grain and new wine. Dew will drip from Israel's skies. You are blessed, Israel! Who is like you, a nation saved by the LORD? He is a shield that helps you and a sword that wins your victories. Your enemies will come crawling to you, and you will stomp on their backs." (Deut. 33:26–29; God’s Word™)

Joshua in Joshua 23:1–16

Joshua speaks to the other leaders and military officers and judges, and advises them about their future and their relationship to God. "I am now going the way of all the earth, and you know with all your heart and all your soul that none of the good promises the LORD your God made to you has failed. Everything was fulfilled for you; not one promise has failed. Since every good thing the LORD your God promised you has come about, so He will bring on you every bad thing until He has annihilated you from this good land the LORD your God has given you. If you break the covenant of the LORD your God, which He commanded you, and go and worship other gods, and bow down to them, the LORD's anger will burn against you, and you will quickly disappear from this good land He has given you." (Joshua 23:14–16; HCSB)

The prophet Samuel to the people of Israel in 1Sam. 12:1–25

“And now behold the king whom you have chosen, for whom you have asked; behold, the LORD has set a king over you. If you will fear the LORD and serve Him and obey His voice and not rebel against the commandment of the LORD, and if both you and the king who reigns over you will follow the LORD your God, it will be well. But if you will not obey the voice of the LORD, but rebel against the commandment of the LORD, then the hand of the LORD will be against you and your king. Now therefore stand still and see this great thing that the LORD will do before your eyes.” (1Sam. 12:13–16; ESV; capitalized)

Samuel’s final words to the people continued.

And Samuel said to the people, "Do not be afraid; you have done all this evil. Yet do not turn aside from following the LORD, but serve the LORD with all your heart. And do not turn aside after empty things that cannot profit or deliver, for they are empty. For the LORD will not forsake His people, for His great name's sake, because it has pleased the LORD to make you a people for Himself. Moreover, as for me, far be it from me that I should sin against the LORD by ceasing to pray for you, and I will instruct you in the good and the right way. Only fear the LORD and serve Him faithfully with all your heart. For consider what great things He has done for you. But if you still do wickedly, you shall be swept away, both you and your king." (1Sam. 12:20–25; ESV; capitalized)

King David in 2Sam. 23:1–7

These are not exactly David’s last words; but this is the final psalm which he writes. “My house is clearly with God, as He made an everlasting covenant regarding me. He set this covenant in good legal order and guarded it, meanwhile, seeing to my every deliverance and providing for my every need. Therefore, at that time, will He not cause His covenant to be fulfilled?” (Kukis reasonably literal paraphrase)

Paul in 2Tim. 4:5–7

As for you, always be sober-minded, endure suffering, do the work of an evangelist, fulfill your ministry. For I am already being poured out as a drink offering, and the time of my departure has come. I have fought the good fight, I have finished the race, I have kept the faith. Henceforth there is laid up for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, will award to me on that Day, and not only to me but also to all who have loved his appearing. (ESV)

Peter in 2Peter 1:13–15

I consider it right, as long as I am in this tent, to wake you up with a reminder, knowing that I will soon lay aside my tent, as our Lord Jesus Christ has also shown me. And I will also make every effort that after my departure you may be able to recall these things at any time. (HCSB) Since this is a relatively short passage, all of it can be entirely quoted.

Men of God, who come to the end of their lives, often have words of great significance to share. They are far different from those of the atheist or the agnostic, whose life portrays the sentiment, “I don’t know why I am here; I don’t know what my life was all about. And I don’t know where I’m going.”


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


So far, v. 1 reads: These words of David [are] [his] last ones. These few words (4 in the Hebrew) were probably written by whoever appended these last 4 chapters to the book of Samuel.

 

Peter Pett comments: The last words of a prophetic man were seen as of telling importance and as predictive of the future. What he said would come about. And here David was undoubtedly claiming special inspiration by God's Spirit. The word `oracle' (neum) is itself indicative of `the inspiration of God as He speaks to men', and the idea is repeated twice so as to guarantee that it is a sound witness. And while it is the oracle of the mere son of Jesse, it is the oracle of the one whom God has raised up and exalted, the one whom God has anointed and set apart for Himself, the one whom God has chosen as the instrument of the praise of the whole of Israel. Footnote


This psalm has somewhat of an interesting format. At first read, I thought that all of v. 1 was an introduction; however, the psalm appears to actually begin with v. 1b:


2Samuel 23:1b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

neʾûm (נְאֻם) [pronounced ne-OOM]

declaration, revelation, utterance, saying, oracle

masculine singular construct

Strong's #5001 & 5002 BDB #610

BDB lists this as a masculine noun (Strong’s #5002) and Gesenius lists this as the passive participle construct of Strong’s #5001. According to Gesenius, this means to murmur, to speak in a low voice; especially used of the voice of God. Wigram lists this as the Qal participle and lists both Strong numbers. In either case, we are generally speaking of the voice of God or the Word of God (compare Gen. 22:16 Num. 14:28 Isa. 1:24 3:15 Jer. 1:8 2:19 Ezek. 5:11). There are several hundred passages where this is God speaking; only a few that I found where it was not (2Sam. 23:1 Psalm 36:1 Prov. 30:1).

Dâvid (דָּוִד); also Dâvîyd (דָּוִיד) [pronounced daw-VEED]

beloved and is transliterated David

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #1732 BDB #187

bên (בֵּן) [pronounced bane]

son, descendant

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

Yîshay (יִשַי) [pronounced yee-SHAH-ee]

I possess; transliterated Jesse

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3448 BDB #445

Also spelled ʾÎyshay (אִישַי) [pronounced ee-SHAH-ee].


Translation: “[These words are] the oracle of David ben Jesse... This is a declaration or oracle of David ben Jesse (David, son of Jesse).


Many times we find a person named in association with his father in the Bible. This is not because we would become confused as to which David this refers to. This is because much of what a man is, is defined by his father. We do not know much about Jesse and 1Sam. 16 puts him in a bad light. However, bear in mind that at least 3 of his sons were military types and that David, when faced with the daunting challenge of Goliath immediately rose to the occasion. Jesse may not have put in the time with David that he should have; and he may have seen David as the runt of the litter, but his influence remained on David for the rest of his life. What is remarkable about David in his early years is his faithfulness to his flock, over which he had responsibility. Even though King Saul extended an invitation to be employed at palace of the king, David still continued to go back and oversee the care of his sheep. This sense of responsibility was apparently drummed into him—probably from his father—and when he lost this sense of responsibility Footnote in 2Sam. 11, David went on a very self-destructive path.


Application: The most important man in a son’s life will always be his father—there or absent. Our current president, Barack Obama, who appears to have had no actual memory of his father (I have forgotten whether the father was there in the first year or so), was still greatly impacted by the life and views of his father, even to this day, nearly 50 years later. One of his books is directly related to his father and his search for the rest of his family and for information about his absentee father.


So far, this is what we have in v. 1:

These words of David [are] [his] last ones:

“[These words are] the oracle of David ben Jesse...


Oracle is the masculine singular construct of neʾûm (נְאֻם) [pronounced ne–OOM], which means declaration, revelation, utterance, saying, oracle. Strong's #5001 & 5002 BDB #610. Most of the time when we find this word used, it is a reference to God speaking (Gen. 22:16 1Sam. 2:30 2Kings 9:26, 33).


2Samuel 23:1c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

neʾûm (נְאֻם) [pronounced ne-OOM]

declaration, revelation, utterance, saying, oracle

masculine singular construct

Strong's #5001 & 5002 BDB #610

Owens calls this a masculine singular construct; the KJV+TVM in e-sword calls it a Qal passive participle of a verb. Participles are often used as substantives.

geber (גֶּבֶר) [pronounced GEHB-vehr]

men, as separate from women and children; a male; male offspring, a male [man]-child; a strong man; a warrior [with strength and ability]

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #1397 (& #1399) BDB #149

qûwm (קוּם) [pronounced koom]

to be raised up, to be caused to stand

3rd person masculine singular, Hophal perfect

Strong’s #6965 BDB #877

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

 as a substantive: height, as an adverb: on high, upwards

substantive; adverb

Strong’s #5920 BDB #752

Note that this is spelled the same as the preposition.


Translation: ...and an oracle of the man [who] was raised up high [by God]—... It is not clear if David the man is raised up or if it is his oracle which is raised up. That may be the intention of the writer. David was raising up this oracle (singing it or saying it aloud); but God raised David himself up.


Application: You are not promoted unless God promotes you. Footnote You may fight for a promotion, politic for one; but unless your promotion is of God, it is meaningless.


David was the runt of the litter. His father Jesse had David out watching the sheep from a very early age, not recognizing that he was good for much else. God recognized David from the youngest age, and brought him into the limelight. God looks on the inside of a man and recognizes what is there (1Sam. 16:7).

 

Gill: [God took David] from a low estate to an high one, from the sheepfold to the throne, to be king over all the tribes of Israel, and a conqueror, and head of the nations round about him. Footnote


In God’s plan, it does not matter your beginnings, your circumstances, or your failures.

You may recall the words of God spoken to David (spoken through Nathan the prophet): "Now this is what you are to say to My servant David: 'This is what the LORD of Hosts says: “I took you from the pasture and from following the sheep to be ruler over My people Israel. I have been with you wherever you have gone, and I have destroyed all your enemies before you. I will make a name for you like that of the greatest in the land.” (2Sam. 7:8–9; HCSB) See also Psalm 78:70. Of all the kings in this world, I would suspect that now, even 3000 years later, David is one of the best known kings throughout the world.


Application: In God’s plan, it does not matter your beginnings, your circumstances, or your failures. Although Jesse was clearly a great father, but the time that David came along, Jesse put him out to watch the sheep, not recognizing the great man that David could be. David spent many days and nights out on the prairie watching over these sheep, having little contact with the outside world. God was able to take David, this shepherd boy, and make him the most renown king of human history, as well as a man after God’s Own heart. Furthermore, we have studied David’s failings, and they were not minor failings. Yet, not only did God make of David a great man and a great king, but David also passed the baton to his son Solomon, who also was a man of renown. Therefore, no matter who you are or where you are, God has a place for you in His plan; and through His power, you can accomplish things that you did not realize, as well has do things which have eternal consequences.


Application: How many politicians have desired the power and the chutzpah to have a building or a street named after them. In many cases, such men often start these projects themselves. But long after these buildings have crumbled into dust, the good that you have done still stands. The key is, you learn how to be filled with the Spirit (rebound) and then you learn the Word of God. It is that simple.


2Samuel 23:1d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

Mâshîyach (or, mâshîyach) (מָשִיחַ) [pronounced maw-SHEE-ahkh]

anointed, anointed one, transliterated Messiah

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #4899 BDB #603

In the Septuagint, the Greek word is christos (χριστός) [pronounced krees-TOSS], which means anointed one, Messiah, Christ. The transliteration, quite obviously, is Christ. We do not find this word until Lev. 4:3, 5, 16.

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural construct

Strong's #430 BDB #43

Yaʿăqôb (יַעֲקֹב) [pronounced yah-ģuh-KOHBV]

supplanter; insidious, deceitful; to circumvent and is transliterated Jacob

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3290 BDB #784


Translation: ...[the man who is] the anointed [one] of the Elohim of Jacob... David is God’s anointed. The word anointed is mâshîyach (מָשִיחַ) [pronounced maw-SHEE-ahkh], which means anointed, anointed one. This is transliterated messiah. Strong’s #4899 BDB #603. David is not the messiah, quite obviously, but he throughout his life represents Jesus the Messiah in His 1st and 2nd Advents (Solomon is representative of Christ in His millennial reign). David is a type of Christ (Christ, by the way, means Messiah).


David was physically anointed by Samuel the prophet back in 1Sam. 16. Samuel chose David out from all of his brothers (at the guidance of God the Holy Spirit).


What we have is quite common in the Old Testament. David was anointed by God through Samuel as the next king of Israel. However, David also, as the anointed of God, represented Jesus the Messiah (that is, Jesus the Christ). David was a type of Christ and Jesus is the antitype. This will be further explored when we study and compare David and Jesus. David was king of Israel; Jesus will become King of Israel, in fulfillment of the Davidic Covenant. See Psalm 89 (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).


2Samuel 23:1e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

nâʿîym (נָעִים) [pronounced naw-GEEM]

pleasant, agreeable, delightful; pleasures; sweet; generous; lovely, beautiful

masculine singular adjective; construct form

Strong’s #5273 BDB #653

This word also means singing, sweet sounding, musical.

zâmîyr (זָמִיר) [pronounced zaw-MEER]

song; psalm

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #2158 BDB #274

This word is also spelled zâmir (זָמִר) [pronounced zaw-MEER]; and zemirâh (זְמִרָה) [pronounced zem-ee-RAW].

Yiserâʾêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

God prevails; contender; soldier of God; transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 & #3479 BDB #975


Translation: ...and [the composer of] delightful psalms of Israel. Nearly all of the translations call David a pleasant psalmit, or words to that effect. This is a wrong translation, and the word found here refers to the psalms themselves and not to the composer. Furthermore, it is in the plural. Literally, this portion of the verse reads, ...and pleasant of psalms of Israel.

 

Keil and Delitzsch: David on the one hand had firmly established the kingdom of God in an earthly and political respect as the anointed of Jehovah, i.e., as king; [however], on the other, as the composer of Israel's songs of praise, promoted the spiritual edification of that kingdom. Footnote


Even in the Church Age, some things are ingrained in us through the singing of various hymns (assuming that they are accurate with words we understand). Eph. 5:19 Speak to one another in psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs, singing and making music to the Lord in your heart. Col. 3:16 Let the message about the Messiah dwell richly among you, teaching and admonishing one another in all wisdom, and singing psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs, with gratitude in your hearts to God. (HCSB)


This psalm reads, so far: These words of David [are] [his] last ones:

“[These words are] the oracle of David ben Jesse

and an oracle of the man [who] was raised up high [by God]

—[the man who is] the anointed [one] of the Elohim of Jacob

and [the composer of] delightful psalms of Israel. As noted before, David appears to begin the psalm even before the psalm actually begins. Or David writes an introduction which is, in itself, a short psalm.


My educated guess would be that the first line is written by whoever affixed this addendum to the book of Samuel, which may have been Nathan the prophet or one of David’s younger sons by Bathsheba. Solomon would be a logical candidate, as he did so much writing (Proverbs is a rehash of what David had taught him). Solomon’s access to the royal records and his interest in the reign of his father probably uncovered some of these documents, which he affixed to the book of Samuel with very limited commentary.


——————————


The concept of inspiration has always fascinated me, because each new generation of writers of Scripture appeared to recognize that which came before as significant, if not inspired, but their own additions may have been more tentative at first. For instance, Joshua for many decades operated under the shadow of Moses, who had direct contact with God and who was, to his people, the voice of God (Ex. 20:18–19). My guess is, Joshua accepted the writings of Moses as from God. So, how does a man continue that tradition? Joshua, as you may recall, was a very grace oriented person. He was always under the command of Moses and Joshua never looked to get out ahead of God’s plan. My guess is, Joshua recognized that he needed to continue the history of Israel, and may have begun to record the incidents of his life, not necessarily realizing that he was writing Scripture as well—at least, not at first.


One of the things which is quite fascinating about this is, after the Old Testament canon was closed, men of Israel continued to write down their thoughts as well as the history of Israel, which books have come down to us as the Apocrypha (which the Catholic church takes as being inspired). However, most Jewish and Christian scholars have recognized that these writings are not inspired by God. The same is true of all the commentary written by Jewish rabbis over the years about the Old Testament. Even though this was followed as the traditional approach to the religious practice, what these rabbis wrote was not seen as inspired by God.


So, over the years, man has been able to recognize and even agree, for the most part, on what is inspired by God and what constitutes history written by fallible man.


In this psalm, David makes an observation which comes at the end of his life. The words that he is writing—these are the Word of God. These words are inspired by God the Holy Spirit.


A Spirit of Yehowah has spoken by me and His word [is] upon my tongue.

2Samuel

23:2

The Spirit of Yehowah speaks through me

and His word [is] upon my tongue.

The Spirit of Jehovah speaks through me; And it is His words which I speak.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          The spirit of the Lord hath spoken by me and his word by my tongue.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        A Spirit of Yehowah has spoken by me and His word [is] upon my tongue.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    The Spirit of the LORD spoke by me and his word is upon my tongue.

Septuagint (Greek)                The Spirit of the Lord spoke by me, and His word was on my tongue.

 

Significant differences:           None.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Contemporary English V.       The Spirit of the LORD has told me what to say.

Good News Bible (TEV)         The spirit of the LORD speaks through me; his message is on my lips.

The Message                         GOD's Spirit spoke through me, his words took shape on my tongue.

The Voice                               David: The Spirit of the Eternal speaks through me;

His voice emerges from my mouth.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          'Through me, spoke the Breath of Jehovah,

And His words were there on my tongue.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       Through me the spirit of the Lord has spoken; his words are on my tongue.

New American Bible (2011)   The spirit of the LORD spoke through me;

his word was on my tongue. Is 59:21; Jer 1:9.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      "The Spirit-wind of Yahweh speaks by me, with his talk over my tongue.

Bible in Basic English             The spirit of the Lord had voice through me, his word was on my tongue.

English Jubilee 2000              (The Spirit of the LORD has spoken by me, and his word has been in my tongue. The God of Israel dictated unto me, the strong One of Israel spoke):... V. 3 is included for context.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 For to me the ~ LORD's spirit has spoken,

And this has declared by my tongue,...


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           "The Spirit of ADONAI spoke through me, his word was on my tongue.

exeGeses companion Bible   The Spirit of Yah Veh words by me

and his utterance is in my tongue.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           The Ruach Hashem spoke by me, and His word was on my leshon.

The Scriptures 1998              “The Spirit of יהוה has spoken through me, And His word is on my tongue.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                The Spirit of the Lord spoke in and by me, and His word was upon my tongue.

English Standard Version      "The Spirit of the LORD speaks by me; his word is on my tongue.

The Geneva Bible                  The Spirit of the LORD spake by me, and his word [was] in my tongue. Meaning, he spoke nothing but by the motion of Gods Spirit.

Green’s Literal Translation    The Spirit of Jehovah has spoken by me, and His Word is on my tongue.

Kretzmann’s Commentary    The spirit of the Lord spake by me, using him as His instrument to convey the divine truths to men, in his writings and psalms, and His Word was in my tongue, for the Spirit acts through the Word.

New RSV                               The spirit of the Lord speaks through me,

his word is upon my tongue.

Syndein/Thieme                     "The spirit/breathe {ruwach} of Jehovah/God communicated {divine viewpoint/doctrine} categorically {dabar} by me, and His utterances/viewpoint millah} . . . {were} on my tongue {David allowed God's divine viewpoint to be communicated through him}.

Young’s Updated LT             The Spirit of Jehovah has spoken by me, And His word [is] on my tongue.

 

The gist of this verse:          David recognizes that the Holy Spirit (the Spirit of Yehowah) spoke through him when he wrote these words.


2Samuel 23:2a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

rûwach (רוּחַ) [pronounced ROO-ahkh]

wind, breath, spirit, apparition

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #7307 BDB #924

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

dâbar (דָּבַר) [pronounced dawb-VAHR]

to speak, to talk [and back with action], to give an opinion, to expound, to make a formal speech, to speak out, to promise, to propose, to speak kindly of, to declare, to proclaim, to announce

3rd person masculine singular, Piel perfect

Strong’s #1696 BDB #180

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity with the 1st person singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #88


Translation: The Spirit of Yehowah speaks through me... This is unusual; the word spirit is rarely found in 2Samuel. Those in the Old Testament appeared to recognize that they had a spirit, which was somehow related to God; but only a few Old Testament believers wrote about the Holy Spirit (Gen. 6:2 2Sam. 23:2).


David understands that these words which he writes are also the words of the Holy Spirit. He is not just throwing random words out there, but these are words of God. There is no evidence, however, that David understood the Trinity as we do today. In the previous chapter, we had the abbreviated doctrine of the Trinity in the Old Testament, as well as referencing the complete Doctrine of the Trinity in the Old Testament (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).


What is happening here is known as progressive revelation. Progressive revelation means that, each additional truth builds upon, expands, and better explains that which was already taught. New revelation does not supersede, replace or nullify previous revelation, but builds upon that which is past and that which is foundational.


Progressive revelation may be applied to nearly any doctrine in the Word of God. It is doubtful that anyone in the Old Testament, for instance, understood the Trinity or even thought that there was a Trinity. However, this became a part of New Testament doctrine, which could be justified in the Old Testament as well as the New.


2Samuel 23:2b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

millâh (מִלָּה) [pronounced mil-LAW

 word, speech, utterance, that which was said

feminine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #4405 BDB #576

ʿal (עַל) [pronounced ģahl]

upon, beyond, on, against, above, over, by, beside

preposition of relative proximity

Strong’s #5921 BDB #752

lâshôwn (לָשוֹן) [pronounced law-SHOHN]

tongue; speech; language; lapping; tongue-shaped

masculine singular noun with a 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #3956 BDB #546


Translation: ...and His word [is] upon my tongue. The words for word and tongue are not found elsewhere in the book of Samuel. This makes these words really stand out. David is essentially stating the Doctrine of Inspiration.


David is both inspired to speak (write) and inspired by God the Holy Spirit, which are two different things. A writer sometimes has ideas and thoughts come to him, and he looks desperately for a place where they can be written down. That is inspiration. However, when the words of this artist are also the words of God, then that is the Biblical concept of inspiration.


Snoop Dog might find himself inspired to write down this or that rap; but this is clearly not inspired by God. The abbreviated doctrine of inspiration follows.


For more information on this topic, see the Study of Inspiration (HTML) (PDF) (WPD), and the Doctrine of Inspiration (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

The Shortened Doctrine of Inspiration

1.      I doubt that I could come up with a better definition than Thieme did (although he relied heavily upon Chafer for this): The human writers of Scripture so wrote that without waiving their human intelligence, their vocabulary, their personal feelings, their literary style, their personality or individuality, God's complete message to man was permanently recorded with perfect accuracy in the original languages of Scripture. Chafer wrote: It is by the divine controlling influence of God over the human authors that the Old and New Testaments were written to include all that God wanted included, to exclude all that God wanted excluded, and to state divine truth in perfect accuracy. Inspiration may be defined as God so supernaturally directing the writers of Scripture that without waiving their human intelligence, their individuality, their literary style, their person feelings, or any other human factor, His own complete coherent message to man was recorded in perfect accuracy, the very words of Scripture bearing the authority of divine authorship. Thieme has quoted the second half of this Chafer quote directly many times, from memory. This is one of the few quotations of man which is well-worth studying and memorizing.

         a.      In this very chapter, we have the testimony of David that these are both his words (v. 1) and the words of God (v. 2). Even though David may not have been able to distill the definition of inspiration into the words above, he still had a fairly good understanding that these words recorded in the Word of God are both the words of the human author and the words of God the Holy Spirit.

         b.      The fact that David says that he wrote this himself indicates that he was not simply a secretary, and that what he wrote down was exactly what God told him to write. David’s thoughts, his personal feelings, his vocabulary and literary style were not set aside in order for God to communicate His message to man. God is able, through David, to communicate His complete, connected and coherent message to man.

2.      All Scripture is God-breathed (2Tim. 3:16). The Greek word found here is θεόπνευστος (theopneustos) and it is most often translated inspired by God. However, it is the combination of two Greek words, θεός (which means God) and πέπνευστι, which is from the Greek word πνέω (to breathe). It is found only once in the NT and I personally would have thought that this would have been a coined word by Paul. It was not. It is also found in classical Greek writings (although most of the passages seem to come from the first or second century b.c.).

         a.      On the inhale, we have God the Holy Spirit providing the writers of Scripture with information, as in 2Sam. 23:2–3 Isa. 59:21 Jer. 1:9 Acts 28:25).

         b.      On the exhale, we have the writers of Scripture writing God's word (or speaking it; and these words are recorded).

3.      God's Word is not a matter of human viewpoint but Scripture is written while the writer is filled by the Holy Spirit or by means of the Holy Spirit or carried along by the Holy Spirit (Matt. 22:42–45 Acts 4:24–25). 2Peter 1:20–21 2Pe 1:20 Above all, [you should realize] that no prophecy of Scripture originates from a person’s own initiative [Note: This passage is discussing the source of Scripture, not the understanding of it]. For prophecy was never produced by the will of man, but people spoke from God, as they were carried along [i.e., inspired] by the Holy Spirit. (AUN–NT)

4.      As Thieme puts it, the Holy Spirit makes use of human agencies and language. Chafer points out that the Bible is our ultimate authority...It is an act of futility to attempt to debate theology and the truths relating to it without agreeing on the foundation and source of this truth.

5.      We may pause here and ask, why did God do it this way? Why did He not drop a book out of the sky in every language so that their would be no problem recognizing its divine significance? Why did he just not give us a book written in reformed Egyptian Hieroglyphics and have someone with magic glasses write down the content?

         a.      There is a great deal of parallelism throughout the Bible. One of the most important is that of Jesus Christ, who is the living Word, fully and unequivocally God and yet true humanity (John 1:1-12); and this is parallel to the concept of Scripture, God's complete and connected message to man as recorded by the human authors of Scripture who did not waive any of their humanity in the writing of Scripture. A grasp of the living Word gives us understanding of the written Word and vice versa.

         b.      There is the principle of chronological revelation; that is, we exist in time and God has different programs for different ages. The church age was not pertinent to Adman and Eve, to Noah, or to Moses. Having information about the church age would have not been helpful. Jesus Christ came in time so the Scriptures which preceded His coming had to look forward to His coming and those Scriptures written after His death and resurrection had to look backward to his first advent. Therefore, each set of generations of peoples required revelation which was for their time in human history. It was not until the church age that we had God's complete revelation to man.

         c.      We must never forget that we are an integral part of God's plan. We are not just a separate entity on earth with some divine will imposed upon us from heaven. God is personal and there is an moment-by-moment interaction between God and ourselves which is real and dynamic.

6.      What Paul presented to the Corinthians is the mind of Christ (2Cor. 2:16). By extrapolation, we may include all of Paul's writings and the rest of Scripture.

7.      God's Word is more important than any worldly item (Prov. 8:10–11). God has exalted his Word even above His name (Psalm 138:2) Footnote .

8.      God's Word existed in eternity past, prior to its being written down in time (Prov. 8:22–31).

9.      Prior to the completion of the canon of Scripture, God spoke to man in several ways:

         a.      Directly      (Gen. 2:16 3:9,14–19 9:1–18 12:1–3 Num. 12:7–8).

         b.      Through the oral tradition, which was primarily meaningful prior to Moses' recording of Scripture (Gen. 24:2,7 28:1,3).

         c.      Through dreams (Gen. 15:12–21 31:10–13 37:5–11 41:1–38 Footnote Num. 12:6 Dan. 10:9) Footnote

         d.      Visions or trance-like states (I Kings 22:19 Isa. 1:1 6:1 Acts 10:9–34 Rev. 1:10 and following).

         e.      Through the Scripture which had already been written or was about to be written (Deut. 6:6–9).

         f.       Through various rituals and through priests, who, although they primarily represented man to God, by their activities in the tabernacle and in performing the animal sacrifices, they revealed the gospel to man (Ex. 12:24–27 13:4–10).

         g.      God's Word as spoken through His prophets (Isa. 6:8–10).

         h.      Through angelic teaching (Acts 7:53).

10.    If an angel or even an apostle teaches anything contrary to the gospel that Paul has delivered, then they are cursed (Gal. 1:8). We are not to add or to take from God's Word, now that it is complete (Rev. 22:18–19 Footnote ).

11.    The Extent of Inspiration:

         a.      Prehistoric past: There are significant events which have occurred prior to the advent of man which the Bible gives us an accurate account of. The creation of the universe and the restoration of the earth is recorded in Genesis, Isaiah, John and Colossians. Satan's fall is recorded in Isaiah and in Ezekiel. We would have no way of ascertaining these events without Scripture.

         b.      Ancient history: The Bible contains an accurate portrayal of ancient history; far superior to that which we have any records for. This goes back prior to the flood, from which we have no written records apart from the Bible. In fact, ancient mythology is explained by the events found in Gen. 6. Archeologist used to ridicule the Bible due to its continual mention of the Hittites and their great power, for which there was a dearth of archeological evidence. That has all changed and the Bible has given an accurate portrayal of the Hittite race and empire.

         c.      Scientific data: although the Bible is not a scientific textbook nor was it written by people with scientific leanings, all scientific information found in the Bible is accurate. The earth is identified in one passage in Isaiah as spherical; the Bible also points out that the earth is hung upon nothing. Although the Bible is in direct opposition to evolution (which is but a theory, and a poorly conceived one at that), it is not in opposition to the "Big Bang" theory.

         d.      Objective-law: The Bible sets down laws with regard to marriage, family and nation, which, when followed by believers or unbelievers, cause the marriage, the family and their nation to prosper. How many other documents written millenniums ago could be dusted off and applied today with any sort of success?

         e.      In many portions of the Bible, God is said to be speaking directly to the author or to the people. The Bible is accurate in its recording of these quotes.

         f.       There are many areas of prophecy in the Bible, given months, years and centuries prior to their fulfillment. In fact, the way a prophet was to be tested was to wait a short time to see if some of his prophecies came to pass. If they did, then he was a prophet from God.

                  i.       Ezekiel predicted the destruction of the Edomites, an extremely powerful and vigorous people that no one seemed to be able to defeat. However, their land became an area of desolation, just as God foretold through Ezekiel.

                  ii.      Tyre has been seen as an impregnable island for centuries. God predicted that it would fall by troops marching overland. Alexander the Great built a causeway from the mainland to the Island city and overthrew Tyre.

                  iii.      One of the most significant areas of prophecy is that surrounding the person and work of Jesus Christ. There are passages in Isaiah which sound like eyewitnesses to the crucifixion. Isaiah was written almost a millennium prior the Christ's advent and the Septuagint (the Greek translation of the Old Testament) was translated over a century prior to the advent of Jesus Christ.

         g.      The Bible records falsehoods accurately. When Satan lied to the woman and told her "You shall not surely die"; that was a lie and the Bible records it. The book of Ecclesiastes is filled with human viewpoint; but it is what Solomon thought at the time. Proverbs is Solomon mature and in fellowship and Ecclesiastes is Solomon searching for truth and satisfaction in life apart from God's Word.

12.    Apologetics. This is a study of certain truths of Scripture and certain aspects of the Bible which give credence to it being what it claims to be.

         a.      Human authorship. Over forty different authors, from kings to common fishermen to tax collectors to four star generals to theologians wrote the 66 books of the Bible over a period of over 1600 years. The cohesion of Scripture is better explained by the supernatural guidance of God than it is by pure coincidence. Some detractors will try to point out that this is religious literature put together by religious people who all have the same viewpoint. This is highly unlikely because if anyone has a different set of viewpoints, it will be religious people. Recall the statement, When any two rabbis agree on any one thing at one time, Messiah will come.

         b.      Personal honesty and objectivity of the writers of Scripture. Believer and unbeliever authors alike tend to see themselves with rose-colored glasses. They can spot the faults and shortcomings of others, but cannot see even the same deficiencies in themselves. However, the authors of Scripture, when they sinned or were wrong, they did not do the natural human thing: gloss over it, neglect to include it or rationalize and/or justify it; instead, they record their sins and failures along side their triumphs and successes. David's adultery with Bathsheba and the subsequent murder of her husband that he contracted; Noah's drunkenness (probably originally recorded by Noah); Moses's sin which caused him to be kept out of entering into the promised land with a multitude of one of the most degenerate generation of Jews ever; Solomon's failure to woo the Shulamite woman in Song of Solomon. The Bible is filled with the accurate recording of many men. Some Christians find this troubling; to examine some great man of Scripture and then to find out that not only does he have feet of clay, but he is knee deep in mud.

I wrote this a very long time ago, before I was careful about attributing sources. Much of this may or may not have come from the following sources:

Canonicity; R.B. Thieme, Jr.; R.B. Thieme Ministries; ©1973 (pp. 5–9)

The Complete Word Study New Testament; Zodhiates; AMG Publishers; ©1992

Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament; editeted by Balz and Schneider; William B. Eerdman's Publishing Company; ©1991

A General Introduction to the Bible; Geisler and Nix; Moody Press; ©1974 (pp. 26–47)

A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament; Bauer, Arndt and Gingrich; University of Chicago Press; ©1957

Systematic Theology (abridged edition) Vol. 1; Lewis Sperry Chafer; Victor Books; ©1988 (pp. 71–110)


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


This psalm reads, so far: These words of David [are] [his] last ones:

“[These words are] the oracle of David ben Jesse

and an oracle of the man [who] was raised up high [by God]

—[the man who is] the anointed [one] of the Elohim of Jacob

and [the composer of] delightful psalms of Israel.

The Spirit of Yehowah speaks through me

and His word [is] upon my tongue.


David recognizes that much of what he has written was inspired by God the Holy Spirit—and certainly what he is writing here. So, this psalm is both written by David, but as the Spirit of Yehowah speaks through him.


Similarly, he is recognized in the New Testament as speaking with the authority of Scripture as well. Matt. 22:43–44 He said to them, Then how does David in Spirit call Him Lord, saying, "The Lord said to my Lord, Sit off My right until I should put Your hostile ones as a footstool for Your feet?" (Green’s literal translation; LXX-Psalm 109:1; MT-Psalm 110:1) See also Acts 2:25 2Peter 1:21 (For prophecy was never produced by the will of man, but people spoke from God, as they were carried along [i.e., inspired] by the Holy Spirit.—AUV–NT).


What appears to be the case for both David and Moses is, at the end of their lives, they understood that they were writing Scripture—or that they were communicating the very thinking of God to those who heard them. In Exodus, Numbers and Leviticus, Moses is quite careful to tell us when God is speaking—and in those passages, Moses is acting as a secretary for God. However, by the time we get to Deuteronomy, Moses is speaking with the authority of God, as he prepares the next generation to go into the Land of Promise. Similarly, right here, we see that David recognizes that what he is writing is inspired by God the Holy Spirit.


Now, so that there is no confusion about this topic, if at any point I begin telling you that my writing is inspired by God, then I am ready for the nuthouse—or at least to retire this spiritual gift. I do believe that this is my spiritual gift to study and exegete the Word of God—specifically the Old Testament. However, what is write is not inspired as David’s words are inspired. I have the help and guidance of God the Holy Spirit, but I am not infallible. My intent is to accurately as possible explain the passage which is before us—without having any kind of agenda. But despite having this gift, I am not writing the Word of God any more than any other believer is.


In the same way, evangelists and pastor-teachers may accurately teach the gospel and the Word of God, but what they say is not Scripture. I would assume that most of them are trying to present as accurate an explanation as they possibly can of what they believe is in the Bible. The intention is to take the revelation of God and explain it.


Application: Ideally for the Christian, is you want to reach the point where you are able to think like God thinks. You see something, you hear something, you read something—and your mind immediately goes to the pertinent doctrines. You see how what you are living and doing relates to the plan of God.


Application: One area where this is quite remarkable—and you will understand it when you get there—is knowing God’s will for your life. You won’t obsess over doing this or doing that; you won’t be flipping coins in the air, praying to God to make it come out to His will. You develop a whole system of thinking which includes norms and standards, and when you develop plans to do anything, you can see how your plans line up with your understanding of the plan of God for your life. This doesn’t happen in a year; nor does this happen because God makes your left shoulder feel more groovy than your right shoulder; and so you go to the left.


Application: All of this comes with age—not with physical age, because you can be 80 years old and not have the slightest clue about what you ought to be doing—but it comes with spiritual age. When you have logged in enough time learning the Word of God to where it is clear that you are growing in grace and knowledge of the Lord Jesus Christ.


This psalm reads, so far: These words of David [are] [his] last ones:

“[These words are] the oracle of David ben Jesse

and an oracle of the man [who] was raised up high [by God]

—[the man who is] the anointed [one] of the Elohim of Jacob

and [the composer of] delightful psalms of Israel.

The Spirit of Yehowah speaks through me

and His word [is] upon my tongue.


What is particularly remarkable about this psalm, as well as many of David’s other psalms, is how it looks forward to the fulfillment of the Davidic Covenant, to the Messiah, and to the destruction of the wicked. These are themes which are found throughout Scripture, but are particularly rampant in the words of the prophets. And yet, King David, explores these same themes here—in this psalm as well as in several others—before the prophetic age.


And note the great confidence with which David speaks: The Spirit of Yehowah speaks through me and And it is His words which I speak! This helps us to focus on what is important. These are David’s final words. What topics will David focus upon? Or, the better question, upon Whom will David focus? The Lord of Lords and the King of Kings, Jesus Christ our Savior.


——————————


In retrospect, I should have kept these verses separate. This will not really affect the exegetical approach to this passage.


Has spoken an Elohim of Israel to me;

has declared a Rock of Israel,

the one ruling in the man righteous,

ruling [in] a fear of Elohim.

And as light of morning appears a sun;

a morning no clouds;

from brightness, from rain, grass from earth.

2Samuel

23:3–4

The Elohim of Israel has spoken to me,

the Rock of Israel has declared,

‘The one who rules among mankind [should be] righteous, ruling [in] the fear/respect of Elohim;

[just as] the sun [majestically] appears as the light of morning;

[it is] a morning without clouds;

out of brightness [and] out of rain,

grass from the earth [appears].’

The God of Israel has spoken to me, and the Rock of Israel has declared,

‘The one ruling ought to be righteous, both fearing and respecting God.

He is as the sun appearing in a morning without clouds,

its brightness, after a rain, and the green grass then appears.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          The God of Israel said to me, the strong one of Israel spoke, the ruler of men, the just ruler in the fear of God. As the light of the morning, when the sun rises, shines in the morning without clouds, and as the grass springs out of the earth by rain.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        Has spoken an Elohim of Israel to me;

has declared a Rock of Israel,

the one ruling in the man righteous,

ruling [in] a fear of Elohim.

And as light of morning appears a sun;

a morning no clouds;

from brightness, from rain, grass from earth.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    The God of Israel said, the Mighty One of Israel spoke to me: He who governs men must be righteous, ruling over those who revere God. He is like the light of the morning when the sun rises, even a morning without clouds, before dawn, a morning free from rain which makes the grass to spring up.

Septuagint (Greek)                The God of Israel says, The watchman out of Israel spoke to me a parable: I said among men, How will you strengthen the fear of the anointed?

And in the morning light of God, let the sun arise in the morning, from the light of which the Lord passed on, and as it were from the rain of the tender grass upon the earth.

 

Significant differences:           In the second phrase, the Hebrew has the Rock of Israel, and the Greek, Latin and Syriac all have something else. The next two phrases are reasonably similar in the Hebrew, Latin and Syriac; but the Greek has something quite different.

 

The Latin and Hebrew and Greek seem to have rain in the morning; and the Syriac suggests that there is no rain. Most translations make the assumption that the grass of the earth is springing up, but that is not found in the Hebrew or the Greek.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Israel's God has spoken,

Israel's rock said to me:

"Whoever rules rightly over people,

whoever rules in the fear of God,

is like the light of sunrise

on a morning with no clouds,

like the bright gleam after the rain

that brings grass from the ground.".

Contemporary English V.       Our Mighty Rock, the God of Jacob, told me, "A ruler who obeys God and does right is like the sunrise on a cloudless day, or like rain that sparkles on the grass."

Easy English                          The God of *Israel spoke.

He is *Israel's Rock (*Israel's security).

He said to me,

"A ruler must rule men in the right way.

As he rules, he must respect God.

That person is like the light that shines at dawn.

The light shines when there are no clouds.

Or the light shines after the rain.

It makes the new grass grow from the earth."

Easy-to-Read Version            The God of Israel spoke.

The Rock of Israel said to me,

“The person who rules people fairly,

the person who rules with respect for God,

that person will be

like the morning light at dawn;

like a morning without clouds;

like sunshine after a rain—

the rain that makes tender grass

grow from the ground.”

Good News Bible (TEV)         The God of Israel has spoken; the protector of Israel said to me: "The king who rules with justice, who rules in obedience to God, is like the sun shining on a cloudless dawn, the sun that makes the grass sparkle after rain."

The Message                         The God of Israel spoke to me, Israel's Rock-Mountain said, "Whoever governs fairly and well, who rules in the Fear-of-God, Is like first light at daybreak without a cloud in the sky, Like green grass carpeting earth, glistening under fresh rain."

New Berkeley Version           He said—it was Israel’s God did the speaking,

it was Israel’s Rock who revealed it to me:

A ruler who is righteous shall rise over men,

who holds His dominion through the reverence for God.

He will be like the morning light at sunrise,

of a morning that breaks without clouds,

when grass springs from earth by sunshine after rain.

New Century Version             The God of Israel spoke;

the Rock of Israel said to me:

`Whoever rules fairly over people,

who rules with respect for God,

is like the morning light at dawn,

like a morning without clouds.

He is like sunshine after a rain

that makes the grass sprout from the ground.'

New Life Bible                        The God of Israel has spoken. The Rock of Israel said to me, 'When one is right and good in ruling over men, ruling in the fear of God, he shines on them like the morning light. He is like the sunshine on a morning without clouds. He is like rain that makes the new grass grow out of the earth through sunshine after rain.'

New Living Translation           The God of Israel spoke.

The Rock of Israel said to me:

`The one who rules righteously,

who rules in the fear of God,

is like the light of morning at sunrise,

like a morning without clouds,

like the gleaming of the sun

on new grass after rain.'

The Voice                               The God of Israel has talked to me;

and the Rock of Israel said,

"One who rules people with justice

and who leads them in the fear of God

Is like the morning light,

the sun rising on a cloudless morning,

and the shining grasslands brought up from rain.".


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          It was IsraEl's God (He who guards us),

Who gave this parable to me:

'I once asked this of a man:

How can I teach you to fear the anointed?

For, God brings light in the morning,

As the sun rises into the day,

And as its brightness then fades.

Christian Community Bible     The God of Israel has spoken,

the Rock of Israel has said to me:

when one rules justly over people,

ruling in the fear of God,

he dawns on them like the morning light,

like the sun shining forth on a cloudless morning,

making grass sprout from the ground after the rain.

God’s Word                         The God of Israel spoke to them. The rock of Israel told me, 'The one who rules humans with justice rules with the fear of God.

He is like the morning light as the sun rises, like a morning without clouds, like the brightness after a rainstorm. The rain makes the grass grow from the earth.'

New Advent (Knox) Bible       What says Israel's God, Israel's strong defender? That he who rules among men, governing them justly in the fear of God, shines out like the light of dawn, when the sun rises in a cloudless sky, grows strong like meadow grass watered by the rain.

New American Bible (2002)   The God of Israel spoke; of me the Rock of Israel said, 'He that rules over men in justice, that rules in the fear of God,

Is like the morning light at sunrise on a cloudless morning, making the greensward sparkle after rain.'

New American Bible (2011)   The God of Israel spoke;

of me the Rock of Israel said,

"One who rules over humankind with justice,

who rules in the fear of God, [Ps 72:1-4.]

Is like the light at sunrise

on a cloudless morning,

making the land's vegetation glisten after rain." Jgs 5:31; Ps 72:6.

NIRV                                      The God of Israel spoke.

The Rock of Israel said to me,

`A king must rule over people in a way that is right.

He must have respect for me when he rules.

Then he will be like the light of morning at sunrise

when there aren't any clouds.

He will be like the bright sun after rain

that makes the grass grow on the earth.'

New Jerusalem Bible             The spirit of Yahweh speaks through me, his word is on my tongue;

the God of Jacob has spoken, the Rock of Israel has said to me: He whose rule is upright on earth, who rules in the fear of God,

is like the morning light at sunrise (on a cloudless morning) making the grass of the earth sparkle after rain. V. 2 is included for context.

New Simplified Bible              »The God of Israel has spoken. The protector of Israel said to me: ‘The king who rules with justice, who rules in obedience to God.

»‘He is like the sun shining on a cloudless day. The sun that makes the grass sparkle after rain.

Revised English Bible            The God of Israel spoke,

the Rock of Israel said of me:

He who rues people in justice,

who rules in the fear of God,

is like the light of morning art sunrise,

a morning that is cloudless after rain

and makes the grass from the earth sparkle.’

Today’s NIV                          The God of Israel spoke, the Rock of Israel said to me: 'When one rules over people in righteousness, when he rules in the fear of God, he is like the light of morning at sunrise on a cloudless morning, like the brightness after rain that brings grass from the earth.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      The God of Israel said to me, "The Rock of Israel rules humans righteously, ruling in the fear of God."

The light of the morning sun emerges in a morning with no stormclouds with brightness on the grass in the ground from the rain.

Bible in Basic English             The God of Israel said, the word of the Rock of Israel came to me: When an upright king is ruling over men, when he is ruling in the fear of God,

It is as the light of the morning, when the sun comes up, a morning without clouds; making young grass come to life from the earth.

English Jubilee 2000              ...(The Spirit of the LORD has spoken by me, and his word has been in my tongue. The God of Israel dictated unto me, the strong One of Israel spoke): He that rules over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God. And as the light of the morning when the sun rises, of a morning shining forth without clouds, as the shining forth through light rain upon the tender grass of the earth: shall not my house be so with God, although all my saving health and my desire shall not be produced yet? Vv. 2 and 5a are included for context.

The Expanded Bible              The God of Israel spoke;

the Rock of Israel said to me:

`Whoever rules ·fairly [justly; righteously] over people,

who rules ·with respect for [in fear of] God [Prov. 1:7],

is like the morning light at ·dawn [sunrise],

like a morning without clouds.

He is like sunshine after a rain

that makes the grass ·sprout from the ground [Lof the earth sparkle/gleam].'

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 And Israel’s God has informed me,

And Israel's hope has revealed,

As a guide to the righteous of men,

As a guide to the reverence of GOD.

Like the light of the morning at sunrise,

As a bright shining dawn without clouds,

With showers for the meadows of earth

NET Bible®                             The God of Israel spoke,

the protector [Heb "rock," used as a metaphor of divine protection.] of Israel spoke to me.

The one who rules fairly among men,

the one who rules in the fear of God,

is like the light of morning when the sun comes up,

a morning in which there are no clouds.

He is like the brightness after rain

that produces grass from the earth.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           The God of Isra'el spoke; the Rock of Isra'el said to me, 'A ruler over people must be upright, ruling in the fear of God; like the morning light at sunrise on a cloudless day that makes the grass on the earth sparkle after a rain.

exeGeses companion Bible   The Elohim of Yisra El says

- the Rock of Yisra El words to me,

He who dominates over humanity is just;

dominating in the awe of Elohim:

rising as the light of the morning

- as the morning sun without thick clouds;

- as the sprouts from the earth

by brilliancy after rain.

Hebrew Names Version         The God of Yisra'el said, the Rock of Yisra'el spoke to me, one who rules over men righteously, who rules in the fear of God,

[He shall be] as the light of the morning, when the sun rises, a morning without clouds, [When] the tender grass [springs] out of the earth, Through clear shining after rain.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               The God of Israel has spoken,

The Rock of Israel said concerning me:

“He who rules men justly,

He who rules in [So many Hebrew manuscripts. Most manuscripts and the printed editions lack “in.”] awe of God

Is like the light of morning at sunrise,

A morning without clouds—

Through sunshine and rain [Meaning of Hebrew uncertain.]

[Bringing] vegetation out of the earth.”

Judaica Press Complete T.    The God of Israel said, concerning me spoke the Rock of Israel; 'A ruler over men shall be the righteous (man), he that rules in the fear of God.

And as the light of the morning (when) the sun shines; a morning without clouds, more than the light that follows the rain that falls upon the grass of the earth.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           The Elohei Yisroel said, the Tzur Yisroel spoke to me, He that ruleth over adam, Tzaddik, ruling in the yirat Elohim.

And He shall be as the ohr of the boker, when the shemesh riseth, even a morning without clouds; as the tender deshe (grass) springing out of ha'aretz by clear shining after matar (rain).

The Scriptures 1998              “The Elohim of Yisraʼĕl said, The Rock of Yisraʼĕl spoke to me, ‘One who rules over man righteously,

“Who rules in the fear of Elohim, Is like the light of the morning when the sun rises, A morning without clouds, Tender grass from the earth From sunshine, from rain.ʼ


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    He said--the Elohim of Israel--to me, He spoke--the Rock of Israel:He who is ruling over man [is] righteous, He is ruling in the fear of Elohim. And as the light of morning he rises, A morning sun--no clouds! By the shining, by the rain, Tender grass of the earth!"

Context Group Version          The God of Israel said, The Rock of Israel spoke to me: One that rules over man justly { with vindication }, That rules in the fear of God, [ He shall be ] as the light of the morning, when the sun rises, A morning without clouds, [ When ] the tender grass [ springs ] out of the land { or earth }, Through clear shining after rain.

Emphasized Bible                  Said the God of Israel, Unto me, spake the Rock of Israel:—One Ruling over Men, A Righteous One, ruling in the reverence of God,

Is even as the light of the morning when ariseth the sun,—A morning, without clouds, As from brightness, and from rain, the fresh shoots out of the earth.

English Standard Version      The God of Israel has spoken; the Rock of Israel has said to me: When one rules justly over men, ruling in the fear of God, he dawns on them like the morning light, like the sun shining forth on a cloudless morning, like rain that makes grass to sprout from the earth.

Keil and Delitzsch (updated)  The God of Israel says,

[And] the Rock of Israel speaks to me:

A Ruler over men, just,

A Ruler in the fear [and respect] of God.

And as light of the morning, when the sun rises,

As morning without clouds:

From shining out of rain (springs) green out of the earth.

Kretzmann’s Commentary    The God of Israel said, He who chose Israel for His possession, the Rock of Israel spake to me, He who is unchangeable, faithful, and trustworthy, he that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God, literally, "a ruler over men just, a ruler in the fear of God" (there will be), that is, such a Ruler would arise whose rule would be exercised in the fear of God. And he shall be as the light of the morning, when the sun riseth, even a morning without clouds; as the tender grass springing out of the earth by clear shining after rain. The picture is that of a cloudless, beautiful morning after a night of ram, when all the plants, refreshed with moisture, respond to the coaxing warmth of the sunlight. That is the character of the Messianic period, such are the conditions following the coming of the promised King.

NASB                                     "The God of Israel said,

The Rock of Israel spoke to me [2 Sam 22:2, 3, 32],

`He who rules over men righteously [Ps 72:1-3; Is 11:1-5],

Who rules in the fear of God [2 Chr 19:7, 9],

Is as the light of the morning when the sun rises [Judg 5:31; Ps 72:6],

A morning without clouds,

When the tender grass springs out of the earth,

Through sunshine after rain.'

New King James Version       The God of Israel said,

The Rock of Israel spoke to me:

`He who rules over men must be just,

And he shall be like the light of the morning when the sun rises,

A morning without clouds,

Like the tender grass springing out of the earth,

By clear shining after rain.'

Ruling in the fear of God.

New RSV                               The God of Israel has spoken,

the Rock of Israel has said to me:

One who rules over people justly,

ruling in the fear of God,

is like the light of morning,

like the sun rising on a cloudless morning,

gleaming from the rain on the grassy land.

Syndein/Thieme                     The 'Elohiym/Godhead of Israel said {'amar} . . . the Rock of Israel {Jesus Christ} . . . communicated categorically {dabar} to me . . . 'He who 'rules for a long time' {mashal} over men must be righteous/just {tsaddiyq}, ruling with respect {for the authority of}/'with the fear' of 'Elohiym/Godhead.' And he {a long time ruler} shall be as the light of the morning the sun that rises . . . even a morning without clouds {doctrine is the light of the world - so 'bright' means filled with divine viewpoint - referring to living a SuperGrace life - to be equipped to rule}. As the tender grass springing out of the earth {referring to the freedoms of a nation under a SuperGrace ruler} by clear shining after the rain {picture of prosperity following freedom}.

Webster’s Bible Translation  The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spoke to me, He that ruleth over men [must be] just, ruling in the fear of God. And [he shall be] as the light of the morning, [when] the sun riseth, [even] a morning without clouds; [as] the tender grass [springing] out of the earth by clear shining after rain

World English Bible                The God of Israel said, The Rock of Israel spoke to me: One who rules over men righteously, Who rules in the fear of God, He shall be as the light of the morning, when the sun rises, A morning without clouds, When the tender grass springs out of the earth, Through clear shining after rain.

Young’s Updated LT             He said—the God of Israel—to me, He spoke—the Rock of Israel: He who is ruling over man is righteous, He is ruling in the fear of God. And as the light of morning he rises, A morning sun—no clouds! By the shining, by the rain, Tender grass of the earth!

 

The gist of this verse:          The man who rules over Israel with righteousness and justice is like the sun in the morning that rises, and that, with the rain, causes the grass to grow.


2Samuel 23:3a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend; to decide; to answer

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural construct

Strong's #430 BDB #43

Yiserâʾêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

God prevails; contender; soldier of God; transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 & #3479 BDB #975

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 1st person singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510


Translation: The Elohim of Israel has spoken to me,... David continues with the concept of divine inspiration. David is not just writing nice poetry; these are the words of God being spoken to David and through David.


Now let’s go back to the definition of inspiration of Scripture: The human writers of Scripture so wrote that without waiving their human intelligence, their vocabulary, their personal feelings, their literary style, their personality or individuality, God's complete message to man was permanently recorded with perfect accuracy in the original languages of Scripture. David is not a secretary here. He does not hear God’s voice and write it down. God works through David, allowing him his intelligence, vocabulary, feelings and literary style. David’s personality is all a part of the mix. God is not speaking through David; David is not simply writing down exactly what God says.


2Samuel 23:3b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

dâbar (דָּבַר) [pronounced dawb-VAHR]

to speak, to talk [and back with action], to give an opinion, to expound, to make a formal speech, to speak out, to promise, to propose, to speak kindly of, to declare, to proclaim, to announce

3rd person masculine singular, Piel perfect

Strong’s #1696 BDB #180

tsûwr (צוּר) [pronounced tzoor]

rock, pebble; cliff; edge, sharpness; form

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #6697 BDB #849

The Latin and Syriac have strong one here instead; the Greek has watchman.

Yiserâʾêl (יִשְׂרַאֵל) [pronounced yis-raw-ALE]

God prevails; contender; soldier of God; transliterated Israel

masculine proper noun

Strong’s #3478 & #3479 BDB #975


Translation: ...the Rock of Israel has declared,... Jesus is the Rock of Israel.

 

Jamieson, Fausset and Brown: This metaphor [the Rock of Israel], which is commonly applied by the sacred writers to the Almighty, was very expressive to the minds of the Hebrew people. Their national fortresses, in which they sought security in war, were built on high and inaccessible rocks. Footnote


In the previous chapter, we studied the Doctrine of the Rock in the Old Testament. See 2Samuel 22 (HTML) (PDF) (WPD). Passages taken from the UPDV below, unless otherwise noted (emphasis, mine):

Doctrine of the Rock in the New Testament

1.      Building a house on a sure foundation (on a rock) insures the stability of the house. Jesus uses this as a parable to where our lives are stable and permanent if they are built upon Him and the Word of God. Matt. 17:7–10 Luke 6:48–49

2.      Paul presents the Law versus Jesus. We are to put our faith in Jesus Christ, Who is the stone of stumbling and rock of offense. Why [has Israel not arrived at righteousness]? Because [they sought it] not by faith, but as it were by works. They stumbled at the stone of stumbling; even as it is written, Look, I lay in Zion a stone of stumbling and a rock of offense: And he who believes on him will not be put to shame. (Rom. 9:32–33; LXX and MT-Isa. 28:16; MT-Isa. 8:14)

3.      Paul identifies the rock which Moses struck in the desert, the rock from which came living waters, as Jesus Christ. For I would not, brothers, have you+ ignorant, that our fathers were all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; and were all baptized to Moses in the cloud and in the sea; and all ate the same spiritual food; and all drank the same spiritual drink: for they drank of a spiritual rock that followed them: and the rock was Christ. (1Cor. 10:1–4) See Ex. 16 for the full story.

4.      Peter communicated a great deal of doctrine, much of which was related to the Rock, in 1Peter 2:1–10 Putting away therefore all wickedness, and all guile, and hypocrisies, and envies, and all evil speaking, as newborn babies, long for the spiritual milk which is without guile, that you+ may grow by it to salvation; if you+ have tasted that the Lord is gracious [LXX-Psa. 33:9; MT-Psa. 34:8 ]: to whom coming, a living stone, rejected indeed of men, but with God elect, precious, you+ also, as living stones, are built up a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God through Jesus Christ. Because it is contained in Scripture, Look, I lay in Zion a chief corner stone, elect, precious: And he who believes on him will not be put to shame. [Isa. 28:16 ] For you+ therefore who believe is the preciousness: but for those who disbelieve, The stone which the builders rejected, The same was made the head of the corner; [Psa. 118:22 ] and, A stone of stumbling, and a rock of offense; [Isa. 8:14 ] for they stumble at the word, being disobedient: to which also they were appointed. But you+ are an elect race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for [God's] own possession, that you+ may show forth the excellencies [LXX-Ex. 23:22; MT-Ex. 19:5, 6] of him who called you+ out of darkness into his marvelous light: who in time past were no people, but now are the people of God: who had not obtained mercy, but now have obtained mercy. [Hos. 1:6, 9 2:1, 23 ] References from Green’s literal translation.

5.      Jesus had this interchange with Peter: He said to them, "But who do you say that I am?" Simon Peter replied, "You are the Christ, the Son of the living God." And Jesus answered him, "Blessed are you, Simon Bar-Jonah! For flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but My Father Who is in heaven. And I tell you, you are Peter, and on this rock I will build My church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven." (Matt. 16:15–19; ESV, capitalized)

         1)      Jesus says, “You are Peter;” and Peter is the Greek word Petros (πέτρος) [pronounced PEHT-ross], which means stone, large stone, piece or fragment of a rock; transliterated Petros, Peter. This is a stone a man might pick up and throw. This is not Peter’s original name, but one given him by Jesus (he was named Simon). Strong’s #4074.

         2)      Then Jesus says, “Upon this rock I will build My church.” That word for rock is petra (πέτρα) [pronounced PEHT-ra], which means a rock, cliff or ledge; a projecting rock, crag, rocky ground; a rock, a large stone; metaphorically a man like a rock, by reason of his firmness and strength of soul. Thayer, Zodhiates. Strong’s #4073.

         3)      So this is a play on words. The church is not built upon Petros; the church is built upon petra. The church is built upon the large stone or a large rock, which is Christ. See 1Cor. 10:1–4.

6.      Jesus Christ is the cornerstone, which is the foundation that the builders regected. Both Israel and the church are built upon the cornerstone, which is Jesus Christ. The builders in this analogy are the religious types, who are going about trying to establish their own righteousness rather than stand upon the righteousness of Jesus Christ.

         1)      Isa. 28:16 Wherefore, thus says my Lord Yahweh, "Behold Me laying in Zion a foundation stone, a choice stone, a corner of a precious well-founded foundation. The believer on it shall not be put to shame." (CLV) That cornerstone is Jesus Christ.

         2)      Jesus confirms this in Matt. 21:42 Jesus says to them, "Did you* never read in the Scriptures, 'A stone which the ones building rejected, this [one] has become [the] head of a corner; this happened from the LORD, and it is marvelous in our eyes?' [Psalm 118:22,23] (ALT) The stone which the builders rejected is Jesus Christ, and He has become the head of the corner (the chief cornerstone). Regarding this stone, then Jesus warned, “Everyone who falls on that stone will be broken to pieces, and when it falls on anyone, it will crush him.” (Luke20:18; ESV)

1peter2_6-7.jpg

         3)      Peter confirms this in Acts 4:8–12 Then Peter, having been filled with [the] Holy Spirit, said to them: "Rulers of the people and elders of Israel, if _we_ today are being examined concerning an act of kindness [done] to a sick man, by what [means] this [man] has been cured, let it be known to you* all and to all the people of Israel that by the name of Jesus Christ the Nazarene, whom _you*_ crucified, whom God raised from [the] dead, by Him has this [man] stood before you* healthy! "This is, 'The stone, the one having been rejected by you* the builders, which has became [the] head of a corner.' [Psalm 118:22] And [there] is no salvation in any other, for neither [is there] a different name {under heaven} having been given among people by which it is necessary [for] us to be saved!"

         4)      Peter again confirms this in 1Peter 2:6–8 For it stands in Scripture: "Behold, I am laying in Zion a stone, a cornerstone chosen and precious, and whoever believes in him will not be put to shame." So the honor is for you who believe, but for those who do not believe, "The stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone," and "A stone of stumbling, and a rock of offense." They stumble because they disobey the word, as they were destined to do. (ESV; Isa. 28:16 Psalm 118:22 Isa. 8:14)

         5)      1Peter 2:6–7 (graphic). Picture from RevCharlieHolt.com, accessed May 5, 2014.

         6)      Eph. 2:19–22 So, consequently, you* are no longer strangers and foreigners, _but_ fellow-citizens with the holy ones and [members] of the household of God, having been built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ Himself being [the] cornerstone, in whom [the] entire building having been joined together is growing into a holy temple in [the] Lord, in whom also _you*_ are being built together into a habitation for God in the Spirit. (ALT)

7.      When performing acts of divine good, they must be built upon the foundation stone of Jesus Christ. According to the grace of God, the one having been given to me, like a wise, expert builder, I have laid a foundation, but another is building on [it]. But let each be watching [or, be taking care] how he builds on [it]. For no one is able to lay another foundation besides the one laid, which is Jesus Christ. (1Cor. 3:10–11; ALT)

Also see The Doctrine of the Rock in the Old Testament (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


What we have so far is: The Elohim of Israel has spoken to me, the Rock of Israel has declared,... The God of Israel is God the Father; the Rock of Israel is God the Son. This is something which we understand in retrospect, not necessarily something which David fully understood. However, God the Father and God the Son have the same essence, the same purpose and the same plan. Therefore, when they speak, they say the same thing.


2Samuel 23:3c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

mâshal (מָשַל) [pronounced maw-HAHL]

ruling, reigning, governing; the ruler, the one ruling, one who has dominion, one who reigns

Qal active participle

Strong’s #4910 BDB #605

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʾâdâm (אָדָם) [pronounced aw-DAWM]

a man, a human being, mankind; transliterated Adam

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #120 & #121 BDB #9

The word the Adam can mean man, mankind, humankind, men, human beings.

tsaddîyq (צַדִּיק) [pronounced tsahd-DEEK]

just, righteous, justified, vindicated; absolute or perfect righteousness [if applied to God]

adjective, often used as a substantive

Strong’s #6662 BDB #843

mâshal (מָשַל) [pronounced maw-HAHL]

ruling, reigning, governing; the ruler, the one ruling, one who has dominion, one who reigns

Qal active participle

Strong’s #4910 BDB #605

yireʾâh (יִרְאָה) [pronounced yire-AW]

fear, dread, terror, reverence, respect, piety; it can also be used for the object of fear

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #3374 BDB #432

This word is often, but not exclusively, used in poetry. And it is often, but not exclusively, used for the fear-respect of God. Scofield, along with hundreds of other theologians, will tell you that yireʾâh means reverential trust; don’t kid yourselves—it also means fear. If you don’t believe that the God of the Universe—Who will cast billions of people and billions of fallen angels into the Lake of Fire where they will burn forever—if you don’t believe that you ought to fear Him, then you are way confused. David, who will spend eternity with God, transgressed God’s commandments several times and God brought the hurt on him so bad that David wrote psalms that we have to this day which indicate that God caused him great pain and suffering on earth. This is clear in passages like Psalm 55:5 Jonah 1:10, 16.

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun

Strong's #430 BDB #43


Translation: ...’The one who rules among mankind [should be] righteous, ruling [in] the fear/respect of Elohim;... God has placed rulers over the people, and these rulers are designed to preserve law and order. Authority in life is a part of the laws of divine establishment.


David has been ruling over Israel a very long time. He reigned over all Israel for 33 years; and over southern Israel (Judah) for 40 years. The man who rules in a country has to be righteous himself. He cannot break the very same laws which he holds his people to. Such a man also needs to have fear and respect for the God of Israel. Much of this, David passed along to Solomon, which we will study, at some point, in the book of Proverbs.

 

Matthew Henry: [Those who] rule over men, but under God, and for Him; must therefore be just, both to those over whom they rule, in allowing them their rights and properties, and between those over whom they rule, using their power to right the injured against the injurious (Deut. 1:16–17). It is not enough that they do no wrong, but they must not suffer wrong to be done. Furthermore, they must rule in the fear and respect of God, by which they will be effectually restrained from all acts of injustice and oppression. Nehemiah was this kind of a ruler (Neh. 5:15). Such rulers must also endeavor to promote the respect for God (that is, the practice of true religion) among those over whom they rule. The magistrate is to be the keeper of both tables, and to protect both godliness and honesty. Footnote


This doctrine could certainly be expanded upon.

Exercising Justice and Righteousness in Israel

1.      God was always concerned about the exercise of justice and righteousness by the rulers and judges of Israel.

2.      The leaders and judges of Israel represented God, both to the people of Israel and to those living outside of the land. Therefore, these rulers needed to do that which was right to their citizenry. Jer. 23:5

3.      Judges were not to pervert justice or to take bribes. Ex. 23:6–8 Deut. 16:18–20

4.      Justice was to be given to all of Israel, including those who were poor or lacked power. Psalm 82:3–4 Prov. 31:9

5.      In this way, they were dispensing the justice the Lord would dispense. Isa. 11:4–5

6.      The biggest problem with David and his sons Amnon and Absalom was, he never dealt with either of them in justice. He was overcome with emotional love for them, and therefore was unable to deal with them objectively. 2Sam. 13–15

7.      Obviously, when David took a married woman and then had her husband murdered, this was a horrible thing for a king to do (and God disciplined David over a period of about 10 years).

Many of these Scriptures were referenced in Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge; by Canne, Browne, Blayney, Scott, and others about 1880, with introduction by R. A. Torrey; courtesy of E-sword, 2Sam. 23:3.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


So far we have: The Elohim of Israel has spoken to me, the Rock of Israel has declared, ‘The one who rules among mankind [should be] righteous, ruling [in] the fear/respect of Elohim;... Near the end of his age, David realized that what he was writing was Scripture (Moses also realized that his speaking was inspired when he taught the content of the book of Deuteronomy).


There is a twofold fulfillment to this verse. David looks into the near future and sees Solomon, who will have a great reign of peace and prosperity. However, David is also looking into the far future to the reign of Christ over the earth—His 1000 year reign, also known as the Millennium. We find this prophesied in Isa. 11:1–4 There shall come forth a shoot from the stump of Jesse, and a branch from his roots shall bear fruit. And the Spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, the Spirit of wisdom and understanding, the Spirit of counsel and might, the Spirit of knowledge and the fear of the LORD. And his delight shall be in the fear of the LORD. He shall not judge by what his eyes see, or decide disputes by what his ears hear, but with righteousness he shall judge the poor, and decide with equity for the meek of the earth; and he shall strike the earth with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips he shall kill the wicked. (ESV, capitalized) I also color-coded this, so that the lighter blue is the 1st advent of Jesus Christ and the darker blue is the 2nd advent of Jesus Christ. The 1st advent has already occurred, when Jesus came to this earth, born of a virgin; the 2nd advent is when He will return and destroy the wicked (also known as the baptism of fire).


By the way, what we see here is common throughout the Old Testament, where the 1st and 2nd advents of Jesus Christ (or the 1st advent followed by the Millennium) are presented almost as if one event. In between these two things is the Church Age; see the Doctrine of Intercalation (HTML) (PDF) (WPD) for more examples.


We have in both 2Sam. 23 and in Isa. 11, the concept of ruling in fear, and applying this to Jesus Christ. Our Lord does not fear God the Father, either in His humanity or in His Deity. However, He has perfect respect for God the Father; and Jesus fulfills the plan of God in his humanity. That is the concept of fear/respect as applied to our Lord. So, where we read fear of the Lord, this refers to adherence to the plan of God.


Let’s take this from a different angle. When applied to men, this means that they both fear and respect God; and therefore, they do the will of God. That means that they adhere to the plan of God. Jesus, the Messiah, spoken of here by David and later by Isaiah, will also adhere to the plan of God—not because He fears God the Father but because He respects the integrity of God.

 

J. Vernon McGee makes a modern-day application of this verse: It is obvious that the decisions made in our government today - regardless of the party - are not made "in fear of God." They are made in fear of the voters. There is little effort being made to please God in our government. Footnote


Application: Many of our politicians want power, money and admiration. They will do nearly anything in order to gain and keep their power—even to vote one way one day and vote the opposite on the next day. Few of them are able to actually lead—that is, to define a goal or an object or a set of moral principles, and then make a case for their position to the people. If they sense the direction that the wind is blowing, then they go in that direction. Gay marriage is a perfect example of this. In 2008, candidate Obama clearly stated that he believed that marriage was between one man and one woman, and that God was somehow there in the mix. However, a few years later, his views on marriage evolved, and so he is in favor of gay marriage. In my opinion, either this is not an issue of importance to the president or he held that latter view all the time. But, he has not really stood before the American people to make the case for changing his views, apart from a few slogan-like sayings.


Application: Obviously, Democrats are not the only ones who pander like this. Republicans have had many chances to explain the conservative view on this or that issue, and to stand firmly by these issues, but they have not. They have quietly caved again and again (the raising of the debt limit without conditions has been one of those areas). It was too easy for the president to demagogue this issue and the press would back him up; so, instead of standing firm and explaining their position to an unsympathetic press, the Republicans just went along with President Obama, promising that they would do better if we gave them the power. And this is just one issue of many that Republicans have shied away from.

2samuel23_4painting.jpg

Application: How does one decide which is worst? The Democrat who has all of the wrong positions and holds to them or the Republican who ought to have all of the right positions, but gives in to the other side repeatedly?


——————————


v. 4 will read: ...[just as] the sun [majestically] appears as the light of morning;

[it is] a morning without clouds;

out of brightness [and] out of rain,

grass from the earth [appears].’ I found two graphics which used this verse. This first one is actually a painting.


Painting of 2Samuel 23:4 by the Art Girl Jackie, accessed May 1, 2014. Painting graphic is found here. Apparently, this particular verse has inspired many people.


2Samuel 23:4a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

kaph or ke (כְּ) [pronounced ke]

like, as, just as; according to, after; about, approximately

preposition of comparison, resemblance or approximation

No Strong’s # BDB #453

ʾôwr (אוֹר) [pronounced ohr]

light [of the moon, of stars]; morning light, day-break, dawn; light [of life; of one’s face]; light [of prosperity, of Bible doctrine, of Jehovah]

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #216 BDB #21

bôqer (בֹּקֶר) [pronounced BOH-ker]

morning, daybreak, dawn; the next morning

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #1242 BDB #133

zârach (זָרַח) [pronounced zaw-RAHKH]

 to rise, to come out; to appear; to scatter rays, to shine forth, to break out; to majestically appear; and even, when speaking of a plant, to spring forth

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #2224 BDB #280

shemesh (שֶמֶש) [pronounced SHEH-mesh]

sun; sunrise, sun-rising, east, sun-setting, west (of direction); openly, publically

feminine singular noun; pausal form

Strong’s #8121 BDB #1039


Translation: ...[just as] the sun [majestically] appears as the light of morning;... David describes a beautiful morning, with the majestic rising of the sun, appearing as the light of the morning. This is how God appears as well, His Word and His truth as the light of the morning.


Application: This also describes how a well-run country is for the people of that country. What this means is, the military and the police force provide internal and external protections for the people so that the people have maximum freedom. If you are afraid to go outside or to leave your house because your neighborhood is riddled with crime, that is a lack of freedom; that means that the government is not doing its job.


So far, v. 4 reads: ...[just as] the sun [majestically] appears as the light of morning;... The key here is, everything is seen in the light of day. There are no bargains being struck behind closed doors. What is right is right and what is wrong is wrong. The law applies equally to all men. The process has to be cleansed by sunlight.

 

Clarke: One of Dr. Kennicott’s manuscripts supplies the word יהוה Yehovah; and he therefore translates, As the light of the morning arises Jehovah. He shall be the Sun of righteousness, bringing salvation in his rays, and shining - illuminating the children of men, with increasing splendor, as long as the sun and moon endure. Footnote


This was taken directly from the Bible Doctrine Resource page with very little editing.

The Doctrine of Light

1.      Definition:

         1)      Light is a complex scientific puzzle.

         2)      Scientists have battled over various theories of what light is for centuries.

         3)      The ancient Greeks believed that light streamed out of the eye much as water streams out of a hose, the idea being that we see a thing by directing this stream of light to hit it.

         4)      In 1668 Sir Isaac Newton proposed the theory that light consists of small particles, corpuscles, of matter emitted in all directions in straight lines or rays by a luminous body such as the sun, a burning candle, etc.

         5)      At about the same time a Dutch astronomer, Christian Huychens, advanced the wave theory of light which states that light radiates from a source in straight lines called rays; and they are perpendicular to the circles called wave fronts. These light waves travel in much the same way as water waves produced when a stone is dropped into still water.

         6)      In 1860, James Maxwell postulated the theory that visible light, radiant heat, ultraviolet, infrared, and electromagnetic waves are all electromagnetic in nature.

         7)      In 1905, a German physicist named Max Plank proposed the "quantum theory" which states that light consists of bits of energy, "quanta of energy," which are also known as photons. According to this theory, light energy is emitted and absorbed in quanta or photons. This is explained by the assumption that the electrons in the atoms revolve in fixed spherical shells, and that any electron when in a particular shell has a definite amount of energy. When electrons fall from a higher energy level to a lower one, they loose energy in the form of light. The same quantity of energy, no more or no less, is required to lift them back again to the higher level.

         8)      In 1905, Albert Einstein asserted that matter and energy were one and the same thing by the relationship in his now famous equation, E=mc2. His research to determine the general theory of relativity is the basis of all modern scientific technology including laser technology.

2.      Etymology:

         1)      Neuter noun phôs (φς) [pronounced fohç], which means a light; daylight, dazzling light; that which emits light (star, torch, lamp, fire]; perfection, truth; a dispenser of truth; splendor, glory; purity. Strong’s #5457. Eph. 5:13 John 1:4, 7-9

         2)      Adjective phôteinos (φωτεινός) [pronounced foh-ti-NOSS], which means, 1) light; 1a) composed of light; 1b) of a bright character; 1c) full of light; 1d) well lit. Also, shining, bright, radiant, full of light, illuminated. Thayer and Thieme definitions only. Strong’s #5460. Matt. 17:5

         3)      Verb phôtizô (φωτίζω) [pronounced foh-TID-zoh], which means, 1) to give light, to shine; 2) to enlighten, light up, illumine, illuminate; to shed light on; 3) to bring to light, render evident; to reveal; 3a) to cause something to exist and thus come to light and become clear to all; 4) to enlighten, spiritually, imbue with saving knowledge; 4a) to instruct, to inform, teach; 4b) to give understanding to. Thayer definitions only. Strong’s #5461. Rev. 22:5

         4)      ʾôwr (אוֹר) [pronounced ohr], which means light [of the moon, of stars]; morning light, day-break, dawn; light [of life; of one’s face]; light [of prosperity, of Bible doctrine, of Jehovah]. Strong’s #216 BDB #21. Gen. 1:3–4

3.      God created light out of nothing and therefore God pre-exists light as we understand it from a physics definition - see point #1. (Gen. 1:3)

4.      God is described in terms of His creation; "God is light." (1 John 1:5) Also, Jesus Christ is said to be "the light" in John 1:4.

         1)      Light becomes a good illustration of both the "essence" and the "Trinity," persons of the Godhead.

         2)      Light is one in essence or substance, yet it is composed of three aspects:

                  (1)     Actinic light or ultraviolet light is not seen nor experienced. This is analogous to God the Father. (1 Tim. 6:16; 1 John 1:5)

                  (2)     Luminiferous light or visible light is both seen and experienced. This is analogous to God the Son. (John 12:35, 36)

                  (3)     Calorific light or inferred light is not seen but is experienced. This is analogous to God the Holy Spirit. (Gen. 1:2)

5.      Jesus Christ as the manifest person of the Godhead is light. (John 1:4; 8:12; John 9:5; 12:35, 36)

6.      Light in its literal sense is absolutely necessary for man's existence on the Earth. (Eccl. 11:7; Jer. 31:35)

7.      Israel received divine guidance from God during their wilderness experience in the form of the Shekinah Glory cloud, "light by night." (Ex. 13:21, 22; 14:20)

8.      The gospel is called light. (2 Cor. 4:3, 4; 2 Tim. 1:10; cf. Acts 13:47 and Isa. 49:6)

9.      The evangelist is called a light. ("the tribes of Jacob," Isa. 49:6, "Paul and Barnabas," Acts. 13:47)

10.    "Satan disguises himself as an angel of light." (2 Cor. 11:14)

11.    Salvation brings the believer out of darkness into light, just as the planet earth was brought out of darkness into light by God. (Luke 1:79; 1 Pet. 2:9; cf. Col. 1:12-14; Gen 1:3)

12.    Anyone who believes in the Lord Jesus Christ becomes one of the "sons of light." (John 12:36; 1 Thess. 5:5; cf. "saints in the light," Col 1:12)

13.    Believers in fellowship with God, filled with the Holy Spirit, are said to "walk in the light." (1John 1:7; 2:8-10; Eph. 5:8b)

14.    Bible Doctrine resident in the souls of believers through study and the ministry of God the Holy Spirit, is portrayed as "the fruit of the light." (Eph. 5:8-10, Psa. 119:105, 130; Prov. 6:23; cf. Psa. 36:9)

15.    An edification complex of the soul of each believer is constructed from the light of Bible doctrine. (Psa. 43:3; 119:130; Rom. 13:12, "the armor of light;" Eph. 5:8a)

16.    The mature believer reflects the light of Bible doctrine. (Matt. 5:14, 16; 2 Cor. 4:6)

17.    The glory of God will illuminate the new Jerusalem "and its lamp, the Lamb," the Lord Jesus Christ, "and the nations will walk by its light." (Rev. 21:24)

18.    Believers in eternity will have an illumination from the glory of the Lord God. (Rev. 22:5; Daniel 12:2, 3)

Taken from http://gracebiblechurchwichita.org/?page_id=264 accessed April 21, 2014. There is a good chance that this doctrine was originally done by R. B. Thieme, Jr. and what is found here represents few if any changes to that doctrine.


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2Samuel 23:4b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

bôqer (בֹּקֶר) [pronounced BOH-ker]

morning, daybreak, dawn; the next morning

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #1242 BDB #133

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

ʿâb (עָב) [pronounced ģawbv]

cloud, dark cloud, cloud-mass, darkness [caused by an overcast sky]; a dark thicket [of woods]

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #5645 BDB #728


Translation: ...[it is] a morning without clouds;... The analogy continues (it is an analogy, as we have the kaph preposition in the previous phrase). To continue this analogy, the idea is, there is no distortion and no untruth in the Word of God. God is truth and in Him is no darkness or shadow of turning. The clouds would obscure the sun, or obscure the light; and there is nothing obscuring the light.

 

Gill: That is, such a ruler that rules in righteousness, and in the fear of God; he is the light and glory of his people, who guides and directs them, makes them cheerful and comfortable; his administrations are pleasant and delightful, and promise a growing and increasing happiness to them, like the morning light and rising sun; and there are no clouds, nor forebodings of dark times, affliction and distress, coming upon them. Footnote


When applied to a well-run country, a righteous ruler is clear in his commands; he is fair and transparent in the application of the law.


Application: In the United States, we have come to the point where, this massive bureaucracy makes a plethora of regulations, which have the power of law; and they increase these regulations every year. The same thing is true in the states. As these bureaucracies get larger, and more laws and more regulations get passed, the more difficult it is for anyone to know the law. We also have some presidents who will decide which laws to enforce and which ones to ignore. There are so many laws on the books that, the whole tenor of an administration can end up looking as if another myriad of laws have been passed, when, in truth, no laws have been passed. Our federal and state governments are spiraling out of control with their vastness and multi-layers. Our government is anything but a bright new day of sunshine in a cloudless sky.


Application: This is a current blip on the radar of the news, and it may be long gone by the time that you read this but the Bureau of Land Management was in a dispute with a Cliven Bundy about his cattle eating grass on federal lands; and while this whole thing was going on, the BLM showed up with weapons, established a no-fly zone (which would have kept out much of the news reporting) and then established free-speech zones, so that the supporters of Bundy would have to stand in an area far away from Cliven Bundy. All of this is based on a dispute of cattle grazing on federal lands. How exactly this needs to involved armed enforcement, I don’t know. Furthermore, how the federal government first came up with the idea of an endangered tortoise and then said that millions of dollars of fines were due—all of this is the exact opposite of a clearly defined system of laws which are easy to understand and transparent. Nothing of the sort is occurring on federal lands near the Mexican border. Now, the reason why this grazing grass in the middle of the desert suddenly became so valuable is also difficult to ascertain. However, for some reason, similar tracks of land, close to the border, are not deemed as valuable or as worth protecting. Our government does not appear to be particularly concerned with borderlands where thousands of illegals are crossing over.


Unlike our out-of-control government today, Jesus Christ is like the sunlight in a cloudless morning.

Jesus Christ is our Light

1.      Jesus Christ came to bear witness of the light. John 1:7

2.      Jesus Christ is the true light, and He gives light to every man coming into the world. John 1:9

3.      Jesus is the Bright and Morning Star. Rev. 22:16

4.      Jesus is the dawning light from on high. He gives light to those who sit in darkness. Luke 1:78–79

5.      To those who fear/respect His name, He is the Sun of Righteousness. Mal. 4:2

6.      Jesus is the Light Who has come into the world. John 3:19 12:46

7.      Nations and people will come to Jesus because of the light He provides. Isa. 60:1–3

8.      He is the Light of the world, so that those who follow Him will not walk in darkness. John 8:12 9:5

9.      His going forth is as fixed as the morning sun. Hosea 6:3

10.    God will be our light for the new heavens and the new earth. Isa. 60:18–20

Passages suggested by Dr. John Gill, John Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible; from e-Sword, 2Sam. 23:4. Also by Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge; by Canne, Browne, Blayney, Scott, and others about 1880, with introduction by R. A. Torrey; courtesy of E-sword, 2Sam. 23:4.


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Gill then adds: When Christ appeared in the flesh, the sun of righteousness then arose, and scattered the darkness of the night, both in the Jewish and Gentile world; introduced the light of the Gospel to a greater degree than it was under the legal dispensation, and made the Gospel day; which was not only like the morning light, growing and increasing, but was as a morning without clouds, without the darkness of the ceremonial law, the shadows of which now disappeared. Footnote


2Samuel 23:4c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

nôgahh (נֹגַהּ) [pronounced NOH-gah]

brightness

feminine singular noun:

Strong’s #5051 BDB #618

According to Peter Pett, The word for `clear shining' is an interesting one, for it is always reserved in Scripture in order to describe `heavenly' things. It is only ever used either of the sun and the moon themselves, shining in the heavens, or alternatively of the shining brilliance of the coming activity of God. For examples of the latter see 2 Samuel 22:30; Isaiah 4:5; Isaiah 60:3; Ezekiel 1:4; Ezekiel 1:27-28; Ezekiel 10:4; and contrast Amos 5:20. Footnote There are 19 occurrences of this word, and they appeared to fit Pett’s observation—many of them related to our Lord’s rule in the Millennium.

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

mâţâr (מָטָר) [pronounced maw-TAWR]

rain

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #4306 BDB #564


Translation: ...out of brightness [and] out of rain,... There is the glorious brightness of the new day; and who has not seen a new day after a rain, when everything has been saturated with the nourishment of water. Perhaps the idea is, this is out from a rain, where a rain has occurred, but is not occurring at this point.


This short section is the most difficult to translate and understand. Let me suggest an alternate possibly, that the light is not overpowering (there can be too much sun) and there is no rain occurring. I realize that these are contradictory approaches; and you will note that the most ancient translations have the same problem.


I lean toward the rain having already occurred, but not at this time. Generally speaking, rain is a symbol of blessing from God, as well as being related to a righteous judge as ruler (Psalm 72:6 Isa. 44:3–4 45:8). There is nothing that is clearer and easier to see is a day with a new sun, with recent rain, but with no clouds in the sky. The idea is, this ought to be the relationship between the king and his people. There ought to be no confusion about the law; there should be no confusion about the enforcement of the law. A federal officer should not be able to follow you around, and, within an hour, figure out some law, statute or regulation which you have violated unknowingly. Isa. 45:8 "Shower, O heavens, from above, and let the clouds rain down righteousness; let the earth open, that salvation and righteousness may bear fruit; let the earth cause them both to sprout; I the Lord have created it.” (ESV)


2Samuel 23:4d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

desheh (דֶּשֶה) [pronounced DEH-sheh]

grass; tender grass, tender herb; first sprouts [of the earth]; herbage, flora, vegetation

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #1877 BDB #206

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun; pausal form

Strong's #776 BDB #75


Translation: ...grass from the earth [appears].’ Just as the light suddenly appeared, so does the grass of the earth, reaching through the direct. The idea is, the land produces because of the government, which is also in tune with God’s plan.


When many of the people of Israel have cattle and flocks, grass is the diet necessary for their animals.


All of this is a natural description of a good king, with clear and transparent laws, and a fear of God. With a ruler like this, there is great prosperity in the land. It is as if each day is a day of sunshine. We have a similar passage in Psalm 72:6–7 May he be like rain that falls on the mown grass, like showers that water the earth! In His days may the righteous flourish, and peace abound, till the moon be no more! (ESV, capitalized) David is speaking of a temporal ruler of Israel while Solomon, in that psalm, is speaking of the King from David (Jesus) as the eternal ruler of Israel.

 

Peter Pett writes: And this Coming One will arise like the brilliance of the rising sun as it bathes the earth with light. He will introduce a glorious morning beneath a cloudless sky, with no clouds present to dull its glory. It will be like the arrival of new shoots springing into life as a result, first of the activity of the rain and then of the shining sun, as the sun's clear brilliance draws life out of the earth following the rain (Isaiah 32:15-17; Isaiah 44:3-4; Isaiah 45:8; Isaiah 55:10-13; Isaiah 59:19; Isaiah 60:1-3; compare Matthew 5:45; Matthew 13:43; Matthew 17:2). Footnote

 

2sam-23-4.jpg

Clarke writes: The effects of this shining, and of the rays of his grace, shall be like the shining of the sun upon the young grass or corn, after a plentiful shower of rain. Footnote

 

Jamieson, Fausset and Brown: Little patches of grass are seen rapidly springing up in Palestine after rain; and even where the ground has been long parched and bare, within a few days or hours after the enriching showers begin to fall, the face of the earth is so renewed that it is covered over with a pure fresh mantle of green. Footnote


2Samuel 23:4 (graphic) — From Chasing A Miracle (.com). Accessed May 1, 2014.


2-samuel-234_3605_1600x1200.jpg

Charles Simeon remarks: The sun rising in the unclouded hemisphere, cheers and exhilarates all who behold it: and, when it shines on the earth that has been refreshed with gentle showers, it causes the grass, and every herb, to spring forth almost visibly before our eyes. Footnote


Whedon also describes such a morning: Travellers describe an eastern sunrise as exquisitely beautiful and grand. After a night of storm the atmosphere becomes transparent as crystal, and the cloudless sky is of a peculiarly deep dark blue, which one never sees in a land of clouds and haze. The twilight is very short, but before the sun becomes visible his beams shed a rich glow over the whole eastern sky, making it gleam like burnished gold. Suddenly he emerges from behind the horizon and all nature starts into life and action, and hills and valleys ring with joy. The sparkling rivulet, the forest glades, and the happy birds, the tender grass of the pastures - and the frisking flocks and herds that follow the shepherd forth - all seem to exult and sing for joy, and the very trees of the field "clap their hands."  Footnote


2Samuel 23:4 (graphic2) — from Wallpapers 4 God. Accessed May 1, 2014. I found at least 4 graphics which used this verse as their inspiration.


The text used is the NIV and it is difficult to read, so this is how it reads:


He is like the light of morning at sunrise

    on a cloudless morning,

like the brightness after rain

    that brings grass from the earth.'

(2Sam. 23:4; NIV)


All of this speaks of the rule of Jesus Christ in the Millennium.

 

As Whedon writes: The springing up of the tender grass is a result from the clear sunshine of such a morning. So the auspicious reign of "David's greater Son" awakens new life in all the universe. And so, too, the clear, unsullied administration of every righteous ruler will be the source of innumerable blessings to his people and to the land he rules. Footnote


——————————


For [is] not so my house with ʾÊl? For a covenant of everlasting He had made to me; being set in order in the all and being guarded for all my deliverance and all my desire, for He did not cause to spring up.

2Samuel

23:5

For [is] not therefore my house [established] with ʾÊl? For He had made an everlasting covenant regarding me; [it] having been set in order and guarded for my every deliverance and [for] my every desire.

At that time, [will] He not cause [it = the Davidic Covenant] to spring up?

My house is clearly with God, as He made an everlasting covenant regarding me. He set this covenant in good legal order and guarded it, meanwhile, seeing to my every deliverance and providing for my every need. Therefore, at that time, will He not cause His covenant to be fulfilled?


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          Neither is my house so great with God, that he should make with me an eternal covenant, firm in all things and assured. For he is all my salvation, and all my will: neither is there ought thereof that springs not up.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        For [is] not so my house with ʾÊl? For a covenant of everlasting He had made to me; being set in order in the all and being guarded for all my deliverance and all my desire, for He did not cause to spring up.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    Is not my house so with God? For he has made with me an everlasting covenant, ordered in all things and sure; for it is he who fulfils all my desire and all my decrees.

Septuagint (Greek)                For my house is not so with the Mighty One; for He has made an everlasting covenant with me, ready, guarded at every time; for all my salvation and all my desire is, that the wicked should not flourish.

 

Significant differences:           The first line is somewhat confusing; so the Latin appears to add a couple of words to it. After the phrase about an eternal covenant, the Greek has one word which stands for several in the Hebrew. In the phrase after that, the Syriac has and sure and later the word fulfills, which is all different from the Hebrew text.

 

The final phrase is somewhat confusing. The Syriac has something completely different. The Greeks adds the word wicked to that final phrase.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Yes, my house is this way with God! [Or Yes, my house is surely with God!]

He has made an eternal covenant with me,

laid out and secure in every detail.

Yes, he provides every one of my victories

and brings my every desire to pass.

Contemporary English V.       I have ruled this way, and God will never break his promise to me. God's promise is complete and unchanging; he will always help me and give me what I hope for.

Easy English                          God has established my family.

He made a promise to me that he will always *keep.

God has arranged this promise so that it is certain.

So, God will save me and he will keep me safe.

He will give me everything that I desire.

Easy-to-Read Version            God made my family strong and secure. [145]

He made an agreement with me forever!

God made sure this agreement was

good and secure in every way.

So surely he will give me every victory.

He will give me everything I want!

Good News Bible (TEV)         And that is how God will bless my descendants, because he has made an eternal covenant with me, an agreement that will not be broken, a promise that will not be changed. That is all I desire; that will be my victory, and God will surely bring it about.

The Message                         And this is just how my regime has been, for God guaranteed his covenant with me, Spelled it out plainly and kept every promised word-- My entire salvation, my every desire.

New Berkeley Version           For is not my house so established with God?

Eternal the covenant He settled with me;

in every respect it is ordered and sealed [The contingency of faithlessness in David’s descendants had been provided for by God, without invalidating the general covenantal promise of salvation in the final Messianic seed of David (2Sam. 7:12–16)].

It is all my salvation, though all His decreeing,

for will He not cause it [David’s family of descendants.] to send forth a Branch [A term which became a standard designation for the Messiah; compare Isa. 11:1 Jer. 23:5 Zech. 3:8]?

New Century Version             "This is how God has cared for my family.

God made a lasting agreement with me,

right and sure in every way.

He will accomplish my salvation

and satisfy all my desires.

New Life Bible                        In truth, does not my house stand right with God? For He has made an agreement with me that lasts forever. It is planned right in all things, and sure. For will He not make all my help and my desire grow?

New Living Translation           "Is it not my family God has chosen?

Yes, he has made an everlasting covenant with me.

His agreement is arranged and guaranteed in every detail.

He will ensure my safety and success.

The Voice                               Isn't this how God has raised up my house?

Because He has made a perpetual covenant with me,

well-ordered and secure,

Won't He make all things to grow and prosper,

save me, and give me all I desire?


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          And it's He who made my house strong.

Who established it through the ages,

With a sacred agreement that He made with me.

'He has always guarded and saved me,

So, I'll serve Jehovah and not break His Laws.

Christian Community Bible     Yes, is not my family like this before God? He has made with me an eternal covenant, orderly and secure.

Will he not complete my salvation and fulfill my desire?

God’s Word                         "Truly, God considers my house to be that way, because he has made a lasting promise to me, with every detail arranged and assured. He promised everything that helps me, everything that pleases me. Truly, he makes these things happen.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       What worth has my kindred in God's sight, that he should make an everlasting covenant with me, sealed and ratified all of it? Everywhere he preserves me, everywhere grants me my will; no wish of mine but bears fruit.

New American Bible (2011)   Is not my house firm before God?

He has made an eternal covenant with me,

set forth in detail and secured. [2 Sam. 7:11, 15-16 Psalm 89:30 Isa. 55:3.]

Will he not bring to fruition

all my salvation and my every desire?

NIRV                                      "Isn't my royal family right with God?

Hasn't he made a covenant with me that will last forever?

Every part of it was well prepared and made secure.

Won't he save me completely?

Won't he give me everything I long for?

New Jerusalem Bible             Yes, my House stands firm with God: he has made an eternal covenant with me, all in order, well assured; does he not bring to fruition my every victory and desire?

New Simplified Bible              »‘That is how God will bless my descendants. He made an eternal covenant with me. It is an agreement that will not be broken, a promise that will not be changed. That is all I desire. That will be my victory, and God will surely bring it about.

Revised English Bible            Surely my house is true to God;

for he has made an everlasting covenant with me,

its terms spelled out and faithfully kept;

that is my whole salvation, all my delight.

Today’s NIV                          "If my house were not right with God, surely he would not have made with me an everlasting covenant, arranged and secured in every part; surely he would not bring to fruition my salvation and grant me my every desire.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      Is not my house so with God? He set a covenant with me forever, arranged and kept for all. Did he not sprout all my salvation and all my pleasure?

Bible in Basic English             For is not my house so with God? For he has made with me an eternal agreement, ordered in all things and certain: as for all my salvation and all my desire, will he not give it increase?

The Expanded Bible              "·This is how God has cared for my family [L?Is it not so with my house and God?].

God made a lasting ·agreement [treaty; covenant] with me [7:1-17],

·right [ordered; arranged] and ·sure [secured; guaranteed; assured] in ·every way [all things].

·He will [LWill he not.?] ·accomplish [ensure] my ·salvation [safety]

and ·satisfy [fufill; bring about/to fruition] all my desires.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 Tho' my house is not perfect with Gon,

Yet He made a long treaty with me,

Extending and sure in all things,

For it perfectly saves and delights.

And will He not cause it to flourish?

HCSB                                     Is it not true my house is with God? For He has established an everlasting covenant with me, ordered and secured in every detail. Will He not bring about my whole salvation and my every desire?.

NET Bible®                             My dynasty is approved by God [Heb "For not thus [is] my house with God?"],

for he has made a perpetual covenant with me,

arranged in all its particulars and secured.

He always delivers me,

and brings all I desire to fruition [Heb "for all my deliverance and every desire, surely does he not make [it] grow?"].

NIV – UK                                `If my house were not right with God,

surely he would not have made with me an everlasting covenant,

arranged and secured in every part;

surely he would not bring to fruition my salvation

and grant me my every desire.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           "For my house stands firm with God -he made an everlasting covenant with me. It is in order, fully assured, that he will bring to full growth all my salvation and every desire.

exeGeses companion Bible   Although my house is not so with El;

yet he set an eternal covenant with me

- aligned in all and guarded:

for this is all my salvation and all my delight,

although he sprouts it not.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               Is not my House established before God?

For He has granted me an eternal pact,

Drawn up in full and secured,

Will He not cause all my success

And [my] every desire to blossom?

Judaica Press Complete T.    For my house is not so with God. For an everlasting covenant has He made with me, fully set forth and heeded for all my salvation and all the desire is before Him, for He will not sprout forth another on the throne.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           Is not my Bais so with G-d? Yet He hath made with me a Brit Olam, ordered in all things, and sure; for this is all my salvation, and all my chefetz (desire), will He not make it spring forth (tzemach). [See Zecharyah 3:8; 6:11-12]?

The Scriptures 1998              “For is not my house so with Ěl? For He has made an everlasting covenant with me, Ordered in all matters, and guarded. For all my deliverance and all desire, Shall He not make it send forth a Branch?


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                Truly does not my house stand so with God? For He has made with me an everlasting covenant, ordered in all things, and sure. For will He not cause to prosper all my help and my desire?

Concordant Literal Version    For--not so [is] my house with El; For--a covenant eonian He made with me, Arranged in all things, and kept; For--all my salvation, and all desire, For--He has not caused [it] to spring up.

Context Group Version          Truly my house is not so with God; Yet he has made with me an everlasting covenant, Ordered in all things, and sure: For it is all my rescue, and all [ my ] desire, Although he does not make it to grow.

Emphasized Bible                  When, not so, was my house with GOD, Then, a covenant age-abiding, he appointed me, Ordered in all things and guarded, Now that it is all my salvation and all my desire, Will he not make it shoot forth?

English Standard Version      "For does not my house stand so with God? For he has made with me an everlasting covenant, ordered in all things and secure. For will he not cause to prosper all my help and my desire?

The Geneva Bible                  Although my house [be] not so with God; yet he hath made with me an everlasting covenant, ordered in all [things], and sure: for [this is] all my salvation, and all [my] desire, although he make [it] not to grow. But that my kingdom may continue for ever according to his promise.

Green’s Literal Translation    For is not my house so with God? For He has made an everlasting covenant with me, ordered in all things, and sure; for all my salvation, and all my desire, will He not make it grow?

Keil and Delitzsch (updated)  For is not my house thus with God?

For He has made me an everlasting covenant,

Provided with all, and attested;

For all my salvation and all good pleasure,

Should He then not cause it to grow?

Kretzmann’s Commentary    Although my house be not so with God (the sentence is a question, like 2Sam. 7:18, expressing David's surprise over the goodness of God which was shown to his family), yet He hath made with me an ever lasting covenant, ordered in all things, and sure, 2Sam. 7:12 ff. the declaration of God ordering and arranging all things beyond the possibility of overthrow; for this is all my salvation and all my desire, the salvation promised by God being a constant source of pleasure to David, although he make it not to grow, literally, "Should He not make it sprout?" Messiah would surely be a righteous Branch, who would reign and prosper, Jer. 23:5; Jer. 33:15. The contrast between this excellent condition and the judgment upon the ungodly is now brought out.

NASB                                     "Truly is not my house so with God?

For He has made an everlasting covenant with me, [2Sam 7:12-16 Psalm 89:29 Isa. 55:3]

Ordered in all things, and secured;

For all my salvation and all my desire,

Will He not indeed make it grow?

New King James Version       "Although my house is not so with God,

Yet He has made with me an everlasting covenant,

Ordered in all things and secure.

For this is all my salvation and all my desire;

Will He not make it increase?

New RSV                               Is not my house like this with God?

For he has made with me an everlasting covenant,

ordered in all things and secure.

Will he not cause to prosper

all my help and my desire?

Syndein/Thieme                     Although my house {Davidic Dynasty} . . . not so with God yet He has made with me an everlasting covenant {no strings on God's covenant with David - some of his descendants will NOT be SuperGrace believers, yet God's promises to David - 2Samuel 7:8-16 and Psalm 89: 20-37 - will be fulfilled}, ordered in all things, and stabilized. For this is all my deliverance, and all my desire, He not make it 'shoot forth' {Christ is the Root Shoot} {whether or not those who follow David in his dynasty, Christ will come from his line}."

Updated Bible Version 2.11   Truly my house is not so with God; Yet he has made with me an everlasting covenant, Ordered in all things, and sure: For it is all my salvation, and all [my] desire, Although he does not make it to grow.

Webster’s Bible Translation  Although my house [is] not so with God; yet he hath made with me an everlasting covenant, ordered in all [things], and sure: for [this is] all my salvation, and all [my] desire, although he maketh [it] not to grow.

World English Bible                Most assuredly my house is not so with God; Yet he has made with me an everlasting covenant, Ordered in all things, and sure: For it is all my salvation, and all my desire, Although he doesn't make it grow.

Young’s Updated LT             For—not so is my house with God; For—a covenant age-during He made with me, Arranged in all things, and kept; For—all my salvation, and all desire, For—He has not caused it to spring up.

 

The gist of this verse:          God’s covenant with David stands, despite the unfaithfulness in David’s line of descendants.


This is a rather complex verse and difficult to translate.


2Samuel 23:5a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

kên (כֵּן) [pronounced kane]

so, therefore, thus; then, afterwards; upright, honest; rightly, well; [it is] so, such, so constituted

properly, an active participle; used primarily as an adverb

Strong's #3651 BDB #485

Clarke suggests that the verb here is kun, which means to establish.

bayith (בַּיִת) [pronounced BAH-yith]

house, residence; household, habitation as well as inward

masculine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong's #1004 BDB #108

ʿîm (עִם) [pronounced ģeem]

with, at, by, near; like; from

preposition of nearness and vicinity

Strong’s #5973 BDB #767

ʾÊl (אֵל) [pronounced ALE]

God, god, mighty one, strong, hero; transliterated El

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #410 BDB #42


Translation: For [is] not therefore my house [established] with ʾÊl? David asks the hearer (or the reader) to recognize that his house is with God. This would refer to the Davidic line; but primarily to those in David’s line who have followed the Lord.


This is confusing. One way to understand this is, David is recognizing that his house is not with God; that there are problems. Given just Amnon and Absalom—these would have been the king candidates, and they are not interested in the Word of God or the plan of God.


Perhaps David is asking a question in the negative, expecting the opposite answer. Or, to put it another way: Obviously, my house is with God, combining the question with the answer he is expecting.


Here is the problem when it comes to interpretation: this is David’s final psalm. This would suggest that he has begun to train Solomon, who responded well to Bible doctrine. That is a good sign. However, it may be that David is thinking of all Solomon’s older half-brothers, and none of them are suitable.


Whedon suggests Footnote that the first and last sentence of this verse be combined, to get the full sense of the meaning: For [is] not therefore my house [established] with ʾÊl? At that time, [will] He not cause [it = the Davidic Covenant] to spring up? When these two thoughts are placed together, they do tend to make more sense.


2Samuel 23:5b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

berîyth (בְּרִית) [pronounced bereeth]

covenant; pact, alliance, treaty, alliance, contract

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #1285 BDB #136

ʿôwlâm (עוֹלָם) [pronounced ģo-LAWM]

properly what is hidden [time]; of [in] times past, from ancient time, old, antiquity, long duration, everlasting, eternal, forever, perpetuity; for future time, futurity; of the world, worldly

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #5769 BDB #761

sîym (שִׂים) [pronounced seem]; also spelled sûwm (שׂוּם) [pronounced soom]

to put, to place, to set; to make; to appoint

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #7760 BDB #962

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition with the 1st person singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510


Translation: For He had made an everlasting covenant regarding me;... God made the great Davidic Covenant with David; but David writes this at the end of his life. Therefore, he recognizes that he is passing away, but that the covenant would be fulfilled off in the future sometime. The covenant now only is related to him.


The covenant with David is a part of God’s divine decrees, and was devised in eternity past, along with our salvation. However, it is presented to David in time, and therefore, is called everlasting. We live within the boundaries of the consecutive and durative nature of time; God is not confined to time as we are. To illustrate: you have a young boy who is 3, and you have envisioned, in your mind, buying him a baseball mitt and a football, and getting him started on sports. You can’t do this at age 3. However, in a few more years, you can put this plan into action. You are outside of time, inasmuch as, you know how your son is going to progress physically, and at what point, he has the ability and the appreciation for playing sports. When it is time, you introduce your son to these things. When it is the right time, you expose your son to competition and sports.


So, when David writes this psalm, he has and knows the Davidic Covenant; but the first generation of successors do not show any real promise.


Before we move along further in this psalm, we need to stop and take a look at the Davidic Covenant. We studied this covenant in 2Sam. 7 (HTML) (PDF) (WPD) and in Psalm 89 (HTML) (PDF) (WPD). For a fresh perspective, this is taken from the Maranatha church website.

Maranatha Church’s “The Davidic Covenant”

1.      Preliminary considerations.

         a.      Scripture: 2Sam.7:12-16; cp. Psalm 89:3,4,19-37.

         b.      Historical background.

                  i.       David had established his authority over his enemies (2Sam. 7:1).

                  ii.      He lived in a house of cedar and desired to build God a house (2Sam. 7:2).

                  iii.      David was not permitted to build this house, but was promised a "house" that would endure forever (2Sam. 7:11).

                  iv.     The prophet Nathan was informed of the details by a vision 2Sam. 7:4 Psalm 89:19).

         c.      Key terms defined.

                  i.       "House" refers to the Davidic royal dynasty (2Sam. 7:11,16).

                  ii.      "Seed", or "descendant", refers to the male heirs, beginning with Solomon and ending with Jesus Christ (2Sam.7:12; Psalm 89:4a,29a,36a)."Covenant" refers to the binding contract between God and His servant, David (Psalm 89:3a,28b,34a).

                  iii.      "Throne" refers to the right to rule over the kingdom defined by the land grant of the Abrahamic Covenant (2Sam.7:13,16; Psalm 89:4b,29b,36b).

         d.      The Abrahamic Covenant is centered in "land" and "seed".

         e.      What the Covenant requires for fulfillment: it demands that a biological descendant of David occupy his throne forever.

2.      Reasons why David was selected.

         a.      He was a member of the chosen people (Psalm 89:19c) and of the tribe destined for royalty in Israel (Psalm 78:68; cp. Gen.49:8-10 Pss.60:7 76:1 108:8).

         b.      He was in the line of Christ (Rom.1:3).

         c.      He was anointed king by the prophet Samuel to replace the renegade Saul (1Sam.16:13 Psalm 89:20).

         d.      He was spiritually qualified to inherit such phase 2 blessing (2Sam.7:8,9 Psalm 89:26).

         e.      And he was physically endowed to be a warrior-king (Pss.89:19b 18:32-34).

3.      Promises associated with the Covenant fulfilled in David's lifetime. David was promised:

         a.      An heir who would succeed him and who would build the Temple (2Sam.7:12,13).

         b.      Continued success over his enemies (Psalm 89:21-23).

         c.      A great name among the peoples of the earth (2Sam.7:9).

         d.      An expanded kingdom according to the Abrahamic mandate (Psalm 89:25 Ex.23:31 Deut.1:7,8 11:24;

         e.      Elevation to the highest rank of kings (Psalm 89:27; cp. 2Sam.7:14).

4.      The eternal provisions of the Covenant are centered in two spheres: "seed/descendants" and "throne"

         a.      There is the promise that there will always be a Davidic descendant (Psalm 89:4a 2Sam.7:16).

         b.      There is the promise that the throne of David would last forever (Psalm 89:4b 2Sam.7:13).

5.      The problem associated with the interrupted rule of the house of David.

         a.      The problem stated.

                  i.       An uninterrupted succession of kings ruled over the house of David between 1010BC and

                  ii.      But with the fall of the Southern Kingdom, the throne of David has remained unoccupied to this present day.

                  iii.      Furthermore, God placed a curse upon the line of descent through Solomon during the reign of Jehoiakin/Jeconiah/Coniah (Jer.22:30).

                  iv.     This curse means that no man in the David/Solomon line of descent could ever prosper as ruler over Israel, no matter how great he was spiritually.

                  v.      Yet the promise to David was that the throne of his son Solomon would remain forever

                  vi.     Clearly, the promise does not require an uninterrupted succession of rulers, but it does require the throne to be established forever.

         b.      The solution.

                  i.       The line of unbroken male descendants continued from the time of the Babylonian captivity to the birth of Christ (cp. Mt.1:12ff).

                  ii.      Because of the "Jeconiah curse", the individuals of this line could never occupy the throne of David.

                  iii.      So God established another unbroken line of descent from David through his son Nathan; this line links Jesus to David biologically; this line is Mary's genealogy (Lk.3:23ff).

                  iv.     The virgin birth enabled Jesus to side-step the Coniah curse and still retain the legal right to the throne since Joseph was His legal link to the throne, while Mary was His biological link to David.

                  v.      Jesus Christ is, in every way, the legal heir to the throne of David.

                  vi.     He will re-establish David's throne in connection with His Second Coming (Act.15:16).

         c.      Conclusion: The Covenant did not guarantee uninterrupted rule by David's descendants, but did require that the right to rule would always remain with David's dynasty.

6.      In the person of Jesus Christ, God established the Covenant.

         a.      The virgin birth enabled Jesus to be the physical descendant of David and not come under the "Jeconiah curse".

         b.      The resurrection of Christ eliminated the need for a continuation of the genealogy (since Jesus died childless), and provided the Covenant with an indestructible heir.

         c.      The doctrine of the Second Advent establishes the promise of an eternal throne for David occupied by his greater son, Jesus Christ (Luke 1:32,33).

7.      The security of the Covenant.

         a.      It was not affected by the sins of the Davidic kings (2Sam. 7:14,15 Psalm 89:30-37).

         b.      It is seen in the repeated use of the term "forever" or its equivalent (Psalm 89:4,28,29,36).

         c.      It was confirmed by a divine oath, thus giving the strongest possible assurance to its fulfillment (Psalm 89:3,4,33 132:11 2Sam. 7:13,16).

8.      The Covenant demands literal fulfillment.

         a.      of the Covenant fulfilled literally.

                  i.       had a son, who built the Temple, and who was disciplined for his sins (2Sam.7:12-15).

                  ii.      is an unbroken line of descendants from David to Christ, thus fulfilling the "seed" promise (Matthew 1 and Luke 3).

                  iii.      Jesus Christ is a descendant of David according to the flesh (Act.2:29,30 Rom.1:3

         b.      The Jews of Jesus' day expected literal fulfillment (cp. Mk.11:10 Jn.7:42).

         c.      The Bible confirms the beginning of the fulfillment of the Davidic Covenant in Luke 1:30–33 And the angel said to her, "Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God. And behold, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus. He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High. And the Lord God will give to him the throne of his father David, and he will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there will be no end."

         d.      David so understood that the Covenant was being fulfilled literally (2Sam.23:5).

         e.      Solomon, likewise, held this conviction (2Chr.6:14-17).

         f.       The unfulfilled portion has to do with the "throne" promise (2Sam.7:16).

                  i.       Amillennialism (denial of the doctrine of the literal 1,000-year reign of Christ on earth) teaches that the throne in heaven is David's throne.

                  ii.      It is true that Jesus Christ is seated on His Father's throne in heaven in session (Heb.12:2); however, the throne of God in heaven and the throne of David are not one and the same.

                  iii.      God has promised through the prophets that the throne (political rule) of David would be restored after long centuries of non-existence at the Second coming of Christ (Lk.1:31-33 Act.15:14-17; cp. LXX of Amos.9:11,12).

                  iv.     The centuries since the fall of the kingdom of Judah and the dispersions of Israel have not rendered the promise void, even though it may appear to be the case (cp. Psalm 89:38-49).

                  v.      Whatever the changing form, temporary interruptions, or chastisements, the line of David will always retain the right to rule over Israel and will, in fact, exercise this privilege.

                  vi.     The right to rule will never be transferred to another family, and the Covenant's blessings are designed for eternal perpetuity (cp. Psalm 89:34-36 "My covenant I will not violate, Nor will I alter the utterance of My lips. Once I have sworn by My holiness/integrity; I will not lie to David. His descendants shall endure forever, and his throne as the sun before Me").

                  vii.     It is confirmed in such passages as Isa.9:6,7 Jer.23:5,6 30:8,9 33:14-17,20,21 Ezek.37:24,25 Dan.7:13,14 Hos.3:4,5 Amos.9:11 Zech.14:4-9.

                  viii.    David's throne was temporarily vacated due to the disobedience of his descendants, but the promise to rule forever stands because of the faithfulness of his greater Son, Jesus Christ.

                  ix.     Again, the only necessary feature of the Covenant is that the lineage is unbroken,

                  x.      The kingdom on earth to be established by Christ be an eternal kingdom, since the "throne/house/kingdom" were all promised to David in perpetuity.

                  xi.     According to the established rules of interpretation (hermeneutics), the unfulfilled "throne" promise must be fulfilled literally, as were the fulfilled portions (as is the case with the "seed" promise).

Isa.55:3 "Incline your ear and come to Me. Listen, that you may live; and I will make an everlasting covenant (New Covenant with Israel)with you, According to the faithful mercies shown to David."

Rev.3:7 "And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write: He who is holy, who is true, who has the key of David, who opens and no one will shut, and who shuts and no one opens, says this:"

Rev.22:16 "I, Jesus, have sent My angel to testify to you these things for the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, the bright and morning star."

Taken from http://www.versebyverse.org/doctrine/davidicov.html accessed April 21, 2014.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


2Samuel 23:5c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʿârake (עָרך׃) [pronounced ģaw-RAK]

being arranged, set in order, placed in a row, being placed in a particular arrangement or order; having been organized

feminine singular, Qal passive participle

Strong's #6186 BDB #789

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]; also kol (כַּל) [pronounced kol]

all, all things, the whole, totality, the entirety, everything

masculine singular noun without the definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

shâmar (שָמַר) [pronounced shaw-MAR]

kept, guarded, protected, watched, preserved

feminine singular, Qal passive participle

Strong's #8104 BDB #1036


Translation:...[it] having been set in order and guarded... The covenant was clearly laid out by God, and David recorded that. This covenant was preserved to this time in David’s life and is preserved even to today.

 

The Pulpit Commentary: "Ordered in all things." Well arranged; the product of perfect wisdom, and worthy of it; so constituted as to be adapted to its purpose, fitted for the wants of men, suited to reveal and glorify God. Footnote


God’s covenant with David was correctly arranged and organized and it had been guarded and preserved. So there are no doubts with the covenant itself.


2Samuel 23:5e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

yêshaʿ (יֵשַע) [pronounced YAY-shahģ]

deliverance; aid; salvation; safety, welfare

masculine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #3468 BDB #447

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

chêphets (חֵפֶץ) [pronounced KHAY-fets]

a delight, a pleasure; desire; will; pursuit, ardor, affair; matter; something precious

masculine singular noun with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong’s #2656 BDB #343


Translation: ...for my every deliverance and [for] my every desire. God has seen to David’s every deliverance and to nearly David’s every desire. God had blessed David greatly. David had to remain alive because God’s covenant had to be fulfilled through David and his seed. Every time that David was delivered, every time that God provided for him, David recognized this as God’s faithfulness to him.


When David first heard this covenant given by God through Nathan, he prayed to God, saying, "Who am I, O Adonai Yehowah, and what is my house, that you have brought me thus far? And yet this was a small thing in Your eyes, O Adonai Yehowah. You have spoken also of Your servant's house [= heritage] for a great while to come, and this is instruction for mankind, O Adonai Yehowah!” (2Sam. 7:18b–19) In this verse, he now looks back, with even greater appreciation for all that God has done on his behalf.


So, it does not matter if the first generation of Davidic stock is not king material. Everything else about God’s promises to David are legitimate; and throughout his life, God has seen to David’s preservation as well as to his desires.

 

Charles Simeon remarks: In all the trials and troubles of life, religion alone can afford us any effectual support. To this the saints in all ages have fled for refuge, and in this they have found all the consolation they could desire. The latter days of David were a continual scene of domestic sorrows. The defilement of Tamar by her brother Amnon, the murder of Amnon by his brother Absalom, the rebellion and untimely death of Absalom, and the conspiracy and consequent destruction of Adonijah, all embittered his life: and God had foretold, that such afflictions should await him, as a punishment for the horrible sins he had committed in the matter of Uriah. David however was not without his consolations. Though he could not have the happiness of seeing his house walking in the ways of God, yet he had good reason to believe that God had accepted him; and in the view of the covenant which God had made with him, he could not but rejoice. Footnote


2Samuel 23:5f

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

I’m not sure if these mean anything together. However, I thought I would at least list the places where we find them together. After a negative, kîy is often rendered but; however, here, it proceeds a negative. Owen, ESV, God’s Word™ and the KJV render this but [he, they] could not; LITV: but [he] did not; Young: but not; HNV: for he could not in Judges 1:19.

tsâmach (צָמַח) [pronounced tsaw-MAHKH]

to cause [make] to sprout [up, forth]; metaphorically: to cause righteousness [or, deliverance] to exist or to spring up

3rd person masculine singular, Hiphil imperfect

Strong’s #6779 BDB #855

Perhaps the idea is to bring something into existence or to bring something to fruition.


Translation: At that time, [will] He not cause [it = the Davidic Covenant] to spring up? This is the most difficult portion of this verse to translate, and I took some liberties, expressing this as a question which requires a positive answer.


There seems to be a parallel here to the grass of the previous verse, which received rain and sunshine. We assumed that it would spring up.


The entire verse reads: For [is] not therefore my house [established] with ʾÊl? For He had made an everlasting covenant regarding me; [it] having been set in order and guarded for my every deliverance and [for] my every desire. At that time, [will] He not cause [it = the Davidic Covenant] to spring up? If this were written at the end of David’s life, then this would have occurred after the Absalom rebellion—which was a time when David’s family was in shambles. However, there are about 7 “silent” years which follow—and during those years, David was careful to teach his son Solomon, as well as his other sons (that he taught Solomon is certain; it follows logically that he taught all of his sons).


At the very end of David’s life, there was some additional political intrigue—which is not unusual, as it involved the changing over from one king to another. However, David is probably making this observation before this new political upheaval begins (1Kings 1–2).

 

Barnes: Most modern commentators understand both clauses as follows: “Is not my house so with God that He has made with me an everlasting covenant,” etc.? “For all my salvation and all my desire, will He not cause it to spring up?” namely, in the kingdom of Solomon, and still more fully in the kingdom of Christ. Footnote

 

Clarke (recall from the Hebrew exegesis that Clarke believes there ought to be a different word found in the first section): Let the whole verse be considered as an interrogation, including a positive assertion; and the sense will be at once clear and consistent: “for is not my house (family) established with God; because he has made with me an everlasting covenant, ordered in all, and preserved? For this (He) is all my salvation, and all my desire, although he make it (or him) not to spring up.” All is sure relative to my spiritual successor, though he do not as yet appear; the covenant is firm, and it will spring forth in due time. Footnote


The idea being, regardless of what has happened and regardless of what might happen, David’s house is surely connected to the promises of God, to the covenant which God made with David, and it will all come to pass, even though the Messiah has not yet sprung up. So David is expressing great confidence in what was to be. Despite his own shortcomings, and despite the unrest in the Davidic line which has occurred, David knows that he can trust God’s promise regarding the covenant given him a couple decades ago. All that God promised, He will bring that into existence.


David has great spiritual confidence; and remember that he has not seen great signs and wonders. He has not spoken face to face with God. He recognizes that God has made him victorious on many occasions against many nations—including his phenomenal defeat of Syria—but none of these have come about because the ground opened up to swallow his enemy; no great rain storm came upon the enemy, drowning them, or anything like that. Most of David’s life has been a day-to-day experience, fairly normal, but with a clear understanding of God’s hand in his life. David was devoted to the Word of God, despite his shortcomings; and he exercised great faith in the Davidic Covenant, knowing that what God has planned, God is able to bring it to pass.


Application: For believers in the Church Age, there should be little doubt in your mind about God’s hand in your life. Most believers don’t have this great confidence. Why? They have not advanced spiritually. They have not taken the high ground of spiritual maturity. They have depended upon substitutes for the Word of God and the filling of the Spirit. For most believers, this is emotionalism. If they are stirred emotionally, they see this as God speaking to them or guiding them. However, on a bad day, they may feel far from God, whereas, God has not changed—they have. God has made spiritual advance available to all believers; we may choose to advance, or choose to live a life of confusion and instability.


Application: Let’s say that you are a believer in Jesus Christ, and you are reasonably confident in God and reasonably happy with your life, but you have not spent much time learning the Word of God. How can that be? If you are obedient to that which you know, and you live your life in accordance with the laws of divine establishment, then you are going to have a good life in general. Even unbelievers, if their lives are lived in accordance with the laws of divine establishment, it is automatic that they will have a reasonably good life.


The entire verse reads: For [is] not therefore my house [established] with ʾÊl? For He had made an everlasting covenant regarding me; [it] having been set in order and guarded for my every deliverance and [for] my every desire. At that time, [will] He not cause [it = the Davidic Covenant] to spring up? Because of all that has happened, when it is time, the Davidic Covenant will spring up; when it is God’s time, all things will be fulfilled. It does not matter that most of David’s first sons are losers. The Davidic Covenant is made by God and dependent upon God; and therefore, David knows that God will bring it to pass. God will cause it to spring up, as grass after a morning rain.


——————————

 

Poole: Having in the foregoing verses described the nature, and felicity, and stability of that kingdom which God himself had by a sure and everlasting covenant settled upon him and his seed; and especially, upon the Messiah, who was to be one of his posterity; he now describes the quality, the mischievous nature, the hazardous and miserable condition, of all the enemies of this holy and blessed kingdom, whom he justly calls sons of Belial, because they rebelled against God’s appointment, and against that king whom God had set over them; for which reason others are so called (1Sam. 10:27 2Chron. 13:7). Footnote


And a worthless [one is] like a thorn being cast out all of them,

for not in a hand they take.

And a man touches in them;

he is armed [with] iron and a staff of a spear;

and in the fire, consumed, they are being consumed in the same place.

2Samuel

23:6–7

The worthless [are] like thorns, all of them being cast out,

for they are not taken with the hand.

And a man strikes them;

he is armed [with] an iron [weapon] and a spear;

and they will be certainly consumed with fire in the same place.

The worthless ones are cast out as if thorns,

for they are not taken with the hand.

The man who attacks them must be armed with iron implements and a spear;

they certain will be consumed by fire wherever they are.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Latin Vulgate                          But transgressors shall all of them be plucked up as thorns: which are not taken away with hands. And if a man will touch them, he must be armed with iron and with the staff of a lance: but they shall be set on fire and burnt to nothing.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And a worthless [one is] like a thorn being cast out all of them,

for not in a hand they take.

And a man touches in them;

he is armed [with] iron and a staff of a spear;

and in the fire, consumed, they are being consumed in the same place.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    But the ungodly are all like hard thorns, for they cannot be gathered with hands; But when a man comes near them, he gathers them with the handle of an axe and with iron; and they are utterly burned with fire in the same place.

Septuagint (Greek)                All these are as a thorn thrust forth, for they shall not be taken with the hand, and a man shall not labor among them; and one shall have that which is fully armed with iron, and the staff of a spear, and he shall burn them with fire, and they shall be burnt in their shame.

 

Significant differences:           The Greek does not have worthless [one] in the first phrase. The Latin begins the 3rd phrase with an if. The Greek has labor among rather than to touch. At the end, the Greek adds in their shame. The Hebrew is very difficult to translate, and that can help to explain most of the differences which are found.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           But despicable people are like thorns,

all of them good for nothing,

because they can't be carried by hand.

No one can touch them,

except with iron bar or the shaft of a spear.

They must be burned up with fire right on the spot!

Contemporary English V.       But evil people are pulled up like thornbushes. They are not dug up by hand, but with a sharp spear and are burned on the spot.

Easy English                          But wicked men are like bushes with many sharp points.

People do not gather such bushes by hand.

Nobody touches the bushes.

Instead, people use an iron or wooden tool.

And they burn the bushes where they lie on the ground.'

Easy-to-Read Version            But bad people are like thorns.

People don’t hold thorns.

They throw them away.

If a person touches them,

it hurts like a spear

made of wood and iron.

{Yes, those people are like thorns.}

They will be thrown in the fire,

and they will be completely burned!

Good News Bible (TEV)         But godless people are like thorns that are thrown away; no one can touch them barehanded. You must use an iron tool or a spear; they will be burned completely.

The Message                         But the devil's henchmen are like thorns culled and piled as trash; Better not try to touch them; keep your distance with a rake or hoe. They'll make a glorious bonfire!

New Berkeley Version           The wrothless shall all be like castaway thorn trees,

for one is not able to take them in hand.

Whenever a man attempts even to touch them

He is furnished with iron or the shaft of a spear.

They shall with a fire be consumed where they dwell. In this same way, Christ describes the final punishment of the wicked (Matt. 13:30).

New Century Version             "But all evil people will be thrown away like thorns

that cannot be held in a hand.

No one can touch them

except with a tool of iron or wood.

They will be thrown in the fire and burned where they lie."

New Life Bible                        But those of no worth are all like thorns that are thrown away, because they cannot be taken with the hand. The man who touches them must be covered with iron and have a spear. All of them will be burned up with fire as they sit."

New Living Translation           But the godless are like thorns to be thrown away,

for they tear the hand that touches them.

One must use iron tools to chop them down;

they will be totally consumed by fire."

The Voice                               But the wicked are like thorns cut off and tossed away

that can't be picked up with your hands;

No, to touch them, use the iron tip

on the shaft of a spear.

They are burned up on the spot.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Those thorn-bushes couldn't stand and oppose me;

By the hands of men, they were taken from me. '

There were those who worked hard among them

Turning iron and wood into spears.

Then they were burned in the flames.

They were burned in their shame.'

Beck’s American Translation But the wicked are all like thorns which are thrown away,

because no one can every take hold of them with his hands.

To touch them one must use irons or the

shaft of a spear. The fire will burn them up where they are.

Christian Community Bible     But the godless are like thorns that are thrown away.

They cannot be held with one’s hand

but are uprooted with iron and the shaft of a spear,

and they are burned in fire.”

God’s Word                         "Worthless people are like thorns. All of them are thrown away, because they cannot be picked by hand. A person who touches them uses iron tools or the shaft of a spear. Fire will burn them up completely wherever they are."

New Advent (Knox) Bible       Sinful men he treats like briars, too sturdy to be plucked away with the hand, so that all who would interfere with them go armed with iron-shod poles, setting fire to them at last and burning them away to nothing [vv. 1-7. The Latin version of David's canticle disagrees in several places with the Hebrew text, and also with the (widely different) version given in the Septuagint Greek; it seems likely that there was some early corruption in the manuscripts.].

New American Bible (2011)   But the wicked are all like thorns to be cast away;

they cannot be taken up by hand. Dt 13:14.

One wishing to touch them

must be armed with iron or the shaft of a spear.

They must be utterly consumed by fire.

NIRV                                      But evil people are like thorns that are thrown away.

You can't pick them up with your hands.

Even if you touch them,

you must use an iron tool or a spear.

Thorns are burned up right where they are."

New Jerusalem Bible             But men of Belial he rejects like thorns, for these are never taken up in the hand:

no one touches them except with a pitchfork or spear-shaft, and then only to burn them to nothing!

New Simplified Bible              »‘All the evildoers will be like thorns to be pushed away. They may not be gripped in the hand:

»‘But with a sharp spear. They are burned on the spot.’«

Revised English Bible            But the ungodly put forth no shoots,

they are all like briars thrown aside;

none touch them but with a tool of iron or wood,

they are fit only for burning where they lie.

Today’s NIV                          But evil men are all to be cast aside like thorns, which are not gathered with the hand. Whoever touches thorns uses a tool of iron or the shaft of a spear; they are burned up where they lie."


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      But retreat from any worthless thistle: never take them with hands.

A man touching them fills with burning as the wood of a fire burns an iron spear at rest!"

Bible in Basic English             But the evil-doers, all of them, will be like thorns to be pushed away, because they may not be gripped in the hand: But anyone touching them has to be armed with iron and the rod of a spear; and they will be burned with fire, every one of them.

English Jubilee 2000              And as the light of the morning when the sun rises, of a morning shining forth without clouds, as the shining forth through light rain upon the tender grass of the earth: shall not my house be so with God, although all my saving health and my desire shall not be produced yet? For he has made an everlasting covenant with me, ordered in all things, and it shall be kept; but those of Belial shall all be as thorns to be chased away, whom no one takes with the hand; but the one that desires to touch them must be armed with iron and the staff of a spear, and they are completely burned with fire in their place. Vv. 4–5 are included for context.

The Expanded Bible              "But all ·evil [worthless; godless] people will be thrown away like thorns

that cannot be held in a hand.

No one can touch them

except with a tool of iron or ·wood [Lthe shaft of a spear].

They will be ·thrown in [consumed by] the fire and burned where they lie."

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 But the Vile He will bring out like thorns,

Which cannot be taken by hand,

But the man who approaches to them,

Must take staves of iron or wood,

And put them to bum in the fire !

HCSB                                     But all the wicked are like thorns raked aside; they can never be picked up by hand.

NET Bible®                             But evil people are like thorns -

all of them are tossed away,

for they cannot be held in the hand.

The one who touches them

must use an iron instrument

or the wooden shaft of a spear.

They are completely burned up right where they lie [Heb "and with fire they are completely burned up in [the place where they] remain." The infinitive absolute is used before the finite verb to emphasize that they are completely consumed by the fire.]!"

NIV, ©2011                             But evil men are all to be cast aside like thorns, [Isa 5:6; 9:18; 10:17; 27:4; 33:12; Mic 7:4; Na 1:10; Mt 13:40-41]

which are not gathered with the hand.

Whoever touches thorns

uses a tool of iron or the shaft of a spear;

they are burned up where they lie."


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           "But the ungodly are like thorn bushes to be pushed aside, every one of them. They cannot be taken in one's hand; To touch them one uses pitchfork or spear-shaft, and then only to burn them where they lie."

exeGeses companion Bible   As for Beli Yaal

- as a fleeing thorn they all are;

because they are not taken by hands:

but the man who touches them

must be filled with iron

with the timber of a spear;

and in burning, they are burnt with fire

in their seat.

Judaica Press Complete T.    But the wicked shall all

Be raked aside like thorns;

For no one will take them in his hand.

Whoever touches them

Must arm himself with iron

And the shaft of a spear;

And they must be burned up on the spot.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           But the Bnei Beliyaal [rebellious] shall be all of them as kotz (thorns) thrust away, because they cannot be gathered with hands;

But the one that shall touch them must be armed with barzel (iron) and the staff of a khanit (spear); and they shall be utterly burned with eish where they are.

The Scriptures 1998              “But the worthless are all as thorns thrust away, For they are not taken with hands,

“But the man who touches them Uses iron or the shaft of a spear, And with fire they are burned up in their place.”


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                But wicked, godless, and worthless lives are all like thorns to be thrust away, because they cannot be taken with the hand. But the man who touches them arms himself with iron and the shaft of a spear, and they are utterly consumed with fire on the spot.

Concordant Literal Version    As to the worthless--As a thorn driven away [are] all of them, For--not by hand are they taken;" And the man who comes against them Is filled with iron and the staff of a spear, And with fire they are utterly burnt In the cessation.

Context Group Version          But the ungodly shall be all of them as thorns to be thrust away, Because they can't be taken with the hand. But the man that touches them must be armed with iron and the staff of a spear: And they shall be completely burned with fire in [ their ] place.

Darby Translation                  But [the sons] of Belial [are] all of them as thorns thrust away, Because they cannot be taken with hands; And the man that will touch them provideth himself with iron and the staff of a spear; And they shall be utterly burned with fire in [their] place.

Emphasized Bible                  But, as for the abandoned, like thorns to be tossed away are they all,—For, not with the hand, can they be taken; But, the man that would touch them, Must fence himself with iron, and the shaft of a spear,—Then, with fire, shall they be, consumed, on the spot!

English Standard Version      But worthless men are all like thorns that are thrown away, for they cannot be taken with the hand; but the man who touches them arms himself with iron and the shaft of a spear, and they are utterly consumed with fire."

Green’s Literal Translation    As to the ungodly, all of them shall be as a thorn driven away; for they cannot be taken by the hand; but the man who shall touch them must be armed with iron and the shaft of a spear; they shall be utterly burned with fire in their place.

Kretzmann’s Commentary    But the sons of Belial, the godless, vain, and worthless scoundrels, shall be all of them as thorns thrust away because they cannot be taken with hands, they are so hurtful and dangerous that one does not take his bare hands to handle them, but uses tools; but the man that shall touch them must be fenced with iron and the staff of a spear, in order to avoid all contact with them; and they shall be utterly burned with fire in the same place, so that there will be an end to them. The reference is to the final judgment upon the godless and unbelievers, Matt. 13:30. Note: The first part of this prophecy is fulfilled. The wonderful grace of God in Christ Jesus has appeared to all men, the dawn of the Messianic day has come. All believers enjoy the light and the warmth of the grace of Jesus Christ, both in life and in death, and therefore bring forth, as long as they live, fruits of righteousness, to the honor and praise of God.

NASB                                     "But the worthless [Matt 13:41], every one of them will be thrust away like thorns,

Because they cannot be taken in hand;

But the man who touches them

Must be armed [Lit filled] with iron and the shaft of a spear,

And they will be completely burned with fire [Matt 3:10; 13:30; Heb 6:8] in their place [Lit sitting]."

New King James Version       But the sons of rebellion shall all be as thorns thrust away,

Because they cannot be taken with hands.

But the man who touches them

Must be armed with iron and the shaft of a spear,

And they shall be utterly burned with fire in their place."

New RSV                               But the godless are [Heb But worthlessness] all like thorns that are thrown away;

for they cannot be picked up with the hand;

to touch them one uses an iron bar

or the shaft of a spear.

And they are entirely consumed in fire on the spot [Heb in sitting].

Syndein/Thieme                     {Verses 6-7: David Warns Against Reversionism in His Dying Words}

"But the sons of Belial {reversionists - idolaters here} shall be all of them as thorns uprooted/'rejected' {separation from reversionists and particularly idolaters}, because they cannot be taken with hands {if you try to touch a thorn you get your hand stuck! So reject association with reversionism or expect to be stuck by them!}. And the man that shall touch them must be 'armed with iron' or the staff of a spear {principal of strong separation - root them out with something hard or the thorns will cut your soft hands} And they shall be utterly burned with fire in the same place {reference to the 'sin unto death for reversionism}."

Third Millennium Bible            But the sons of Belial shall be all of them as thorns thrust away, because they cannot be taken with hands; but the man that shall touch them must be armed with iron and the staff of a spear; and they shall be utterly burned with fire in the same place." V. 6 is included for context.

World English Bible                But the ungodly shall be all of them as thorns to be thrust away, Because they can't be taken with the hand. But the man who touches them Must be armed with iron and the staff of a spear: They shall be utterly burned with fire in their place.

Young’s Updated LT             As to the worthless—As a thorn driven away are all of them, For—not by hand are they taken. And the man who comes against them Is filled with iron and the staff of a spear, And with fire they are utterly burnt in the cessation.”

 

The gist of this verse:          The evil will be burned in fire in the last judgment.


2Samuel 23:6a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

belîy (בְּלִי) [pronounced beLEE]

not, without

negative particle/substantive

Strong’s #1097 BDB #115

yâʿal (יָעַל) [pronounced yaw-ĢAHL]

to profit, to benefit, to avail

Hiphil verb

Strong’s #3276 BDB #418

Together, belîy + yâʿal form belîyyaʾal (בְּלִיַּעַל) [pronounced belee-YAH-ģahl], which means without value, no profit; and it is transliterated Belial. It is separately identified as Strong’s #1100 BDB #116.

belîyyaʾal (בְּלִיַּעַל) [pronounced belee-YAH-ģahl]

without value, lacking character, worthless, ruin, good-for-nothing, useless, without fruit; wicked or ungodly [men]; transliterated Belial

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #1100 BDB #116

kaph or ke (כְּ) [pronounced ke]

like, as, just as; according to, after; about, approximately

preposition of comparison, resemblance or approximation

No Strong’s # BDB #453

qôwts (קוֹץ) [pronounced kohls]

thorn; used collectively for thorn bushes, thorns, briers

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #6975 BDB #881

nâdad (נָדַד) [pronounced naw-DAHD]

chased away; being cast out; fleeing away

Hophal participle

Strong’s #5074 BDB #622

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every one of them, each one of them, all of them, any of them

masculine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481


Translation: The worthless [are] like thorns, all of them being cast out,... There are those who are approved by God and those who are simply cast out, like thorns. This is the judgement in the final days, where some God approves of (we who have His righteousness), and those who do not.

 

Gill speaks of the contrast here, with the grass that springs up in the previous verse: Not like the tender grass that springs up, and flourishes after rain, and the sunshine upon that; but like thorns, useless, hurtful, and pernicious, and fit only for burning: this is true of wicked men in general, that cast off the yoke of the Lord, and become unprofitable, as Belial signifies; and of wicked governors in particular, who, instead of being helpful, are harmful to a commonwealth; and instead of being the joy and comfort of their subjects, and of giving pleasure to them, and making them cheerful and prosperous, give pain and trouble, and cause grief and sorrow; and are, if possible, to be thrust away, and deposed from government. Footnote

 

Matthew Henry: [These] sons of Belial...shall be thrust away as thorns – rejected, abandoned. They are like thorns, not to be touched with hands, so passionate and furious that they cannot be managed or dealt with by a wise and faithful reproof, but must be restrained by law and the sword of justice (Psalm 32:9); and therefore, like thorns. Footnote

 

Jamieson, Fausset and Brown: But the sons of Belial shall be all of them as thorns--that is, the wicked enemies and persecutors of this kingdom of righteousness. They resemble those prickly, thorny plants which are twisted together, whose spires point in every direction, and which are so sharp and strong that they cannot be touched or approached without danger; but hard instruments and violent means must be taken to destroy or uproot them. So God will remove or destroy all who are opposed to this kingdom. Footnote

 

Poole: As thorns thrust away which men do not use to handle, as they do other trees, but thrust them away from themselves, by some instrument chosen for that purpose. And so will God remove or thrust away from himself, and from his people and kingdom, all those who shall either secretly or openly set themselves against it. Footnote


Jesus speaks of this in Matt. 25:31–46 But when the Son of Man comes in His glory, and all the holy angels with Him, then He will sit on the throne of His glory. And before Him shall be gathered all the nations; and He will separate them from one another, as the shepherd separates the sheep from the goats. And indeed He will set the sheep off His right, but the goats off the left hand. Then the King will say to those on His right, Come, the blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world. For I hungered, and you gave Me food to eat; I thirsted, and you gave Me drink; I was a stranger, and you took Me in; naked, and you clothed Me; I was sick, and you visited Me; I was in prison, and you came to Me. Then the righteous will answer, saying, Lord, when did we see You hungry, and fed You; or thirsting, and gave You drink? And when did we see You a stranger, and took You in; or naked, and clothed You? And when did we see You sick, or in prison, and came to You? And answering, the King will say to them, Truly I say to you, In so far as you did it to one of these, the least of My brothers, you did it to Me. Then He will also say to those on His left, Go away from Me, cursed ones, into the everlasting fire having been prepared for the Devil and his angels. For I hungered, and you did not give Me a thing to eat. I thirsted and you did not give Me a thing to drink; I was a stranger, and you did not take Me in; naked, and you did not clothe Me; sick, and in prison, and you did not visit Me. Then they also will answer Him, saying, Lord, when did we see You hungering, or thirsting, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did not minister to You? Then He will answer them, saying, Truly I say to you, In so far as you did not do it to one of these, the least, neither did you do it to Me. And these shall go away into everlasting punishment, but the righteous into everlasting life. These are Christians who are being persecuted, and there are those who took them in, indicating positive volition toward the plan of God. Some who took them in are believers; some became believers after hearing the gospel.


In my backyard, I began to notice a few thorny suckers coming up, and I did not think much about it. Now, many years later, I see that I have, in one section of my yard, a huge thorn complex which has grown around one of my trees. So, it will take me hours to remove all the runners that these thorned plants send out. It is something that, without gathering them together and casting them out, would take over the yard.


And since this is the topic of this verse:

The Doctrine of Thorns

1.      Thorns are associated with the curse of mankind and nature at the time of the Fall. Man has to contend with thorns in his work and in his spiritual life. Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to you; and you shall eat the herb of the field (Gen. 3:18)

2.      Thorns are used in connection with man's failure. The thorn is a symbol of man's negative will toward God. So thorns are used to designate divine chastisement. But if you do not drive out the inhabitants of the land from before you, then those of them whom you let remain shall be as barbs in your eyes and thorns in your sides, and they shall trouble you in the land where you dwell. (Num. 33:55; ESV) See also Judges 2:3.

3.      In 2Cor. 12:7, Paul's thorn in the flesh was something aggravating enough to bother him. God permitted a fallen angel of great ability to penetrate the wall of fire around Paul and to bother him. However, Paul was persistent, praying this erroneous prayer three times. Paul was in fellowship, but the suffering was still there; however, it was suffering designed for blessing. So to keep me from becoming conceited because of the surpassing greatness of the revelations, a thorn was given me in the flesh, a messenger of Satan to harass me, to keep me from becoming conceited. Three times I pleaded with the Lord about this, that it should leave me. But He said to me, "My grace is sufficient for you, for My power is made perfect in weakness." Therefore I will boast all the more gladly of my weaknesses, so that the power of Christ may rest upon me. (2Cor. 12:7–9; ESV capitalized)

4.      The thorn is a sign of Satan's power; but even Satan’s evil designs result in good when God’s power is employed.

5.      Thorns are used to designate the administration of the final cycle of discipline to a nation. Its nobles--there is no one there to call it a kingdom, and all its princes shall be nothing. Thorns shall grow over its strongholds, nettles and thistles in its fortresses. It shall be the haunt of jackals, an abode for ostriches. (Isa. 34:12–13; ESV).

6.      Thorns are related to economic depression and recession under an agricultural economy. Depression is brought on by man's bad decisions or sins in the field of economy. They have sown wheat and have reaped thorns; they have tired themselves out but profit nothing. They shall be ashamed of their harvests because of the fierce anger of the LORD." (Jer. 12:13; ESV)

7.      The unconquered Canaanites in the promised Land were thorns to the nation of Israel. God had ordered Israel to destroy all the Canaanites. But the Jews did not obey that mandate, so God permitted certain Canaanite groups to live as thorns to the nation Israel. For if you turn back and cling to the remnant of these nations remaining among you and make marriages with them, so that you associate with them and they with you, know for certain that the LORD your God will no longer drive out these nations before you, but they shall be a snare and a trap for you, a whip on your sides and thorns in your eyes, until you perish from off this good ground that the LORD your God has given you. (Joshua 23:12–13; ESV) Now the angel of the LORD went up from Gilgal to Bochim. And he said, "I brought you up from Egypt and brought you into the land that I swore to give to your fathers. I said, 'I will never break my covenant with you, and you shall make no covenant with the inhabitants of this land; you shall break down their altars.' But you have not obeyed my voice. What is this you have done? So now I say, I will not drive them out before you, but they shall become thorns in your sides, and their gods shall be a snare to you." (Judges 2:1–3; ESV) See also Num. 33:55.

8.      Thorns are used to describe the results of not accepting Bible truth. Thorns and snares are in the way of the crooked; whoever guards his soul will keep far from them. (Prov. 22:5; ESV)

9.      Thorns are used to describe the distractions to positive volition toward Bible truth. In Matthew, thorns refer to the man who hears the Word, but the worries of this life (e.g. peer pressure) and the deceitfulness of riches choke out the Word. Other seeds fell among thorns, and the thorns grew up and choked them...As for what was sown among thorns, this is the one who hears the word, but the cares of the world and the deceitfulness of riches choke the word, and it proves unfruitful. (Matt. 13:7,22; ESV)

10.    Thorns are used to describe unbelievers, who are burned at the last judgment. The worthless [are] like thorns, all of them being cast out, for they are not taken with the hand. And a man strikes them; he is armed [with] an iron [weapon] and a spear; and they will be certainly consumed with fire in the same place. (2Sam. 23:6–7)

11.    Thorns are used to describe the results of being involved in Satan’s domain cosmic and negative volition toward the plan of God. But if it bears thorns and thistles, it is worthless and near to being cursed, and its end is to be burned. (Heb. 6:8; ESV)

12.    Jesus Christ wore a crown of thorns on the cross, which signified the fact that He was made a curse for us. Matt. 27:29 Mark 15:17 John 19:2 Gal. 3:13 1 Pet. 2:24

13.    In the millennial reign of Christ, nature will be delivered from the curse of the Fall. This is expressed by the removal of thorns in Isa 55:13 and Ezek 28:24

This is mostly taken from http://www.realtime.net/~wdoud/topics/thorns.html accessed May 5, 2014.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


2Samuel 23:6b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

I’m not sure if these mean anything together. However, I thought I would at least list the places where we find them together. After a negative, kîy is often rendered but; however, here, it proceeds a negative. Owen, ESV, God’s Word™ and the KJV render this but [he, they] could not; LITV: but [he] did not; Young: but not; HNV: for he could not in Judges 1:19.

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

yâd (יָד) [pronounced yawd]

hand; figuratively for strength, power, control

feminine singular noun

Strong's #3027 BDB #388

lâqach (לָקַח) [pronounced law-KAHKH]

to take, to take away, to take in marriage; to seize

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #3947 BDB #542


thorny-christians-are-worthless-to-god.jpg

Translation: ...for they are not taken with the hand. I took some liberties with translating this text, using lâqach (לָקַח) [pronounced law-KAHKH] in the passive sense. One does not intentionally reach down and grab a bunch of thorns. Instead they are gathered in some other way and then thrown out.


I believe that the picture being painted is, God would like to take us by the hand and lead us through the world, as we would do with our own children. But the volition of the worthless man is so negative, that grabbing his hand is like grabbing a handful of thorns.


2Samuel 23:6 (graphic) — from mudpreacher.org, accessed May 1, 2014.

 

Gill: thorns cannot be handled and gently dealt with, but some instrument must be used to put them away with force; so wicked men, and especially wicked rulers, are untractable, and not to be managed in a gentle way, and therefore violent ones must be taken. Footnote


God cannot have direct contact with worthless men; God cannot have direct contact with sin. Just as you cannot simply grab thorned bushes with your hands to extract them, so God cannot have direct contact with such men. +R (perfect righteousness) cannot have fellowship with –R (relative righteousness). Footnote


The picture being painted here are those thorned plants coming up as a result of runners being sent out. I cannot grab them with my hands. What I have to do is use gloves in order to pull them up.


——————————


2Samuel 23:7a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾîysh (אִיש) [pronounced eesh]

a man, a husband; anyone; a certain one; each, each one, everyone

masculine singular noun (sometimes found where we would use a plural)

Strong's #376 BDB #35

nâgaʿ (נָגַע) [pronounced naw-GAHĢ]

to touch, to reach into; to violate, to injure; to come to a person; to strike

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #5060 BDB #619

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #88


Translation: And a man touches them;... Them would refer back to the thorns, which could not be grasped with the hand. The thorns refer to worthless men; and such worthless men often contaminate the godly man.


David, as a soldier and as a general, has been in attacks against the worthless types named in the previous verse.


God as Deity must deal with all of the worthless men, just as we deal with the thorns of a field. One cannot allow the thorns to continue; at some point, they have to be weeded out and cast away. Otherwise, they will render the field useless.


2Samuel 23:7b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

mâlêʾ (מָלֵא) [pronounced maw-LAY]

to be filled, to be full, to be fulfilled; be armed, be satisfied; to be accomplished, be ended

3rd person masculine singular, Niphal imperfect

Strong's #4390 BDB #569

barezel (בַּרְזֶל) [pronounced bare-ZEL]

iron [ore, implements, utensils, furniture]; metaphorically to denote hardness, firmness; obstinance

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #1270 BDB #137

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʿêts (עֵץ) [pronounced ģayts]

tree, wood; wooden post, [wooden] stake, a staff; gallows; [collectively for] a forest of trees

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #6086 BDB #781

chănîyth (חֲנִית) [pronounced khuh-NEETH]

spear

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #2595 BDB #333


Translation: ...he is armed [with] an iron [weapon] and a spear;... David struck them fully armed. Just as we need to be fully armed for battle in the Angelic Conflict, so David would be fully armed with iron and a spear.


Similarly, in tending one’s field, one needed tools to deal with such things as the thorns. They could not be grabbed with the bare hands. Again, the idea is, God cannot have direct contact with sin; and He cannot fellowship with sinners (only through His plan can God have a relationship with any person).

 

Clarke: A metaphor taken from hedging; the workman thrusts the thorns aside either with his bill or hand, protected by his impenetrable mitten or glove, till, getting a fair blow at the roots, he cuts them all down. The man is fenced with iron, and the handle of his bill is like the staff of a spear. This is a good representation of the dubbing-bill, with which they slash the thorn hedge on each side before they level the tops by the pruning-shears. The handle is five or six feet long. This is a perfectly natural and intelligible image. Footnote

 

Gill: To remove these thorns, or sons of Belial, out of the way, or to defend himself against them; or weapons of war must be made use of to conquer and destroy them, [but],...a man that meddles with them must expect to be as much hurt and wounded by them, all over the body. Footnote


There are parallels occurring here. One would use similar implements to remove a thorny infestation in one’s field; and David, as a soldier, would use such weaponry to remove groups of people who are hostile towards him. We, as believers, deal with our enemies in a somewhat different way, although we wear armor as well.


Or, as Paul proclaims: Put on the whole armor of God, that you may be able to stand against the schemes of the devil. For we do not wrestle against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the cosmic powers over this present darkness, against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly places. Therefore take up the whole armor of God, that you may be able to withstand in the evil day, and having done all, to stand firm. Stand therefore, having fastened on the belt of truth, and having put on the breastplate of righteousness, and, as shoes for your feet, having put on the readiness given by the gospel of peace. In all circumstances take up the shield of faith, with which you can extinguish all the flaming darts of the evil one; and take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God, praying at all times in the Spirit, with all prayer and supplication. To that end keep alert with all perseverance, making supplication for all the saints, and also for me, that words may be given to me in opening my mouth boldly to proclaim the mystery of the gospel, for which I am an ambassador in chains, that I may declare it boldly, as I ought to speak. (Eph. 6:11–20; ESV)


In the same way, God does not have personal contact with the wicked. God’s perfect righteousness cannot have fellowship with relative righteousness.


2Samuel 23:7c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

ʾesh (אֶש) [pronounced aysh]

fire, lightning, supernatural fire; presence of Yehowah, the attendance of a theophany

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong's #784 BDB #77

sâraph (שָׂרַף) [pronounced saw-RAHF]

to suck in, to absorb, to drink in, to swallow down; to absorb or consume [with fire], to burn; to bake [bricks]

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #8313 BDB #976

sâraph (שָׂרַף) [pronounced saw-RAHF]

to be burned [with fire]; to be consumed [by fire]; to be baked

3rd person masculine plural, Niphal imperfect

Strong’s #8313 BDB #976

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

shebeth (שֶבֶת) [pronounced SHEB-veth]

seat, dwelling place; same place

feminine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #7675 BDB #443


Translation: ...and they will be certainly consumed with fire in the same place. These worthless men, wherever they are, will be utterly consumed with fire, which is their eternal judgment. For the men that David fought against in war, they would be consumed in war. For the thorns—which are symbolic of the worthless men—they are gathered and then burned.


As we read in Heb. 6:7–8 For the earth drinking in the rain often coming upon it, and producing vegetation suitable for those for whom it is also worked, receives blessing from God; "but bearing thorns and thistles," it is deemed unfit and near a curse, of which the end is for burning. (Green’s literal translation; Gen. 3:17, 18) Psalm 101:7–8 He who works deceit shall not live inside My house; he who speaks lies shall not be established before My eyes. In the mornings I will cut off all the wicked of the land, so that I may cut off all the evil workers from the city of Jehovah. (Green’s literal translation; capitalized) I have no wrath. Would that I had thorns and briers to battle! I would march against them, I would burn them up together. (Isa. 27:4: ESV)

 

Gill: This may be understood of the destruction of wicked rulers, when their kingdom is taken from them, and they are consumed root and branch; and was true not only of Saul, and his posterity, as some apply it, and of Jeroboam, and those like to him, as the above Jewish writer; but of the wicked Jews, and their rulers, those sons of Belial, who rejected the yoke of Christ, and would not have him to rule over them; to whom the Lord sent the Roman armies fenced with swords and spears, and burnt their city, and destroyed them in the same place; and may take in antichrist, and antichristian states, those sons of Belial, of the wicked ανομος, and lawless one, the son of perdition, whose city, Rome, shall be burnt with fire; and even all wicked men, at the great day of judgment, to which the Targum refers these words; when they, whose end, like thorns, is to be burnt, will be cast into the lake which burns with fire and brimstone. Footnote


What is being taught here is the baptism of fire. Since the Grace Bible Church of Baytown, TX did an excellent job putting this doctrine together, there is no need for me to reinvent the wheel. The only serious weakness with this doctrine is, they neglected to put a definition in right up front.

Grace Bible Church’s “The Baptism of Fire”

 1.     Introduction: The Baptism of Fire is one of seven baptisms in the Bible. All Baptisms are divided into two

          1)      Real – actual identification (4 out of 7 baptisms are REAL)

                   (1)     Moses – I Corinthians 10:2.

                   (2)     The Cross – Matthew 20:22.

                   (3)     Holy Spirit – Acts 1:5; I Corinthians 12:13.

                   (4)     Fire – Matthew 3:11,12.

          2)      Ritual – an illustrative identification related to water (3 out of 7 baptisms are RITUAL)

                   (1)     Matthew 3:1-10 – John baptized with water.

                   (2)     John 1:25-33 – John baptized by water.

                   (3)     The baptism of Jesus – Matthew 3:13-17. Water here represents His objective to go to the cross. He agreed to go by the baptism and the ritual of it. The baptism of the believers during the first part of Church Age (Acts 2:38; 2:41; 8:36,38) represented Spirit (identification with Christ in death, burial resurrection.)

 2.      The baptism of fire is the removal of all unbelievers from the earth at the end of the Tribulation.

 3.      Scriptures that deal with Baptism of Fire: Matthew 3:11,12; Luke 3:16,17; 2Thessalonians 1:7-9. There is an analogy to the Baptism of Fire found in Matthew 24:36-41 (nothing to do with the Rapture.)

          1)      The analogy goes to the days of Noah (vs. 37).

          2)      The days of Noah and the 2nd Advent are paralleled (not Rapture).

          3)      In the days of Noah unbelievers were removed from the world by the flood – Believers continued on the earth to start new civilization.

          4)      In the 2nd Advent unbelievers are removed under the Baptism of Fire and believers remain to begin a new civilization (the Millennium).

          5)      We have the post diluvian civilization beginning with Noah’s day – the Millennium beginning after the Baptism of Fire. Note that it is the unbelievers who are saturated in water in Noah’s day. The unbelievers are saturated by fire at the 2nd Advent. Vs. 40ff – analogy taken from days of Noah.

          6)      Our passage, 2Sam. 23:6–7.

 4.      Parables on Baptism of Fire:

          1)      Matthew 13:24-30; 13:36-43 – wheat and tares.

                   (1)     Wheat are believers going into the Millennium.

                   (2)     Tares are the unbelievers cast out into fire.

          2)      Matthew 13:47-50 – good and bad fish.

          3)      Matthew 25:1-13 – the 10 virgins.

 5.      Baptism of Fire is divided into two categories:

          1)      Jews – Daniel 70th week (believers and unbelievers)

          2)      Gentiles (believers and unbelievers) At the 2nd Advent the unbeliever Gentile cast out and unbeliever Jew cast into fire. The Jewish believer goes into Millennium and the Gentile believer goes into Millennium.

                   (1)     Ezek. 20:34-38 – Jewish baptisms of fire.

                   (2)     Matthew 25:31-46 – Gentile baptism of fire.

 6.      The baptism of fire is the down payment on the lake of fire for the unbelievers of the tribulation.

          1)      2Thess. 1:9 “everlasting destruction” – terrible agony – soul and body pain. . . .an agony which is so great that it goes on in the soul – cannot be annihilated – no loss of consciousness forever and

          2)      In heaven there is perfect happiness in the strength of the Lord – Face to face with Him.

          3)      In hell His happiness is excluded forever!

From http://www.gracebiblechurchbaytown.org/uploads/1/0/1/6/10165395/baptism_of_fire.pdf accessed April 24, 2014 with very little editing.

For similar and related information, see the doctrine of baptisms:

http://lakeeriebiblechurch.org/doctrine/html/Baptisms.htm

http://www.realtime.net/~wdoud/topics/baptism.html

http://gracebiblechurchwichita.org/?page_id=38

http://www.spokanebiblechurch.com/study/Bible%20Doctrines/baptisms.htm

http://www.he-ekklesia.org/doctrines/DOCTRINE%20OF%20BAPTISMS.DOC

Surprisingly enough, I found very little additional material from doctrinal site online on this topic. However, this topic has been expanded and can be found here: The Baptism of Fire (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Vv. 6–7 read: The worthless [are] like thorns, all of them being cast out,

for they are not taken with the hand.

And a man strikes them;

he is armed [with] an iron [weapon] and a spear;

and they will be certainly consumed with fire in the same place.

 

Peter Pett: David closes his last words with a reference to `the worthless' (belial = `worthlessness', they are worthlessness personified), typifying the ungodly. In contrast with the glory of the Coming One they are like thorns which should be thrust away as they are rooted up by the use of implements, lest they cause the hands to bleed. Like thorns they cannot be taken in the hand, but can only be touched by a man fully equipped to deal with them. For the man who would touch them must do it with tools of iron or the staff of a spear, or else he will come away bearing the marks of the thorns. So the worthless will be rooted up, and their final destiny, instead of enjoying the glory of the everlasting kingdom ("Then THE RIGHTEOUS WILL SHINE FORTH AS THE SUN in the kingdom of their Father. He who has ears, let him hear.” Matthew 13:43—NASB), is to be burned with fire (compare Matthew 13:41-42 - "The Son of Man will send forth His angels, and they will gather out of His kingdom all stumbling blocks, and those who commit lawlessness, and will throw them into the furnace of fire; in that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.—NASB. See also Matthew 13:30, 50 John 15:6 Hebrews 6:8) in the place where they have revealed their worthlessness. Footnote


This is known as a chiasmos.

Peter Pett’s Organization of David’s Last Psalm

Peter Pett’s Organization

David’s Last Psalm

a       David is the one raised on high, the anointed one, the delightful singer of Israel's praise. This is in contrast to a´.

These are the last words of David,

“An oracle of David the son of Jesse; even the oracle of a man who was promoted by God,

who is chosen for the task by the God of Jacob to be the respected psalmist of Israel. (2Samuel 23:1)

         b       YHWH has spoken of a coming king who will rule righteously in the fear of God. This is a fulfillment of the covenant spoken of in b´.

The Spirit of Jehovah speaks through me; And it is His words which I speak. The God of Israel has spoken to me, and the Rock of Israel has declared,

‘The one ruling ought to be righteous, both fearing and respecting God. (2Samuel 23:2-3)

                  c       His coming will be like the glorious rising of the sun after rain producing fruitfulness and blessing. This is a description of the Millennium, the rule of Jesus Christ.

He is as the sun appearing in a morning without clouds,

its brightness, after a rain, and the green grass then appears. (2Samuel 23:4)

             YHWH has made with David a sure and certain everlasting covenant which fulfils all his desire and brings salvation. The Davidic Covenant looks forward to One Who has come from David, and will rule from the throne of Jerusalem.

My house is clearly with God, as He made an everlasting covenant regarding me. He set this covenant in good legal order and guarded it, meanwhile, seeing to my every deliverance and providing for my every need. Therefore, at that time, will He not cause His covenant to be fulfilled? (2Samuel 23:5)

     This is all in contrast with what will happen to the unworthy who will be like thorns which cannot be taken in the hand and can only be touched with a long spear, and will finally be burned with fire. This is the contrast with “a”. David and those who believe are greatly blessed; and the worthless will be cast into everlasting fire.

The worthless ones are cast out as if thorns,

for they are not taken with the hand.

The man who attacks them must be armed with iron implements and a spear;

they certain will be consumed by fire wherever they are. (2Samuel 23:6-7)

From http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/view.cgi?bk=9&ch=23 accessed May 2, 2014. Additional commentary and text from me.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


There is a remarkable parallel between the words of David and the words of Baalim in the book of Numbers

Comparing Balaam’s Words to Those of David

The Words of Baalim (Num. 24:15–17)

The Last Psalm of David (2Sam. 23:1–3, 7)

And he took up his utterance and said