Deuteronomy 2

written and compiled by Gary Kukis

Deuteronomy 2:1–37

Moses Recounts the Jews Traveling East of the Jordan


These studies are designed for believers in Jesus Christ only. If you have exercised faith in Christ, then you are in the right place. If you have not, then you need to heed the words of our Lord, Who said, “For God so loved the world that He gave His only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son, so that every [one] believing [or, trusting] in Him shall not perish, but shall be have eternal life! For God did not send His Son into the world so that He should judge the world, but so that the world shall be saved through Him. The one believing [or, trusting] in Him is not judged, but the one not believing has already been judged, because he has not believed in the Name of the only-begotten [or, uniquely-born] Son of God.” (John 3:16–18). “I am the Way and the Truth and the Life! No one comes to the Father except through [or, by means of] Me!” (John 14:6).


Every study of the Word of God ought to be preceded by a naming of your sins to God. This restores you to fellowship with God (1John 1:8–10). If there are people around, you would name these sins silently. If there is no one around, then it does not matter if you name them silently or whether you speak aloud.


Document Navigation

Preface

Quotations

Outline of Chapter

Charts, Graphics, Short Doctrines

Doctrines Alluded to

Chapters Alluded to

Dictionary of Terms

Introduction

First Verse

Addendum

A Complete Translation

Chapter Word Clouds


Links to the completed chapters of Deuteronomy are found here (HTML) (PDF) (WPD). This chapter is a part of that study. Sometime ago, I did a verse-by-verse exegesis of the books of the Pentateuch, and, in my opinion, did not really give these books the full treatment that they deserved. Here, I am going back and redoing the book of Deuteronomy. All of the information from that previous study will be included in here and this study will eventually supplant the shorter study of the book of Deuteronomy (HTML) (PDF) (WPD). From time to time, there will be concepts and exegetical material which will be repeated.

 

These exegetical studies are not designed for you to read each and every word. For instance, the Hebrew exegesis is put into greyish tables, so that if you want to skip over them, that is fine. If you question a translation, you can always refer back to the appropriate Hebrew tables to sort it all out.

 

The intent is to make this particular study the most complete and most accurate examination of Deuteronomy 31 which is available in writing. The idea is to make every phrase, verse and passage understandable; and to make correct application of all that is studied.

 

Besides teaching you the doctrinal principles related to this chapter, this commentary is also to help bring this narrative to life, so that you can understand the various characters, their motivations, and the choices that they make. Ideally, you will be able to visualize the peoples and armies as they move across the landscape of the Land of Promise.

 

So that there is no misunderstanding, the doctrines, pronouncements and actions in this book all take place during the Age of Israel. For that reason, not everything that we study herein has direct application to our lives today during the Church Age. For instance, the Sabbath Day (Saturday) was observed during the Jewish Age; but it is not a part of religious observance today (although we can make application of various principles based upon the teaching of the Sabbath Day). An understanding of dispensations is imperative when studying the Word of God from a different era. See the Doctrine of Dispensations (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).


Preface:



There are many chapter commentaries on the book of Deuteronomy. This should be the most extensive examination of Deuteronomy 2 available, where you will be able to examine in depth every word of the original text. Every attempt has been made to make this both a complete and self-contained study. Therefore, all references, vocabulary, and related concepts should be found within this extensive study. Easy access links to more in-depth studies of some vocabulary words, concepts and doctrines are also provided.


Quotations:

 

Kukis (2013): We continue the fundamental concept of Biblical revelation, that God is uniquely tied to the actual history of the Jews (in the Old Testament), in a way that sets both the Old Testament and the worship of Yehowah apart from all other religions. And yet, at the same time, despite the intimate integration with ancient history, there is always found a universality and a timelessness in God’s Word.

 

The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: It was natural and it was inevitable, therefore, that the author of Deuteronomy, standing, as he did, on the threshold of a great crisis in the history of Israel, should turn the thoughts of his people back to the history of the past.

 

Coffman on Mosaic authorship of this passage: Alexander thundered the answer to all such suggestions: "There is no sufficient reason for supposing that this paragraph (Deuteronomy 2:20-23) is an interpolation, or gloss, inserted by some later hand." Every line of Deuteronomy testifies to its Mosaic authorship.

 

J. Vernon McGee writes: I have always thought that the Lord has a sense of humor, and I think we can see it here. You see, they didn't know where to go. all they have been doing is just going around and around Mt. Seir. It was sort of a ring-around-the-rosy; round and round they go. finally God says that He is getting tired of that. He says, "Let's quit this round and round business." I'm afraid many Christians are doing that very same thing. Because they fail to take God at His Word, they are just marking time, and are on a merry-go-round of activity.

 

The Geneva Bible comments: These giants [who were dispossessed] were driven out for their sins: so the wicked when their sins are ripe, cannot avoid Gods plagues.

 

Deut. 2:7 "Remember how the LORD your God has blessed you in everything that you have done. He has taken care of you as you wandered through this vast desert. He has been with you these forty years, and you have had everything you needed.” (GNB)

 

Deut. 2:18–19 Jehovah spoke to me, saying, “You are passing over the border of Moab today, to Ar, and you shall draw near, across from the sons of Ammon. You shall not besiege them nor be stirred up against them, for I have not given of the land of the sons of Ammon to you for a possession. For I have given it for a possession to the sons of Lot.” (Green’s literal translation with quotation marks)

 

Deut 2:36 From Aroer, which is by the edge of the Arnon River, and the city beside the river, even to Gilead, there was not a city which was too high for us. Jehovah our God delivered all before us.


Outline of Chapter 2:

 

Introduction

 

         vv.     1–9           God Tells Israel Not to Meddle with the Edomites

         vv.    10–12         Background Material on Edom

         vv.    13–15         Israel Moves Ahead

         vv.    16–19         God Tells Israel Not to Meddle with the Ammonites

         vv.    20–23         Background Material on the Caphtorim

         vv.    24–25         God Declares Sihon to be Fair Game

         vv.    26–29         Moses Tries to Make Peace with Sihon

         vv.    30–35         Sihon Resists/God Allows Moses to Defeat Sihon in Battle

         vv.    36–37         Summary of What Yehowah Did for the Jews

 

Addendum



Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines:

 

         Preface               Quotations

         Introduction         The 3 Illustrations

         Introduction         The Prequel of Deuteronomy 2

         Introduction         The Principals of Deuteronomy 2

         Introduction         The Places of Deuteronomy 2

         Introduction         Deuteronomy 2–3 Map

         Introduction         A Synopsis of Deuteronomy 2

         Introduction         Alternate Outlines for Deuteronomy 2

 

         v.       1              Dead Sea Relief Map

         v.       1              The Time Frame of the Wandering of the Children of Israel

         v.       3              Map of Edom

         v.       3              Deuteronomy 2:2–3 (graphic)

         v.       3              Map of the Route Around Edom

         v.       5              Edom and Mount Seir

         v.       5              Picture of Modern Edom

         v.       7              Deuteronomy 2:7 Graphic

         v.       7              Deuteronomy 2:7 Graphic #2

         v.       7              When Critics Ask, Concerning Israel’s Comfort in the Desert-wilderness

         v.       7              Deuteronomy 2:7 (graphic #3)

         v.       7              God Determines the Borders of Nations

         v.       8              Map of the Route of Israel

         v.       8              The Route of Moses

         v.      11              Emim, Rephaim and Anakim

         v.      12              Poole on the Perfect Tense of to give

         v.      12              What about this parenthetical stuff?

         v.      12              Geisler and Howe on the Reference to the Land of Promise

         v.      13              Pett on the Organization of Moses

         v.      14              Map of Israel’s Movement

         v.      14              Interpreting Deuteronomy 2:14

         v.      14              Problems with the Israelites Spending 38 Years at Mount Hor

         v.      15              Generation X and the Sin unto Death

         v.      19              Map of Moab and Ammon

         v.      22              The Horites/Hivites

         v.      23              The Avvim, the Caphtorim and the Philistines

         v.      24              Map of the Kingdom of Sihon

         v.      24              Deuteronomy 2:24 Graphic

         v.      25              A Theory About God Putting Fear into the Hearts of Men

         v.      25              God promised that the fear of Yehowah would fall upon their enemies

         v.      29              Is Moses Lying or Stretching the Truth in his Message to Sihon?

         v.      30              The Hardened Heart of Sihon

         v.      34              Deuteronomy 2:32–34 (a graphic)

         v.      34              The Abbreviated Doctrine of Devoting to God (Chêrem or the Ban)

         v.      34              Coffman’s 3 Degrees of the Ban

         v.      36              Map of Arnon

         v.      36              The Conquest of the Amorites, by James Tissot (graphic)

         v.      37              Jabbok River Photo

         v.      37              Deuteronomy 2:37 (a graphic)

         v.      37              Peter Pett’s Chiasmos of Deuteronomy 2:32–37

 

         Addendum          Why Deuteronomy 2 is in the Word of God

         Addendum          What We Learn from Deuteronomy 2

         Addendum          Examples from History

         Addendum          Josephus’ History of this Time Period

         Addendum          Edersheim Summarizes Deuteronomy 2

         Addendum          A Complete Translation of Deuteronomy 2

         Addendum          Word Cloud from a Reasonably Literal Paraphrase of Deuteronomy 2

         Addendum          Word Cloud from Exegesis of Deuteronomy 2


Chapter Outline

 

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines

Forward

Doctrines Covered and Alluded to

Chapters of the Bible Alluded To

Psalms Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Other Chapters of the Bible Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

Definition of Terms

Introduction

Text

Addendum

www.kukis.org

 

Exegetical Studies in Deuteronomy


Doctrines Covered

Doctrines Alluded To

Devoting to God (Chêrem; Putting Under the Ban)

 

Chart of Jesus in the Old and New Testaments

Horites

 

Philistines

Sin unto Death

 


Chapters of the Bible Alluded To

 

 

Deut. 1

 


Psalms Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

 

 

 

 


Other Chapters of the Bible Appropriately Exegeted with this Chapter

 

 

 

 



Many who read and study this chapter are 1st or 2nd generation students of R. B. Thieme, Jr., so that much of this vocabulary is second nature. One of Bob’s contributions to theology is a fresh vocabulary along with a number of concepts which are theologically new or reworked, yet still orthodox. Therefore, if you are unfamiliar with his work, the definitions below will help you to fully understand all that is being said. Also, I have developed a few new terms and concepts which require definition as well.

In addition, there are other more traditional yet technical theological terms which will be used and therefore defined as well.

Sometimes the terms in the exegesis of this chapter are simply alluded to, without any in-depth explanation of them. Sometimes, these terms are explained in detail and illustrated. A collection of all these terms is found here: (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Definition of Terms

A Fortiori Reasoning

If God has already done the greater of two things; then it stands to reason that He can and will do the lesser thing.

Chiasmos

A chiasmos (also spelled chiasmus) is the way that some portions of the Bible are organized. It takes its name from the Greek letter chi (χ). The first section matches with the last, the second with the second-to-the-last, etc. It is called a chiasmos, because the inverted parallelism looks like a chi (actually, half a chi) when one looks at it from its organizational standpoint.

Divine Good

This is good which is completely in accordance with the plan of God. In order for a person to do acts of divine good, they must be in fellowship and be thinking Bible doctrine. As a result, that which they do is divine good and moves the plan of God forward.

5th Stage of National Discipline

This is the stage of discipline God brings upon Israel when the people are removed from their own land and taken into slavery by some foreign power.

Gen X

This is a short and clever reference to the generation of the Exodus. I was going to try to represent this as Gen Ex, but that looked too much like I was just naming the first two books of the Bible. At least with Gen X, most understand that we are speaking of a specific generation. Gen X stands for generation exodus; the generation of adults who left Egypt. Their children with them and the children born in the wilderness will be called the generation of promise.

Generation of Promise

These are the Israelites who will actually go into the Land of Promise and take it (which process is described in the first half of the book of Joshua). They were under the age of 20 at leaving Egypt in the exodus and some of them were born in the desert-wilderness, either as sons of Gen X-ers or as sons of the generation of promise.

Loser-believers

These are believers who never advance in the spiritual life.

Pivot

A pivot it is the accumulation of mature believers living in a client nation or under civil government in a specific geographical location. While a pivot is composed primarily of mature believers, it may also include those positive believers whose momentum has carried them into spiritual adulthood.

Sin unto Death

The phrase "sin unto death" describes the final stage of divine discipline in which God removes from the earth the person who is totally alienated from God. The "sin unto death" is not a particular sin; but it is, rather, a mental attitude of total indifference to and rebellion against the will and purpose of God.

Some of these definitions are taken from

http://gracebiblechurchwichita.org/?page_id=1556

http://www.bibledoctrinechurch.org/?subpages/GLOSSARY.shtml

http://rickhughesministries.org/content/Biblical-Terms.pdf

http://www.gbible.org/index.php?proc=d4d

http://www.wordoftruthministries.org/termsanddefs.htm

http://www.realtime.net/~wdoud/topics.html

http://www.theopedia.com/


——————————


An Introduction to Deuteronomy 2


I ntroduction: Deut. 2 is a continuation of Deut. 1. Moses began speaking to the people of Israel in Deut. 1 and will continue throughout most of the book of Deuteronomy. Moses will chronicle the exploits of the Israelites to the Israelites for several chapters. This tells us that (1) history is important and (2) the correct interpretation of history is important. Two generations of Jews left Egypt. Gen X are those who were 20 and older who were the adults, who made all of the adult decisions. These people were recalcitrant and they opposed God at nearly every turn. Their children, who make up a portion of the generation of promise, were 20 or younger at leaving Egypt. Gen X, because of their negative volition, were all killed in the desert in the 38 years after God gave Moses the Law. This is known as the sin unto death. Their children watched them die premature deaths in the desert; and now Moses speaks to these people (God is actually speaking to the people through Moses).


Moses is telling them what happened; he is explaining to them their history up to this point in time. In this recounting of their history, which Moses will do in the first 4 chapters of Deuteronomy, he will jump from the failure of Gen X at Kadesh-barnea (Deut. 1:21–46) to suddenly, 38 years later, tracking their movement east and then north around the Dead Sea (Deut. 2 and beyond). This is fascinating because this is all recent history. Much of what Moses will talk about has occurred in the past few months. Yet Moses will take the time to recall it and explain it in terms of God’s will.


The next generation, the generation of promise, needs to have a full understanding of all that has taken place and what it all means. That is what Moses is doing in Deut. 1–4. Moses both recalls the clear facts of history as well as the fact that it is the Lord their God who did all of this for the people of Israel. Those listening to Moses cannot deny these facts.


It is for this reason that I will take Bible passages, and then illustrate them with current events. In this way, you understand both what the Bible says and how it related to you today.


Application: The Bible and knowledge of same is a part of our own history. We cannot deny the fact of our history, nor can we deny that the Lord our God has blessed us beyond any other nation on earth and in the history of mankind. The reason is, we founded this country on the concept of divinely-given rights, which means both an acknowledgment of Deity, as well as a real attempt to place ourselves in line with God and His plan for His people on this earth.


Application: We can also see how Jesus Christ has involved Himself in both Japan and South Korea. Japan was our deadliest of enemies; and South Korea was ready to fall to communism. The United States military brought Bibles and the gospel into those countries, and Japan has become one of our enduring allies; and South Korea has become one of the greatest nations on this earth, spreading the gospel throughout the Asian world. As I have used as an illustration many times, what we did in Iraq and Afghanistan will have no lasting value, because we did not take the gospel of Jesus Christ into those countries. Therefore, whatever peace those countries enjoy, it will be transitory; and whatever relationship that we have developed with their governments, that relationship will become strained in a very short period of time; and that relationship will never recover, nor will it be anything like our relationship with Japan or South Korea. For this reason, Iraq and Afghanistan will remain the greatest failures of Presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama. President Bush should have known this history, but he apparently did not. President Obama knows next to nothing about American history; so he is completely unable to salvage these relationships.


Deut. 2 is a continuation of Deut. 1, divided into separate chapters only perhaps, due to their length (also, Deut. 2 seamlessly picks up the narrative 38 years later). Moses covered the trip from Mount Sinai to Kadesh-barnea rather quickly, and then focused in for most of Deut. 1 on the refusal of generation X to take the land given them by God. Deut. 2 will pick up here and follow the Israelites—principally the generation of promise, around as they travel east of the promised land. The primary purpose of what Moses says to the people is God's faithfulness, His integrity, His omnipotence and His veracity. The children of Israel are about to enter into the Land of Promise and spend seven years taking it from the Canaanites and the other indigenous peoples of whom their fathers were afraid. Since they had seemingly learned from the mistakes of generation X, Moses thought it wise to teach them academically of these characteristics of God through illustration.


God in His leading, allows Moses to teach the generation of promise about God’s promises.

The 3 Illustrations

1)      Illustration #1: Because Lot was Abram's nephew, God blessed Lot's descendants with a piece of land. Moses will point out that at one time, giants lived in that land, but God promised the land to Moab and Ammon, Lot's two children, and God gave them that land.

2)      Illustration #2: God gave land to Esau, the brother of Jacob. Great men of war lived there and God allowed Esau to possess it nevertheless. Esau is an also-ran. He was Jacob's twin and the covenant to Abraham went to Jacob, not to his older brother Esau. Still, God was faithful to Esau under the principle blessing by association.

3)      Illustration #3: when Israel was opposed by the king of the Amorites, Sihon, God deliver him and his land into the hands of Israel. Chapter 4 will continue a retrospect of the faithfulness of God in war.

The Israelites learn, along with their own history, about God’s provisions and promises.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


It is important to understand what has gone before.

The Prequel of Deuteronomy 2

Moses led the children of Israel out of Egypt; and, because of the failure of the adults that he led out, it is 40 years after the exodus and they have still not begun to take the land of Canaan, which God gave to them.


All Israel is posed to go into the Land of Promise; but they have stopped east of the Jordan River before proceeding.


Moses continues to speak to his people about their recent history, and he properly interprets Israel’s history. For more information as to what occurred prior to this chapter, see Deut. 1 (HTML) (PDF) (WPD).

Gen. 2 will begin with Israel history being recounted primarily after the 40 years has passed. However, Moses will speak a little about the deaths of the recalcitrant Gen X, which took place over a 38 year period of time.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


We need to know who the people are who populate this chapter.

The Principals of Deuteronomy 2

Characters

Commentary

Moses

Moses is a Jew who previously was in line to become the prime minister of Egypt. He received all the education and training such a man would have received in Egypt, but chose to lead his people, the Jews, out of Egypt. At this point, he is standing before his people and teaching them about their own recent history.

The People of Israel

These are the descendants of Abraham, many of whom were born in Egypt (some were born in the desert-wilderness). The first generation of Israelites, those who left Egypt as adults, have all died out, most of them under the principle of the sin unto death. Those who remain will take the land of Israel.

Sihon

Sihon is one of the first rulers who opposed the Israelites, and God told the Israelites to destroy him and his people.

Moabites

These are the descendants of Lot, Abraham’s nephew. God has given them a plot of land which is off limits to Israel.

Ammonites

These are the descendants of Lot, Abraham’s nephew. God has given them a plot of land which is off limits to Israel.

Edomites

These are the descendants of Abraham’s bastard son, Esau. God has given them a plot of land which is off limits to Israel.

There are other groups of people mentioned in this chapter, but most of them incidentally; so they will be examined when we come to them.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


deuteronomy02.gif

This way you can understand the places which are named in this chapter.

The Places of Deuteronomy 31

Places

Description

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Deuteronomy 2–3 Map; from Generation Word; accessed June 19, 2016. In these two chapters, Moses will discuss that which God has already given to the sons of Israel by way of combat. He will also discuss that peoples that the people of Israel of encountered on their move into the Land of Promise.



Here is what to expect in Deuteronomy 2:

A Synopsis of Deuteronomy 2

All of Deut. 2 is Moses recounting recent history with the descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

In this chapter Moses goes on with his account of the affairs of the people of Israel, and what befell them, how they turned into the wilderness again; but passes over in silence their travels there, till they came to Mount Seir, where having been some time they were bid to depart (Deut. 2:1).

The Israelites were directed not to meddle with the Edomites, or take anything from them, but pay them for what they should have of them, since they lacked not (Deut. 2:4). Similarly, they were not to distress the Moabites either.

In Deut. 2:10–12, a little history of the land of the Edomites is given.

Then they were told to go over the brook Zered, to which from their coming from Kadesh-barnea took 38 years, in which time the former generation was removed by the sin unto death (Deut. 2:13).

When passing along the borders of Moab, they were ordered not to meddle with nor distress the children of Ammon, of whose land also, and the former inhabitants of it, an account is given (Deut. 2:15–23).

However, when passing over the river Arnon, they are told to fight with Sihon king of the Amorites, and to then possess his land (Deut. 2:24–25).

Moses sent messengers to Sihon, desiring leave to pass through his land, and asking them to furnish the Israelites with provisions for their money, as the Edomites and Moabites had done (Deut. 2:26–29). However, Sihon refused, and Moses took his people to war against Sihon. Moses was successful and took possession of his country (Deut. 2:30–35).

Moses then sums up this history in vv. 36–37.

Like all chapters of the Word of God, you need more than just the simple plot outline to understand what God wants us to know.

Much of this summary came from Dr. John Gill, John Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible; from e-Sword, Deut. 2 chapter comments.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Outlining this chapter: just like I had trouble outlining Deut. 1, Deut. 2 was also very difficult to outline. I had it in my mind that this chapter ought to have some careful organization, but if it does, I could not easily understand it. There were two times where some incidental historical background was given; twice when the number of years were thrown about, twice when God specifically told Israel to not get into a confrontation with a specific people; but, even with all of those parallels, there did not seem to be a clever way to subdivide this chapter. It appeared as though everyone who made an attempt to outline this chapter came up with a different take on it.

Alternate Outlines for Deuteronomy 2

The Open Bible has probably the clearest and easiest outline to follow and remember:

“Do Not Bother the Edomites”

Deut. 2:1–8

“Do Not Bother the Moabites”

Deut. 2:9–15

“Do Not Bother the Ammonites”

Deut. 2:16–23

The Conquest of Sihon

Deut. 2:24–37

In each case, there are other things which are going on, but this is probably the best outline; causing me to reconsider my own.

From The Open Bible; the New Living Translation; Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nashville, TN; ©1996, pp. 240–241.

From Bible.Org (this is taken from their outline of the entire book of Deuteronomy; which is why it begins with main point B).

B. Entrance into the Transjordan: Moses recounts the nation's return and entrance into the transjordan as the Lord led and defeated Sihon and Og (Deut. 2:1--3:11)

1. Moses briefly tells of the nation's return to the wilderness under YHWH's command and then their return to the land under YHWH's command with the awareness of YHWH Elohim's provision for them for 40 years and that they were not to take land that He had given to others (Edom, Mob, Ammon) just He would give their land to them (2:1-23)

a.The nation is told to leave the land for the wilderness (2:1)2

b. The nation is told that their wanderings are enough and thus to head back north through the land of the sons of Esau but not to take their land (2:2-6)

c. The nation is reminded of YHWH Elohim's sustenance of them for 40 years in the wilderness (2:7)

d. The nation is told by YHWH to pass North beyond Heir by Mob but not to touch their land since he gave it to the descendants of Lot for a possession as he later would Canaan to Israel (2:8-12)

e. It took 38 years for Israel to pass from Kedesh-barnea to the brook Zered: until YHWH's judgment was complete upon the nation's men of war (2:13-18)

f. The nation is to cross over into Mob but it is an inheritance to the sons of Lot so they are not to fight the sons of Amman (2:19-23)

2. Under the command of YHWH and the hand of YHWH Elohim Israel took the kingdom of Sihon up to the southern boarder of Amman and the kingdom of Og including northern Bashan 2:24--3:11

a. Israel is commanded by YHWH to take the Ammorite land under Simon the king of Heshbon through which He will bring a fear of Israel upon the people (2:24-25)

b. Moses recounts how he asked Simon for permission to pass through his land and YHWH hardened his heart in order to give the land over to Israel (2:26-31)

c. In a battle with Simon, The LORD God delivers the kingdom over to Israel to the land of Amman (2:32-37)

d. In a battle with Ogk, the LORD God delivers northern Bashon over to Israel (3:1-11)

From https://bible.org/article/argument-book-deuteronomy accessed December 15, 2013.

Deuteronomy 2:1-3

Moses reminds Israel how God told them to move on Northward from mount Seir.


Deuteronomy 2:4-8

Moses reminds Israel how God warned them Not to go to war with the children of Esau in Seir.


Deuteronomy 2:9-23

Moses reminds Israel how God warned them Not to go to war with the children of Lot (Moabites and Ammonites).


Deuteronomy 2:24-29

Moses reminds Israel how they offered Sihon the Amorite king of Heshbon a peaceful passing.


Deuteronomy 2:30-37

Moses reminds Israel how they destroyed the Amorites because they wouldn't let Israel pass through.

From http://gorepent.com/2011/02/10/notes-for-deuteronomy-chapter-2/ accessed December 28, 2013.

From the Free Bible Commentary:

A. Israel's relations with Edom, Deut. 2:4-7

B. Israel's relations with Moab, Deut. 2:8-15

C. Israel's relations with Ammon, Deut. 2:16-19

D. Verses 20-23 is a parenthesis related to the Rephaim (See Special Topic at Deut. 1:28)

E. Israel's relations with Amorites on the eastern bank of Jordan, Deut. 2:24-37

From http://www.freebiblecommentary.org/old_testament_studies/VOL03OT/VOL03OT_02.html accessed December 15, 2013.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


A question which ought to be asked is, why are the Jews heading up north on the east side of the Dead Sea? Why don’t they just invade Canaan from the south again? There are at least two reasons. The Amorites and Canaanites know where they are, more than likely, and have had eyes on them from time to time. Because of the first failed attack, it is known that there are 2 million Jews camped out in the desert-wilderness. Secondly, is God’s reason for a different approach. What God will do through Moses is present a series of object lessons, both discussing Israel’s past history and the history of these various peoples that the Jew encounter. The children of Abraham are to learn that, because of the sovereignty of God, some people control the land that they live on and others have been thrown off their land and destroyed. The Jews need to learn to trust their God and His promises.


Application: There are liberal forces out there in the world promoting a non-religious world, non-religious government; a governing body which repudiates religion (they would say myth) and embraces science. All we need to do is look through the dustbin of history—there are atheist governments in recent human history and we know how they have operated. Early Red China and the early U.S.S.R. both touted governments that were based in rationalism, which rejected the tenets and practice of religion. As a result, both governments destroyed millions of their own people, because their own people had backward religious beliefs. So, if you think the key to good government is a non-Christian, pro-science government, we already have examples of where such governments become ruthless and corrupt beyond anything we have ever witnessed in the United States.


Application: I find this fascinating, that these so-called pro-science, ultra-rational types do not recognize that their great experiments have already been tried.

 

The Expositor’s Bible: It was natural and it was inevitable, therefore, that the author of Deuteronomy, standing, as he did, on the threshold of a great crisis in the history of Israel, should turn the thoughts of his people back to the history of the past. To him the great figure in the history of Israel in those trying and eventful years during which they wandered between Horeb, Kadesh-Barnea, and the country of the Arnon, is Yahweh their God. He is behind all their movements, impelling and inciting them to go on and enjoy the good land He had promised to their fathers. He went before them and fought for them. He bare them in the wilderness, as a man doth bear his son. He watched over them and guided their footsteps in cloud and fire by day and night. Moreover all the nations by whom they passed had been led by Him and assigned their places, and only those nations whom Yahweh chose had been given into Israel's hand. In the internal affairs of the community, too, He had asserted Himself. They were Yahweh's people, and all their national action was to be according to His righteous character. Especially was the administration of justice to be pure and impartial, yielding to neither fear nor favor because the "judgment is God's." And how had they responded to all this loving favor on the part of God? At the first hint of serious conflict they shrank back in fear. Notwithstanding that the land which God had given them was a good and fruitful country, and notwithstanding the promises of Divine help, they refused to incur the necessary toils and risks of the conquest. Every difficulty they might encounter was exaggerated by them; their very deliverance from Egypt, which they had been wont to consider "their crowning mercy," became to their faithless cowardice an evidence of hatred for them on the part of God.

 

L. M. Grant: From Kadesh Barnea Israel had to virtually retrace their steps, going back toward the Red Sea. Believers today find similar experiences because of lack of faith. Instead of progressing in the path of obedience to God, we must go back to learn afresh what the Red Sea deliverance means, for this speaks of the judgment of sin in the flesh by means of the cross of Christ, and if we do not learn it properly as we begin our wilderness history, we shall have to backtrack in order to more rightly understand it.


A point ought to be made that Moses is not going back to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and teaching about them and their lives, and what God did in their lives. Moses is going back and telling the Jews what just happened to them over the past few months. They just lived this, and yet it is Moses who is telling them what it is that they just experienced.


For this reason, I believe that it is apt to take principles of the Bible and set them up along side current events and next to various political figures with whom we are all familiar in order to illustrate a point. Essentially, you are being taught, here’s what the Bible says; and here are some recent events in the progress of American history and government; do you see the parallel? In essence, I am not doing anything different from what Moses is doing. My intent is not to sway huge swaths of people to vote conservative, as the number of people who study these books and doctrines are few. Although much of what I have written has been at least opened by a few people; there are still whole chapters of some books which have never been opened by anyone.


Personally, I take the long view. I love the country that I live in; I love that God allowed me to be born in the United States of America; and I am saddened by the recent events of history (our debt, our lurch toward socialism, societal norms which are in opposition to Bible doctrine); but these are decisions which a society makes as a whole. My place in all of this is to provide the most accurate examination of a few books of the Bible as is possible, given my own academic and life background. That is what God has given me the privilege to do. But what our country chooses to do, going forward, is something else entirely. I do not have the illusion that, through, say, my criticism of the Democratic party, that will somehow have the magic effect of electing a Republican president. That is a silly notion. Furthermore, it is a silly notion to think that we would elect another president as good as Calvin Coolidge or Ronald Reagan—that probably won’t happen in my lifetime.


Application: The problem in our society is both with men and women. Men are not men as they ought to be in today’s society. Men are not taking charge as they ought to, particularly as husbands and fathers. This is key to our future as a nation. Every man is a leader; every man is a general—even if his company consists of one wife and one or two kids. God puts that man in charge of that unit, and he is responsible for what goes on in his home. The other problem is women, who are in rebellion in this country against men and against their own husbands and against the fathers of their children. These are separate but related problems. Too many woman have sex outside of marriage, they have children outside of marriage, and then they make the choice to marry the government instead of the man who impregnated them. Men cannot be dogs unless women allow them to be dogs. Single-mother households will be the death of our society and our country. This is not what God has designed. Male and female children brought up with only a mother have no idea as to what it means to be a man or what it means to marry a man (as opposed to marrying a male). They have never seen a real man close up, day in and day out, in order for a real man to make an impression on their lives.


Application: Like every other child born to a family with a husband in charge, almost everything I learned about being a man, I learned directly from my father. He worked long hours and I observed him many times exhausted and laid out on the couch; but he spent enough time as an example to me, so that, all of my own faults as a male of the species I can completely and fully blame on myself as well as the bad choices I have made in life. What I have learned that is good about my role in society, I learned from my father (as well as from Bible doctrine).


My point is, the applications which I make that are political are not made in hopes to sway some liberal Christian out there; but to illustrate where our society is, and to show the relevance to the teaching of the Bible to what is going on today. Our society is not going to be fixed by convincing every person who reads these words to vote Republican; our society will be fixed by men stepping up and doing what they are supposed to do (get married and raise a family and to lead that family spiritually and morally and ethically). That will keep our society from going over the cliff we seem to be racing towards.


I have added Kretzmann’s Commentary to the literal translations, inasmuch as it is very much like the Emphasized Bible or the Voice, where there is additional text added in order to make the meaning more clear. In this way, it appears to be almost the blending of a translation with a short commentary.


I have also begun to include many more graphics, and I do this for two reasons: (1) to break up the monotony of too much text and (2) as a memory aid. Sometimes it is easier to remember a passage if you associate a graphic or a photograph with it.


A brief note about the lack of quotations marks. Moses is speaking here. He is addressing the children of Israel (specifically, the generation of promise). I will provide quotation marks in Deut. 1 and in any chapter where it says, And Moses said... However, even though Moses is speaking here, I will not have quotations within his quotations throughout. We will just take it for granted that these are the words of Moses to his people throughout.


——————————


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


God Tells Israel Not to Meddle with the Edomites

Num. 20:14–22 21:4, 11–15


The verse which precedes this one is: After that, you all just lived in Kadesh for awhile. This is after the Israelites failed to take the land as instructed by God.


Between the second-to-the-last verse in Deut. 1 and this verse, there are the thirty-eight silent years, simply covered in Deut. 1:46: "So you remained in Kadesh many days, the days that you remained." Most of generation X has died the sin unto death. It would seem logical that the generation of promise of Israel would move due north and take the land. When the Canaanite, the king of Arad, who lived in the Negev [i.e., the southern region] heard that Israel was coming by way of Atharim, then he fought against Israel and took some of them captive. So Israel made a vow to Yehowah and said, "If You will completely deliver this people into my hand, then I will completely destroy their cities." And Yehowah heard the voice of Israel, and delivered up the Canaanites; then they completely destroyed them and their cities. Thus the name of the place was called Chormah [meaning devoted; i.e., devoted to destruction] (Num. 21:1–3). After defeating a Canaanite tribe, it would seem even more logical for the children of Israel to march immediately into the land and to take it. However, God did not take them that direction for three reasons: (1) there were still some Israelites from generation X who needed to be removed (see Num. 21:6 25:9); and, (2) God needed to present the generation of promise with some object lessons. Moses will explain these object lessons in this chapter. (3) The Canaanites directly north of the Israelites probably had their eyes on them to see if they would try to make another attack from the south. Therefore, instead of moving due north into the Land of Promise, Israel moved carefully and non-aggressively into the land of Edom.


We continue the fundamental concept of Biblical revelation, that God is uniquely tied to the actual history of the Jews (in the Old Testament), in a way that sets both the Old Testament and the worship of Yehowah appart from all other religions. And yet, at the same time, despite the intimate integration with ancient history, there is always found a universality and a timelessness in God’s Word.


Kukis slavishly literal:

 

Kukis moderately literal:

And so we turn [away] and so we pull up stakes [to leave] toward the desert-wilderness, a way of a Sea of Çuph, as which spoke Yehowah unto me. And so we go around a Mount of Seir days many.

Deuteronomy

2:1

We turned [the other way] and we pulled up stakes [to leave, going] toward the desert-wilderness, [by] way of the Sea of Çuph, just as Yehowah had said to me. Then we went [for] many days around Mount Seir.

Kukis not so literal:

We then turned to go the other way. We pulled up stakes and moved out toward the desert-wilderness, going by the road of the Sea of the Reeds, just as Yehowah had directed me. Then we walked around Mount Seir for a long time.


Here is how others have translated this verse:

 

Ancient texts:                       Note: I compare the Hebrew text to English translations of the Latin, Syriac and Greek texts, using the Douay-Rheims translation; George Lamsa’s translation, and Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton’s translation as revised and edited by Paul W. Esposito, respectively. I often update these texts with non-substantive changes (e.g., you for thou, etc.). I often use the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible instead of Brenton’s translation, because it updates the English text.

 

The Septuagint was the earliest known translation of a book (circa 200 b.c.). Since this translation was made before the textual criticism had been developed into a science and because different books appear to be translated by different men, the Greek translation can sometimes be very uneven.

 

When there are serious disparities between my translation and Brenton’s (or the text of the Complete Apostles’ Bible), I look at the Greek text of the Septuagint (the LXX) to see if a substantive difference actually exists (and I reflect these changes in the English rendering of the Greek text). I use the Greek LXX with Strong’s numbers and morphology available for e-sword. The only problem with this resource (which is a problem for similar resources) is, there is no way to further explore Greek verbs which are not found in the New Testament. Although I usually quote the Complete Apostles’ Bible here, I have begun to make changes in the translation when their translation conflicts with the Greek and note what those changes are.

 

The Masoretic text is the Hebrew text with all of the vowels (vowel points) inserted (the original Hebrew text lacked vowels). We take the Masoretic text to be the text closest to the original. However, differences between the Masoretic text and the Greek, Latin and Syriac are worth noting and, once in a great while, represent a more accurate text possessed by those other ancient translators.

 

In general, the Latin text is an outstanding translation from the Hebrew text into Latin and very trustworthy (I say this as a non-Catholic). Unfortunately, I do not read Latin—apart from some very obvious words—so I am dependent upon the English translation of the Latin (principally, the Douay-Rheims translation).

 

Underlined words indicate differences in the text.

 

Bracketed portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls are words, letters and phrases lost in the scroll due to various types of damage. Underlined words or phrases are those in the Dead Sea Scrolls but not in the Masoretic text. I will not make too many references to the Dead Sea Scrolls, because they are not generally helpful when trying to clear up ancient translations which disagree. Not enough of the Bible survived in the Dead Sea Scrolls to allow us to check each and every verse.

 

The Targum of Onkelos is actually the Pentateuchal Targumim, which are The Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan Ben Uzziel. On the Pentateuch With The Fragments of the Jerusalem Targum From the Chaldee by J. W. Etheridge, M.A. Taken from http://targum.info/targumic-texts/pentateuchal-targumim/ and first published in 1862.

 

There is a minor problem with identifying the targum texts which occurs about halfway through the exegesis of this chapter.


Ancient texts:

 

Targum (trans. By Cook)        And turning we journeyed into the wilderness, by the way of the Sea of Suph, as the Lord had bidden me, and we compassed Mount Gebal many days.

Latin Vulgate                          And departing from thence we came into the wilderness that leads to the Red Sea, as the Lord had spoken to me: and we compassed mount Seir a long time.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so we turn [away] and so we pull up stakes [to leave] toward the desert-wilderness, a way of a Sea of Çuph, as which spoke Yehowah unto me. And so we go around a Mount of Seir days many.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    THEN we turned, and journeyed into the wilderness by the way of the Red Sea, as the LORD spoke to me; and we circled mount Seir for many days.

Septuagint (Greek)                And we turned and departed into the wilderness, by the way of the Red Sea, as the Lord spoke to me, and we compassed Mount Seir many days.

 

Significant differences:           The translation the Red Sea ought to be sea of reeds.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Journeys in Transjordan

Next, we turned around and headed back toward the wilderness along the Reed Sea [Or Red Sea] road, exactly as the Lord instructed me. We traveled all around Mount Seir for a long time.

Contemporary English V.       We spent many years wandering around outside the hill country of Seir,...

Easy English                          40 years in the *desert

Then we turned back. We began to walk towards the *desert. We went along the road to the Red Sea, as the *Lord had said. For many days, we walked round the hills in Seir.

Easy-to-Read Version            “Then we did what the Lord told me to do. We went back into the desert on the road that leads to the Red Sea. We traveled for many days to go around the Seir [Another name for Edom.] mountains.

Good News Bible (TEV)         "So then, after we had stayed at Kadesh for a long time, we finally turned and went into the desert, on the road to the Gulf of Aqaba, as the LORD had commanded, and we spent a long time wandering about in the hill country of Edom.

The Message                         Then we turned around and went back into the wilderness following the route to the Red Sea, as GOD had instructed me. We worked our way in and around the hills of Seir for a long, long time.

New Berkeley Version           “We then turned and moved into the desert along the road to the Red Sea, as the Lord had told me; and for many days we circled around the hill country of Seir. The New Berkeley Bible dates the beginning of this chapter as Late 1407 b.c.

New Century Version             Israel Wanders in the Desert

Then we turned around, and we traveled on the desert road toward the Red Sea, as the Lord had told me to do. We traveled through the mountains of Edom for many days.

New Living Translation           Remembering Israel's Wanderings

"Then we turned around and headed back across the wilderness toward the Red Sea [Hebrew sea of reeds], just as the Lord had instructed me, and we wandered around in the region of Mount Seir for a long time.

The Voice                               Moses: Finally we did as the Eternal had commanded me, and we headed back into the wilderness toward the Red Sea [Literally, Sea of Reeds]. For a long time, we wandered around Mount Seir, until at last I got new instructions from the Eternal:... V. 2 is included for context.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          'Then we turned left and [traveled] through the desert, following the Red Sea, just as Jehovah told me, and we circled Mount Seir for many days.

Beck’s American Translation Don’t Fight Esau, Moab, Ammon

“We turned back and moved into the desert in the direction of the Red Sea as the LORD had told me, and for a long time we went around the mountains of Seir.

Christian Community Bible     Through the desert

We, therefore, turned back and set out towards the desert by the way leading to the Red Sea, as Yahweh had commanded me, and we walked around the mountains of Seir for a long time.

God’s Word                         We went back into the desert, following the road that goes to the Red Sea as the LORD had told me. For a long time we traveled around the region of Mount Seir.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       So we went back towards the Red Sea, back into the desert, as the Lord had bidden me, and for a long time the centre of our wanderings was the hill country of Seir.

New American Bible (R.E.)    Northward Along Edom.

Then we turned and proceeded into the wilderness on the Red Sea road [Dt 1:40; Nm 14:25.], as the LORD had told me, and circled around the highlands of Seir for a long time. [Deut. 2:1-8] Nm 20:14-21; Jgs 11:15-17.

NIRV                                      Israel Wanders in the Desert

We turned back and started out toward the desert. We went along the road that leads to the Red Sea. That's how the Lord had directed me. For a long time we made our way around the hill country of Seir.

New Jerusalem Bible             'We then turned round and made for the desert, in the direction of the Sea of Suph, as Yahweh had ordered me. For many days we skirted Mount Seir.

New Simplified Bible              »We went back into the desert. We followed the road that leads to the Red Sea as Jehovah told me. For a long time we traveled around the region of Mount Seir.

Revised English Bible            When we turned and set out for the wilderness, making towards the Red Sea as the Lord had instructed us, we spent many days marching round the hill-country of Seir.

Today’s NIV                          Wanderings in the Wilderness

Then we turned back and set out toward the wilderness along the route to the Red Sea, as the LORD had directed me. For a long time we made our way around the hill country of Seir.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      We faced the wilderness and journeyed by way of the Sea of Reeds, as Yahweh spoke to me. We surrounded the Seir mountains many days.

Bible in Basic English             Then we went back, journeying into the waste land by the way to the Red Sea, as the Lord had said to me: and we were a long time going round Mount Seir.

The Expanded Bible              Israel Wanders in the Desert

Then we turned ·around [Lface], and we traveled on the ·desert [wilderness] road toward the ·Red [or Reed] Sea [Ex. 10:19], as the Lord had told me to do. We traveled through the mountains of ·Edom [LSeir; 1:44] for many days.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 So you returned, and wept before the Ever-living. But the Ever-living would not hear your voice, nor listened. Consequently you were detained at Kadesh for many days. You remained there a long time; until you turned back and marched to the desert towards the Sea of Suf, as the Ever-living commanded me, and wandered about the hills of Sair a long time. A portion of Deut. 1:45 and all of v. 46 are included for context.

HCSB                                     "Then we turned back and headed for the wilderness by way of the Red Sea, as the LORD had told me, and we traveled around the hill country of Seir for many days.

NET Bible®                             The Journey from Kadesh Barnea to Moab

Then we turned and set out toward the desert land on the way to the Red Sea [Heb “the Reed Sea.” “Reed” is a better translation of the Hebrew סוּף (suf), traditionally rendered “red.” The name “Red Sea” is based on the LXX which referred to it as ἐρυθρς θαλάσσης (eruqra" qalassh", “red sea”). Nevertheless, because the body of water in question is known in modern times as the Red Sea, this term was used in the translation. The part of the Red Sea in view here is not the one crossed in the exodus but its eastern arm, now known as the Gulf of Eilat or Gulf of Aqaba.] just as the Lord told me to do, detouring around Mount Seir for a long time. When it comes to making an actual material change to the text, the NET Bible® is pretty good about indicating this. Since most of these corrections will be clear in the more literal translations below and within the Hebrew exegesis itself, I will not continue to list every NET Bible® footnote.

New Heart English Bible        Then we turned, and took our journey into the wilderness by the way to the Sea of Suf, as the LORD spoke to me; and we encircled Mount Seir many days.

NIV, ©2011                             Wanderings in the Wilderness

Then we turned back and set out toward the wilderness along the route to the Red Sea [Or the Sea of Reeds. S Ex 14:27; S Nu 21:4], as the Lord had directed me. For a long time we made our way around the hill country of Seir [S Nu 24:18].


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           "Then we turned and began traveling into the desert along the road to the Sea of Suf, as ADONAI had said to me; and we skirted Mount Se'ir for a long time.

exeGeses companion Bible   RESUME' OF THE WANDERINGS OF THE SONS OF YISRA EL

And we turned our face

and pulled stakes into the wilderness

by the way of the Reed sea,

as Yah Veh worded to me:

and we surrounded mount Seir many days.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               Thus, after you had remained at Kadesh all that long time [Lit., “many days, like the days that you remained.”], we marched back into the wilderness by the way of the Sea of Reeds, as the Lord had spoken to me, and skirted the hill country of Seir a long time. Deut. 1:46 is included for context; the Tanakh includes it as a part of Deut. 2.

Judaica Press Complete T.    Then we turned and journeyed into the desert by way of the Red Sea, as the Lord had spoken to me, and we circled Mount Seir for many days.

Kaplan Translation                 Introduction

We then turned around and headed into the desert toward the Southern Sea [See Deuteronomy 1:40.] as God had told me. We traveled around in the Seir highlands [See Genesis 14:6, 36:8.] for a long time. The Kaplan Translation, particularly in Exodus through Deuteronomy, takes note of historic rabbinic opinions.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           Then we turned, and took our journey into the wilderness by the way of the Yam Suf, as Hashem spoke unto me; and we circled Mt Seir yamim rabbim (many days).

The Scriptures 1998              “Then we turned and set out into the wilderness, the way of the Sea of Reeds, as יהוה spoke to me, and we went round Mount Sĕʽir, many days.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Concordant Literal Version    Then we turned around and journeyed to the wilderness by the Sea of Weeds road, just as Yahweh had spoken to me; and we were around the hill-country of Seir many days.

Context Group Version          Then we turned, and took our journey into the wilderness by the way to the Red Sea, as YHWH spoke to me; and we encompassed mount Seir many days.

Darby Translation                  And we turned, and took our journey into the wilderness by the way of the Red sea, as Jehovah had said unto me; and we went round mount Seir many days.

Emphasized Bible                  Then turned we, and set forward towards the desert by way of the Red Sea, as Yahweh, spake unto me; and we encompassed Mount Seir many days.

English Standard Version      "Then we turned and journeyed into the wilderness in the direction of the Red Sea, as the LORD told me [ch. 1:40; Num. 14:25]. And for many days we traveled around Mount Seir.

The Geneva Bible                  Then we turned [They obeyed, after God had chastised them.], and took our journey into the wilderness by the way of the Red sea, as the LORD spake unto me: and we compassed mount Seir many days [Eight and thirty years, as in (Deut. 2:14).].

Green’s Literal Translation    And we turned and pulled up stakes into the wilderness, the way of the Sea of Reeds, as Jehovah had spoken to me; and we went around the mountain of Seir many days.

NASB                                     Wanderings in the Wilderness

"Then [Num 21:4] we turned and set out for the wilderness by the way to the Red Sea [Lit Sea of Reeds], as the Lord spoke to me, and circled Mount Seir [Deut 1:2] for many days.

New King James Version       The Desert Years

"Then we turned and journeyed into the wilderness of the Way of the Red Sea, as the Lord spoke to me, and we skirted Mount Seir for many days.

New RSV                               After you had stayed at Kadesh as many days as you did, we journeyed back into the wilderness, in the direction of the Red Sea [Or Sea of Reeds], as the Lord had told me, and skirted Mount Seir for many days. Deut. 1:46 is included for context.

World English Bible                Then we turned, and took our journey into the wilderness by the way to the Red Sea, as Yahweh spoke to me; and we compassed Mount Seir many days.

Young’s Updated LT             “And we turn, and journey into the wilderness, the way of the Red Sea, as Jehovah has spoken unto me, and we go round the mount of Seir many days.

 

The gist of this verse:          The children of Israel were in the desert-wilderness, and they turned around and went around Mount Seir for many years.


Even though many Bibles with headings list this as Wanderings in the Wilderness or The Desert Years, we go directly from Israel’s failure and defeat at Kadesh-barnea (which occurred in the first 2 years of their leaving Egypt) to the final year that Israel was in the desert-wilderness. What happened in between is not spoken of in this chapter and very little of what occurred in between is found anywhere else (with the exception of a chapter or so in the book of Numbers). In other words, whatever wandering the Israelites did or did not do, is not recorded in the books of Moses.


God kills off Gen X with the sin unto death; but the Bible does not focus on those events. If anything, it gives that generation some privacy as God removes them from Israel.


Now, even though Gen X is removed from Israel they are believers; and they are also illustrative. Many events in the Old Testament are designed to illustrate and to teach. God will, at some point in time, have to separate the righteous from the unrighteous. Now, this is not the same as separating all of the nice people from the not-so- nice people. The unrighteous are those who have not believed in Jesus. This is something they could choose to do, but have chosen not to. The righteous are not really, really wonderful people—they are people who have been made righteous by having faith in Jesus. Our righteousness is imputed to us. Those who have been made righteous by God are not necessarily people that you would look at and say, “Now, that is a righteous person.” Christians can be some of the worst people ever; but they are made righteous because of Jesus Christ; not because of anything that they have done. This destruction of Gen X is illustrative of when God will separate the sheep from the goats; the righteous from the unrighteous.


So that there is no misunderstanding, there is ample evidence that all of Gen X was saved; however, this was a generation of loser-believers.


Deuteronomy 2:1a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

pânâh (פָּנָה) [pronounced paw-NAWH]

to turn, to turn away from, to turn toward, to turn one’s face away from, to turn one’s face to

3rd person plural, Qal imperfect

Strong's #6437 BDB #815

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

nâçaʿ (נָסַע) [pronounced naw-SAHĢ]

to pull up [stakes], to pull out, to break camp and move out, to set out, to journey, to march, to depart; to bend a bow

3rd person plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #5265 BDB #652

midebâr (מִדְבָר) [pronounced mide-BAWR]

into the wilderness, toward the unpopulated wilderness, toward the desert wilderness; into the mouth

masculine singular noun with directional hê; with the definite article

Strong’s #4057 BDB #184


Translation: We turned [the other way] and we pulled up stakes [to leave, going] toward the desert-wilderness,... Moses here continues to speak to the children of Israel. This is simply a continuation of Deut. 1. There were no chapter breaks in the original Bible. I have left off the quotation marks, but it would be proper to begin this and every paragraph with quotation marks, and to end the final verse in this chapter with ending quotation marks.

 

The Living Water Commentary: [This] verse is one of the saddest in the Bible. It reads: "Then we turned, and took our journey into the wilderness by the way of the Red Sea." Think of it! For two years and a half the great multitudes of Israel had been journeying toward the promised land; then when they arrived, because of their fear, their unbelief, and their rebellion, God turned them back. These were wasted years so far as any real progress toward Canaan was concerned.


Application: When you are not filled with the Holy Spirit, you are wasting your time here on earth. You might as well take a nap, because, spiritually, that is what you are doing. Furthermore, if you do not grow by means of Bible doctrine in the soul, then are developing no spiritual skills which produce divine good. If you have been a Christian for 5 or 10 years, and you have ignored the Biblical mandate to grow in grace and knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ, then you are like the assistant to an apprentice of an electrician on a complex electrical job—your contribution is very nearly nothing. In fact, God can use someone like you simply to suffer for Him, as you are not good for doing much else. Or, worst case scenario, you die the sin unto death.


This describes the sons of Abraham and their spiritual state at this time. They have learned nothing under the ministry of Moses; they have seen a plethora of miracles, and yet that has done them no good; and every time God says jump, they sit down and argue with Moses about it.


What we have is Moses describing a narrative of a set of past events. However, he does not use the perfect tense to indicate events which have occurred in the past, Moses writes as though these events are unfolding as he goes along. In this way, the wâw consecutives along with the imperfect verbs describe for us a series of events which are consecutive or, at the very least, coterminous. Interestingly enough, I cannot pull out a quick translation to show you, apart from the ones I have done, which these verbs are in the proper tense. And so you return and so your weep to faces of Yehowah and did not listen in your voice Yehowah and He did not give ear to you [all]. And so you [all] remain in Kadesh days many as the days which you [all] remained. And so we turn [away] and so we pull up stakes [to leave] toward the desert-wilderness,... The and so’s string together verbs which are probably in order of their action.


So, after the failure of the people in what would become southern Judah, and people regrouped and remained in Kadesh-barnea for a long time. However, at some point, they were to go south, back into the desert-wilderness; and that is what is happening in v. 1.


Regarding the imperfect tenses throughout Moses recollection of these events: usually, the imperfect tense is used for a future event, a continuous event, or a series of chronological events. However, sometimes when a person speaks about the past, they use the present tense. You might tell a story to your friends or co-workers; and you speaking of this story all with present tense verbs, as if these events from the past are unfolding as you tell them. This simply puts the listener more into the event. That is what Moses appears to be doing, as well as giving us a chronological order of these events.


Since the Jews did not go up and take the land, God told them to go back into the desert-wilderness.

Deuteronomy 2:1b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

dereke (דֶּרֶך׃) [pronounced DEH-reke]

way, distance, road, path; journey, course; direction, towards; manner, habit, way [of life]; of moral character

masculine singular construct

Strong's #1870 BDB #202

yâm (יָם) [pronounced yawm]

sea, lake, river, seaward, west, westward

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #3220 BDB #410

Çûwph (סוּף) [pronounced soof]

reed, rush, sea weed; transliterated Cuph, Suph

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #5488 & #5489 BDB #693

This word is mostly found as the Sea of Reeds, also called The Red Sea, but more properly, the Reed Sea.

Considered to be the weedy sea, and therefore referring to the Arabian Gulf.


Translation: ...[by] way of the Sea of Çuph,... The identification of the Sea of Çuph with the Arabian Gulf is probably correct, but we do not know that for certain. This does not mean that they went down to that sea, but that they went along a road which ends at that destination.


The Sea of Reeds is possibly not the same Sea of Reeds spoken of in the book of Exodus. It apparently referred to any large body of water wherein were reeds. Here, we are either directly south of the Salt Sea and north of the Gulf of Aqaba. The mount or the hill country of Seir is an area south of the Dead Sea. This would indicate a route which is south of the border of Edom.











Dead Sea Relief Map; taken from Bible.org, accessed July 14, 2013. This map is not set on a the typical, north is up; in this case, north is in the upper left-hand corner of the picture. You can see that, even after the Dead Sea ends, there is some lowland which is to the south of it, which lowland leads out to the Gulf of Aqaba. For this reason, there probably was, at one time, a river which flowed out of the Dead Sea.

deuteronomy021.gif

At some point in time, there seems to have been a flow of water from the Dead Sea down into the Gulf of Aqaba. We do not know when that was or if it predates Moses in this time period. However, this road which is referred to could go along this valley, and this valley might be a sea of reeds which is drying up. However, there is no time when Moses clearly tells us this about the valley. It is pure conjecture based upon the geography of this area. It is possible that the explosions which occurred when Sodom and Gomorrah were destroyed also cut off the water way between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba.


Why hydro-electric power has never been accessed here, I do not know. Possibly the political instability of the general area is why. Or perhaps because this is salt water? Or perhaps there is not a great enough drop off?


Deuteronomy 2:1c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kaph or ke (כְּ) [pronounced ke]

like, as, according to; about, approximately

preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #453

ʾăsher (אֲֹשֶר) [pronounced ash-ER]

that, which, when, who, whom

relative pronoun

Strong's #834 BDB #81

Together, kaʾăsher (כַּאֲשֶר) [pronounced kah-uh-SHER] means as which, as one who, as, like as, as just; because; according to what manner, in a manner as. Back in 1Sam. 12:8, I rendered this for example.

dâbar (דָּבַר) [pronounced dawb-VAHR]

to speak, to talk [and back with action], to give an opinion, to expound, to make a formal speech, to speak out, to promise, to propose, to speak kindly of, to declare, to proclaim, to announce

3rd person masculine singular, Piel perfect

Strong’s #1696 BDB #180

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied) with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong's #413 BDB #39


Translation: ...just as Yehowah had said to me. God told Moses that he could not stay with the people right there just south of what would become Judah. They had to move from there back into the desert-wilderness; which command was not well-received by these Jews (this is why they went back to fight against the Amorites and Canaanites of the land).


This is a good example, by the way, as to why human effort and sincerity do not mean anything in the plan of God. God told the Jews to attack the people of the Land of Promise, but they did not. When God told them, “Alright, you win, don’t fight them. However, now you need to head south back into the desert-wilderness.” Well, they balked and decided to try their hand at war. What that means is, these people are sincerely showing God their meddle; they were trying to earn God’s favor, and that just does not work. So, not only did they lose when they tried to fight the Amorites and Canaanites, but these enemies chased them out like bees, and afterward, God killed Gen X by means of the sin unto death. There was no gaining God’s favor through human merit or human effort.


Deuteronomy 2:1d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

çâbab (סָבַב) [pronounced sawb-VAHBV]

to turn oneself, to go around, to surround, to encompass

3rd person plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #5437 BDB #685

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

har (הַר) [pronounced har]

hill; mountain, mount; hill-country, a mountainous area, mountain region

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #2022 (and #2042) BDB #249

Sêʿîyr (שֵׂעִיר) [pronounced say-ĢEER]

hairy, shaggy; transliterated Seir

masculine singular, proper noun

Strong’s #8165 BDB #973

yâmîym (יָמִים) [pronounced yaw-MEEM]

days, a set of days; time of life, lifetime; a specific time period, a year

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #3117 BDB #398

That the plural of days often refers to a year can be seen in Lev. 25:29 1Sam. 1:3, 20 2:19.

rab (רַב) [pronounced rahbv]

many, much, great (in the sense of large or significant, not acclaimed)

masculine plural adjective

Strong's #7227 BDB #912


Translation: Then we went [for] many days around Mount Seir. We have the words many days used twice; here and in Deut. 1:46. I would guess that they moved from where they were in a south/south-easterly direction, which took them around the southern portion of Mount Seir, going toward Arabian Gulf.


Here, many days means an inordinate amount of time; in terms of encampment, that was a period of thirty-eight years, which would have included the time spent in Kadesh-barnea and south of Kadesh. In terms of marching in this place, this may have been just a week or two. This was the land of Edom, given by God to Esau—and the Jews were therefore not allowed to take it from them.


There remains still a remnant of generation X, and you would think that they would have learned by now. Over the past thirty-eight years, they have seen the better part of two million people die the sin unto death. You would think that would have made an impression. It obviously did not. They think that they should go due north into the Land of Promise and they complain when God does not lead them that way. Then they set out from Mount Hor by way of the Sea of Reeds to go around the land of Edom; and the people became impatient because of the journey. And the people spoke against God and Moses. "Why have you brought us up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness? For there is no food and no water, and we loath this miserable food." And Yehowah sent fiery serpents among the people and they bit the people, so that many people of Israel died (Num. 21:4–5). Moses does not mention this because it is not a part of what he is teaching this new generation prior to the entrance into the Land of Promise. I mention this so that you can be integrated into the historical context that we have just covered in the book of Numbers. This is one example of where some of the men of Gen X died the sin unto death. There were many other things which occurred during those 38 years which are not recorded.


Because there are no chapter breaks in each book of the Old Testament (or verse divisions), so what has been said before continues to what Moses is saying right now. Therefore, combining the final few verses of Deut. 1 with this first verse of Deut. 2, we have: Then Jehovah said to me, ‘Tell them this: do not go up and fight against your enemies in the hill country. I am warning you not to do this and I say this to you, so that you will not be defeated before your enemies.’ I warned all of you but you would not listen to me. You rebelled against the command of Jehovah, acting presumptuously and going up to the hill country to do battle. The Amorites lived in the hill country, and they came out to meet you in battle. They quickly showed their superiority and chased your as bees would. They routed you in Seir and chased you as far as Hormah. Then you returned in shame and wept before Jehovah, but He did not listen to your crying at all. After that, you all just lived in Kadesh for awhile.” We then turned to go the other way. We pulled up stakes and moved out toward the desert-wilderness, going by the road of the Sea of the Reeds, just as Yehowah had directed me. Then we walked around Mount Seir for a long time.


So, what had happened was, God told the people to take the land, but they balked at that idea. God then told them to head back into the desert-wilderness, but then they balked at that as well, saying that, “Okay, given the two options, we’ll go to war.” But that first option had closed; it was no longer and option, and God warned them not to try to fight the people of the hill country, as He would not be with them in that fight. They went anyway, and were soundly defeated. They lived in Kadesh-barnea for awhile, then the went back into the desert-wilderness, and then they walked around Mount Seir for a long time. That takes us to this point in time in Moses’ recollection of their recent history.


Historically, this is recorded in Num. 20:22 (And the children of Israel, the whole congregation, journeyed from Kadesh and came to Mount Hor.—VW) and Num. 33:37 (They set out from Kadesh and camped at Mount Hor, on the border of the land of Edom.—VW). This movement did not occur twice; Num. 33 looks back at the various places where Israel camped; so it is also a retrospective.


As we will see, their movement around Edom will be circuitous, because the people of Edom were uncooperative and did not let them pass through their land. In any case, it is not clear exactly how much time was spent in Kadesh-barnea and how much time was spent walking about Mount Seir (in both cases, Moses says many days). Gill thinks they arrived at Mount Seir near the end of the 38 years; whereas Matthew Henry thinks that most of those 38 years were spent wandering in the desert area around Seir.

 

Jamieson, Fausset and Brown also believed that most of this wandering took place in the area around Seir, stating in a footnote: we compassed mount Seir many days--In these few words Moses comprised the whole of that wandering nomadic life through which they passed during thirty-eight years, shifting from place to place, and regulating their stations by the prospect of pasturage and water. Keil and Delitzsch seemed to think this; and Poole definitely did, suggesting that the many days many have been 38 years. Even the Pulpit Commentary teaches this. However, Moses told the people Then you returned and wept before Yehowah, but Yehowah did not hear your voice and He did not listen to you [all]. Therefore, you lived [for] many days in Kadesh according to the days you remained [there].” (Deut. 1:46); so a considerable amount of time had to be spent in or near Kadesh.


God did give the Jews an order to leave Kadesh-barnea in Num. 14:25b (Tomorrow turn and set out into the wilderness by the way of the Red Sea.—VW); but that occurred before they tried to attack the hill people and were badly beaten. You see, this was an order from God; but they did not do this; they did not set out the next day to return to the desert-wilderness.


Num. 20 appears to occur 38 years later after Mount Sinai. In Num. 20:23–24 we read: And Jehovah spoke to Moses and Aaron in Mount Hor, on the edge of the land of Edom, saying, Aaron shall be gathered to his people, for he shall not go into the land which I have given to the sons of Israel, because you rebelled against My mouth at the Waters of Strife. (Green’s literal translation) Aaron dies in v. 28. And in Num. 33:37–38, we read: And they pulled up stakes from Kadesh and camped in Mount Hor, in the edge of the land of Edom. And Aaron the priest went up into Mount Hor at the mouth of Jehovah; and he died there in the fortieth year after the sons of Israel had come out of the land of Egypt, in the fifth month, on the first of the month. So they are on the outskirts of Edom with Aaron dying in the 40th year, after being refused passage through the land of Edom (Num. 33 is a retrospective of their travels with their stops all laid out).


Given these different views, let’s lay it all out time-wise:

The Time Frame of the Wandering of the Children of Israel

1.      Num. 33 is a retrospective chapter, which goes back and recounts the movement of the Israelites and the places where they camped. Num. 33:1–2

2.      They begin in Rameses on the 15th day of the first month, the day after the Passover, and leave Egypt. Num. 33:3–5

3.      About 4 or so stops later, they are in Marah, where the bitter waters are made sweet by the tree being thrown into the waters (a picture of the cross). Ex. 15:23 Num. 33:8–9

4.      They go by the Sea of Reeds to the desert-wilderness of Sin to Rephidim (where there was no water to drink) to the desert-wilderness of Sinai. Ex. 19:2 Num. 33:10–15 (I skipped some stops)

5.      They are in the desert-wilderness of Sin on the 15th day of the 2nd month after leaving Egypt. Ex. 16:1

6.      They arrive in Sinai on the 3rd month. Ex. 19:1

7.      They do not leave Sinai until the 20th day of the 2nd month of the 2nd year. Num. 10:11–12

8.      About 20 stops later, we read: And they pulled up stakes from Ezion-geber and camped in the wilderness of Zin; it is Kadesh. (Num. 33:36; Green’s literal translation)

9.      It is from Kadesh that the Jews send out spies and it is in Kadesh where the bulk of the spies lobby against going into the land and taking it. Num. 13–14

10.    They spend many days in Kadesh.

11.    Many commentators understand Num. 14:25b to mean that they left Kadesh the next day (Tomorrow turn and set out into the wilderness by the way of the Red Sea.—VW)1; and therefore, they are spending 38 years wandering to Mount Hor and hanging out there. But notice the context, these are orders from God; and in this passage, they disobeyed God’s orders several times.

12.    There is teaching which apparently occurs in Kadesh (Num. 15, 18–19); and there is rebellion which occurs in Kadesh (Num. 16–17). The rebellion of Korah and the plague which follows is an example of men dying the sin unto death during this time period. Aaron’s rod which buds is representative of both the new life of regeneration as well as the eventual restoration of Israel from death (Num. 17).

13.    Moses writes Psalm 90 during this time (HTML) (PDF) (WPD), where he despairs of the spiritual condition of his people.

14.    It is in Kadesh where Miriam dies. This appears to be the 1st month of the 40th year, although that is not completely clear. Num. 20:1

15.    From Kadesh, the people go to Mount Hor, which is on the outskirts of Edom. There Aaron dies on the 1st day of the 5th month in the 40th year after the sons of Israel had come out of the land of Egypt. Num. 20:22–23 33:37–38

16.    Given all of the stops in Num. 33, where the Jews go right from Kadesh to Mount Hor; and given that they are at Mount Hor where Aaron does in the 40th year, the implication is, they stopped in Kadesh and lived there or near there for about 38 years, which corresponds with them being in Kadesh for many days. Deut. 1:46

17.    Even when Moses first contacts the sons of Esau, he is sending messengers from Kadesh. And Moses sent messengers from Kadesh to the king of Edom: So says your brother Israel, You surely have known all the travail which has found us;... (Num. 20:14; Green’s literal translation) It would seem illogical that these negotiations would continue over a period of 38 years or so, while Moses is moving the people toward Mount Hor.

18.    The most difficult verse is Deut. 2:14 And the time [which had passed] having come from Kadesh-barnea to passing over the brook Zered [was] 38 years; until the entire generation of the men of war from the camp had perished, just as Yehowah had sworn to them. If this is understood to mean from the day they left Kadesh to the day they crossed the brook Zered, 38 years have passed; then there is a problem with the timing. Such a timetable would not allow the Israelites to spend many days in Kadesh (Deut. 1:46). Therefore, we should understand that this included the time that they are staying at Kadesh-barnea as well. God told them to leave that area immediately (Num. 14:25). So, did they leave it, at least for a time, and then return to that area? Or is Moses counting this from the day that God gave them orders to leave? Both approaches would allow for Deut. 2:14 to stand as is.

19.    The many days spent in and around Mount Hor simply suggests the following:

         1)      The Jews were finally on the move again. Gen X had died out and the younger generation, the generation of promise, had begun to move.

         2)      Time was spent negotiating with the Edomites, without much success.

         3)      Time was spend when Aaron died and they mourned for Aaron.

         4)      Time was spent walking the long way around Mount Hor, when the generation of promise of jazzed about moving ahead and leaving the desert-wilderness.

         5)      Therefore, the many days here represents impatience with the time spent on the things noted above, rather than another period of time similar to that spent at Kadesh. Num. 21:4 Then they moved from Mount Hor, following the road that goes to the Red Sea, in order to get around Edom. The people became impatient on the trip. (God’s Word™) Deut. 2:1–3 We went back into the desert, following the road that goes to the Red Sea as the LORD had told me. For a long time we traveled around the region of Mount Seir. The LORD said to me, "You've traveled around this region long enough. Now go north. (God’s Word™)

20.    Note that, because of the year is not mentioned in Num. 20:1, there is a possibility that Israel spent a great deal of time at Mount Hor as well—living many years in both places. However, Num. 13:1–20:21 all takes place in Kadesh. The last portion of Num. 20 (Num. 20:22ff) clearly takes place at the edge of Mount Hor (where Aaron dies) and in Num. 21:1, the Israelites are on the move again (corresponding with Deut. 2:2–3). That further suggests that the bulk of Israel’s downtime took place in Kadesh-barnea.

21.    In conclusion, the bulk of the time that the sons of Israel spent in the desert was actually spend at Kadesh; they were not wandering, they were parked in that one place, probably for 38 years.

1 This is when God tells Moses He wants to destroy all of the Israelites, and Moses stands in the way, and asks that they be spared. Moses is a type of Christ, mediating there between God and man, asking for mercy for mankind.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Israel is on the move again. However, they did have to walk a great deal out of the way around Mount Hor to avoid a confrontation with the Edomites. This would have added many days onto their travel, and it did cause them to become impatient, as noted in the doctrine above.


——————————


And so says Yehowah unto me, to say, “Much to you [all] going around the mountain the this; turn away from to you [all] northward.”

Deuteronomy

2:2–3

Yehowah then spoke to me, saying, “You have gone long enough around this mountain; turn [and go] northward.”

Jehovah then said to me, “You have spent too much time around this mountain; turn here and head northward.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Dead Sea Scrolls                   [Then the Lor]d [spoke] to me as follows: “You [masculine singular] have circled this mountain long enough; now turn north.

Targum of Onkelos                And the Lord spake to me, saying: It is enough for you to have dwelt about this mountain: turn you to the north,...

Latin Vulgate                          And the Lord said to me: You have compassed this mountain long enough: go toward the north.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so says Yehowah unto me, to say, “Much to you [all] going around the mountain the this; turn away from to you [all] northward.”

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And the LORD spoke to me, saying, You have circled this mountain long enough; turn northward.

Septuagint (Greek)                And the Lord said to me, You have compassed this mountain long enough; turn therefore toward the north.

 

Significant differences:           The verbiage found in the Hebrew indicates movement by the Israelites. We do not have the word to dwell, as is seen in the targum.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Eventually the Lord said: You've been traveling around this mountain long enough. Head north.

Contemporary English V.       We spent many years wandering around outside the hill country of Seir, until the LORD said: Moses, Israel has wandered in these hills long enough. Turn and go north. V. 1 is included for context.

Easy English                          Then the *Lord said to me, "You have walked round this hill for a long time. Now turn to the north.

Easy-to-Read Version            Then the Lord said to me, ’You have traveled around these mountains long enough. Turn north.

Good News Bible (TEV)         "Then the LORD told me that we had spent enough time wandering about in those hills and that we should go north.

The Message                         Then GOD said, "You've been going around in circles in these hills long enough; go north.

New Berkeley Version           Then the Lord said, to me: You have now spent enough time moving about these hills; turn and head north.

New Century Version             Then the Lord said to me, "You have traveled through these mountains long enough. Turn north and give the people this command:...

The Voice                               For a long time, we wandered around Mount Seir, until at last I got new instructions from the Eternal: "You've wandered around this mountain long enough. Turn north, and give the people these directions from Me: `You're going to cross into the territory of a people who are related to you. Portions of vv. 1 and 4 are included for context.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          And finally, the Lord said to me: You have circled these Mountains long enough; now turn and head north.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       Then the Lord said to me, You have spent long enough roaming about these hills, you must go northwards now.

New American Bible (R.E.)    Finally the LORD said to me, You have wandered round these highlands long enough; turn and go north.

NIRV                                      Then the Lord spoke to me. He said, "You have made your way around this hill country long enough. So now turn north.

New Jerusalem Bible             Yahweh then said to me, "You have gone far enough round this mountain; now turn north.

Revised English Bible            Then the Lord said to me, ‘You have been marching round these hills long enough; turn northwards.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      Yahweh spoke to me, saying, "Your legions surrounded this mount. You face to the north.

Bible in Basic English             And the Lord said to me, You have been journeying round this mountain long enough: now go to the north;...

The Expanded Bible              Then the Lord said to me, "You have traveled through these mountains long enough. Turn north and give the people this command: `You will soon go through the land that belongs to your ·relatives [brothers], the ·descendants [sons] of Esau who live in ·Edom [LSeir; 1:44]. They will be afraid of you, but be very careful. V. 4is include for context.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 At last the Ever-living said to me; "You have wandered about this hill enough ! Turn to the north,...

NET Bible®                             At this point the Lord said to me, "You have circled around this mountain long enough; now turn north.

New Heart English Bible        The LORD spoke to me, saying, "You have encircled this mountain long enough. Turn northward.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           Finally ADONAI said to me, 'You have been going around this mountain long enough! Head north,...

exeGeses companion Bible   And Yah Veh said to me, saying,

You surround this mountain too much:

turn your face northward:...

Kaplan Translation                 Encountering Esau

God said to me, 'You have traveled around these highlands long enough. Turn around [and head] north.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           And Hashem spoke unto me, saying, Ye have circled hahar hazeh (this mountain) long enough; turn you northward.

The Scriptures 1998              “And יהוה spoke to me, saying, ‘You have gone around this mountain long enough, turn northward.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                And the Lord spoke to me [Moses], saying, You have roamed around this mountain country long enough; turn northward.

Concordant Literal Version    Then Yahweh spoke to me saying: Long enough you have been around this hill-country. Turn yourselves around northward and instruct the people saying, You shall pass through the territory of your brothers, the sons of Esau, who are dwelling in Seir. They shall fear you, yet you must be very much on guard. V. 4 is include for context.

Context Group Version          And YHWH spoke to me, saying, You { pl } have encompassed this mountain long enough: you { pl } turn northward.

English Standard V. – UK       Then the Lord said to me, `You have been travelling around this mountain country long enough [ch. 1:6]. Turn northwards and command the people, "You are about to pass through the territory of your brothers, the people of Esau, who live in Seir; and they will be afraid of you. So be very careful. V. 4 is included for context.

New RSV                               Then the Lord said to me: `You have been skirting this hill country long enough. Head north, and charge the people as follows: You are about to pass through the territory of your kindred, the descendants of Esau, who live in Seir. A portion of v. 4 is included for context.

Webster’s Bible Translation  And the LORD spoke to me, saying, Ye have compassed this mountain long enough: turn you northward.

Young’s Updated LT             And Jehovah speaks unto me, saying, ‘Enough to you—is the going round of this mount; turn for yourselves northward.

 

The gist of this verse:          God tells the Israelites to stop moving about the hill country where they were and to go northward.


Deuteronomy 2:2

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend; to answer

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied) with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong's #413 BDB #39

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend; to answer

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #559 BDB #55


Translation: Yehowah then spoke to me, saying,... We are going directly from the defeat of the Jews who went up the mountain to the next generation of Jews, 38 years later, who would go up along the east side of the Jordan River to enter into the land of Canaan from the east. However, they are going to run into a number of problems, which is much of what this chapter is about.


Deuteronomy 2:3a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

rab (רַב) [pronounced rahbv]

many, much, great (in the sense of large or significant, not acclaimed)

masculine singular adjective

Strong's #7227 BDB #912

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

Literally, we have much for you [all]. We might interpret this as we have had too much of you, we have had enough of you, you have gone on long enough, you are too much (spoken ironically). We have a similar idiomatic usage in Gen. 45:28 Ex. 9:28. This idiom expresses great dissatisfaction.

4QDeuth has this as a masculine singular. It is plural in the MT, SP and LXX.

çâbab (סָבַב) [pronounced sawb-VAHBV]

to turn oneself, to go around, to surround, to encompass

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #5437 BDB #685

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

har (הַר) [pronounced har]

hill; mountain, mount; hill-country, a mountainous area, mountain region

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #2022 (and #2042) BDB #249

zeh (זֶה) [pronounced zeh]

here, this, this one; thus; possibly another

masculine singular demonstrative adjective with a definite article

Strong’s #2088, 2090 (& 2063) BDB #260


Translation:...“You have gone long enough around this mountain;... It sounds here as if the people following Moses were dragging their feet, and God needed to get them on the other side of the Jordan River. They had spent too much time where they were. I could be reading too much into this, and it is possible that they simply reached the point at which they needed to move northward.


However, this does not appear to be the same as what occurred previously in Kadesh barnea, where they spent many days (although a few translators translate this the same way that they do Deut. 1:46, suggesting that the Jews spent many days in the hill country).

edom.jpg

The region that the Jews would have been in would have been the mountainous area southeast of the southern tip of the Dead Sea, which land belonged to the Edomites.


Map of Edom taken from the Bible Atlas in E-sword, a portion of the map titled 029—The Route of the Exodus. The first 3 verses read: We turned to go the other way. We pulled up stakes and moved out toward the desert-wilderness, going by the road of the Sea of the Reeds, just as Yehowah had directed me. Then we walked around Mount Seir for a long time. Jehovah then said to me, “You have spent too much time around this mountain; turn here and head northward.” You can see where they were in Kadesh-barnea. They then moved southward and eastward, and God is speaking to them from the mountainous region of Seir—probably from the southern portion of those mountains, as they would go north from there. I suggest this route for two reasons: (1) the Arabah is not mentioned in this description (it will be mentioned later) and (2) if they were in the hill country labeled the Wilderness of Zin above, then they would be first going east and then north. Now, it is possible that they were in the southern portion of the Wilderness of Zin then went over to the southern portion of Seir, and then God spoke to Moses to direct them north.


The Israelites moved out of Kadesh-barnea, went into Edom, and circled Mount Seir, being guided by God the Holy Spirit. They seemed to spend most of their time, as has already been discussed, at Kadesh. But there came a point when God wanted them on the move again—and this was after Gen X had all died off.


From Kadesh, Moses sent a message to the Edomites, to see about traveling through their territory. They said “no” and God told Israel that they were not to go to war against Edom. God was going to take Israel up along the eastern side of the Dead Sea, so that meant that there would travel quite a distance around Edom (Seir) in order to avoid hostilities with the Edomites.

 

McGee writes: I have always thought that the Lord has a sense of humor, and I think we can see it here. You see, they didn't know where to go. all they have been doing is just going around and around Mt. Seir. It was sort of a ring-around-the-rosy; round and round they go. finally God says that He is getting tired of that. He says, "Let's quit this round and round business." I'm afraid many Christians are doing that very same thing. Because they fail to take God at His Word, they are just marking time, and are on a merry-go-round of activity.


Despite McGee’s good-natured, folksy approach, the Jews are not walking around and around Mount Seir (his point about Christians is still valid, however). They are traveling around the land of the Edomites, giving the people a wide berth, which suggests to me that they take a southern route around that mountain formation where the Edomites lived. So they go in a half circle, and God says, “Now it is time to head north.” As has just been discussed, this new generation of Jews are becoming impatient with all of this.


Deuteronomy 2:3b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

pânâh (פָּנָה) [pronounced paw-NAWH]

turn, turn away from, turn toward, turn one’s face away from, turn one’s face to

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperative

Strong's #6437 BDB #815

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510


The meanings of the lâmed preposition broken down into groups: ➊ to, towards, unto; it is used both to turn one’s heart toward someone as well as to sin against someone; ➋ to, even to;  in this sense, it can be used with a number to indicate the upper limit which a multitude might approach (nearly). ➌ Lâmed can be equivalent to the Greek preposition eis (εἰς), meaning into, as in transforming into something else, changing into something else (Gen. 2:7). This use of lâmed after the verb hâyâh (הָיָה) [pronounced haw-YAW] (Strong’s #1961 BDB #224) is one thing becoming another (Gen. 2:7). ➍  Its fourth use is the mark of a dative, after verbs of giving, granting, delivering, pardoning, consulting, sending, etc. This type of dative is broken down into several categories, but one includes the translation by, which would be apropos here. ➎ With regards to, as to. Similar to the Greek preposition eis (εἰς) plus the dative. [Numbering from Gesenius]. ➏ On account of, because, propter, used of cause and reason (propter means because; Gesenius used it). ➐ Concerning, about, used of a person or thing made the object of discourse, after verbs of saying. ➑ On behalf of anyone, for anyone. ➒ As applied to a rule or standard, according to, according as, as though, as if. ➓ When associated with time, it refers to the point of time at which or in which anything is done; or it can refer to the space of time during which something is done (or occurs); at the time of.

tsâphôwnâh (צָפוֹנָה) [pronounced tsaw-foh-NAW]

north, northward, towards the north

feminine singular noun with the directional hê

Strong’s #6828 BDB #860


Translation: ...turn [and go] northward.” They were going to make another turn and head northward from where they are. They are at the bottom of the Salt Sea, and they will go north, to travel along the eastern portion of the Salt Sea.

deut2_2-3.jpg

Deuteronomy 2:2–3 (graphic); picture taken from walkhighlands. It is not a picture of Edom; there are many beautiful photos on the page I took this from. Accessed December 29, 2013.


God is leading the sons of Israel; however, they are in a holding pattern as many of them are complaining again. They set out from Mount Hor by the way of the Sea of Reeds to go around the land of Edom; and the people became impatient beause of the journey. And the people spoke against God and Moses, "Why have you brought us up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness? For there is no food and no water, and we loathe this miserable food [the manna]." (Num. 21:4–5). God had to remove some of these people—principally gen X—to cleanse the children of Israel completely.


deuteronomy022.gif

God has taken His people due east, until they reached the Arabah, where, at one time, it appears that there was water running between the Salt Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba, and they arrived at the southern portion of the mountains of Seir in Edom, in the southern portion of Edom, where there was a more scattered population and less well-defined boundaries. What Israel would like to do would be to travel through Edom along the King's Highway. Moses, from Kadesh-barnea, sent such messengers to Edom, and then set out behind the messengers. From Kadesh, Moses then sent messengers to the king of Edom; "Thus your brother Israel has said, 'You know all the hardship that has befallen us; that our fathers went down to Egypt and we stayed in Egypt a long time, and the Egyptians treated us and our fathers poorly. But, when we cried out to Yehowah, He heard our voice and sent an angel and brought us out from Egypt; now observe, we are at Kadesh, a city on the edge of your territory. Please let us pass through your land. We will not pass through field or through vineyard; we will not even drink water from a well. we will go along the king's highway, not turning to the right or left, until we pass through your territory.' " (Num. 20:14–17).


Map of the Route Around Edom from A Fire in my Bones, accessed December 18, 2013. The route which we are studying is the green route shown on this map. I do not believe that they needed to go down as far as Ezion-geber, but that the people circled around before then (assuming that they were out of the populated area of the Edomites when they cross over). None of the maps which I found showed them crossing over to the east sooner than we see here. However, this gives us a pretty good idea of the route, with two minor changes (1) although messengers probably went deeper into Edom to deliver the message from Moses, the people of Moses did not go this far into Edom; they would have remained strictly on the outskirts of Edomite country. (2) Simply because the Bible says that they are on the Road of Ezion-geber does not mean that they had to go down as far as Ezion-geber (which is not listed as a stopping point on this particular leg of the march). Ezion-geber was on their route going to Kadesh (Num. 33:36), but it is not listed as one of the stops after Kadesh (Num. 33:37, 41–44). The confusion is actually in this chapter, in Deut. 2:8 We passed through the land of Edom, in close proximity to our brothers, the sons of Esau, those who live in Seir. We went along the road which goes through the Arabah, Elath and Ezion-geber. Then we made another turn and went along the road which went through the unpopulated area of Moab. The road that they are on goes along the Arabah from Elath to Ezion-geber. This does not mean that the Israelites went to Elath or all the way down to Ezion-geber.


There are two sets of mountains on both sides of the valley—the Arabah. Most scholars place Mount Seir east of the valley which runs between the Salt Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba. This appears to line up with the end of Num. 20 and the beginning of Num. 21. Then they set out from Mount Hor by way of the Sea of Reeds, to go around the land of Edom; and the people became impatient because of the journey (Num. 21:4). This route is also recounted in Judges 11:17–18 And Israel sent messengers to the king of Edom, saying, Please let me pass on through your land, and the king of Edom did not listen. And Israel sent also to the king of Moab, and he was not willing. And Israel remained in Kadesh. And he went through the wilderness, and went around the land of Edom, and the land of Moab, and came in at the rising of the sun to the land of Moab. And they camped beyond Arnon, and did not come into the border of Moab, for Arnon was the border of Moab. (Green’s literal translation) It would make sense that the Israelites would become impatient because they are moving away from the Land of Promise and had they gone in a great half circle.


——————————


And the people you have commanded, to say, “You [all] passing through a territory of your brothers, sons of Esau, the ones living in Seir (and they are afraid from you [all]) and you [all] take care extremely. You [all] will not stir up strife in them for I am not giving to you [all] from their land as far as tread of a sole of a foot. For a possession of Esau I have given Mount Seir.

Deuteronomy

2:4–5

Furthermore, you will command the people, saying, “You will be passing through the territory of your brothers, the sons of Esau, the ones who live in Seir (and they are afraid of you). You will take great care not to stir them up because I am not giving you any of their land where they have walked [lit., a treading of the sole of a foot]. I have given Mount Seir [to] Esau [as] an inheritance.

Furthermore, you will command the people not to stir up trouble with your brothers, the sons of Esau, as you march along the borders of their land. “I have not given this land to you; I have given Mount Seir to the descendants of Esau as their inheritance.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                ...and command the people, saying, You are to pass by the border of your brethren, the children of Esau, who dwell in Gebala, and they will be afraid of you; be very heedful therefore; provoke them not; for of their land I have not given you as much as the sole of the foot; for I have given Mount Gebal an inheritance unto Esau on account of the honour which he did unto his father.

Latin Vulgate                          And command you the people, saying: You will pass by the borders of your brothers the children of Esau, who dwell in Seir, and they will be afraid of you. Take you [all] then good heed that you stir not against them. For I will not give you of their land so much as the step of one foot can tread upon, because I have given mount Seir to Esau, for a possession.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And the people you have commanded, to say, “You [all] passing through a territory of your brothers, sons of Esau, the ones living in Seir (and they are afraid from you [all]) and you [all] take care extremely. You [all] will not stir up strife in them for I am not giving to you [all] from their land as far as tread of a sole of a foot. For a possession of Esau I have given Mount Seir.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And command the people, saying, You are going to pass through the territory of your brethren the children of Esau, who dwell in Seir; and they shall be afraid of you; take heed to yourselves therefore; Do not provoke them; for I will not give you a possession of their land, no, not so much as the breadth of a foot to tread on, because I have given mount Seir to Esau for a possession.

Septuagint (Greek)                And command the people, saying, You are going through the borders of your brethren the children of Esau, who dwell in Seir; and they shall fear you, and dread you greatly. Do not engage in war against them, for I will not give you of their land even enough to set your foot upon, for I have given Mount Seir to the children of Esau as an inheritance.

 

Significant differences:           The Greek both appears to add an extra phrase and to delete a phrase in the same place, which is found in the Hebrew.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Command the people as follows: You are about to enter into the territory of your relatives who live in Seir: Esau's descendants. They will be afraid of you, so watch yourselves most carefully. Don't fight with them because I will not give the tiniest parcel of their land to you. I have given Mount Seir to Esau's family as their property.

Contemporary English V.       And give the people these orders: "Be very careful, because you will soon go through the land that belongs to your relatives, the descendants of Esau. They are afraid of you, but don't start a war with them. I have given them the hill country of Seir, so I won't give any of it to you, not even enough to set a foot on.

Easy English                          These are my words to the *Israelites, `You will soon go through the country that belongs to the family of Esau. They are your brothers and they live in Seir. They will be afraid of you, so be very careful.'

`Do not make them angry so that they fight against you. I will not give any of their country to you, not even enough to put your foot on. I have given the hills in Seir to Esau.

Easy-to-Read Version            Tell these things to the people: You will pass through the land of Seir. This land belongs to your relatives, the descendants [A person’s children and their future families.] of Esau. They will be afraid of you. Be very careful. Don’t fight them. I will not give you any of their land—not even a foot of it. Why? Because I gave the hill country of Seir to Esau to keep as his own.

Good News Bible (TEV)         He told me to give you the following instructions 'You are about to go through the hill country of Edom, the territory of your distant relatives, the descendants of Esau. They will be afraid of you, but you must not start a war with them, because I am not going to give you so much as a square foot of their land. I have given Edom to Esau's descendants.

The Message                         Command the people, You're about to cut through the land belonging to your relatives, the People of Esau who settled in Seir. They are terrified of you, but restrain yourselves. Don't try and start a fight. I am not giving you so much as a square inch of their land. I've already given all the hill country of Seir to Esau--he owns it all.

New Berkeley Version           This you shall order the people, ‘Now you will be crossing the frontiers of your brothers, the children of Esau, living in Seir, and they will be afraid of you. So be very careful; do not challenge them; for I will not be giving you any of their land, not a foot of it; for I have already assigned this hill area of Seir to Esau.

New Century Version             ...and give the people this command: `You will soon go through the land that belongs to your relatives, the descendants of Esau who live in Edom. They will be afraid of you, but be very careful. Do not go to war against them. I will not give you any of their land-not even a foot of it, because I have given the mountains of Edom to Esau as his own.

New Life Bible                        Tell the people, "You will pass through the land of your brothers the sons of Esau who live in Seir. They will be afraid of you, so be very careful. Do not make them angry. For I will not give you any of their land, not even enough for a foot to step on. I have given Mount Seir to Esau for his own.

New Living Translation           Give these orders to the people: "You will pass through the country belonging to your relatives the Edomites, the descendants of Esau, who live in Seir. The Edomites will feel threatened, so be careful. Do not bother them, for I have given them all the hill country around Mount Seir as their property, and I will not give you even one square foot of their land.

The Voice                               ...and give the people these directions from Me: `You're going to cross into the territory of a people who are related to you. They're the descendants of Esau, who live in Seir. They'll be afraid of you, so be very careful what you do. Don't incite a fight with them because I won't give you even a square foot of their land. I gave Mount Seir to Esau, and I want his descendants to live there.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          Tell the people that you're going to cross the borders of your brothers, the children of Esau who live in Seir. and that will really make them fear you. But don't fight against [the children of Esau], because I won't give you enough of their land to stand on. For, I have given Mount Seir to the children of Esau as their inheritance.

Beck’s American Translation Instruct the people to do as follows: You are going to pass through the territory of your relatives, Esau’s descendants who live in Seir. They are afraid of you. But be very careful not to start fighting with them, because I’m not giving you any of their land, not even enough to set your foot on, since I have given the mountains of Seir to Esau as a possession.

Christian Community Bible     Give this command to the people: You are to pass through the territory of your brothers, the children of Esau, who live in Seir. They will be afraid of you, but be very careful that you do not attack them because I will not give you even the parcel of land on which you stand. Know that I have given to Esau the mountains of Seir as a possession.

God’s Word                         Give the people these instructions: 'You're going to pass through the territory of your relatives, the descendants of Esau, who live in Seir. They'll be afraid of you, but be very careful. Don't start a fight with them, because I'm not giving you any of their land-not even enough to stand on. I've given Esau's descendants the region of Mount Seir as their property.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       And give the people this message, Your way lies by the frontiers of your own brethren, the sons of Edom. They will be alarmed at your coming, and you must take good care not to assail them. These mountains of Seir are the portion I have given to Esau, and you are not to have a foot of ground there for your own.

New American Bible              Give this order to the people: You are now about to pass through the territory of your kinsmen, the descendants of Esau, who live in Seir. Though they are afraid of you, be very careful not to come in conflict with them, for I will not give you so much as a foot of their land, since I have already given Esau possession of the highlands of Seir.

New American Bible (R.E.)    Command the people: You are now about to pass through the territory of your relatives, the descendants of Esau, who live in Seir. Though they are afraid of you, be very careful not to come in conflict with them, for I will not give you so much as a foot of their land, since I have already given Esau possession of the highlands of Seir [Gn 36:6-8.].

NIRV                                      "Here are the orders I want you to give the people. Tell them, `You are about to pass through the territory of your relatives. They are from the family line of Esau. They live in Seir. They will be afraid of you. But be very careful. Do not make them angry. If you do, they will go to war against you. I will not give you any of their land. You will not have even enough to put your foot on. I have given Esau the hill country of Seir as his own.

New Jerusalem Bible             And give the people this order: You are about to pass through the territory of your kinsmen, the sons of Esau who live in Seir. They are afraid of you, and you will be well protected. Do not provoke them, for I shall give you none of their land, no, not so much as a foot's length of it. I have given the highlands of Seir to Esau as his domain.

New Simplified Bible              »‘Give these instructions to the people: »You will pass through the territory of your relatives, the descendants of Esau. They live in Seir. They will be afraid of you. Therefore watch yourselves carefully.

»‘Do not start a fight with them, because I am not giving you any of their land, not so much as one foot. I gave Esau's descendants the region of Mount Seir as their property.

Revised English Bible            Give the people this charge: You are about to pass through the territory of your kinsmen, the descendants of Esau, who live in Seir. Although they are afraid of you, be very careful not to quarrel with them; for I shall not give you any of their land, not so much as a foot’s breadth: Ihave given the hill-country of Seir to Esau as a possession.

Today’s NIV                          Give the people these orders: 'You are about to pass through the territory of your relatives the descendants of Esau, who live in Seir. They will be afraid of you, but be very careful. Do not provoke them to war, for I will not give you any of their land, not even enough to put your foot on. I have given Esau the hill country of Seir as his own.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      Command the people, saying, 'Pass to the border of your brothers, the sons of Esau dwelling in Seir. They fear you a hundredfold. Keep to yourselves, and do not stir them.' For I give none of their land unto you to tread a sole of a foot, for I gave Seir mountains to Esau for a possession.".

Bible in Basic English             And give the people orders, saying, You are about to go through the land of your brothers, the children of Esau, who are living in Seir; and they will have fear of you; so take care what you do: Make no attack on them, for I will not give you any of their land, not even space enough for a man's foot: because I have given Mount Seir to Esau for his heritage.

The Expanded Bible              ...and give the people this command: `You will soon go through the land that belongs to your ·relatives [brothers], the ·descendants [sons] of Esau who live in ·Edom [LSeir; 1:44]. They will be afraid of you, but be very careful. Do not go to war against them. I will not give you any of their land-not even a foot of it, because I have given the mountains of ·Edom [LSeir; 1:44] to Esau as his own.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 ...and command the People saying to them, ' Pass over the borders of your brothers, the sons of Esau, who dwell in Sair. But they will be afraid of you, so carefully guard yourselves. And injure them not; for I will not give you a foot's space of their country, because I have given Mount Sair to Esau as a possession. A portion of v. 3 is included for context.

HCSB                                     Command the people: You are about to travel through the territory of your brothers, the descendants of Esau, who live in Seir. They will be afraid of you, so you must be very careful. Don't fight with them, for I will not give you any of their land, not even an inch of it, because I have given Esau the hill country of Seir as his possession.

NET Bible®                             Instruct [Heb "command" (so KJV, NASB); NRSV "charge the people as follows."] these people as follows: `You are about to cross the border of your relatives [Heb "brothers"; NAB "your kinsmen."] the descendants of Esau [The descendants of Esau (Heb "sons of Esau"; the phrase also occurs in 2:8, 12, 22, 29). These are the inhabitants of the land otherwise known as Edom, south and east of the Dead Sea. Jacob's brother Esau had settled there after his bitter strife with Jacob (Gen 36:1-8). "Edom" means "reddish," probably because of the red sandstone of the region, but also by popular etymology because Esau, at birth, was reddish (Gen 25:25).], who inhabit Seir. They will be afraid of you, so watch yourselves carefully. Do not be hostile toward them, because I am not giving you any of their land, not even a footprint, for I have given Mount Seir [Mount Seir is synonymous with Edom.] as an inheritance for Esau.

NIV, ©2011                             Give the people these orders [Nu 20:14-21]: `You are about to pass through the territory of your relatives the descendants of Esau [Ge 36:8], who live in Seir [ver 1]. They will be afraid [Ex 15:16] of you, but be very careful. Do not provoke them to war, for I will not give you any of their land, not even enough to put your foot on. I have given Esau the hill country of Seir as his own [Jos 24:4].


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           ...and give this order to the people: "You are to pass through the territory of your kinsmen the descendants of 'Esav who live in Se'ir. They will be afraid of you, so be very cautious, and don't get into disputes with them; for I am not going to give you any of their land, no, not even enough for one foot to stand on; inasmuch as I have given Mount Se'ir to 'Esav as his possession.

exeGeses companion Bible   ...and misvah the people, saying,

You are passing through the border of your brothers

the sons of Esav, who settle in Seir;

and they awe you: guard mightily:

throttle them not;

for I give you not of their land

- no, not so much as a step of the sole of a foot;

because I give mount Seir to Esav for a possession.

Hebrew Names Version         Command you the people, saying, You are to pass through the border of your brothers the children of Esav, who dwell in Se`ir; and they will be afraid of you: take good heed to yourselves therefore; don't contend with them; for I will not give you of their land, no, not so much as for the sole of the foot to tread on; because I have given Mount Se`ir to Esav for a possession.

Kaplan Translation                 Give the people the following instructions:

'You are passing by the borders of your brothers, the descendants of Esau [See Genesis 36:8. This is the encounter with Edom, in Numbers 20:14-21.], who live in Seir. Although they fear you, be very careful not to provoke them. I will not give you even one foot of their land, since I have given Mount Seir as Esau's inheritance.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           And command thou the people, saying, Ye are to pass through the territory of your brethren the Bnei Esav, which dwell in Seir; and they shall be afraid of you; be shomer me'od of yourselves therefore: Meddle not with them; for I will not give you of their land, no, not so much as a regel (foot) breadth; because I have given Mt Seir unto Esav for a yerushah (possession, inheritance).

The Scriptures 1998              ‘And command the people, saying, “You are about to pass over into the border of your brothers, the descendants of Ěsaw, who live in Sĕʽir, and they are afraid of you. So be on your guard. “Do not strive with them, for I do not give you any of their land, no, not so much as one footstep, because I have given Mount Sĕʽir to Ěsaw as a possession.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                And command the Israelites, You are to pass through the territory of your kinsmen the sons of Esau, who live in Seir; and they will be afraid of you. So watch yourselves carefully. Do not provoke or stir them up, for I will not give you of their land, no, not enough for the sole of your foot to tread on, for I have given Mount Seir to Esau for a possession.

Concordant Literal Version    ...and instruct the people saying, You shall pass through the territory of your brothers, the sons of Esau, who are dwelling in Seir. They shall fear you, yet you must be very much on guard. Do not stir yourselves up against them, for I shall not give to you any of their country, not even a tread of a foot's sole--for I have given the hill-country of Seir for a tenancy to Esau.

Context Group Version          And you command the people, saying, You { pl } are to pass through the border of your { pl } brothers the sons of Esau, that dwell in Seir; and they will be afraid of you { pl }: you { pl } take good heed to yourselves therefore; don't contend with them; for I will not give you { pl } of their land { or earth }, no, not so much as for the sole of the foot to tread on; because I have given mount Seir to Esau for a possession.

Darby Translation                  And command the people, saying, Ye are to pass through the border of your brethren the children of Esau, who dwell in Seir; and they will be afraid of you; and ye shall be very guarded: attack them not; for I will not give you of their land, no, not so much as a foot-breadth; for I have given mount Seir as a possession unto Esau. Ye, in Old English, is y’all (you all) in Texan.

English Standard V. – UK       Turn northwards and command the people, "You are about to pass through the territory of your brothers [ch. 23:7; Amos 1:11; Obad. 10, 12], the people of Esau, who live in Seir [See Gen. 32:3]; and they will be afraid of you [See Num. 20:18-21]. So be very careful. Do not contend with them, for I will not give you any of their land, no, not so much as for the sole of the foot to tread on, because I have given [[See ver. 4 above]; See Gen. 32:3] Mount Seir to Esau as a possession. 2 words from v. 3 are included for context.

NASB                                     Now turn north, and command [Num 20:14-21] the people, saying, "You will pass through the territory of your brothers [Gen 36:8] the sons of Esau who live in Seir; and they will be afraid of you [Ex 15:15, 16]. So be very careful; do not provoke [Or engage in strife with] them, for I will not give you any of their land, even as little as a footstep [Lit treading of a sole of a foot] because I have given Mount Seir to Esau as a possession [Gen 36:8; Josh 24:4]. 3 words from v. 3 are included for context.

New RSV                               [God is speaking to Moses]: Head north, and charge the people as follows: You are about to pass through the territory of your kindred, the descendants of Esau, who live in Seir. They will be afraid of you, so be very careful not to engage in battle with them, for I will not give you even so much as a foot's length of their land, since I have given Mount Seir to Esau as a possession. Two words from v. 3 are included for context.

Webster’s Bible Translation  And command thou the people, saying, Ye [are] to pass through the border of your brethren the children of Esau, who dwell in Seir; and they will be afraid of you: therefore take ye good heed to yourselves: Meddle not with them; for I will not give you of their land, no, not so much as a foot-breadth; because I have given mount Seir to Esau [for] a possession.

Young’s Updated LT             And the people command you, saying, you [all] are passing over into the border of your brothers, sons of Esau, who are dwelling in Seir, and they are afraid of you; and you [all] have been very watchful, you [all] do not strive with them, for I do not give to you of their land even the treading of the sole of a foot; for a possession to Esau I have given mount Seir.

 

The gist of this verse:          God warns Israel that they are passing along the border of Esau, who live in Seir; and that they are afraid of the Jews. The Jews are not to take advantage of this; and they are not to try to take any of their land from them.


Deuteronomy 2:4a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʿam (עַם) [pronounced ģahm]

people; race, tribe; family, relatives; citizens, common people; companions, servants; entire human race; herd [of animals]

masculine singular collective noun with the definite article

Strong’s #5971 BDB #766

tsâvâh (צָוָה) [pronounced tsaw-VAW]

to commission, to mandate, to appoint; to ordain; to lay charge upon, to give charge to, charge [command, order[; to instruct [as in, giving an order]

2nd person masculine singular, Piel imperfect

Strong's #6680 BDB #845

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend; to answer

Qal infinitive construct

Strong’s #559 BDB #55


Translation: Furthermore, you will command the people, saying,... God is speaking to Moses directly and telling him what to say to the people of Israel. All of this is within a quotation of Moses speaking to the people as a whole, months after these things have taken place.


So God issues a command to Moses; a command which Moses will give to the people before they start heading northward.


Deuteronomy 2:4b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾattem (אַתֶּם) [pronounced aht-TEM]

you all, you guys, you (often, the verb to be is implied)

2nd person masculine plural, personal pronoun

Strong’s #859 BDB #61

ʿâbar (עָבַר) [pronounced ģawb-VAHR]

those passing by, ones passing through; the ones passing over

masculine plural, Qal participle

Strong’s #5674 BDB #716

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

gebûwl (גְּבוּל) [pronounced geb-VOOL]

border, boundary, territory [within a border], region, territory [of darkness]; edge

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #1366 BDB #147

ʾâch (אָח) [pronounced awhk]

brothers, kinsmen, close relatives; tribesmen; fellow-countrymen

masculine plural noun with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #251 BDB #26


Translation:...“You will be passing through the territory of your brothers,... The Jews—the descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob—will be passing through the territory of the descendants of Esau, who are here called their brothers. They are related to these people in this way. Abraham had a son Isaac and Isaac had two sons: Jacob and Esau. Esau was the firstborn but he was not in the line of promise; his slightly younger brother Jacob continued the line of promise.


The Hebrew appears to be confusing at first. Command is in the 2nd masculine singular, Piel imperative. Context explains what is going on. This is Moses telling the people what God told him to say to them—a quote within a quote within a quote. God, in speaking to Moses, said, "You [Moses] must command the people; you [all] will be passing through the territory of your relatives [the Edomites]." We have to be careful not to interpret these few verses as though they are consecutive events. The last verb, being on guard, is in the Niphal perfect rather than a Piel imperative again (which is what I would have expected). Rather than continue this command begun in this sentence with a further command, the Niphal is used instead. The Niphal is usually the passive of the Qal (or common) stem. However, the Niphal also emphasizes the effect of an individual on the group and can refer to an action in progress or development, so we often translate the verb along with the word being. This is a continuation of the imperative mood, but said in such a way that each individual is charged here to be on their guard. These verses, 2–5 should be read together, so that we are not so far removed from the context and the meaning of what is said.


Deuteronomy 2:4c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

bânîym (בָּנִים) [pronounced baw-NEEM]

sons, descendants; children; people; sometimes rendered men

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

ʿÊsâv (עֵשָׂו) [pronounced ģay-SAWV]

 handled, made, rough handling; hairy; transliterated Esau

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #6215 BDB #796

yâshab (יָשַב) [pronounced yaw-SHAHBV]

those inhabiting, those staying, those dwelling in, the inhabitants of, the ones dwelling in, dwellers of, those sitting [here], the ones sitting

masculine plural, Qal active participle with the definite article

Strong's #3427 BDB #442

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

Sêʿîyr (שֵׂעִיר) [pronounced say-ĢEER]

hairy, shaggy; transliterated Seir

masculine singular, proper noun

Strong’s #8165 BDB #973


Translation: ...the sons of Esau, the ones who live in Seir... The people who live in Seir are called the descendants of Esau. They are also known as the Edomites. God gave them this land.


As an aside, I do a lot of research when putting together these chapters, and I come across some very superficial problems. One website which holds the Bible in low regard, points out, here, God gives the Edomites protection; but over here, God is encouraging the Israelites to fight the Edomites; that’s a contradiction. It is not! We are talking about different generations. There are some generations where most of the people believe in the Revealed God, and God protects those people. There are other generations of Edomites who reject the revealed God outright. Pointing at something like this and claiming that it is a contradiction, is like saying every history book on American and Japanese relationships is false, because on one page, we are their enemy and on another, we are allies.


Deuteronomy 2:4d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

yârêʾ (יָרְא) [pronounced yaw-RAY]

to fear, to be afraid; to fear-respect, to reverence, to have a reverential respect

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #3372 BDB #431

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation with the 2nd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #4480 BDB #577


Translation: ...(and they are afraid of you). Nearly everyone knows what happened in Egypt and how God led the people of Abraham out of Egypt, destroying the Egyptian army. For this reason, the Edomites (those descended from Esau) were afraid of the Jews and worried that they may come into their territory and attack them.


It is important to recognize that having fear does not mean that the Edomites would not go to war against the Israelites. So God wants Moses and the people of Israel to be certain not to provoke a fight.


Deuteronomy 2:4e

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

shâmar (שָמַר) [pronounced shaw-MAR]

to be kept, to be preserved; to be careful; to abstain oneself [from anything]; to beware [of anything]; to care [for something]; to take heed

2nd person masculine plural, Niphal perfect

Strong's #8104 BDB #1036

meʾôd (מְאֹד) [pronounced me-ODE]

exceedingly, extremely, greatly, very

adverb

Strong’s #3966 BDB #547


Translation: You will take great care... The Jews were to exercise great caution; they were to be careful not to do something.


One of the first hit songs written by Moses is found in Ex. 15 written almost forty years prior to this incident as Moses was guided by God the Holy Spirit. He wrote: The peoples have heard—they tremble; anguish has gripped the inhabitants of Philistia. Then the chiefs of Edom were dismayed; the leaders of Moab—trembling grips them; all the inhabitants of Canaan have melted away. Terror and dread fall upon them; by the greatness of Your arm, they are motionless as stone until You people pass over, O Yehowah; until the people pass over whom You have purchased (Ex. 15:14–16). What we read in this portion of Deuteronomy is the fulfillment of the prophecy of this song. A prophet was to be judged by the people of his time by the prophecies that he spoke and whether or not they came to pass. What Moses said almost forty years ago had come to pass.


The route covered by Israel seems to have been a movement from Kadesh-barnea to Mount Seir, which they circled for awhile—my guess is that they were waiting for an official statement of permission to pass through the land of Edom (Num. 20:22 33:37). They marched around Mount Seir (which may have been just a movement below the southern half of these mountains (Num. 21:4 Deut. 2:3–5 Judges 11:18). However, the Edomites refused, so the Israelites proceded southward, skirted the southern border of Edom, and came up along their eastern border. This was going altogether in the opposite direction from the Land of Promise, causing some consternation on the part of some of the Israelites—mostly the generation X remnant (Num. 21:4).


Deuteronomy 2:5a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾal (אַל) [pronounced al]

no, not; nothing; none; neither, nor; do not, let not [with a verb]; let there not be [with an understood verb];

adverb of negation; conjunction of prohibiting, dehorting, deprecating, desire that something not be done

Strong’s #408 BDB #39

gârâh (גָּרָה) [pronounced gaw-RAW]

to stir up strife, to cause strife, to excite strife; to meddle; to stir up

2nd person masculine plural, Piel imperfect; in the jussive

Strong’s #1624 BDB #173

A jussive expresses the speaker’s desire, wish or command. We often add into the translation may or let. The jussive involves only the imperfect form of a verb and may be used in the 2nd or 3rd persons (although the latter is the most common). A strong verb is identified as a jussive by context, as it is no different than the imperfect form. A weak verb as a jussive is generally a shortened form of the imperfect.

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #88


Translation: ...not to stir them up... The Jews were not to cause the Edomites to get upset; Moses was not to push the buttons which would cause the Edomites to be willing to go to war. The Jews were to be very careful not to stir the Edomites up.


The sense of the imperative is continued (there must be a grammatical rule to cover this), however contend is in the 2nd masculine plural jussive, Hithpael imperfect. The 2nd person plural is God speaking to Moses to speak to the people of Israel; the jussive expresses volition—it is the command, instruction or granting of permission from a superior to an inferior (when it is spoken from an inferior to a superior, it expresses a request). The Hithpael is the reflexive of the Piel (intensive) stem.


Deuteronomy 2:5b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

nâthan (נָתַן) [pronounced naw-THAHN]

to give, to grant, to place, to put, to set; to make

1st person singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #5414 BDB #678

min (מִן) [pronounced min]

from, off, out from, of, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #776 BDB #75

ʿad (עַד) [pronounced ģahd]

as far as, even to, up to, until

preposition of duration or of limits

Strong’s #5704 BDB #723

miderâke (מִדְרָ) [pronounced mihd-RAWK]

 treading or stepping place, place to tread on; a place that is trodden down; an area where people walk

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #4096 BDB #204

kaph (כַּף) [pronounced kaf]

palm, hollow or flat of the hand, sole of the foot; bowl, spoon

feminine singular construct

Strong’s #3709 BDB #496

These nouns are tied together because of the fact that they are concave.

regel (רֶגֶל) [pronounced REH-gel]

foot, feet

feminine dual noun, pausal form

Strong’s #7272 BDB #919


Translation: ...because I am not giving you any of their land where they have walked [lit., a treading of the sole of a foot]. God was giving a great deal of land to the Jews—which land would eventually include that which the Edomites lived on—but for that time, God was only giving a specific area to the Jews. However, this people will become quite aggressive against the Jews, and, for that reason, the Jews will defeat them and take their land from them (it is legitimate in war to take the land and/or resources of those whom you have defeated).

 

F. B. Meyer: Edom was not to be injured, because of the ancient grant, Genesis 32:3. So with Moab. The gifts and calling of God are without repentance. He will remember His Abrahams and His Lots long after they have passed from this mortal sphere, and will care for their children and children's children.


Deuteronomy 2:5c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

yerushshâh (יְרֻשָּה) [pronounced yer-oosh-SHAW]

a possession, an inheritance

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #3425 BDB #440

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

ʿÊsâv (עֵשָׂו) [pronounced ģay-SAWV]

 handled, made, rough handling; hairy; transliterated Esau

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #6215 BDB #796

nâthan (נָתַן) [pronounced naw-THAHN]

to give, to grant, to place, to put, to set; to make

1st person singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #5414 BDB #678

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

har (הַר) [pronounced har]

hill; mountain, mount; hill-country, a mountainous area, mountain region

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #2022 (and #2042) BDB #249

Sêʿîyr (שֵׂעִיר) [pronounced say-ĢEER]

hairy, shaggy; transliterated Seir

masculine singular, proper noun

Strong’s #8165 BDB #973


Translation: I have given Mount Seir [to] Esau [as] an inheritance. The Edomites lived in Mount Seir, and God gave that land to them for them to possess.


Whereas, I have given a fairly literal translations (apart from the word order) of this verse, the NASB also gives the gist of it: "Do not provoke them, for I will not give you any of their land, even as little as a footstep because I have given Mount Seir to Esau as a possession." Joshua confirms this seven years later: And Joshua said to all the people, "Thus says Yehowah, the god of Israel, 'to Isaac, I gave Jacob and Esau, and to Esau, I gave Mount Sier, to possess it; but Jacob and his sons went down to Egypt.' " (Joshua 24:2a, 4).

Edom and Mount Seir

1.      Many years prior to Moses, God gave this plot of land to the Edomites. And Esau dwelt on Mount Seir. Esau is Edom (Gen. 36:8). Also Gen. 32:3 Deut. 2:5 Joshua 24:4b 2Chron. 20:10

2.      This land original belonged to the Horites, so Mount Seir is sometimes called Mount Hor. Gen. 14:6

3.      Although King David, hundreds of years later, conquered the Edomites, they retained possession of their land (2Sam. 8:14 And he put garrisons in all Edom; and all Edom became servants to David. And Jehovah saved David in all places in which he went. —Green’s literal translation).

4.      The Edomites regained their independence when Jehoshaphat was in power (2Kings 8:20–22 In Jehoshaphat’s time, Edom revolted from under the hand of Judah, and they caused a king to reign over them. And Jehoram passed over to Zair, and all the chariots with him. And it happened, he rose up by night and struck Edom, who had encircled him, and the commanders of the chariots. And the people fled to their tents. Yet Edom revolted from under the hand of Judah to this day. Then Libnah revolted at the same time. —Green’s literal translation slightly edited).

5.      There would come a time when this land of theirs would become a wasteland. Presumably, this would occur because this people would not longer have faith in the Revealed God. Son of man, set your face against Mount Seir, and prophesy against it. And say to it, So says the Lord Jehovah: Behold, I am against you, Mount Seir, and I will stretch My hand against you, and I will make you a ruin and a waste. I will lay your cities waste, and you shall be a ruin. And they shall know that I am Jehovah. Because there was to you never-ending enmity, and you poured out the sons of Israel to the hands of the sword in the time of their calamity, in the time of the iniquity of the end. Therefore, As I live, declares the Lord Jehovah, surely for blood I appoint you, and blood shall pursue you. Since you have not hated blood, so blood shall pursue you. And I will make Mount Seir a ruin and a waste, and cut off from it the one passing through, and the one returning. And I will fill his mountains with his slain. In your hills and in your valleys, and in all your torrents, the slain by the sword shall fall in them. I will make you ruins forever, and your cities shall not be inhabited. And you shall know that I am Jehovah. (Ezek. 35:2–9; Green’s literal translation) Jehovah declares, I loved Jacob, and I have hated Esau and have made his mountains a desolation, and his inheritance to be for the jackals of the wilderness. If Edom says, We are beaten down, but we will return and build the ruined places; so says Jehovah of Hosts: They shall build, but I will tear down. And they shall call them the region of wickedness, and the people with whom Jehovah is indignant until forever. (Mal. 1:2b–4; Green’s literal translation) Picture of Modern Edom from the LaVista Church of Christ website; accessed December 19, 2013.

edom1.jpg

6.      One problem was, the people of Edom turned against God’s people, the Israelites. So says the Lord Jehovah: Because Edom has acted by taking vengeance against the house of Judah, and they are very guilty and are avenged on them, so the Lord Jehovah says this: I will stretch My hand on Edom and will cut off from it man and beast, and I will lay it waste. From Teman even to Dedan they shall fall by the sword. And I will put My vengeance on Edom by the hand of My people Israel. And they shall do in Edom as is My anger and as is My fury. And they shall know My vengeance, declares the Lord Jehovah. (Ezek. 25:12–14; Green’s literal translation)

7.      This gift of Mount Seir to Edom was as long as the Edomites had faith in the Revealed God. So says Jehovah of Hosts concerning Edom: Is wisdom no more in Teman? Has counsel perished from the prudent? Has their wisdom vanished? Flee, turn back, go deep to dwell, O people of Dedan. For I will bring the calamity of Esau on him in the time I will visit him. If the grape gatherers come to you, would they not leave gleanings? If thieves come by night, will they ruin more than enough for them? But I have stripped Esau, I have uncovered his secret places, and he shall not be able to hide himself. His seed is ravaged, also his brothers and his neighbors, and he is not. Leave your orphans, I will keep them alive. And let your widows trust in Me. For so says Jehovah: Behold, those whose judgment was not to drink of the cup drinking have drunk. And are you to be entirely acquitted? You shall not be acquitted, but drinking you shall drink. For I have sworn by Myself, declares Jehovah, that Bozrah shall become a ruin, a reproach, a waste, and a curse. And all its cities shall be wastes forever. I have heard a message from Jehovah, and a herald is sent to the nations: Gather together and come against her, and rise up to the battle. For, behold, I will make you small among the nations, despised among men. Your dreadfulness has deceived you, the pride of your heart, you who live in the clefts of the rock, who hold the height of the hill. Though you should make your nest as high as the eagle, I will bring you down from there, declares Jehovah. And Edom shall be a ruin, everyone who goes by it shall be amazed and shall hiss at all its plagues. As in the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah, and its neighbor, declares Jehovah, no man shall remain there, a son of man shall not live in it. Behold, he shall come up like a lion from the swelling of Jordan against the home of the strong. But I will suddenly make him run away from it. And who is the chosen one I shall appoint over it? For who is like Me? And who will summon Me? And who then is a shepherd who will stand before Me? So then, hear the counsel of Jehovah which He has planned against Edom, and His purposes which He has purposed against those living in Teman: Surely they shall drag them, the least of the flock. Surely He shall make their dwellings desolate over them. The earth is shaken at the noise of their fall. When they cried, the noise of it was heard in the Sea of Reeds. Behold, he shall come up and fly like the eagle and spread his wings over Bozrah. And at that day the heart of the mighty men of Edom shall be like the heart of a woman being distressed. (Jer. 49:7–22; Green’s literal translation)

8.      However, Obadiah prophesies that they would not possess this land forever; that in the Millennium, their land would be annexed to Israel (Num. 24:18 Obad. 1:19).

9.      God sets the boundaries for all nations. Remember the ancient days, consider the years of many generations; ask your father, and he will declare to you, your elders, and they shall say to you; when the Most High divided to the nations their inheritance; when He separated the sons of Adam, He set up the bounds of the peoples, according to the number of the sons of Israel. (Deut. 32:7; Green’s literal translation) "The God who made the world and all the things in it, since He is Lord of heaven and earth, does not dwell in temples made with hands; neither is He served by human hands, as though He needed anything, since He Himself gives to all life and breath and all things; and He made from one, every nation of mankind to live on all the face of the earth, having predetermined [their] appointed times, and boundaries of their habitation." (Acts 17:24–26). See also Gen. 10.

There is another good modern photo of Seir, as well as pretty much all of the related Biblical text on the Guided Bible Studies website.

From time to time, I access websites and include material from organizations which are doctrinally off; and, once and awhile, I even take material from cults and former cults. Two things ought to be noted: borrowing from such material never constitutes an endorsement of all of the doctrines of, say, the Church of Christ. Secondly, many of these organizations actually do excellent work when it comes to evolution, science and the Bible, and fulfilled prophecy. Gardner Ted Armstrong who led a cult known as the Worldwide Church of God (which I think is less of a cult today) was a very dynamic and persuasive speaker, drawing many people into this cult. However, he did some outstanding work on evolution, taking various examples from nature and showing how evolving these characteristics of a particular bird or fish is preposterous. I thought that the booklets on these topics were so good, linked to them on my own website.

When you are making decisions about where to go to church, or what group you believe should lead you, focus in on the fundamentals of the faith—how are you saved; Who saves you? And then, what is the spiritual life; what are the mechanics of the spiritual life? Your pastor might be dull as dishwater. The personality of the pastor is never the issue. The content of the doctrine is what is key.

One of the purposes of learning the Word of God is to give you confidence in the God of the Bible. When you see what He has said about this or that nation or this or that people; and then when you see that God brought these prophecies to pass, it helps confirm that the God of the Bible is the God of all mankind.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


As an aside, not all of the descendants of Esau were off limits. The Amalekites are related to Esau (Gen. 36:12), and God would support their destruction by Israel (Ex. 17:14 Deut. 25:17).


Because war is so devastating, some people claim not to believe in God (or a just God) because of it; but God knows what He is doing. When a nation finds itself in turmoil or in war, often it is because evangelism is low or the teaching of Bible doctrine is nearly non-existent. This also helps to explain the great blessing that we here in the United States have enjoyed. It is not because we are wonderful people; but it is because there are a great many Christians in the United States and pockets of Bible doctrine being taught. These factors form the pivot of a nation.


The Israelites are a little impatient due to wandering again, and now they are going to be taken out of their way because Esau will not let them go through (as we have seen and will see). God wants them all to be on guard, particularly careful not to provoke a confrontation, as God has not given even one footstep of their land to the Israelites. These verses, as I said, are easier to follow when taken together: "Then Yehowah spoke to me, saying, 'Enough of you—the going around of this mountain; turn yourselves northward. And you must command the people, saying, "You all are passing over into the border of your brothers, [the] sons of Esau, who are dwelling in Seir, and they are afraid of you; and you [all] being abundantly on guard, not contending with them, for I am not giving to you even one foot print of their land [lit., out from their land as far as the treading of the sole of a foot]; because I have given Mount Seir as a possession to Esau." ' " God had given certain portions of land which were east and south of the Salt Sea to the sons of Lot and to the descendants of Esau, the son of Abram. This is completely blessing by association.


Moses obeyed these commands from God. And Moses sent messengers from Kadesh to the king of Edom: So says your brother Israel, You surely have known all the travail which has found us; that our fathers went down to Egypt, and we lived in Egypt many days, and the Egyptians did evil to us and to our fathers. And we cried to Jehovah, and He heard our voice, and sent a messenger, and is bringing us out of Egypt; and, behold, we are in Kadesh, a city on the edge of your border. Please let us pass over, through your land; we shall not pass over through a field, nor through a vineyard, nor shall we drink water of a well; we shall go along the king's highway. We will not turn aside to the right hand or to the left, until we have passed your border. And Edom said to him, You shall not pass through me, lest I come out with the sword against you. And the sons of Israel said to him, We shall go in the highway; and if we drink of your waters, our cattle and us, then I shall give their price. Only let me pass through on my feet; there shall be no speech. And he said, You shall not pass through. And Edom came out against him with many people, and with a strong hand. And Edom refused to allow Israel to pass over through his border. And Israel turned away from him. (Num. 20:14–21; Green’s literal translation) This is something which Moses does not recount in this historical lectures. This was a great mistake on the part of the Edomites. Buying food and water from the Edomites would have provided a great economic blessing to them; furthermore, their peaceful interaction with the Jews would have resulted in greater blessing from God.

 

The Pulpit Commentary: [Obviously] the Edomites made preparations to resist the passage of the Israelites through their territory. (Num. 20:18-20) As the Israelites, however, kept on the outskirts of their country, and did not attempt to penetrate into the interior, the Edomites did not attack them or seek to hinder their progress. The Israelites, on the other hand, were strictly forbidden to invade that country in a hostile manner; they were to watch over themselves, so as not to be tempted to make war on the Edomites, who were their brethren; as God would not give them any part, not so much as a foot-breadth, of that laud, for he had given Esau...Mount Seir for a possession.

 

Dummelow: The Edomites, however, refused to give them a passage through their country: see Numbers 20:14-21. The Israelites accordingly went southward towards Elath and Ezion-geber at the N. end of the Gulf of Akaba (see Deuteronomy 2:8 and on Numbers 20:22), and so round Edom to the country of the Moabites.


Vv. 2–5 read: Jehovah then said to me, “You have spent too much time around this mountain; turn here and head northward.” Furthermore, you will command the people not to stir up trouble with your brothers, the sons of Esau, as you march along the borders of their land. “I have not given this land to you; I have given Mount Seir to the descendants of Esau as their inheritance.” There is a time frame not completely revealed to us. Moses sent messengers to Edom from Kadesh saying, “Let us travel through your land. We will engage in commerce with you and treat you honorably.” And the Edomites rejected this, apparently ready to go to war with these Israelites. But God did not want there to be war between the Israelites and the Edomites. They each had their own specific pieces of land which God gave to them.


——————————


Food you [all] will purchase from with them in the silver and you have eaten and also waters you [all] will buy from with them for the silver and you have drunk [it]. For Yehowah your Elohim has blessed you in all a work of your hand. He has known your going through the desert-wilderness the great the this, these forty a year, Yehowah your Elohim [has been] with you; you have not lacked a word.”

Deuteronomy

2:6–7

You will purchase food from them with silver (which [food] you will eat); and you will buy water from them with silver (which [water] you will drink); for Yehowah your Elohim has blessed you in all the work of your hands. He knows your going through this great desert-wilderness [for] these 40 years. [In all of this time,] Yehowah your Elohim [has been] with you [and] you have lacked nothing.”

You will purchase food and water from the Edomites, for God has blessed the work that you have done by hand. He knows all about your going through this great desert-wilderness throughout these 40 years. Furthermore, in all of this time, Jehovah your God has been with you and you have lacked nothing.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                You will buy fresh provision of them for silver, that you may eat, and water will you buy with silver, to drink. Be careful that you vex them not: for the Lord your God has blessed you in all the works of your hands, he has supplied your wants in your journeying in the great wilderness; these forty years has the Word of the Lord your God been your helper; you have not wanted anything.

Latin Vulgate                          You will buy meats of them for money and will eat: you will draw waters for money, and will drink. The Lord your God has blessed you in every work of your hands: the Lord your God dwelling with you, knows your journey, how you have passed through this great wilderness, for forty years, and you have wanted nothing.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        Food you [all] will purchase from with them in the silver and you have eaten and also waters you [all] will buy from with them for the silver and you have drunk [it]. For Yehowah your Elohim has blessed you in all a work of your hand. He has known your going through the desert-wilderness the great the this, these forty a year, Yehowah your Elohim [has been] with you; you have not lacked a word.”

Peshitta (Syriac)                    You may buy grain from them for money, that you may eat; and you may also buy water from them for money, that you may drink. For the LORD your God has blessed you in all the work of your hand; he knows how to lead you through this great wilderness; behold, these forty years the LORD your God has been with you; you have lacked nothing.

Septuagint (Greek)                Buy food from them for money, and eat, and you shall receive water from them by measure for money, and drink. For the Lord our God has blessed you in every work of your hands. Consider how you went through that great and terrible wilderness — behold, the Lord your God has been with you for forty years; you did not lack anything.

 

Significant differences:           The targum has drawing water instead. This is legitimate because the word translated to buy here is a homonym; and it also means to hew, to dig. The targum adds an extra phrase. The Latin has dwelling, which is not altogether wrong.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Of course you may buy food from them with money so you can eat, and also water with money so you cand rink.

No doubt about it: the Lord your God has blessed you in all that you have done. He watched over your journey through that vast desert. Throughout these forty years the Lord your God has been with you. You haven't needed a thing.

Contemporary English V.       And as you go through their land, you will have to buy food and water from them." The LORD has helped us and taken care of us during the past forty years that we have been in this huge desert. We've had everything we needed, and the LORD has blessed us and made us successful in whatever we have done.

Easy English                          You must pay money to his family for the food and water that you eat and drink. The *Lord your God has helped you in everything that you have done. He has travelled with you through this very large *desert. The *Lord your God has remained with you for 40 years. He has given you everything that you needed.' "

Easy-to-Read Version            You must pay the people of Esau for any food you eat or water you drink there. Remember that the Lord your God has blessed you in everything you have done. He knows about your walking through this great desert. The Lord your God has been with you these 40 years. You have always had everything you needed.’

Good News Bible (TEV)         You may buy food and water from them.'

"Remember how the LORD your God has blessed you in everything that you have done. He has taken care of you as you wandered through this vast desert. He has been with you these forty years, and you have had everything you needed.

The Message                         Pay them up front for any food or water you get from them."

GOD, your God, has blessed you in everything you have done. He has guarded you in your travels through this immense wilderness. For forty years now, GOD, your God, has been right here with you. You haven't lacked one thing.

New Century Version             You must pay them in silver for any food you eat or water you drink.'"

The Lord your God has blessed everything you have done; he has protected you while you traveled through this great desert. The Lord your God has been with you for the past forty years, and you have had everything you needed.

New Life Bible                        For I will not give you any of their land, not even enough for a foot to step on. I have given Mount Seir to Esau for his own. You will pay them with money for the food you eat. And you will pay them with money for the water you drink. For the Lord your God has brought good to you in all you have done. He knows about your traveling through this big desert. The Lord your God has been with you these forty years. You have not been without a thing." ’ A portion of v. 5 is included for context.

New Living Translation           If you need food to eat or water to drink, pay them for it. For the Lord your God has blessed you in everything you have done. He has watched your every step through this great wilderness. During these forty years, the Lord your God has been with you, and you have lacked nothing."'

The Voice                               `You may purchase food from them with silver and eat; you may buy water from them with silver and drink.'" You are not to plunder this nation because the Eternal your God, has blessed you in every way. He's watched over you as you've journeyed through this vast wilderness. Throughout these 40 years, the Eternal your God has been with you, and you haven't lacked a thing.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          You may buy food from them with money and eat it, and you will have to pay for any water that you drink.

'Yet, Jehovah our God has blest you in everything that you've done. Just think of how you went through that great and terrible desert. {Look!} During those forty years under Jehovah your God, you haven't lacked anything!

Beck’s American Translation But from them food to eat, and also pay them for water you get from them to drink. The LORD your God has blessed you in everything you did and has looked after you as you traveled in this great desert. For forty years now the LORD your God has been with you and you didn’t lack a thing.’

Christian Community Bible     You shall buy food and water from them with your silver. Think of all the blessings that Yahweh has bestowed on you in all our work and how he has been present in your journey through the desert. Yahweh has been with you for forty years, and never have you been in want.

God’s Word                         You must pay them in silver for the food you eat and the water you drink.'"

The LORD your God has blessed you in everything you have done. He has watched over you as you traveled through this vast desert. For 40 years now the LORD your God has been with you, and you haven't needed a thing.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       Food you may have, but it must be bought at a fair price; you may draw and drink their water, but not without payment. Do you grudge that, when the Lord has so prospered all your enterprises, watched over your journey through this wild wilderness, secured you from want by forty years of his companionship?

New American Bible (R.E.)    You shall purchase from them with money the food you eat; even the water you drink you shall buy from them with money. Surely, the LORD, your God, has blessed you in all your undertakings; he has been concerned [lit., "known"; cf. Ex 2:25.] about your journey through this vast wilderness. It is now forty years that the LORD, your God, has been with you, and you have lacked nothing. Dt 8:2-5.

NIRV                                      Pay them with silver for the food you eat and the water you drink.'"

The Lord your God has blessed you in everything your hands have done. He watched over you when you traveled through that huge desert. For these 40 years the Lord your God has been with you. So you have had everything you need.

New Jerusalem Bible             Pay them in money for what food you eat; and pay them in money for the water you drink. Yahweh your God has blessed you in all you do; he has watched over your journeying through this vast desert. Yahweh your God has been with you these forty years and you have never been in want."

New Simplified Bible              »‘You must pay them in silver for the food you eat and the water you drink.

»‘Remember how Jehovah your God blessed you in everything you have done. He took care of you as you wandered through this vast desert. He has been with you these forty years. You had everything you needed.«’


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      You purchased food to eat from them with silver. They also provided water for you to drink for silver. For Yahweh your God blessed you in all the handiwork of your hand. He knows your goings in this great wilderness. These forty years Yahweh your God was with you, and none spoke of want.

Bible in Basic English             You may get food for your needs from them for a price, and water for drinking. For the blessing of the Lord your God has been on you in all the work of your hands: he has knowledge of your wanderings through this great waste: these forty years the Lord your God has been with you, and you have been short of nothing.

The Expanded Bible              You must pay them in silver for any food you eat or water you drink.'"

The Lord your God has blessed everything you have done; he has protected you while you traveled through this ·great desert [vast wilderness]. The Lord your God has been with you for the past forty years, and you have had everything you needed.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 You must buy food from them with money, and eat it ; and also purchase water from them for money, and drink it ; for your Ever-living God has blessed you in every work of your hand, whilst you travelled this great desert these forty years; your Ever-living God has been with you, and you have wanted for nothing.'"

NET Bible®                             You may purchase [Heb includes "with silver."] food to eat and water to drink from them. All along the way I, the Lord your God [The Hebrew text does not have the first person pronoun; it has been supplied for purposes of English style (the Lord is speaking here).], have blessed your every effort [Heb "all the work of your hands."]. I have [Heb "he has." This has been converted to first person in the translation in keeping with English style.] been attentive to [Heb "known" (so ASV, NASB); NAB "been concerned about."] your travels through this great wasteland. These forty years I have [Heb "the Lord your God has." This has been replaced in the translation by the first person pronoun ("I") in keeping with English style.] been with you; you have lacked for nothing.'"

NIV, ©2011                             You are to pay them in silver for the food you eat and the water you drink.'"

The Lord your God has blessed you in all the work of your hands. He has watched [Dt 8:2-4] over your journey through this vast wilderness [S Ex 13:21; S Dt 1:19]. These forty years [ver 14; S Nu 14:33; 32:13; Jos 5:6] the Lord your God has been with you, and you have not lacked anything [Ne 9:21; Am 2:10].


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           Pay them money for the food you eat, and pay them money for the water you drink. For ADONAI your God has blessed you in everything your hands have produced. He knows that you have been traveling through this vast desert; these forty years ADONAI your God has been with you; and you have lacked nothing.'

exeGeses companion Bible   Market for kernels for food of them for silver, to eat;

and also dig water of them for silver, to drink:

for Yah Veh your Elohim

blessed you in all the works of your hand:

he knew your walking through this great wilderness:

these forty years Yah Veh your Elohim was with you;

you lacked no word.

Hebrew Names Version         You shall purchase food of them for money, that you may eat; and you shall also buy water of them for money, that you may drink. For the LORD your God has blessed you in all the work of your hand; he has known your walking through this great wilderness: these forty years the LORD your God has been with you; you have lacked nothing.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               What food you eat you shall obtain from them for money; even the water you drink you shall procure from them for money [Or “You may obtain food from them to eat for money; and you may also procure water from them to drink for money.”]. Indeed, the Lord your God has blessed you in all your undertakings. He has watched over your wanderings through this great wilderness; the Lord your God has been with you these past forty years: you have lacked nothing.

Kaplan Translation                 'You may purchase [Or, 'Do you then have to purchase' (Ramban).] from them with money food to eat and drinking water. God your Lord is blessing you in everything you do. He knows your way in this great desert, and for these forty years, God your Lord has been with you, so that you lacked nothing.'

Orthodox Jewish Bible           Ye shall get by trade okhel (food) of them for kesef, that ye may eat; and ye shall also buy mayim of them for kesef, that ye may drink. For Hashem Eloheicha hath bestowed a brocha on thee in all the works of thy hand; He knoweth thy walking through this midbar hagadol (great wilderness); these arba'im shanim Hashem Eloheicha hath been with thee; thou hast lacked nothing.

The Scriptures 1998              “What food you buy from them with silver you shall eat. And also, what water you buy from them with silver you shall drink.

“For יהוה your Elohim has blessed you in all the work of your hand. He has known your wandering through this great wilderness. These forty years יהוה your Elohim has been with you, you have not lacked any matter.” ʼ


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

Context Group Version          You { pl } shall purchase food of them for money, that you { pl } may eat; and you { pl } shall also buy water of them for money, that you { pl } may drink. For YHWH your God has esteemed you in all the work of your hand; he has known your walking through this great wilderness: these forty years YHWH your God has been with you; you have lacked nothing.

Emphasized Bible                  Food, shall ye buy of them with silver so shall ye eat,—yea even water, shall ye buy of them with silver so shall ye drink. For Yahweh thy God, hath blessed thee in all the work of thy hand, he hath considered thy traversing of this great desert,—these forty years, hath Yahweh thy God been with thee, thou hast lacked, nothing.

NASB                                     You shall buy food from them with money so that you may eat, and you shall also purchase water from them with money so that you may drink. 7 For the Lord your God has blessed you in all that you have done [Lit the work of your hand]; He has known your wanderings [Lit goings] through this great wilderness [Deut 1:19]. These forty years [Num 14:33, 34; 32:13; Deut 2:14] the Lord your God has been with you; you have not lacked a thing."

New King James Version       You shall buy food from them with money, that you may eat; and you shall also buy water from them with money, that you may drink.

"For the Lord your God has blessed you in all the work of your hand. He knows your trudging through this great wilderness. These forty years the Lord your God has been with you; you have lacked nothing." '

New RSV                               You shall purchase food from them for money, so that you may eat; and you shall also buy water from them for money, so that you may drink. Surely the Lord your God has blessed you in all your undertakings; he knows your going through this great wilderness. These forty years the Lord your God has been with you; you have lacked nothing.'

Updated Bible Version 2.11   You+ will purchase food of them for money, that you+ may eat; and you+ will also buy water of them for money, that you+ may drink. For Yahweh your God has blessed you in all the work of your hand; he has known your walking through this great wilderness: these forty years Yahweh your God has been with you; you have lacked nothing.

Young’s Updated LT             Food you [all] buy from them with money, and have eaten; and also water you [all] buy from them with money, and have drunk, for Jehovah your God has blessed you in all the work of your hands; He has known your walking in this great wilderness these forty years; Jehovah your God is with you; you have not lacked anything.

 

The gist of this verse:          The Israelites would need provisions, and God tells them that they can be purchased from the Edomites. God reminds them how they never lacked for food while in the desert.


Deuteronomy 2:6a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾôkel (אֹכֶל) [pronounced OH-kehl]

food, grain, meal; prey, meat; provisions

masculine singular noun

Strong’s #400 BDB #38

shâbar (שָבַר) [pronounced shawb-VAHR]

to purchase, to buy [grain]

2nd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #7666 BDB #991

min (מִן) [pronounced mihn]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

with, at, near, by, among, directly from

preposition (which is identical to the sign of the direct object) with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #854 BDB #85

Together, min ʾêth mean from proximity with, from with, from close proximity to, to proceed from someone. A good up-to-date rendering might be directly from. The idea is, the person that these prepositions refer to is supposed to directly be involved in the action or in whatever is being requested.

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

keçeph (כֶּסֶף) [pronounced KEH-sef]

silver, money; silver [as a metal, ornament, color]; shekels, talents

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3701 BDB #494


Translation: You will purchase food from them with silver... God continued to give orders to Moses, who would relay these orders to the people of Israel. What we have in these two verses is what Moses said to the people (seeing that we have the 2nd person masculine plural verbs—however, in v. 7, there will be a change to masculine singular suffixes (this will be discussed when we get there).


Despite the fact that the Edomites are afraid of the Jews, the Jews are to offer them money for their food. At this point, God is still providing manna in the desert. We are told this in Joshua 5:10–12 The People of Israel continued to camp at The Gilgal. They celebrated the Passover on the evening of the fourteenth day of the month on the plains of Jericho. Right away, the day after the Passover, they started eating the produce of that country, unraised bread and roasted grain. And then no more manna; the manna stopped. As soon as they started eating food grown in the land, there was no more manna for the People of Israel. That year they ate from the crops of Canaan. The context of Joshua is, the people have all crossed over the Jordan, and they are celebrating the first Passover in the Land of Promise.


However, this does not mean that the sons of Abraham might not want a little variety in their meals; even while getting manna; and that was potentially in the offing, if the Edomites agreed to sell them food. Also, the Jews cannot just take the food of their brothers. Commerce is required.


This also suggests that there is a recognized medium of exchange, silver. You will recall that when the Jews left Egypt, they carried with them a great deal of silver. So Moses tried to set up a free trade agreement with the Edomites, but they were not having any of it.


Deuteronomy 2:6b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾâkal (אָכַל) [pronounced aw-KAHL]

to eat; to devour, to consume, to destroy

2nd person masculine plural, Qal perfect

Strong’s #398 BDB #37


Translation: ...(which [food] you will eat);... Obviously, they will need to eat the food that they purchase from the sons of Esau. It is unclear whether God is providing manna from heaven for the people. Most commentators believe that He is. In any case, this would not preclude the Israelites from eating other foods which they have purchased.


Deuteronomy 2:6c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

gam (גַם) [pronounced gahm]

also, furthermore, in addition to, even, moreover

adverb

Strong’s #1571 BDB #168

Together, the wâw conjunction and the gam particle might mean together with, along with, joined with, and, furthermore, and furthermore.

mayim (מַיִם) [pronounced mah-YIHM]

water (s)

masculine plural noun

Strong’s #4325 BDB #565

kârâh (כָּרָה) [pronounced kaw-RAW]

to buy, to bargain, to get by trade [this word is a homonym]

2nd person plural, Qal perfect

Strong’s #3738 & #3739 BDB #500

The homonym means to bore, to dig; to hew. Both meanings can be confirmed in Scripture.

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

keçeph (כֶּסֶף) [pronounced KEH-sef]

silver, money; silver [as a metal, ornament, color]; shekels, talents

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #3701 BDB #494


Translation: ...and you will buy water from them with silver... You will note that water is not free either. They did have to purchase water as well, because in those days, water had to be brought up from a well, which involved considerable outlay to begin with, and work as well to bring the water up.


There are two different words here in the Hebrew for buy. The first is used specifically to buy grain; and the second is used for bartering or trading. Even though the numbers of the Israelites would be intimidating, God carefully instructed them to purchase whatever it is that they need from the Edomites.


Deuteronomy 2:6d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

shâthâh (שָתָה) [pronounced shaw-THAW]

to drink [actually or metaphorically]; to drink together [at a banquet]; to feast; to sit

2nd person masculine plural, Qal perfect

Strong’s #8354 BDB #1059


Translation: ...(which [water] you will drink);... Obviously, the water was there for them to drink.


We go from masculine plural verbs in v. 6 to masculine singular verbs and suffixes throughout v. 7. This is probably why these verses are separated. 


It is normal for people to pay for their food. Even Paul, as a teacher and evangelist, moved about mooching off of others (2Thess. 3:7–8). Whereas, this does not preclude human kindness, it does preclude mooching.


Application: There are Christians, Christian churches, and particularly Christian cults who believe that separation means that we go out of our way to separate from unbelievers. The Bible does not teach that, even here. There is legitimate commerce which can be practiced here, and God encourages the Israelites to engage in it. The fact that this does not come to pass increases the importance of having this passage here. It is okay to do business with an unbeliever; it is okay to shop in the store of some known atheist. These brothers of the Jews are not spiritual giants; they are not the people with whom God will work. But God tells them to engage in commerce with them anyway. This indicates to us that God has not put restrictions on us when it comes to interacting with unbelievers or believers who have not grown.


Application: There is certainly a clear exception to this rule, and it is, you do not interact with unbelievers or immature believers if doctrine is compromised. Let’s say your weakness is drinking, and you have good friends who like to go out on Friday night and get plastered. Not a good idea to go along. Let’s say there is this great sporting event or play or ballet occurring, but it is on the same night as Bible class—it is a good idea to go to Bible class rather than mix it up with your friends at the sporting event (or whatever).


Deuteronomy 2:7a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #430 BDB #43

bârake (בָּרַ) [pronounced baw-RAHKe]

to invoke God, to praise, to celebrate, to adore, to bless [God]; to bless [men], to invoke blessings; to bless [as God, man and other created things], therefore to cause to prosper, to make happy; to salute anyone [with a blessing]; to curse

3rd person masculine singular, Piel perfect with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #1288 BDB #138

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

Strong’s# none BDB #88

kôl (כֹּל) [pronounced kohl]

every, each, all of, all; any of, any

masculine singular construct not followed by a definite article

Strong’s #3605 BDB #481

Literally, in all. Although I don’t have this in the lexicons, it is rendered by the most literal translations as among all, through all, throughout all, with all.

maʿăseh (מַאֲשֶׂה) [pronounced mah-ğa-SEH]

deed, act, action, work, production, that which is done; that which is produced [property, goods, crops]; that which anyone makes or does; a course of action; a business

masculine singular construct

Strong's #4639 BDB #795

yâd (יָד) [pronounced yawd]

hand; strength, power (figuratively); side (of land), part, portion (metaphorically) (figuratively); (various special, technical senses); sign, monument; part, fractional part, share; time, repetition; axle-trees, axle; stays, support (for laver); tenons (in tabernacle); a phallus, a hand (meaning unsure); wrists

feminine singular noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #3027 BDB #388


Translation: ...for Yehowah your Elohim has blessed you in all the work of your hands. God blessed the Jews with a great deal of money. They worked as slaves in Egypt, and God saw to it that they were reimbursed for the work that they did. God required the Egyptians to pay them for the many years of work which they did.

 

deuteronomy2_7.jpg

What has happened is, there is a change from v. 6, where the people of Israel were referred to using masculine plural verbs and suffixes. At v. 7, we move to masculine singular verb and suffixes. Pett offers this explanation: The use of the singular `thee' and `thy' here is because the purpose is to bring out the covenant position between Yahweh and Israel as a whole. It is somewhat similar to the distinction between `Israel' (thee) seen as one and `the children of Israel' (you) seen as many. They are distinctly and genuinely one people whatever their origin.


Deuteronomy 2:7 Graphic from Motivational Quotes; accessed December 27, 2013.


Application: This does mean the reparations are legitimate for slaves; but not for their descendants 150 years later.

 

Clarke: God had given them much property, and therefore they had no need of plunder; they had gold and silver to buy the provender they needed, and therefore God would not permit them to take any thing by violence. Unless, of course, it is a people who hate God.

 

Peter Pett adds this thought: That this purchase of food and water was possible was because Yahweh had prospered them. `The work of their hand' may well have included pottery, jewellery and ornaments, weaving, metalwork and so on, which had been sold on to passing traders, and even to friendly desert tribes. This, along with treasures brought from Egypt and not used, had ensured that they were wealthy enough to purchase food for all. Although He had refused them entry into the land God had not utterly forsaken them. He had watched over their walking in the wilderness, and had been with them. We gather elsewhere that it was for Abraham's sake. This is one of the rare places where we are given an insight into their thirty eight year wandering.


Moses appears to still be speaking to the Jews as a whole, but in this verse, he speaks to the Israelites concerning their individual needs. “No matter what your perception is of God’s provision for the nation as a whole, I want you to now concentrate on what God has done for you in particular.” That is the idea of what Moses is saying.


Application: How people perceive things is very important. When George W. Bush was president, the economy was buzzing along just fine for about 7.75 years of his 8 years in office. However, the news media relentlessly attacked President Bush—particularly in his 2nd term. So there were many stories filed and published about the economic difficulties, the economic downturn and the troubles expected ahead (this is during a time of 4-5% unemployment and 2–5% economic growth). So, when people were asked, “How is the economy doing?” they would answer, “I am doing fine, but I think my neighbors might be in trouble.” This all occurred during a time of great American prosperity.


Application: It is relatively easy to sell the idea of a bad economy during an economic boom, as there are always hard-luck stories. However, it is much more difficult to sell a bad economy as good, which is what has been going on for the past 5 years (I write this in 2013).


Deuteronomy 2:7b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

yâdaʿ (יָדַע) [pronounced yaw-DAHĢ]

to know, to perceive, to acquire knowledge, to become acquainted with, to know by experience, to have a knowledge of something; to see; to learn; to recognize [admit, acknowledge, confess]

3rd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #3045 BDB #393

hâlake (הָלַךְ) [pronounced haw-LAHKe]

to go, to come, to depart, to walk; to advance

Qal infinitive construct with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong’s #1980 (and #3212) BDB #229

This is somewhat of an odd spelling; at first I thought that this was preceded with a lâmed preposition, but that was not the case.

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

midebâr (מִדְבָר) [pronounced mide-BAWR]

wilderness, unpopulated wilderness, desert wilderness; mouth

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #4057 BDB #184

gâdôwl (גָּדוֹל) [pronounced gaw-DOHL]

large, great or mighty [in power, nobility, wealth; in number, or magnitude and extent], loud, older, important, distinguished; vast, unyielding, immutable, significant, astonishing

masculine singular adjective with a definite article

Strong’s #1419 BDB #152

zeh (זֶה) [pronounced zeh]

here, this, this one; thus; possibly another

masculine singular demonstrative adjective with a definite article

Strong’s #2088, 2090 (& 2063) BDB #260

zeh (זֶה) [pronounced zeh]

here, this, this one; thus; possibly another

masculine singular demonstrative adjective

Strong’s #2088, 2090 (& 2063) BDB #260

ʾarebâʿîym (אַרְבָעִים) [pronounced are-BAW-ĢEEM]

forty

undeclinable plural noun

Strong’s #705 BDB #917

shânâh (שָנָה) [pronounced shaw-NAW]

year

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #8141 BDB #1040


Translation: He knows your going through this great desert-wilderness [for] these 40 years. I would assume that the pronoun here refers to God, but it is possible that it refers to the sons of Esau (often a people is referred to with a singular pronoun). Now, to be accurate, there is actually no pronoun here; it is built into the verb.


When this phrase is attached to what follows, it is clear that He refers to God.


Moses continues to speak using the 2nd person masculine singular suffix, indicating that he is communicating with the individuals in the crowd; and wanting them to consider how God took care of them and how God knew about their individual wants and needs.

 

The Pulpit Commentary: "From the fifteenth day of the first month in which their fathers came out of Egypt, (Num. 33:3) to the tenth day of the same month in which they went over Jordan into Canaan, (Joshua 4:19) there were but five days wanting of complete forty years." 


Deuteronomy 2:7c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

ʾĚlôhîym (אלֹהִים) [pronounced el-o-HEEM]

God; gods, foreign gods, god; rulers, judges; superhuman ones, angels; transliterated Elohim

masculine plural noun with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #430 BDB #43

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

with, at, near, by, among, directly from

preposition (which is identical to the sign of the direct object) with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

Strong's #854 BDB #85

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

châçêr (חָסֵר) [pronounced khaw-SEHR]

to lack, to need, to be lacking, to be devoice [of anything], to be without; to decrease, to be lessened; to be wanting; to fail

2nd person masculine singular, Qal perfect

Strong’s #2637 BDB #341

dâbâr (דָּבָר) [pronounced dawb-VAWR]

word, saying, doctrine, thing, matter, command; business, occupation; case; something; manner

masculine singular noun

Strong's #1697 BDB #182

Together, these words mean, you have lacked nothing; you have needed nothing.


Translation: [In all of this time], Yehowah your Elohim [has been] with you [and] you have lacked nothing.” During all of these 40 years, God has been with the Jews and they have lacked nothing. Therefore, they can trust Him here when He tells them to move forward along the borders of the Edomites, but without giving them offense.


Moses is explaining to the Israelites why God has so commanded them and reminds them of their blessings at God's hand—which is designed as motivation and justification for believing in Yehowah. All of the you's in this verse are in the singular. The emphasis is on son of Israel has seen God's daily blessing.

deuteronomy27.jpg





Deuteronomy 2:7 Graphic #2 from God Hears Me; accessed December 27, 2013. This site not only does the verses and graphics, but it also groups promises by topic.







There appears to be a slight contradiction—in some passages, God is taking care of every needs; and in others, there seems to have been some privation of Israel in the desert-wilderness.

When Critics Ask, Concerning Israel’s Comfort in the Desert-wilderness

DEUTERONOMY 2:7 —Were Israel’s conditions in the wilderness comfortable or destitute?

PROBLEM: Many passages speak of Israel’s privations in the wilderness (cf. Ex. 16:2 , 3 ; Num. 11:4–6 ). Yet here Moses declared that they “lacked nothing.”

SOLUTION: The passages are easily reconciled if it is kept in mind that their general state was relatively comfortable. They had ample food and clothes at all times. However, their murmuring and complaining brought acts of judgment from God which could be described as occasions of destitution. So, while the wandering Israelites “lacked nothing” in daily necessities, they certainly did not lack in plagues and punishment from the hand of God.

One of the keys here is, which generation are we speaking of? God abhorred Gen X and put them all to death under the sin unto death. But God preserved their children, the generation of promise.

Furthermore, another problem was one of capacity. God was willing to give great blessing to this generation. They could have had anything in the desert; God has the power to provide. But God did not give great blessing to a thankless generation.

Norman Geisler and Thomas Howe, When Critics Ask; Victor Books; taken from e-Sword, Deut. 2:7.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


deut2_7.jpg

Deuteronomy 2:7 (graphic #3); picture taken from 100Words.ca; accessed December 29, 2013.


The chief complaint of generation X was that they were out of food or out of water, or didn't like what they had. Moses reminds the people before him that, for forty years, despite their complaining (actually, the complaining of their parents, Gen X) they did not lack anything. Even though they traveled without a permanent residence, two million Israelites in a wilderness-desert, they had all of their daily needs met because God is able. It was only due to their hardheartedness that they did not have certain luxuries that they remembered from Egypt. God is able to provide luxuries.


The Israelites were traveling near trade routes occasionally, and men who traded throughout the east passed by them on a regular basis. God allowed them to do some trading, and they certainly had the wealth with which to work with. However, it is my educated guess that, had they trusted God, they would have been given a lot more in terms of exotic foods, had they been less stubborn. It would be a very little thing for God to cause their paths to cross with the paths of traders on a regular basis—including traders who had come right out of Egypt, carrying with them certain wares, goods and foods peculiar to Egypt. So, when you lack, it is not because God is not able.


God’s care of the Israelites is recalled in Neh. 9:12–23 By a pillar of cloud you led them in the day, and by a pillar of fire in the night to light for them the way in which they should go. You came down on Mount Sinai and spoke with them from heaven and gave them right rules and true laws, good statutes and commandments, and You made known to them your holy Sabbath and commanded them commandments and statutes and a law by Moses your servant. You gave them bread from heaven for their hunger and brought water for them out of the rock for their thirst, and You told them to go in to possess the land that You had sworn to give them. "But they and our fathers acted presumptuously and stiffened their neck and did not obey your commandments. They refused to obey and were not mindful of the wonders that You performed among them, but they stiffened their neck and appointed a leader to return to their slavery in Egypt. But You are a God ready to forgive, gracious and merciful, slow to anger and abounding in steadfast love, and did not forsake them. Even when they had made for themselves a golden calf and said, 'This is your God who brought you up out of Egypt,' and had committed great blasphemies, You in your great mercies did not forsake them in the wilderness. The pillar of cloud to lead them in the way did not depart from them by day, nor the pillar of fire by night to light for them the way by which they should go. You gave your good Spirit to instruct them and did not withhold your manna from their mouth and gave them water for their thirst. Forty years you sustained them in the wilderness, and they lacked nothing. Their clothes did not wear out and their feet did not swell. "And you gave them kingdoms and peoples and allotted to them every corner. So they took possession of the land of Sihon king of Heshbon and the land of Og king of Bashan. You multiplied their children as the stars of heaven, and you brought them into the land that you had told their fathers to enter and possess. (ESV; capitalized)


David wrote, Yehowah is my shepherd; I cannot lack. He makes me lie down in green pastures; He leads me beside waters of refreshment. He restores my soul; He guides me in the paths of righteousness for His name's sake (Psalm 23:1–3). This is the testimony of all mature Christians. I am certain that you can think of a thousand things that you want right now or think that you need. That's because you are immature. God saw to all of your needs in eternity past. When you are able to bear it, He gives you blessing. He will pour out blessing beyond anything that you can imagine—if you have the capacity to enjoy it. You can't give a three month old baby the bankbook to a savings account in his name containing $10,000,000. He would not appreciate it. He would try to eat it. You cannot take a three year old and provide them with a Harvard education—they have no capacity for it. When you begin to grow spiritually, then God will begin to pour. When you reach spiritual maturity, God will pour out blessings to you and your family and your associates and your nation like you would not believe. God does not just stop with you. His blessings overflow to all of those associated with you. You prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies; You have anointed my head with oil. My cup overflows. Certainly goodness and prosperity and grace will pursue me all the days of my life, and I will dwell in the house of Yehowah forever (Psalm 23:5–6).


The key is capacity and the key to capacity is the understanding of God's Word and God's plan through a pastor teacher and God the Holy Spirit. Running down a church aisle in a fit of emotion gives you an emotional catharsis at best. Praying fervently to God to give you things—please, don't waste your time. Get with His Word first; grow in the grace and knowledge of the Lord Jesus Christ first—then He will teach you how to pray and what to pray for. And He will pour blessings into your cup beyond anything that you have ever experienced in life.


The spies spent forty days in the Land of Promise, verifying that it was all that God had promised, they returned and enjoined the Israelites not to invade. As a result, God disciplined Israel for forty years. "Your children, however, whom you said would become a prey—I will bring them in, and they will know the land which you have rejected. But as for you, your corpses will fall in this wilderness, and your sons will be shepherds for forty years in the wilderness, and they will suffer for your unfaithfulness [lit., bear your fornications], until your corpses are finished in the wilderness. According to the number of days which you spied out the land, forty days, for every day you will bear your guilt-iniquities a year—forty years—and you will know My opposition." (Num. 15:31–35).


Throughout this chapter in particular, there are lands and peoples which God told the children of Israel to pass on by, and there are other lands which God gave to the Israelites.

God Determines the Borders of Nations

1.      This chapter of Deuteronomy and the books of Joshua and Judges indicate that God has determined which nations will live where and for what period of time.

2.      In this chapter, it is clear that God has given some land to the Moabites, Ammonites and the Edomites; and that the Jews, despite being God’s people, were not to attempt to even take any part of their land, even to the size of a footprint. Deut. 2:5, 9, 18–19

3.      God through Moses tells the people of Israel that even though giants occupied the lands now occupied by Moab, Ammon and Edom, this land was still given to them. Deut. 2:10–12, 20–23

4.      On the other hand, the land of Canaan, occupies by at least 7 other peoples, as well as the lands controlled by Sihon and Og are fair game for the Israelites to invade and to take. Deut. 2:24

5.      These borders are not set for all time. Although God has given the Jews the land of Canaan (and much more) for an eternal present, it is obvious that a majority of the Jews do not live in that land right now and they will never live in that land as a people until the Millennium. This is because God has scattered the Jews among all the nations—first as the 5th stage of national discipline, but secondly, so that they might evangelize the world during the Millennium. Lev. 26:33 Deut. 4:27 28:64–66 Jer. 9:16 Ezek. 12:14–16 20:23 22:15 Zech. 7:14 Luke 21:24 James 1:1

6.      However, God clearly gives the children of Abraham a specific land mass. Gen. 15:18–21

7.      It is God who divides up the nations with their inheritance, because the heavens belong to God, but He has given the earth to man. Deut. 32:8 Psalm 115:16

8.      God determines the boundaries of nations and specifically the times during which a people will live in a nation. It is through these national entities that facilitates evangelism. And He made every nation of men of one blood, to live on all the face of the earth, ordaining fore-appointed seasons and boundaries of their dwelling, to seek the Lord, if perhaps they might feel after Him and might find Him, though indeed He not being far from each one of us. (Acts 17:26–27; Green’s literal translation)

9.      Peoples are put in a specific place according to God’s will. Sometimes, a people occupy a place of great blessing because God has given them this place, if there are many believers in the population and several pockets of mature believers.

10.    God also allows for nations and peoples to build up to keep other nations and people in line. Judges 2:3, 21–23

Coffman comments about this:

This entire chapter gives glimpses of God's sovereignty over the earth that are unsurpassed in the Bible. Note: Seir once belonged to the Horites (the cave-dwellers), but the wickedness of the Horites caused God to give Mount Seir to Esau. Moab once belonged to the Emim (the terrible ones), but their terrorism caused God to give the area to Moabites, descendants of Lot. The area of the Ammonites also once belonged to the Rephaim, but God gave it to the Ammonite descendants of Lot. Both the Emim and the Rephaim were evil. In the case of the Philistines, we have three successive examples of God's replacing peoples because of their wickedness:

(1) The Avvim once lived along the Palestine coast. They became wicked.

(2) They were driven out by the Caphtorim who were the Philistines of later tunes, and who also became wicked.

(3) The Philistines were also driven out by Israel in the time of David king of Israel.

Also, Sihon and Og were driven out to make room for Reuben, Gad and Manasseh.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


——————————


And so we pass through from with our brothers sons of Esau, those living in Seir, from a way of the Arabah from Elath and from Ezion-geber. And so we turn and so we pass through a way of wilderness of Moab.

Deuteronomy

2:8

We passed through in [lit., from] a close proximity to our brothers, the sons of Esau, those who lived in Seir, [going along] [lit., from] the way of the Arabah from Elath and from Ezion-geber. Then we turned [again] and passed along the way of the desert-wilderness of Moab.

We passed through the land of Edom, in close proximity to our brothers, the sons of Esau, those who live in Seir. We went along the road which goes through the Arabah, Elath and Ezion-geber. Then we made another turn and went along the road which went through the unpopulated area of Moab.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                So we passed by our brethren the sons of Esau, who dwell in Gebala, from Elath and the fortress of Tarnegola and turned and went by the way of the wilderness of Moab.

Jerusalem targum                  So we passed by our brethren the sons of Esau, who dwell in Gebala, by the way of the plain from Elath and from the fortress of Tarnegola, and we turned and went by the way of the wilderness of Moab.

Latin Vulgate                          And when we had passed by our brethren the children of Esau, that dwelt in Seir, by the way of the plain from Elath and from Asiongaber, we came to the way that leadeth to the desert of Moab.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so we pass through from with our brothers sons of Esau, those living in Seir, from a way of the Arabah from Elath and from Ezion-geber. And so we turn and so we pass through a way of wilderness of Moab.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And when we passed by from our brethren the children of Esau, who dwelt in Seir, and from the way of the desert plain, from Elath and from Ezion-gaber we turned and passed by the way of the wilderness of Moab.

Septuagint (Greek)                And we passed by our brethren the children of Esau, who dwelt in Seir, by the way of Arabah from Elath and from Ezion Geber; and we turned and passed by the way of the desert of Moab.

 

Significant differences:           The targum does not name Ezion-geber.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           So we passed through the territory of our relatives who live in Seir, Esau's descendants, leaving the desert road from Elath and from Ezion-geber. Next we turned and went along the Moab wilderness route.

Contemporary English V.       We went past the territory that belonged to our relatives, the descendants of Esau. We followed Arabah Road that starts in the south at Elath and Ezion-Geber, then we turned onto the desert road that leads to Moab.

Easy English                          So we went on. We passed our brothers, the family of Esau, who live in Seir. We left the road through Arabah. This road is from Elath and Ezion Geber. We travelled along the *desert road to Moab.

Easy-to-Read Version            “So we passed by our relatives, the people of Esau living there in Seir. We left the road that leads from the Jordan Valley to the towns of Elath and Ezion Geber. We turned onto the road that goes to the desert in Moab.

Good News Bible (TEV)         "So we moved on and left the road that goes from the towns of Elath and Eziongeber to the Dead Sea, and we turned northeast toward Moab.

The Message                         So we detoured around our brothers, the People of Esau who live in Seir, avoiding the Arabah Road that comes up from Elath and Ezion Geber; instead we used the road through the Wilderness of Moab.

New Berkeley Version           “So we passed on beyond the territory of ours kinsmen, the children of Esau, who have their home in Seir, and our course led away from the Arabah road, away from Elath and Ezion-geber; and we turned in the direction of the Moab desert.

New Century Version             So we passed by our relatives, the descendants of Esau who lived in Edom. We turned off the Jordan Valley road that comes from the towns of Elath and Ezion Geber and traveled along the desert road to Moab.

New Living Translation           "So we bypassed the territory of our relatives, the descendants of Esau, who live in Seir. We avoided the road through the Arabah Valley that comes up from Elath and Ezion-geber.

The Voice                               So we traveled peacefully past our relatives, the descendants of Esau, who live in Seir. We left the road through the arid valley [Hebrew, Arabah], bypassing Elath and Ezion-geber, and took the desert road to Moab.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          'Then we passed by our brothers, the children of Esau who lived in Seir, walking through the desert between AiLon and Gesion Gaber. And after that, we turned and walked through the deserts of Moab.

Christian Community Bible     So we passed through the land of our brothers, the children of Esau who live in Seir. We left the Arabah road that led to Elath and Ezion-geber, and we took the road going into the desert of Moab.

God’s Word                         So we passed by our relatives, the descendants of Esau, who lived in Seir. We turned off the road that goes through the plains to Elath and Ezion Geber and took the road that goes through the desert of Moab.

New American Bible              "Then we left behind us the Arabah route, Elath, Ezion-geber, and Seir, where our kinsmen, the descendants of Esau, live; and we went on toward the desert of Moab.

New American Bible (R.E.)    So we passed by our relatives, the descendants of Esau who live in Seir, leaving behind us the Arabah route, Elath, and Zion-geber.

Along Moab. Then we turned and passed on toward the wilderness of Moab.

NIRV                                      We went on past our relatives. They are from the family line of Esau. They live in Seir. We turned away from the Arabah Valley road. It comes up from Elath and Ezion Geber. We traveled along the desert road of Moab.

New Jerusalem Bible             'So we passed beyond those relatives of ours, the children of Esau who live in Seir, by the road through the Arabah, Elath and Ezion-Geber; then, changing direction, we took the road towards the Plains of Moab.

New Simplified Bible              We moved on and left the road that goes from the towns of Elath and Eziongeber to the Dead Sea. »We turned northeast toward Moab.«

Revised English Bible            So we went on past our kinsmen, the descendants of Esau who live in Seir, and along the road of the Arabah which comes from Elath and Ezion-geber, and we turned and went in the direction of the wilderness of Moab.

Today’s NIV                          So we went on past our relatives the descendants of Esau, who live in Seir. We turned from the Arabah road, which comes up from Elath and Ezion Geber, and traveled along the desert road of Moab.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      We passed from our brothers the sons of Esau dwelling in Seir in the way from the plain from Elath and from Aqaba. We faced the wilderness and passed in the way to Central-Jordan.

Bible in Basic English             So we went on past our brothers, the children of Esau, living in Seir, by the road through the Arabah, from Elath and Ezion-geber. And turning, we went by the road through the waste land of Moab.

The Expanded Bible              So we passed by our ·relatives [brothers], the ·descendants [sons] of Esau who lived in ·Edom [LSeir; 1:44]. We turned off the ·Jordan Valley [LArabah] road that comes from the towns of Elath and Ezion Geber and traveled along the ·desert [wilderness] road to Moab [Num. 20:14-21].

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 You consequently passed by your brothers the sons of Esau, who occupy Sair, by the road of the Arabah, to Ailath, and Atzian-gaber, where you turned off and traversed the road of the desert of Moab.

HCSB                                     "So we bypassed our brothers, the descendants of Esau, who live in Seir. We turned away from the Arabah road and from Elath and Ezion-geber. We traveled along the road to the Wilderness of Moab.

NET Bible®                             So we turned away from our relatives [Or "brothers"; NRSV "our kin."] the descendants of Esau, the inhabitants of Seir, turning from the desert route [Heb "the way of the Arabah" (so ASV); NASB, NIV "the Arabah road."], from Elat [Elat was a port city at the head of the eastern arm of the Red Sea, that is, the Gulf of Aqaba (or Gulf of Eilat). Solomon (1 Kgs 9:28), Uzziah (2 Kgs 14:22), and Ahaz (2 Kgs 16:5-6) used it as a port but eventually it became permanently part of Edom. It may be what is known today as Tell el-Kheleifeh. Modern Eilat is located further west along the northern coast. See G. Pratico, "Nelson Glueck's 1938-1940 Excavations at Tell el-Kheleifeh: A Reappraisal," BASOR 259 (1985): 1-32.] and Ezion Geber [Ezion Geber. A place near the Gulf of Aqaba, Ezion-geber must be distinguished from Elat (cf. 1 Kgs 9:26-28; 2 Chr 8:17-18). It was, however, also a port city (1 Kgs 22:48-49). It may be the same as the modern site Gezirat al-Fauran, 15 mi (24 km) south-southwest from Tell el-Kheleifah.], and traveling the way of the Moab wastelands.

NIV, ©2011                             So we went on past our relatives the descendants of Esau, who live in Seir. We turned from [S Nu 20:21] the Arabah [S Dt 1:1] road, which comes up from Elath and Ezion Geber [Nu 33:35; 1Ki 9:26], and traveled along the desert road of Moab [S Nu 21:4].


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           "So we went on past our kinsmen the descendants of 'Esav living in Se'ir, left the road through the 'Aravah from Eilat and 'Etzyon-Gever, and turned to pass along the road through the desert of Mo'av.

exeGeses companion Bible   And we passed by

from our brothers the sons of Esav, settling in Seir;

through the way of the plain from Elath

and from Esyon Geber;

and we turned our face

and passed by the way of the wilderness of Moab.

Hebrew Names Version         So we passed by from our brothers the children of Esav, who dwell in Se`ir, from the way of the `Aravah from Elat and from `Etzyon-Gever. We turned and passed by the way of the wilderness of Mo'av.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               We then moved on, away from our kinsmen, the descendants of Edom, who live in Seir, away from the road of the Arabah, away from Elath and Ezion-geber; and we marched on in the direction of the wilderness of Moab.

Judaica Press Complete T.    And we departed from our kinsmen, the children of Esau, who dwelt in Seir, by way of the plain from Elath and from Etzion Geber, and we turned and passed through the way of the desert of Moab.

Kaplan Translation                 Encountering Moab

We passed by our brothers, the descendants of Esau who lived in Seir, and headed through the arabah [(from Deut. 1:1 note): This is the deep valley running to the north and south of the Dead Sea. Specifically, it usually denotes the valley to the south, leading to the Gulf of Aqaba (see Deuteronomy 2:8; Chizzkuni).] [The deep valley to the south of the Dead Sea. Or, 'the Aravah Highway.'] from Elath and Etzyon Gever [(from Numbers 33:35: 'Rooster's Crow!' K'rakh Tarngul in Aramaic (Targum Yonathan; Commentary ad loc.) or, 'Rooster City.' It is a town on the Gulf of Aqaba (cf. 1 Kings 22:49, 2 Chronicles 8:17), some 2 miles east of Elath (cf. Deuteronomy 2:8, 1 Kings 9:26). The Israelites therefore had headed south from Kadesh Barnea to the shore of the Gulf of Aqaba.] [Both are on the Gulf of Aqaba. The Israelites thus headed north from the Gulf of Aqaba directly toward the Dead Sea.].

We turned around [Toward the east (Rashi), to go around the Moabite territory.] and passed through the Moab desert [To the east of Moab; see Numbers 21:11, 33:43.].

Orthodox Jewish Bible           And when we went on past our brethren the Bnei Esav, who dwell in Seir, through the road of the Aravah from Eilat, and from Etzyon-Gever, we turned and passed by on the road through the midbar of Moav.

The Scriptures 1998              “And when we passed beyond our brothers, the descendants of Ěsaw who dwell in Sĕʽir, away from the way of the desert plain, away from Ěylath and Etsyon Geer, we turned and passed over by way of the Wilderness of Moʼa.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                So we passed on from our brethren the sons of Esau, who dwelt in Seir, away from the Arabah (wilderness), and from Elath and from Ezion-geber. We turned and went by the way of the wilderness of Moab.

Concordant Literal Version    So we passed on away from our brothers, the sons of Esau who are dwelling in Seir, away from the Aravah road, away from Elath and away from Ezion-geber, and turned around and passed on by the Moab wilderness road.

English Standard Version      So we went on [Judg. 11:18], away from our brothers, the people of Esau, who live in Seir, away from the Arabah road [See ch. 1:1] from Elath [1 Kgs. 9:26; [2 Kgs. 14:22; 16:6; 2 Chr. 26:2]] and Ezion-geber [See Num. 33:35]. "And we turned and went in the direction of the wilderness of Moab.

NASB                                     "So we passed beyond our brothers the sons of Esau, who live in Seir, away from the Arabah road [Deut 1:1], away from Elath and from Ezion-geber [Num 33:35; 1 Kin 9:26]. And we turned and passed through by the way of the wilderness of Moab.

New RSV                               So we passed by our kin, the descendants of Esau who live in Seir, leaving behind the route of the Arabah, and leaving behind Elath and Ezion-geber.

When we had headed out along the route of the wilderness of Moab, the Lord said to me: `Do not harass Moab or engage them in battle, for I will not give you any of its land as a possession, since I have given Ar as a possession to the descendants of Lot.' V. 9 is included for context.

Third Millennium Bible            And when we passed by from our brethren the children of Esau, who dwelt in Seir, through the way of the plain from Elath and from Eziongaber, we turned and passed by the way of the Wilderness of Moab.

World English Bible                So we passed by from our brothers the children of Esau, who dwell in Seir, from the way of the Arabah from Elath and from Ezion Geber. We turned and passed by the way of the wilderness of Moab.

Young’s Updated LT             And we pass by from our brethren, sons of Esau, who are dwelling in Seir, by the way of the plain, by Elath, and by Ezion-Gaber; and we turn, and pass over the way of the wilderness of Moab.

 

The gist of this verse:          Moses continues to describe the route they took, going past the Edomites and toward the Moabites.


Deuteronomy 2:8a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʿâbar (עָבַר) [pronounced ģawb-VAHR]

to pass over, to pass through, to pass on, to pass, to go over [beyond], to cross, to cross over; to go away, to depart; to violate [a law]

1st person plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #5674 BDB #716

min (מִן) [pronounced mihn]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

with, at, near, by, among, directly from

preposition (which is identical to the sign of the direct object)

Strong's #854 BDB #85

Together, min ʾêth mean from proximity with, from with, from close proximity to, to proceed from someone. A good up-to-date rendering might be directly from. The idea is, the person that these prepositions refer to is supposed to directly be involved in the action or in whatever is being requested.

ʾâch (אָח) [pronounced awhk]

brothers, kinsmen, close relatives; tribesmen; fellow-countrymen

masculine plural noun with the 1st person plural suffix

Strong's #251 BDB #26

bânîym (בָּנִים) [pronounced baw-NEEM]

sons, descendants; children; people; sometimes rendered men

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

ʿÊsâv (עֵשָׂו) [pronounced ģay-SAWV]

 handled, made, rough handling; hairy; transliterated Esau

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #6215 BDB #796

yâshab (יָשַב) [pronounced yaw-SHAHBV]

those inhabiting, those staying, those dwelling in, the inhabitants of, the ones dwelling in, dwellers of, those sitting [here], the ones sitting

masculine plural, Qal active participle with the definite article

Strong's #3427 BDB #442

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity

No Strong’s # BDB #88

Sêʿîyr (שֵׂעִיר) [pronounced say-ĢEER]

hairy, shaggy; transliterated Seir

masculine singular, proper noun

Strong’s #8165 BDB #973

Most of this is an exact repetition of v. 4.


Translation: We passed through in [lit., from] a close proximity to our brothers, the sons of Esau, those who lived in Seir,... All of this took place quite recently. Moses is now recalling things which have occurred within the past month or so of their lives. They are traveling through the land of Edom, in close proximity to their relatives, the Edomites, who live in Seir.


Deuteronomy 2:8b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

min (מִן) [pronounced mihn]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

dereke (דֶּרֶך׃) [pronounced DEH-reke]

way, distance, road, path; journey, course; direction, towards; manner, habit, way [of life]; of moral character

masculine singular construct

Strong's #1870 BDB #202

ʿĂrâbâh (or, ʿărâbâh) (עֲרָבָה) [pronounced guh-rawb-VAW]

plain; arid, sterile region; a desert; transliterated Arabah with the definite article

sometimes a proper noun; feminine singular noun; with the definite article

Strong’s #6160 BDB #787

With the definite article, ʿărâbâh often refers to the valley which runs from the Sea of Chinnereth (the Sea of Galilee) down to the Gulf of Aqaba.


Translation:...[going along] [lit., from] the way of the Arabah... There seem to be two main roads spoken of here, and this first one stretches from the Arabah; which road they are on. It is possible that this ought to read away from the way of the Arabah. More details will be given below:


Deuteronomy 2:8c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

min (מִן) [pronounced mihn]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʾÊylath (אֵילַת) [pronounced ay-LAHTH]

trees, a grove [of palms]; transliterated Elath, Eloth

proper singular noun/location:

Strong’s #359 BDB #19

This is also spelled ʾÊylôth (אֵילֹת) [pronounced ay-LOHTH]. BDB says it is a port on the north-east arm of the Red Sea.

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

min (מִן) [pronounced mihn]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʿEtseyôn (עֶצְיֹן) [pronounced ģehts-YOHN]

 backbone of a man; transliterated Ezion Geber, Ezion Gaber

proper singular noun

Strong’s #6100 BDB #702

Geber (גֶּבֶר) [pronounced GEHB-vehr]

men, as separate from women and children; a male; a male [man]-child; a strong man

masculine singular noun with the definite article

Strong’s #1397 (& #1399) BDB #149

Altogether, this ʿEtseyôn Geber (גֶּבֶר עֶצְיֹן) [pronounced ģehts-YOHN GEHB-vehr], which means backbone of a man; and is transliterated Ezion Geber, Ezion Gaber. BDB describes this as the last station during the exodus of the Israelites before they came to the wilderness of Zin; located near Elath at the head of the Gulf of Akaba.


Translation: ...from Elath and from Ezion-geber. This first road that they are on also goes through Elath and Ezion-geber.

 

Smith gives a reasonably short description of Elath and Ezion-geber: [Elath is] the name of a town of the land of Edom, commonly mentioned with Ezion–geber, and situated at the head of the Arabian Gulf, which was, thence, called the Elanitic Gulf. It first occurs in the account of the wanderings (Deut. 2:8), and in later times, must have come under the rule of David (2Sam. 8:14). We find the place named again, in connection with Solomon's navy (1Kings 9:26; compare 2Chron. 8:17). In the Roman period, it became a frontier town of the south, and the residence of a Christian bishop. The Arabic name is Eyleh, and palm groves still exist there, after which it was named.

 

Of Ezion–geber, Smith writes: [Ezion-geber means] giant's backbone. [It is] the last station named for the encampment of the Israelites, before they came to the wilderness of Zin. It probably stood at Ain el–Ghudyan, about ten miles up what is now the dry bed of the Arabah, but which was probably then the northern end of the gulf (Num. 33:35 Deut. 2:8 1Kings 9:26 22:48 2Chron. 8:17).

 

ISBE says that Elath is a seaport on the Red Sea in the territory of Edom. Barnes writes: Elath (Akaba) is at the northern extremity of the eastern arm of the Red Sea, and gives to that arm the name of the Elanitic Gulf. The name means “trees;” and is still justified by the grove of palm-trees at Akaba.

 

Peter Pett on these two cities: Because of the opposition, instead of taking the King's Highway (Numbers 20:17), they took `the way of the Arabah' (the rift valley through which higher up the Jordan ran), passing Edom either on its eastern or western border, having previously been near Elath and Ezion-geber on the Reed Sea, although the mention of these may only indicate general direction when looking from the plains of Moab. These latter were possibly districts of the same place, town and island, (compare Numbers 33:35-36; 1 Kings 9:22; 1 Kings 22:48; 2 Kings 14:22). The small island Jazirat Faraun, with an inner harbour and a strait providing sheltered mooring, is located opposite the mainland from which ancient quays are running out from the shore. These may well have been Ezion-geber and Elath.


Ezion-geber is south of the Salt Sea, though not necessarily as far south as it is shown on most maps. As I have mentioned before, the Gulf of Aqaba probably came much further north than it does today, with a river once or still flowing into it. Ezion-geber must be in such a place as to provide access to the Gulf of Aqaba, as it is later known for its shipbuilding. This places us, at least for a portion of this trip on the southern portion of Edom. Furthermore, as has been mentioned, the Jews do not have to actually go all the way down to Ezion-geber in order to fulfill what we find in the text.


Ezion-Geber may be further north than what you find on the maps in your Bible, as is the gulf of Aqaba. I believe that there was a sizable river feeding into it from the north (this river leading into the sea might be the Sea of Reeds). It may or may not still be active. Elath is located at the gulf of Arabah also, the north-eastern finger of the Red Sea. Elath means trees and there are still groves of palm trees in that area to justify such a name.


The road of the Arabah here seems to refer to a route which moves north south from the Red Sea on up to the Dead Sea, which would be through the southern Arabah. They likely walked along a trade route there, called the Arabah Road or the way of the Arabah. However, if they are walking along the Road of Arabah, would have expected the bêyth preposition rather than the min preposition. The Road of Arabah would be the purple line below; however, it is possible that they traveled from that road over to the red route. The route that they took will be discussed below.


deut2_8.jpg

Map of the Route of Israel; taken from The Bible Atlas in E-sword, Map 032—The Journey from Kadesh-Barnea to the Plains of Moab. Here is what we have so far: We passed through in [lit., from] a close proximity to our brothers, the sons of Esau, those who lived in Seir, [going along] [lit., from] the way of the Arabah from Elath and from Ezion-geber. There are a couple of routes suggested in this map. They could have followed the red route from Kadesh-Barnea, going south toward Ezion-geber and have crossed over at any point to the purple route and moved northward from there. Or they could have taken the yellow route. God would have spoken to Moses about the time that you see the dip in those two routes near Edom (they may have been more south than even this map shows). The way of the Arabah is that route which is shown in purpose running on the east portion of the Arabah along the mountain ranges of Edom. This verse places the Jews on this route; but that does not mean that they traveled that entire length marked in purple. After all, if you say that you were on interstate 10, the does not mean that you traveled along the entire length of that freeway.


The yellow route and the purple routes both seem unlikely, as it appears as if they make almost a bee-line for the land of the Edomites, and it appears as if they knew in Kadesh that the Edomites were against the Jews coming into their cities or even along the border of their land.


There is an alternate approach, which I am leaning towards. You will note the min preposition used above with the Way of the Arabah, with Elath and with Ezion-geber. That can be translated away from. The New Berkeley Translation handles it this way: “So we passed on beyond the territory of ours kinsmen, the children of Esau, who have their home in Seir, and our course led away from the Arabah road, away from Elath and Ezion-geber; and we turned in the direction of the Moab desert. So the idea could be that, as the sons of Israel moved further north, they also moved further away from that particular route. This would certain suggest the route marked in red (or something approximating that route).


However, both the purple and the red routes appear to have this need to go all the way down to Ezion-geber; however, the way that this verse reads, they do not have go down that far south. They simply need to have a route partially defined by the Road of the Arabah which goes through Ezion-geber. Furthermore, even with the Edomites saying, “Don’t come anywhere near us” that does not mean that the Jews would have gone that far south.


Recall that Moses has had a great deal of training to become pharaoh of Egypt; so he knows this area and he has studied maps of this area. He knows where these various routes are; where the various mountain ranges are; and who lives where. That would be necessary for any pharaoh to learn. Therefore, it would be unlikely that he would take the Jews so far out of the way as going all the way down to Ezion-geber.


Deuteronomy 2:8d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

pânâh (פָּנָה) [pronounced paw-NAWH]

to turn, to turn away from, to turn toward, to turn one’s face away from, to turn one’s face to

1st person plural, Qal imperfect

Strong's #6437 BDB #815

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʿâbar (עָבַר) [pronounced ģawb-VAHR]

to pass over, to pass through, to pass on, to pass, to go over [beyond], to cross, to cross over; to go away, to depart; to violate [a law]

1st person plural, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #5674 BDB #716

dereke (דֶּרֶך׃) [pronounced DEH-reke]

way, distance, road, path; journey, course; direction, towards; manner, habit, way [of life]; of moral character

masculine singular construct

Strong's #1870 BDB #202

midebâr (מִדְבָר) [pronounced mide-BAWR]

wilderness, unpopulated wilderness, desert wilderness; mouth

masculine singular construct

Strong’s #4057 BDB #184

Môʾâb (מֹאָב) [pronounced moh-AWBV]; also Môwʾâb (מוֹאָב) [pronounced moh-AWBV]

of his father; transliterated Moab

masculine proper noun; gentilic and territory

Strong’s #4124 BDB #555


Translation: Then we turned [again] and passed along the way of the desert-wilderness of Moab. They will make another turn and then travel along a road which goes through the unpopulated area of Moab. The verb here makes it difficult to determine if they go along this road or pass over it.


There was another incident with Moab, but that occurred quite a bit earlier than this one. For the most part, Moses is recalling recent history, that all of his audience is aware of and lived through.


The Arabah Road was a road which began around the Gulf of Aqaba and went north to Edom. Then the Jews moved along the southern part of the Dead Sea, going through Edom (= the sons of Esau), around to the east side of the Dead Sea, crossing over Moab. Since the Jews are moving north-south, and we have the verb, to cross over, that indicates that the Way of the Wilderness of Moab is going east-west


The Route of Moses

I am not too happy with many of the Exodus route maps I have seen, so you can ignore some of the lines which you see here.


In this final march into the land by the Jew, their original intention was probably to come up the Way of the Arabah, which is probably a north-south trade route along the Arabah, and go along the western and norther border of Edom. However, the Edomite leadership made it clear that they did not want them anywhere near their borders, and they brought out a large army to enforce the no-entrance order. This would force the Jews to go south and cross over to a trade route east of Edom. Then they could move up that trade route, being quite a distance outside of Edom.


This route is confirmed in Judges 11:17–18 “Israel sent messengers to the king of Edom, saying, 'Please let us travel through your land,' but the king of Edom would not listen. They also sent messengers to the king of Moab, but he refused. So Israel stayed in Kadesh. Then they traveled through the wilderness and around the lands of Edom and Moab. They came to the east side of the land of Moab and camped on the other side of the Arnon but did not enter into the territory of Moab, for the Arnon was the boundary of Moab.” (HCSB) So, after receiving a negative response from Edom and Moab, the Israelites regrouped in Kadesh, and then went on a route which went around the territories of Moab and Edom, through the desert-wilderness regions.

deuteronomy023.gif

 

This is taken from:

http://www.swartzentrover.com/cotor/bible/Bible/Bible%20Atlas/029.jpg accessed December 15, 2013.


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


What is unimportant to the train of thought of Moses was the response of the sons of Esau. The Edomites came out in great force against the Jews, refusing them entry into their land. Most passages have them negotiating going around the border of Edom while they are in Kadesh-barnea. However, at some point, all Israel goes toward Edom and they are met with a very large Edomite army. Therefore they would have had to walk around the southern border of Edom and come up from the east side.

 

Moses is not covering every incident of this march. Peter Pett writes: Numbers tells us of an attack at this stage by the Canaanite king of Arad, from the Negeb, and his partial victory, and ultimate defeat after Israel prayed to Yahweh (Numbers 21:2). He and his `cities' were devoted to destruction. They were Canaanites. But Moses concentration in Deuteronomy is on the advance into, and possession, of the land, and on others whose land has been given to them by Yahweh, not on minor victories.


——————————


And so says Yehowah unto me, “Do not be hostile towards Moab and do not engage with them [in] battle for I will not give to you from their land [as] a possession; for to sons of Lot I have given Ar [as] a possession.”

Deuteronomy

2:9

Yehowah said to me, “Do not become hostile towards Moab and do not engage them in battle, for I will not give any of their land [as] a possession to you, for I have given Ar to the sons of Lot as [their] inheritance.”

Jehovah said to me, “Do not become hostile towards Moab and do not engage them in battle, because I have not given any of their land to you; I have given Ar to the sons of Lot as their inheritance.”


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And the Lord spoke to me, saying: You will not aggrieve the Moabaee, nor make war against them; for I have not given you their land to inherit, because I have given Lachaiath for a possession to the children of Lot.

Latin Vulgate                          And the Lord said to me: Fight not against the Moabites, neither go to battle against them: for I will not give thee any of their land, because I have given Ar to the children of Lot in possession.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And so says Yehowah unto me, “Do not be hostile towards Moab and do not engage with them [in] battle for I will not give to you from their land [as] a possession; for to sons of Lot I have given Ar [as] a possession.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    And the LORD said to me, Do not distress the Moabites, neither provoke them to battle; for I will not give you of their land for a possession; because I have given it to the children of Lot for an inheritance.

Septuagint (Greek)                And the Lord said to me, Do not quarrel with the Moabites, and do not engage in war with them; for I will not give you of their land for an inheritance, for I have given Ar to the children of Lot, to inherit.

 

Significant differences:           None.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           The Lord said to me: Don't aggravate Moab. Don't fight them in battle because I won't give any part of their land to you as your own. I have given Ar to Lot's descendants as their property.

Contemporary English V.       The LORD told me, "Don't try to start a war with Moab. Leave them alone, because I gave the land of Ar to them, and I will not let you have any of it."

Easy English                          Then the *Lord said to me, "Do not make the men in Moab angry. Do not make them fight against you. I will not give you any part of their country. I have given Ar city to the family of Lot."

Easy-to-Read Version            “The Lord said to me, ‘Don’t bother the people of Moab. Don’t start a war against them. I will not give you any of their land. They are the descendants of Lot [Lot’s sons were Moab and Ammon. See Gen_19:30-38.], and I gave them the city of Ar.’”

Good News Bible (TEV)         The LORD said to me, 'Don't trouble the people of Moab, the descendants of Lot, or start a war against them. I have given them the city of Ar, and I am not going to give you any of their land.' "

The Message                         GOD told me, "And don't try to pick a fight with the Moabites. I am not giving you any of their land. I've given ownership of Ar to the People of Lot."

New Berkeley Version           “At this point the Lord told me: Do not distress the Moabites, and do not challenge them to fight, for I will not give you any of their land to possess, because I have assigned Ar to the children of Lot for their possession.

New Century Version             The Land of Ar

Then the Lord said to me, "Don't bother the people of Moab. Don't go to war against them, because I will not give you any of their land as your own; I have given Ar to the descendants of Lot as their own."

New Living Translation           "Then as we turned north along the desert route through Moab, the Lord warned us, `Do not bother the Moabites, the descendants of Lot, or start a war with them. I have given them Ar as their property, and I will not give you any of their land.'" A portion of v. 8 was included for context.

The Voice                               There the Eternal gave me more instructions: "Don't attack the Moabites, and don't fight any battles with them because I'm not going to give you any of Moab's land. I gave Ar to these descendants of Lot, so it belongs to them."


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          It was then that Jehovah said to me: Don't argue with the Moabites and don't war against them; for, I won't give you their land as an inheritance, since I have given AroEr to the children of Lot as their inheritance.

Beck’s American Translation “ ‘Don’t cause Moab any trouble,’ the LORD told me. ‘Or star a war with them, because I’m not giving you any of their land. I gave Ar to Lot’s descendants as their possession.’

God’s Word                         The LORD said to me, "Don't bother the people of Moab or start a war with them. I'm not giving you any of Ar as your property. I have given it to the descendants of Lot."

New Advent (Knox) Bible       So we passed beyond these brethren of ours, the Edomites of Seir, taking the road that leads over the level plain, from Elath and Asiongaber [Free passage seems to have been granted by the Edomites on this occasion (verse 29 below); the incident must not be confused with that described in Num. 20.14 sqq., when the Israelites were marching eastwards, not northwards.]. And when we reached the path that leads into the desert of Moab, the Lord said to me, Do not levy war against the Moabites, or attack them; I do not mean to give thee any of their lands. Ar is the territory I have given to the sons of Lot for their home. V. 8 is included for context.

New American Bible (R.E.)    And the LORD said to me, Do not show hostility to the Moabites or engage them in battle, for I will not give you possession of any of their land, since I have given Ar to the descendants of Lot as their possession. [2:9-13] Nm 21:12-15; Jgs 11:17-18. [2:9] Gn 19:36-38.

NIRV                                      Then the Lord said to me, "Do not attack the Moabites. Do not even make them angry. If you do, they will go to war against you. I will not give you any part of their land. I have given Moab to the people in the family line of Lot. I have given it to them as their own."

New Jerusalem Bible             Yahweh then said to me, "Do not attack Moab, do not provoke him to fight, for I shall give you none of his land, since I have given Ar to the children of Lot as their domain."

New Simplified Bible              »Then Jehovah said to me: ‘Do not trouble the people of Moab, the descendants of Lot. And do not start a war with them. I gave them the city of Ar, and I am not going to give you any of their land.’

Today’s NIV                          Then the LORD said to me, "Do not harass the Moabites or provoke them to war, for I will not give you any part of their land. I have given Ar to the descendants of Lot as a possession."


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      Yahweh said to me, "Do not besiege Central-Jordan, and do not stir them to war, for I will not give you their land for a possession. I gave Ar to the sons of Lot for a possession."

Bible in Basic English             And the Lord said to me, Make no attack on Moab and do not go to war with them, for I will not give you any of his land: because I have given Ar to the children of Lot for their heritage.

The Expanded Bible              The Land of Ar

Then the Lord said to me, "Don't ·bother [harrass] the people of Moab. Don't go to war against them, because I will not give you any of their land as your own; I have given Ar to the ·descendants [Lsons] of Lot as their own."

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 There the Ever-living said to me, " Do not trouble Moab, but keep yourselves from fighting. Turn, for I have not granted you his country, because I have given Ar to the sons of Lot as a possession."

NET Bible®                             Then the Lord said to me, "Do not harass Moab and provoke them to war, for I will not give you any of their land as your territory. This is because I have given Ar [Ar was a Moabite city on the Arnon River east of the Dead Sea. It is mentioned elsewhere in the "Book of the Wars of Yahweh" (Num 21:15; cf. 21:28; Isa 15:1). Here it is synonymous with the whole land of Moab.] to the descendants of Lot [The descendants of Lot. Following the destruction of the cities of the plain, Sodom and Gomorrah, as God's judgment, Lot fathered two sons by his two daughters, namely, Moab and Ammon (Gen 19:30-38). Thus, these descendants of Lot in and around Ar were the Moabites.] as their possession.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           ADONAI said to me, 'Don't be hostile toward Mo'av or fight with them, because I will not give you any of their land to possess, since I have already given 'Ar to the descendants of Lot as their territory.'"

exeGeses companion Bible   And Yah Veh said to me,

Neither besiege the Moabiy nor throttle them in war:

for I give you not of their land for a possession;

because I give Ar to the sons of Lot for a possession.

Kaplan Translation                 God said to me, 'Do not attack Moab and do not provoke them to fight. I will not give you their land as an inheritance, since I have already given Ar [The name of the area where Moab lived (Rashi). See Numbers 21:15,28; Deuteronomy 2:18.] to Lot's descendants [Moab was Lot's illegitimate son (Genesis 19:37).] as their heritage.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           And Hashem said unto me, Harass not the Moavim, neither provoke them to milchamah for I will not give thee of their land for a yerushah; because I have given Ar unto the Bnei Lot for a yerushah.

The Scriptures 1998              “And יהוה said to me, ‘Do not distress Moʼa, nor stir yourself up against them in battle, for I do not give you any of their land as a possession, because I have given Ar to the descendants of Lot as a possession.ʼ ”


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

The Amplified Bible                And the Lord said to me, Do not trouble or assault Moab or contend with them in battle, for I will not give you any of their land for a possession, because I have given Ar to the sons of Lot for a possession.

Concordant Literal Version    Then Yahweh said to me: Do not distress Moab and do not stir yourself up against them in battle, for I shall not give to you any of his country as a tenancy, for I gave Ar to the sons of Lot as a tenancy.

A Conservative Version         And LORD said to me, Do not vex Moab, neither contend with them in battle, for I will not give thee of his land for a possession, because I have given Ar to the sons of Lot for a possession.

Context Group Version          And YHWH said to me, Don't aggravate Moab, neither contend with them in battle; for I will not give you of his land { or earth } for a possession; because I have given Ar to the sons of Lot for a possession.

Emphasized Bible                  And Yahweh said unto me—Do not lay siege to Moab, nor engage in strife with them in battle,—for I will not give unto thee of his and as a possession, for unto the sons of Lot, have I given Ar, as a possession.

English Standard Version      And the LORD said to me, 'Do not harass [ver. 19, 29] Moab or contend with them in battle, for I will not give you any of their land for a possession, because I have given Ar [ver. 18; Num. 21:15; Isa. 15:1] to the people of Lot [ver. 19; Gen. 19:36, 37] for a possession.'

Green’s Literal Translation    And Jehovah said to me, Do not besiege Moab, nor stir yourself up against them in battle, for I will not give their land to you for a possession. For I have given Ar as a possession to the sons of Lot.

NASB                                     Then the Lord said to me, `Do not harass Moab, nor provoke them to war, for I will not give you any of their [Lit his] land as a possession, because I have given Ar [Num 21:15, 28; Deut 2:18, 29] to the sons of Lot [Gen 19:36, 37] as a possession.'

World English Bible                Yahweh said to me, Don't bother Moab, neither contend with them in battle; for I will not give you of his land for a possession; because I have given Ar to the children of Lot for a possession.

Young’s Updated LT             And Jehovah says unto me, “Do not distress Moab, nor stir thyself up against them in battle, for I do not give to you of their land for a possession; for to the sons of Lot I have given Ar for a possession.

 

The gist of this verse:          The Israelites are not to disturb the people of Moab; God gave them a particular plot of land, and He is not allowing the Jews to take it from the Moabites.


Deuteronomy 2:9a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

wa (or va) (וַ) [pronounced wah]

and so, and then, then, and; so, that, yet, therefore, consequently; because

wâw consecutive

No Strong’s # BDB #253

ʾâmar (אָמַר) [pronounced aw-MAHR]

to say, to speak, to utter; to say [to oneself], to think; to command; to promise; to explain; to intend; to answer

3rd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #559 BDB #55

YHWH (יהוה) [pronunciation is possibly yhoh-WAH]

transliterated variously as Jehovah, Yahweh, Yehowah

proper noun

Strong’s #3068 BDB #217

ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl]

unto; into, among, in; toward, to; against; concerning, regarding; besides, together with; as to

directional preposition (respect or deference may be implied) with the 1st person singular suffix

Strong's #413 BDB #39

ʾal (אַל) [pronounced al]

no, not; nothing; none; neither, nor; do not, let not [with a verb]; let there not be [with an understood verb];

adverb of negation; conjunction of prohibiting, dehorting, deprecating, desire that something not be done

Strong’s #408 BDB #39

Although the Masoretic text has ʾel (אֶל) [pronounced ehl], the preposition here instead, Owens believes this to be the negative instead. The only difference is the vowel point, which was added long after the fact. The second phrase in this verse is similar, and it has the negative.

tsûwr (צוּר) [pronounced tsoor]

to bind, to besiege, to confine (shut up, cramp, enclose)

2nd person masculine singular, Qal imperfect

Strong’s #6696 BDB #837

Tsûwr has 2 other sets of meanings: to show hostility toward, to be an adversary to, to treat as a foe; and to form, to fashion, to delineate.

Owens mistakenly lists this as a Hiphil, probably because of the prefix, which simply indicates that this is a 2nd person masculine singular verb. This verb only has the Qal form.

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

Môʾâb (מֹאָב) [pronounced moh-AWBV]; also Môwʾâb (מוֹאָב) [pronounced moh-AWBV]

of his father; transliterated Moab

masculine proper noun; gentilic and territory

Strong’s #4124 BDB #555


Translation: Yehowah said to me, “Do not become hostile towards Moab... God is speaking, and the imperative verbs are all 2nd person masculine singular verbs. This indicates that God is speaking to Moses directly. Moses shifts easily in this narrative from his orders to the people to God’s orders to him and back again.


God is going to have Israel go to war with a great many peoples; but they are not to become hostile toward the people of Moab. All of this has to do with the way that these people are. If enough of them have faith in the Revealed God, and if they engage in the proper behavior to maintain themselves as a nation, then God will protect and even bless them. Here, God is running direct interference for Moab, telling Moses specifically not to become hostile toward them.


The Moabites were descended from Lot and Lot was a believer in the Revealed God. He made a lot of bad decisions, but this does not make him much different than the average believer today. There are apparently many believers among the Moabites who have believed in the same Revealed God. Therefore, God is going to extend protection toward Moab.


What God demanded of the Israelites was not necessarily enough to prevent hostilities between the two peoples. There were problems stirred up by Moab against Israel, when no reason for doing so existed. This is covered in Num. 22–25. For whatever reason, Moses does not readdress this incident. However, this tells us that God required Israel to have a non-aggression policy toward Moab, and they did not violate this. It was Moab which was out of line.


Deuteronomy 2:9b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

ʾal (אַל) [pronounced al]

no, not; nothing; none; neither, nor; do not, let not [with a verb]; let there not be [with an understood verb];

adverb of negation; conjunction of prohibiting, dehorting, deprecating, desire that something not be done

Strong’s #408 BDB #39

gârâh (גָּרָה) [pronounced gaw-RAW]

to excite oneself against; to engage in strife; to be irritated, to be angry; to engage in war

2nd person masculine singular, Hithpael imperfect; apocopated

Strong’s #1624 BDB #173

Apocopated means that the verb has been shortened. Generally, this means that the final hê (?) and the vowel which precedes it are dropped. Apocopation is used when the verb functions as a jussive.

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #88

milechâmâh (מִלְחָמָה) [pronounced mil-khaw-MAW]

battle, war, fight, fighting; victory; fortune of war

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #4421 BDB #536


Translation: ...and do not engage them in battle,... God tells Moses not to go to war with the sons of Moab either. Moses would of course so order the people of Israel.


Deuteronomy 2:9c

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

lôʾ (לֹא or לוֹא) [pronounced low]

not, no

negates the word or action that follows; the absolute negation

Strong’s #3808 BDB #518

nâthan (נָתַן) [pronounced naw-THAHN]

to give, to grant, to place, to put, to set; to make

1st person singular, Qal imperfect

Strong's #5414 BDB #678

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510

min (מִן) [pronounced mihn]

from, off, out from, out of, away from, on account of, since, than, more than

preposition of separation

Strong's #4480 BDB #577

ʾerets (אֶרֶץ) [pronounced EH-rets]

earth (all or a portion thereof), land, territory, country, continent; ground, soil; under the ground [Sheol]

feminine singular noun with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

Strong's #776 BDB #75

From their land = any of their land.

yerushshâh (יְרֻשָּה) [pronounced yer-oosh-SHAW]

a possession, an inheritance

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #3425 BDB #440


Translation: ...for I will not give any of their land [as] a possession to you,... God will not give any of their land to Israel. For this reason, there is no reason for Israel to engage in war against the Moabites. They have absolutely nothing to gain from it.


Deuteronomy 2:9d

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

kîy (כִּי) [pronounced kee]

for, that, because; when, at that time, which, what time

explanatory or temporal conjunction; preposition

Strong's #3588 BDB #471

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

bânîym (בָּנִים) [pronounced baw-NEEM]

sons, descendants; children; people; sometimes rendered men

masculine plural construct

Strong’s #1121 BDB #119

Lôwţ (לוֹט) [pronounced loht]

hidden; a covering, a veil; wrapped up; transliterated Lot

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #3876 BDB #532

nâthan (נָתַן) [pronounced naw-THAHN]

to give, to grant, to place, to put, to set; to make

1st person singular, Qal perfect

Strong's #5414 BDB #678

ʾêth (אֶח) [pronounced ayth]

untranslated generally; occasionally to, toward

indicates that the following substantive is a direct object

Strong's #853 BDB #84

ʿÂr (עָר) [pronounced ģawr]

enemy, adversary, foe; city; transliterated Ar

masculine singular proper noun

Strong’s #6145 & #5892 BDB #786

yerushshâh (יְרֻשָּה) [pronounced yer-oosh-SHAW]

a possession, an inheritance

feminine singular noun

Strong’s #3425 BDB #440


Translation: ...for I have given Ar to the sons of Lot as [their] inheritance. God has given some respect to Lot and to his sons (despite the way that they were conceived); and He gave this portion of land to them as an inheritance.

 

Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge: Ar was situated south of the Arnon; and was called by the Greek writers Areopolis, and thought by them to be so named because the inhabitants worshipped Αρης (= Arês), or Mars. St. Jerome says that it was destroyed by an earthquake when he was an infant.


This verse reads: Jehovah said to me, “Do not become hostile towards Moab and do not engage them in battle, because I have not given any of their land to you; I have given Ar to the sons of Lot as their inheritance. We have great blessing by association here. Esau and Lot, if you will recall, were not spiritual giants. In fact, they were the also-rans. The great spiritual blessing went to Abraham rather than to his nephew Lot; Jacob, despite being an inferior human being, so to speak, was the heir of God's great promises, not Esau. However, by virtue of being blood relatives, Lot and Esau were both given great tracts of land, possessions which God honored for many generations. God honors this gift to Lot and Esau by retaining a tight leash on Israel, not allowing them to attack or to dispossess the Edomites or the Moabites. The ones in view in this context are the Moabites, Moab being one of the sons of Lot by virtue of an incestuous relationship with his daughter (Gen. 36–37). A point of moderate interest is that the Bible does not contain the history of God giving Ar or the land of Moab to the Moab, son of Lot. In fact, between Gen. 19:36 and this context, the name of Lot is not even mentioned. Furthermore, Lot will only be mentioned six more times in all of Scripture (Deut. 2:19 Psalm 83:8 Luke 17:28, 32 2Peter 2:7). This is the first time that we, several millenniums after the fact, are told that God gave this area to Moab. However, it is possible that there were ancient records, to which Moses had access, which may have mentioned this. Even if this were the case, Moses saw no reason to record this in Scripture until now. As has already been discussed, God sets the borders for the nations.


Now the Jews need to sort through this in their own mind—if God has blessed the also-rans, those in second place; if God has provided national boundaries for Edom, Ammon and Moab; and if God specifically tells Israel not to invade these areas but to abide by their rulings—how much more will God do for them who are His chosen people? This is called a fortiori reasoning; if God does something that we have all observed; then it is likely that He will then do that which He has promised for centuries. If God has blessed and protected the Edomites and the Moabites—and these are promises by God barely thrown out there and barely known—then it is logical that God would bless the Israelites in the same way, as God has made such promises for centuries.


Again, v. 9: Jehovah said to me, “Do not become hostile towards Moab and do not engage them in battle, because I have not given any of their land to you; I have given Ar to the sons of Lot as their inheritance. This passage helps to explain Num. 22–24 and what follows. Balak, king of Moab, sent for Balaam, who was possibly a Midianite in order to curse Israel. However, Israel does not attack Moab after this incident, but they do attack Midian in Num. 31. Moses, when writing the book of Numbers, does not mention whom God told him not to slaughter—just whom He did. The sons of Israel could have taken that entire land bordering the east of the Salt Sea, except that portions of it had already been given by God to Lot and Esau.


This does not mean that this land is given to the Ammonites forever. They must have a relationship to the Revealed God in order to have His protection. When they move away from Him, bad things happen. King David had a good relationship with one of the kings of Ammon. However, when that king died and David sent his condolences to the son, the son humiliated David’s messengers, to stupidly show off how tough he was. Members of his cabinet should have stopped him and said, “Those messengers belong to King David; this is a bad idea.” But they did not. They probably thought it was funny as well. David did not find this to be funny.


Although David appeared to have a good relationship with the Moabites, He struck Moab, and measured them with a line; making them to lie down on the ground. And he measured two lines to cause them to died, and one full line to keep alive. And the Moabites were slaves to David, bearers of a gift. David also defeated the people of Moab. At that time he forced them to lie on the ground. Then he used a rope to separate them into rows. Two rows of men were killed, but the whole third row was allowed to live. In that way, the people of Moab became servants of David. They paid tribute to him. (2Sam. 8:2; ERV) The Moabites did not have to have this happen to them. Even as unbelievers, had they simply retained their alliance with David, they would have been alright.


Application: There are so many applications here. If you are ever uncertain about this or that nation or this or that group of people, then notice who their allies are; and notice who their enemies are. Today, if a nation allies itself with the Palestinians against the nation Israel, they are a bad nation. If a group allies itself with the Palestinians over Israel, they are a bad group. If a nation today allies itself with Russia or China as over against the United States, that is a bad nation (I write this in 2013; the Christian population in the United States has decreased somewhat and the Christian population in both Russian and China is growing, so this application is not going to stand forever).


Application: There are atheist organizations who do everything that they can to eliminate anything Christian in this world. A cross at a veterans memorial maintained or owned by the state—we’ve got to get rid of that. Some person speaks out about homosexuals committing sins? Got to fire or suspend him. Most atheists do not realize it, but their temporal lives would be so much better if they ally themselves with Christians. Even as atheists, there would be spill-over blessing. But, just like the new Moabite king could not help himself with David, so it is with atheists and Christians. Most Christians in this nation take a live and let live attitude toward atheists and agnostics. However, that attitude is not always reciprocated. The atheist takes the cross being displayed on federal land as an affront to him; he sees Christmas carols as indoctrination and the establishment of a religion. So, in some strange way, they manage to twist the first amendment, which sets limits specifically upon Congress, to apply to limit the speech of individuals, schools, state and federal employees, and memorials.


Application: Don’t misunderstand me. I am not all upset and put out by such things; nor should you be. It is going to be natural for unbelievers to do everything possible to remove any vestige of Christianity from their view. In one of the most insane choices that I know of, a school in Texas not only banned Christmas trees, but also the colors red and green during the Christmas season. This is how negative their souls are toward Jesus Christ. Even Bill O’Reilly, when a person from Duck Dynasty quoted a verse from the Bible, said that he should have moderated what he said. I guess we should wait for Bill’s list of which verses we may or may not quote in a public forum.


——————————


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


Background Material on Edom


The next 3 verses are parenthetical. Although many do not believe that these are words spoken by Moses, there is good reason to believe that they were.


(The Emim to faces lived in her—a people great and many and rising up like the Anakim. Rephaim are known also they [are] like the Anakim; and the Moabites call to them Emim.

Deuteronomy

2:10–11

(The Emim previously lived in the land [lit., in her]—[they were] a people [who were] great and many and tall like the Anakim. The Rephaim [are] also known like the Anakim, but the Moabites call them Emim.

(The Emim previously lived in this land, and they were a great people—many in number and tall like the Anakim. Like the Anakim, they are also known as the Rephaim, but the Moabites called them Emim.


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                The Emthanaia dwelt in it of old, a people great and many, and mighty as the giants. The giants who dwelt in the plain of Geyonbere were also reputed as the giants who perished in the Flood; but the Moabites called them Emethanee.

Latin Vulgate                          The Emims first were the inhabitants thereof, a people great, and strong, and so tall, that like the race of the Enacims, They were esteemed as giants, and were like the sons of the Enacims. But the Moabites call them Emims.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        (The Emim to faces lived in her—a people great and many and rising up like the Anakim. Rephaim are known also they [are] like the Anakim; and the Moabites call to them Emim.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    The Amney dwelt in it formerly, a people great and many and tall, like giants; For they were giants, and also were accounted as giants; but the Moabites call them Amney.

Septuagint (Greek)                Formerly the Emim dwelt in it, a great and numerous nation and powerful, like the Anakim. These also shall be accounted as Rephaim, like the Anakim; and the Moabites call them Emim.

 

Significant differences:           The text itself is a bit difficult to unravel, particularly in the second line; but the ancient versions appear to be the same.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           (Now the Emim [Or Frighteners] had lived there before. They were big and numerous and tall-just like the Anakim. Most people thought the Emim were Rephaim, like the Anakim were. But the Moabites called them "Emim."

Contemporary English V.       Before the LORD gave the Moabites their land, a large and powerful tribe lived there. They were the Emim, and they were as tall as the Anakim. The Moabites called them Emim, though others sometimes used the name Rephaim for both the Anakim and the Emim.

Easy English                          (Some people called the Emites once lived there. There were many of them and they were as strong and tall as the Anakites (*descendants of Anak). Many people called the Emites and the Anakites, Rephaites. But the people from Moab called them Emites.

Easy-to-Read Version            In the past, the Emite people lived in Ar. They were strong people, and there were many of them. They were very tall, like the Anakite [Descendants of Anak, a family famous for tall and powerful fighting men. See Num. 13:33.] people. The Anakites were part of the Rephaite people. People thought the Emites were also Rephaites. But the people of Moab called them Emites.

Good News Bible (TEV)         (A mighty race of giants called the Emim used to live in Ar. They were as tall as the Anakim, another race of giants. Like the Anakim they were also known as Rephaim; but the Moabites called them Emim.

The Message                         The Emites (Monsters) used to live there--mobs of hulking giants, like Anakites. Along with the Anakites they were lumped in with the Rephaites (Ghosts) but in Moab they were called Emites.

New Berkeley Version           In an earlier period the Emim lived there [Mentioned in Gen. 14:5 as defeated by the four Near Eastern kings on their march to Sodom and Gomorrah. They were a mighty, prehistoric race drive out by the Moabites.], a strong, tall, numerous race, much like the Anakim; and, like the Anakim, they too used to be regarded as Rephaim; the Moabites, however, call them Emim.

New Century Version             (The Emites, who lived in Ar before, were strong people, and there were many of them. They were very tall, like the Anakites. The Emites were thought to be Rephaites, like the Anakites, but the Moabite people called them Emites.

New Life Bible                        (The Emim had lived there before. These people were many and powerful, and as tall as the Anakim. They are known as Rephaim also, like the Anakim. But the Moabites call them Emim.

New Living Translation           (A race of giants called the Emites had once lived in the area of Ar. They were as strong and numerous and tall as the Anakites, another race of giants. Both the Emites and the Anakites are also known as the Rephaites, though the Moabites call them Emites.

The Voice                               The Emim were formerly living in Ar. They were a large and powerful nation, and they were as tall as the giant Anakim were. They and the Anakim are usually known as "Rephaim," but the Moabites call them just "Emim."


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          The OmMin, a nation that was as large and powerful as the Anakim, used to live there. They are also called the Raphain, as were the Anakim, but the Moabites call them the OmMin.

Beck’s American Translation “The Emites used to live there, a might people, as many and as tall as the giants. Like the other giants they also were known as Rephaites, but the Moabites called them Emites.

Christian Community Bible     (The Emim formerly lived there—a great and numerous people, and tall as the Anakim. And just like the Anakim, they were also known as giants, but the Moabites called them Emim.

God’s Word                         The Emites used to live there. These people were as strong, as numerous, and as tall as the people of Anak. They were thought to be Rephaim, like the people of Anak, but the Moabites called them Emites.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       The earliest inhabitants of the country were the Emim, a great race of warriors, so tall in stature that they might have come of Enac's family; and indeed men held them to be giants of Enac's breed, but the Moabite name for them is Emim. Knox only considers v. 12 to be parenthetical.

New American Bible (R.E.)    (Formerly the Emim lived there, a people great and numerous and as tall as the Anakim [Dt 1:28.]; like the Anakim they are considered Rephaim, though the Moabites call them Emim [Gn 19:36-38.].

NIRV                                      The Emites used to live there. They were strong people. There were large numbers of them. They were as tall as the Anakites. Like the Anakites, they too were thought of as Rephaites. But the Moabites called them Emites.

New Jerusalem Bible             (At one time the Emim lived there, a great and numerous people, tall as the Anakim; and, like the Anakim, they were considered to be Rephaim, though the Moabites call them Emim. The Horites, too, lived in Seir at one time; these, however, were dispossessed and exterminated by the children of Esau who settled there in place of them, just as Israel has done in the country given to it by Yahweh as a heritage.) V. 12 is included for context.

New Simplified Bible              The Emits used to live there. They are a mighty race of giants who lived in Ar. They were as tall as the Anakim, another race of giants. Like the Anakim they were also known as Rephaim; but the Moabites called them Emim.

Today’s NIV                          (The Emites used to live there--a people strong and numerous, and as tall as the Anakites. Like the Anakites, they too were considered Rephaites, but the Moabites called them Emites.


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      The Emims dwelled in the face of its great many uplifted people, the Anakim giants. Central-Jordan called them "Emims" but even they were considered Anakim.

Bible in Basic English             In the past the Emim were living there; a great people, equal in numbers to the Anakim and as tall; They are numbered among the Rephaim, like the Anakim; but are named Emim by the Moabites.

The Expanded Bible              (The Emites, who lived in ·Ar [Lit] before, were strong people, and there were many of them. They were very tall, like the Anakites. The Emites were thought to be ·Rephaites [or Rephaim; 3:11, 13; Gen. 14:5], like the Anakites, but the Moabite people called them Emites.

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 (The Aniini formerly occupied it, a great and numerous nation, and tall, like Anakim; they considered themselves also to be Rephaim like the Anakim, - but the Moabites called them Amim. Vv. 10 to 13 are an ancient editor's note, not a part of the text of Moses. It was probably added by Ezra, when he edited the Pentateuch, after the return from Babylon, as all the other notes which I consequently transfer to the foot of the pages. - F. F.

NET Bible®                             (The Emites [Emites. These giant people, like the Anakites (Deut 1:28), were also known as Rephaites (v. 11). They appear elsewhere in the narrative of the invasion of the kings of the east where they are said to have lived around Shaveh Kiriathaim, perhaps 9 to 11 mi (15 to 18 km) east of the north end of the Dead Sea (Gen 14:5).] used to live there, a people as powerful, numerous, and tall as the Anakites. 2:11 These people, as well as the Anakites, are also considered Rephaites [Rephaites. The earliest reference to this infamous giant race is, again, in the story of the invasion of the eastern kings (Gen 14:5). They lived around Ashteroth Karnaim, probably modern Tell Ashtarah (cf. Deut 1:4), in the Bashan plateau east of the Sea of Galilee. Og, king of Bashan, was a Rephaite (Deut 3:11; Josh 12:4; 13:12). Other texts speak of them or their kinfolk in both Transjordan (Deut 2:20; 3:13) and Canaan (Josh 11:21-22; 14:12, 15; 15:13-14; Judg 1:20; 1 Sam 17:4; 1 Chr 20:4-8). They also appear in extra-biblical literature, especially in connection with the city state of Ugarit. See C. L'Heureux, "Ugaritic and Biblical Rephaim," HTR 67 (1974): 265-74.]; the Moabites call them Emites.

NIV, ©2011                             (The Emites [Ge 14:5] used to live there-a people strong and numerous, and as tall as the Anakites [S Nu 13:22, 33]. Like the Anakites, they too were considered Rephaites [S Ge 14:5], but the Moabites called them Emites.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

Complete Jewish Bible           (The Emim used to live there, a great and numerous people as tall as the 'Anakim. 11 They are also considered Refa'im, as are the 'Anakim, but the Mo'avim call them Emim.

exeGeses companion Bible   The Emim settled therein at their face,

a great people and many and exalted,

as the Anakiy;

who also were fabricated to be Rephaim,

as the Anakiy;

and the Moabiy call them Emim.

Hebrew Names Version         (The Emim lived therein before, a people great, and many, and tall, as the `Anakim: these also are accounted Refa'im, as the `Anakim; but the Mo`avim call them Emim.

JPS (Tanakh—1985)               It was formerly inhabited by the Emim, a people great and numerous and as tall as the Anakites. Like the Anakites, they are counted as Rephaim; but the Moabites call them Emim.

Kaplan Translation                 'The Emim [They lived in Shavah Kiryathaim but were killed by the four kings (Genesis 14:5).] lived there originally, a powerful and numerous race, as tall as giants [Anakim in Hebrew.]. As giants, they might be considered Rephaim [(cf. Ramban; Septuagint). Or, 'The Rephaim consider them Anakim...' (cf. Rashi). See Deuteronomy 2:20.], but the Moabites called them Emim.

Orthodox Jewish Bible           The Emim dwelt therein in times past, a people great, many, and tall, as the Anakim; Which also were accounted Refa'im, as the Anakim; but the Moavim called them Emim.

The Scriptures 1998              (The Ěmites had dwelt there formerly, a people as great and numerous and tall as the Anaqim. They were also reckoned as Rephaʼites, like the Anaqim, but the Moʼaites call them Ěmites.


Literal, almost word-for-word, renderings:

 

American KJV                        The Emims dwelled therein in times past, a people great, and many, and tall, as the Anakims; Which also were accounted giants, as the Anakims; but the Moabites called them Emims.

The Amplified Bible                (The Emim dwelt there in times past, a people great and many, and tall as the Anakim. These also are known as Rephaim [of giant stature], as are the Anakim, but the Moabites call them Emim.

Concordant Literal Version    (The Emim dwelt in it beforetime, a people great and numerous, and as tall as the Anakim. Like the Anakim, they too were accounted as Rephaim, yet the Moabites called them Emim.

Context Group Version          (The Emim dwelt in it previously, a people great, and many, and tall, as the Anakim: these also are accounted Rephaim, as the Anakim; but the Moabites call them Emim.

Emphasized Bible                  The Emim, formerly dwelt therein,—a people great and many and tall, like the Anakim. Giants, used, they also, to be accounted like the Anakim,—but the Moabites, called them Emim.

English Standard V. – UK       (The Emim [Gen. 14:5] formerly lived there, a people [[ver. 21]] great and many, and tall as the Anakim [See Num. 13:22]. Like the Anakim they are also counted as Rephaim [See Gen. 14:5], but the Moabites call them Emim.

Kretzmann’s Commentary    The Emims dwelt therein in times past, in the land now occupied by Moab, a people great, and many, and tall as the Anakims; which also were accounted giants, as the Anakims; but the Moabites call them Emims.

NASB                                     (The Emim [Gen 14:5] lived there formerly, a people as great, numerous, and tall as the Anakim. Like the Anakim, they are also regarded as Rephaim [Gen 14:5; Deut 2:20], but the Moabites call them Emim.

New King James Version       (The Emim had dwelt there in times past, a people as great and numerous and tall as the Anakim. They were also regarded as giants [Hebrew rephaim], like the Anakim, but the Moabites call them Emim.

New RSV                               (The Emim-a large and numerous people, as tall as the Anakim-had formerly inhabited it. Like the Anakim, they are usually reckoned as Rephaim, though the Moabites call them Emim.

Third Millennium Bible            (The Emim dwelt therein in times past, a people great and many and tall as the Anakim, who also were accounted giants, as the Anakim, but the Moabites call them Emim.

Webster’s Bible Translation  (The Emims dwelt in it in times past, a people great, and many, and tall as the Anakims; Who also were accounted giants, as the Anakims; but the Moabites call them Emims.

Young's Literal Translation     The Emim formerly have dwelt in it, a people great, and numerous, and tall, as the Anakim; Rephaim they are reckoned, they also, as the Anakim; and the Moabites call them Emim.

 

The gist of this verse:          A parenthetical history of the people who used to live in this area.


Deuteronomy 2:10a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʾÊymîym (אֵימִים) [pronounced ay-EEM]

terror, dread, horror, fear; and is transliterated Emim [terrors]

masculine plural proper noun with the definite article

Strong’s #368 BDB #34

BDB: [The Emim are] ancient inhabitants of Moab.

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to

directional/relational preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #510

pânîym (פָּנִים) [pronounced paw-NEEM]

face, faces, countenance; presence

masculine plural noun (plural acts like English singular)

Strong’s #6440 BDB #815

Together, they mean upon the face of, before, before the face of, in the presence of, in the sight of, in front of. When used with God, it can take on the more figurative meaning in the judgment of. This can also mean forwards; the front part [or, the edge of a sword]. Lepânîym (לְפָּנִים) can take on a temporal sense as well: before, of old, formerly, in the past, in past times.

yâshab (יָשַב) [pronounced yaw-SHAHBV]

to remain, to stay; to dwell, to live, to inhabit, to reside; to sit

3rd person plural, Qal perfect

Strong's #3427 BDB #442

be (בְּ) [pronounced beh]

in, into, through; at, by, near, on, upon; with, before, against; by means of; among; within

a preposition of proximity with the 3rd person feminine singular suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #88


Translation: (The Emim previously lived in the land [lit., in her]... What we have in vv. 11–12 is parenthetical. The Emim lived in the land previous to the Moabites. The idea is, God gave this land to the Moabites and allowed them to take it from the Emim.

 

The Geneva Bible comments: Signifying that as these giants were driven out for their sins: so the wicked when their sins are ripe, cannot avoid Gods plagues.


There are two ways to look at this parenthetical section: (1) Either Moses cites this information to suggest that the people of Israel did not need to fear their enemies simply because they are numerous, well-established and tall; (2) a later author added these words—Joshua, Ezra, whomever—making the same point as Moses should be making or simply adding some texture to this passage.


Logically, it makes sense that Moses would say a few words about the previous inhabitants, which ought to give Israel confidence. After all, if God gave the Jews possession of the Land of Promise, then they ought not to be afraid. Many of those whose land was given them by God, took that land from giant inhabitants. Moses would not be stating this logic outright, but providing the information and allowing the hearers to draw the conclusion.


Deuteronomy 2:10b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

ʿam (עַם) [pronounced ģahm]

people; race, tribe; family, relatives; citizens, common people; companions, servants; entire human race; herd [of animals]

masculine singular collective noun

Strong’s #5971 BDB #766

gâdôwl (גָּדוֹל) [pronounced gaw-DOHL]

large, great or mighty [in power, nobility, wealth; in number, or magnitude and extent], loud, older, important, distinguished; vast, unyielding, immutable, significant, astonishing

masculine singular adjective

Strong’s #1419 BDB #152

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

rab (רַב) [pronounced rahbv]

many, much, great (in the sense of large or significant, not acclaimed)

masculine singular adjective

Strong's #7227 BDB #912

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

rûwm (רוּם) [pronounced room]

rising up, arising, raising up, growing; being exalted, becoming high, becoming powerful; being high and lofty; being remote, being in the far distance

Qal active participle

Strong's #7311 BDB #926

kaph or ke (כְּ) [pronounced ke]

like, as, according to; about, approximately

preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #453

ʿĂnâqîym (עֲנָקִים) [pronounced ģuh-nawk-EEM]

long necks; and is transliterated Anakim

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #6062 BDB #778

Most Bibles render this as a proper noun throughout. However, BDB indicates that this is a descriptive noun which attributes height to the people occupying the Land of promise and does not refer to a particular people. However, with the definite article, it is more likely that this refers to a specific people.


Translation: ...—[they were] a people [who were] great and many and tall like the Anakim. The Emim were a great people, meaning that they were powerful and developed as a people. They had resources which they had personally developed (like their land and/or their cattle). There were many of them and they were tall like the Anakim.


The idea is, God gave this land instead to Moab. It did not matter that the previous occupants were great and large in number and tall—God gave that land to Moab, and Moab took it. This is in contrast to the Jews who came up to the border of the land of promise and just could not enter into the land and take it, as God had ordered them to do. If anything, this ought to provide the Jews to jealousy.


Vv. 10–12 are obviously an aside, but by whom? The purpose of this aside is to either encourage the Israelites, insofar as the land now occupied by the Edomites and the Moabites were also previously occupied by strong nations which lost them. God gave these lands over to the Edomites and the Moabites, as blessing by association. Now we have several possibilities: these things were said to encourage Israel to believe God and to follow his directions, in which case these verses could have been spoken by God for Moses to say to the people; or they could have been spoken by Moses to encourage the people. Another option is that these three verses could be an aside, either written down later by Moses (either, as something I should have said, or to give more evidence to the reader for following God); or this could have been appended later by Joshua, given for the same reason to encourage the reader. Joshua is a writer of Scripture who may have edited Moses last sermons to Israel, thus giving him the right to insert points of clarification, encouragement, rationalization.


Logically, this aside appears to be a portion of Moses' message to the people, directly from Moses, who would have had the historical background and training to know these things.


The Emmin may not be the exact name of the people named here (long since lost to history). This is very close to the Hebrew word for terror; their name could have come from the word for terror, as this was the persona by which they were known. The Anakim were renown for their stature and strength. "Hear, O Israel! You are crossing over the Jordan today to go in to dispossess nations greater and mightier than you, great cities fortified to heaven, a people great and tall, the sons of the Anakim, whom you known and of whom you have heard, 'Who can stand before the sons of Anak?' " (Deut. 9:1–2).


Deuteronomy 2:11a

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

Repha’îym (רְפַאִים) [pronounced refaw-EEM]

giants; transliterated Rephaim

masculine plural proper noun

Strong's #7496 & #7497 BDB #952

châshab (חָשַב) [pronounced khaw-SHAHBV]

to think, to regard, to be accounted, to count, to determine, to calculate, to be imputed, to be reckoned; to be taken for, to be like

3rd person masculine plural, Niphal imperfect

Strong’s #2803 BDB #362

ʾaph (אַף) [pronounced ahf]

in fact, furthermore, also, yea, even, indeed; even though

a conjunction which signifies addition or emphasis

Strong’s #637 BDB #64

hêm (הֵם) [pronounced haym]

they, those; themselves; these [with the definite article]

3rd person masculine plural personal pronoun; sometimes the verb to be is implied

Strong’s #1992 BDB #241

kaph or ke (כְּ) [pronounced ke]

like, as, according to; about, approximately

preposition

No Strong’s # BDB #453

ʿĂnâqîym (עֲנָקִים) [pronounced ģuh-nawk-EEM]

long necks; and is transliterated Anakim

masculine plural noun with the definite article

Strong’s #6062 BDB #778


Translation: The Rephaim [are] also known like the Anakim,... This section is a little difficult to translate and to understand. It appears that the people who lived in the land were called the Rephaim, and they were well-known throughout this area. However, they way that their name is simply thrown in here allows for the Rephaim to be another set of people.


The word found here is Repha’îym (רְפַאִים) [pronounced refaw-EEM] and it can be transliterated Rephaim or translated giants. Here, it is in the plural and without a definite article. We first find mention of this word in Gen. 14:5 where it appears to be a proper noun (it is also lacking a definite article and is found in the plural). It occurs next in Gen. 15:20, with a definite article and in the plural. The context of these verses lends itself to its use as a proper noun. However, here, it does not necessarily refer to a particular race, but to the concept of being really large people, like the Anakim. This word is used accurately by Moses as opposed to the use of the inflammatory name Nephalim, which is actually a reference to half-angel half-man beings. Strong's #7495-7497 BDB #952 (this word also means dead ones). However, the ten loser spies used this particular word to frighten the people of Israel so that they would not have to lead them into battle (these spies were afraid). Moses, since he is speaking the truth, cannot use this particular word when referencing any of the peoples of the land or to the previous occupants of the lands of Edom, Moab and Ammon, because that would be inaccurate.


You may recognize some of these names: the Rephaim, the Zuzim, the Emim and the Horites are all mentioned in Gen. 14:1–17 in that great war of the kings during Abraham's time. They were smaller villages and hamlets at that time and, in order to make up an army, several villages had to band together. At the time of the writing of Deuteronomy, each of them had become full-fledged nations on their own.


Deuteronomy 2:11b

Hebrew/Pronunciation

Common English Meanings

Notes/Morphology

BDB and Strong’s Numbers

we (or ve) (וְ or וּ) [pronounced weh]

and, even, then; namely; when; since, that; though; as well as

simple wâw conjunction

No Strong’s # BDB #251

Môwʾâbîy (מוֹאָבִי) [pronounced moh-aw-BEE]

from father; what father?; transliterated Moab, Moabitish, Moabite

gentilic singular adjective with the definite article

Strong’s #4125 BDB #555

There are several alternate spellings.

qârâʾ (קָרָא) [pronounced kaw-RAW]

to call, to proclaim, to read, to call to, to call out to, to assemble, to summon; to call, to name [when followed by a lâmed]

3rd person masculine plural, Qal imperfect

Strong's #7121 BDB #894

When followed by a lâmed, as it is here, it means to give a name to.

lâmed (לְ) [pronounced le]

to, for, towards, in regards to, with reference to, as to, with regards to; belonging to; by

directional/relational preposition with the 3rd person masculine plural suffix

No Strong’s # BDB #510


ʾÊymîym (אֵימִים) [pronounced ay-EEM]

terror, dread, horror, fear; and is transliterated Emim [terrors]

masculine plural proper noun with the definite article

Strong’s #368 BDB #34

BDB: [The Emim are] ancient inhabitants of Moab.


Translation: ...but the Moabites call them Emim. In contrast to the name that they were known by—the Rephaim—the Moabites called them by the name Emim.

 

Coffman on the Emim: “This word Emim means the terrible ones." The very meaning of this word thus gives a definite clue as to why God threw them out of the land in order to give it to the Moabites. Both this and the other examples of such a thing found in Deuteronomy 2:20-23 were very probably intended by Moses to provide a warning to Israel that when they should at last enter Canaan, their tenure there would depend upon the kind of people they would be. The Rephaim and the Anakim of this passage "were an ancient race of large stature dwelling in an extensive area around the Dead Sea." They appear to have been a race of marauding plunderers, preying upon the peoples around them. "It appears that the Anakim, the Rephaim, and the Emim are merely several names for the same people." 


What appears to be the case is, the Rephaim were the people who occupied the land before the Moabites; the Moabites threw them out, and called them the Emin.


The problem that the Jews first had with entering the land was that those who lived there were so large, that they felt unable to conquer them. There was no trust in God. The aside here points out that the Moabites faced a similar enemy, and they were able to triumph, and without the same kind of guidance as God has given Israel (that, of course, is not stated specifically here).


 

Emim, Rephaim and Anakim

1.      The Emim are found in only two passages. Gen. 14:5–6 And in the fourteenth year Chedorlaomer and the kings that were with him came and struck the giants in Ashteroth Karnaim, and the Zuzims in Ham, and the Emim in Shaveh Kiriathaim, and the Horites in the hills of Seir, as far as the oak of Paran, which is by the wilderness. (Green’s literal translation)

2.      This all began with the people of Sodom and Gomorrah. They were originally placed under the 4th stage of national discipline, and they rebelled against Chedorlaomer. So Chedorlaomer gathered up some allies and moved his way to that area, but, on the way, conquered several groups of people, which included the Emim.

3.      Because Chedorlaomer ruled over Sodom and Gomorrah and the cities in that area; and because the defeated the Emim, we may reasonably assume that those are degenerate peoples and that God allowed for them to be conquered.

4.      Deut. 2:10–11 The Emim lived there in days gone by, a great and plentiful people, and tall as the Anakim; they are reckoned to be giants, they too, like the Anakim; but the Moabites call them Emim. (Green’s literal translation) Given the context, the Emim lived in the Moabite area; but the Moabites control that area now.

5.      Therefore, the Emim were first put under the 4th stage of national discipline under Chedorlaomer; and then under the 5th stage of national discipline by the Moabites.

6.      We have no idea what the problem was, but these were a strong and numerous people; but God gave that area to the Moabites instead. We may reasonably assume that there were few if any believers among the Emim, and certainly no one who was growing spiritually.

7.      

1.      The Rephaim are a trickier group, because about half of the time, their name is translated giant or giants; rather than transliterated Rephaim.

2.      The Hebrew word is Repha’îym (רְפַאִים) [pronounced refaw-EEM], and it means giants; but is transliterated Rephaim. Strong's #7496 & #7497 BDB #952. Therefore, there is the difficulty of determining, are we speaking of a specific group of people or using this as a generic term for very tall people?

3.      Very likely, your Bible has made an attempt to split the difference, and translate this word in some places, and transliterate it in others.

4.      So we go back to Gen 14:5–6 In the fourteenth year Chedorlaomer and the kings who were with him came and defeated the Rephaim in Ashteroth-karnaim, the Zuzim in Ham, the Emim in Shaveh-kiriathaim, and the Horites in the mountains of Seir, as far as El-paran by the wilderness. (HCSB) Similar situation to the Emim; the Rephaim live in a particular place, and Chedorlaomer comes in and overwhelms them.

5.      God gives Abraham a huge piece of land, from the River of Egypt to the Euphrates River, and what God gives him includes the land of the Kenites, Kenizzites, Kadmonites, Hittites, Perizzites, Rephaim, Amorites, Canaanites, Girgashites, and Jebusites. (Gen. 15:19–21) This suggests that the Rephaim have become even worse as people; less God and much more sin, and God gives all of their land over to the Jews.

6.      In Deut. 2:10–12, there is a little confusion: (The Emim formerly lived there, a people great and many, and tall as the Anakim. Like the Anakim they are also counted as Rephaim [or, giants], but the Moabites call them Emim. The Horites also lived in Seir formerly, but the people of Esau dispossessed them and destroyed them from before them and settled in their place, as Israel did to the land of their possession, which the LORD gave to them.) (ESV) Someone counts or believes that the Emim are Rephaim (giants); but the Moabites called the Emim. This is somewhat confusing. Do people reckon the Emim to simply be very tall men or do they think that they are related to or closely associated with the Rephaim? Does everyone simply know that these are huge men? However, in this case, associating them with the Anakim, who are real people, and the Emim, that suggests that the Rephaim are also a people. As was discussed in the exegesis, it appears that the Rephaim = the Emim.

7.      Deut. 3:11–14 mentions the Rephaim again: (For only Og the king of Bashan was left of the remnant of the Rephaim. Behold, his bed was a bed of iron. Is it not in Rabbah of the Ammonites? Nine cubits was its length, and four cubits its breadth, according to the common cubit.) "When we took possession of this land at that time, I gave to the Reubenites and the Gadites the territory beginning at Aroer, which is on the edge of the Valley of the Arnon, and half the hill country of Gilead with its cities. The rest of Gilead, and all Bashan, the kingdom of Og, that is, all the region of Argob, I gave to the half-tribe of Manasseh. (All that portion of Bashan is called the land of Rephaim. Jair the Manassite took all the region of Argob, that is, Bashan, as far as the border of the Geshurites and the Maacathites, and called the villages after his own name, Havvoth-jair, as it is to this day.) (ESV) The point is certainly that Og is a huge man; whether he is one of the few giants left in the land in his region or whether he has come from the Rephaim, is difficult to determine. Several times, he is called a remnant from the Rephaim (Deut. 3:11 Joshua 12:4 13:12); but that could mean that he is simply one of the last giants remaining.

8.      Of Og, it is said he alone was left of the remnant of the Rephaim (Joshua 13:12). This sounds more like the last of a people rather than the last giant (given that there was Goliath and his brothers).

9.      On the other hand, the completely generic use of this terms is found 2Sam. 21:16, 18, 20, 22 1Chron. 20:4, 6, 8.

10.    There is a valley associated with the Rephaim not far from Jerusalem. 2Sam. 5:18, 22 23:13 1Chron. 11:15 14:9 Isa. 17:5

11.    

1.      The Anakim seem almost like mythical creatures, except for the fact that there certainly appears to have been a real Anak, as he and his father are both mentioned together in Num. 13:22 Joshua 15:13 21:11

2.      It appears that, when the Israelites speak of the Anakim (the giants); it sounds as if there is some exaggeration involved. Num. 13:22, 28, 33 Deut. 1:28

3.      In Num. 13 and Deut. 2, there seems to be a well-known reference to the Anakim, which the Jews appear to be aware of. This in itself might be a clue. Did these people work for the Egyptians as a paid militia? Were they are war with the Egyptians in such a way that the Jews were well-aware of them? Somehow, in some way, these Jews, who were slaves for all of their lives, understood or were aware of the Anakim, both as a real people in the land of Canaan; and as a measure by which other giants could be measured.

4.      However, it is clear that Caleb faces some sons of Anak and he beats them down. Joshua 15:13–14 Judges 1:20

5.      Therefore, even if the 10 spies may have exaggerated a little, but still such men existed in the land of Canaan.

6.      What could be going on here is, the people are well aware that there are Anakim in the land of Canaan; a people who will have to be destroyed. If the Israelites understand that Moab, Ammon and Edom have all defeated giants similar to the Anakim, then they ought to understand that God means for them to be able to defeat such giants as well.

7.      

Guzik: The Rephaim were a group of large, warlike people who populated Canaan before the Israelites. In the area east of the Jordan River, they were known by many names: The Moabites called them Emim, the Ammonites called them Zamzummin (Deuteronomy 2:20).

Still need to look at other sources here. Check Num. 13:22 Keil


Chapter Outline

Charts, Graphics and Short Doctrines


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And in Seir lived the Horite to faces and sons of Esau drove them out. And so they destroyed them from their faces and so they live [there] instead of them, as which did Israel to a land of his possession which gave Yehowah to him.)

Deuteronomy

2:12

Previously, the Horites lived in Seir, but the sons of Esau drove them out. They destroyed them out from before their face and they lived [there] instead of the Horites [lit., them]. In the same way, Israel will do to the land of their possession, which Yehowah gave to them.)

Previously, the Horites lived in Seir, but the sons of Esau drove them out of there. They destroyed them out from before them and they lived there instead of the Horites. In this same way, God gave Israel the Land of Promise and Israel would take it as their possession.)


Here is how others have translated this verse:


Ancient texts:

 

Targum of Onkelos                And in Gebala dwelt the Genosaia in old times, and the Beni Esau drove them out and destroyed them, and dwelt in their place; as did Israel in the land of their inheritance, which the Lord gave to them.

Latin Vulgate                          The Horrhites also formerly dwelt in Seir: who being driven out and destroyed, the children of Esau dwelt there, as Israel did in the land of his possession, which the Lord gave him.

Masoretic Text (Hebrew)        And in Seir lived the Horite to faces and sons of Esau drove them out. And so they destroyed them from their faces and so they live [there] instead of them, as which did Israel to a land of his possession which gave Yehowah to him.

Peshitta (Syriac)                    The Horites also dwelt formerly in Seir; but the children of Esau possessed them and destroyed them from before them and settled in their land, as Israel did to the land of his possession, which the LORD gave to them.

Septuagint (Greek)                And the Horites dwelt in Seir before, and the sons of Esau destroyed them, and utterly consumed them from before them; and they dwelt in their place, as Israel did to the land of his inheritance, which the Lord gave to them.

 

Significant differences:           The words to faces is generally translated previously, formerly. The proper names are weird in the targum. The Latin does not clearly state that the sons of Esau drove out the peoples of the land. The Hebrew word translated possession may also be translated inheritance.


Thought-for-thought translations; paraphrases:

 

Common English Bible           Additionally, the Horim [Or Cave-dwellers or Hurrians] had lived in Seir previously, but Esau's descendants took possession of their area, eliminating them altogether and settling in their place. That is exactly what Israel did in the land it took possession of, which the Lord gave to them.)

Contemporary English V.       The Horites used to live in Seir, but the Edomites took over that region. They killed many of the Horites and forced the rest of them to leave, just as Israel did to the people in the land that the LORD gave them.

Easy English                          Before this time, the people called the Horites lived in Seir, but the family of Esau sent them away. They killed the *Horites and lived in their country. The *Israelites did the same thing to their enemies, when the *Lord gave the country to them.

Easy-to-Read Version            The Horite people also lived in Seir before, but Esau’s people took their land. Esau’s people destroyed the Horites and settled on their land. That is the same thing the people of Israel did to the people in the land that the Lord gave them for their own.)

Good News Bible (TEV)         The Horites used to live in Edom, but the descendants of Esau chased them out, destroyed their nation, and settled there themselves, just as the Israelites later chased their enemies out of the land that the LORD gave them.)

The Message                         Horites also used to live in Seir, but the descendants of Esau took over and destroyed them, the same as Israel did in the land GOD gave them to possess.

New Berkeley Version           In earlier days the land of Seir was occupied by the Horites, but the children of Esau dispossessed and exterminated them, taking over their territory for themselves, just as the Israelites did with the land with the Lord gave them.

New Century Version             The Horites also lived in Edom before, but the descendants of Esau forced them out and destroyed them, taking their place as Israel did in the land the Lord gave them as their own.)

New Living Translation           In earlier times the Horites had lived in Seir, but they were driven out and displaced by the descendants of Esau, just as Israel drove out the people of Canaan when the Lord gave Israel their land.)

The Voice                               The Horites were formerly living in Seir, but the descendants of Esau drove them out. The Edomites destroyed them and took their place, just as Israel did in the land the Eternal gave them as their possession, saying, "Now cross the Wadi Zered into their territory." V. 13 is included for context.


Partially literal and partially paraphrased translations:

 

American English Bible          The ChorRhites also lived in Seir before the sons of Esau destroyed them and wiped them out; and then they took possession of the land, as IsraEl will take possession of the land that Jehovah is giving to them as an inheritance.

Christian Community Bible     And the Horites also used to live in Seir but the children of Esau drove them out, killed them and settled in their place, as Israel did in the land they possess and which Yahweh gave them.)

God’s Word                         The Horites used to live in Seir, but the descendants of Esau claimed their land, wiped them out, and took their place, as Israel did in the land that the LORD gave them.

New Advent (Knox) Bible       (So, too, Seir had its earlier inhabitants, the Horites, but they were dispossessed and destroyed by the sons of Esau, who took possession of the land just as Israel took possession of the land which the Lord gave him.)

New American Bible              In Seir, however, the former inhabitants were the Horites; the descendants of Esau dispossessed them, clearing them out of the way and taking their place, just as the Israelites have done in the land of their heritage which the LORD has given them.)

New American Bible (R.E.)    In Seir, however, the former inhabitants were the Horites [Gn 14:6; 36:20-30.]; the descendants of Esau dispossessed them, clearing them out of the way and dwelling in their place, just as Israel has done in the land of its possession which the LORD gave it.)

NIRV                                      The Horites used to live in Seir. But the people of Esau drove them out. They destroyed the Horites to make room for themselves. Then they settled in their territory. They did just as Israel has done in the land the Lord gave them as their own.

New Jerusalem Bible             The Horites, too, lived in Seir at one time; these, however, were dispossessed and exterminated by the children of Esau who settled there in place of them, just as Israel has done in the country given to it by Yahweh as a heritage.)

New Simplified Bible              Horites used to live in Seir, but the descendants of Esau chased them out. They destroyed their nation and settled there themselves. This is similar to the Israelites who later chased their enemies out of the land that Jehovah gave them.

Today’s NIV                          Horites used to live in Seir, but the descendants of Esau drove them out. They destroyed the Horites from before them and settled in their place, just as Israel did in the land the LORD gave them as their possession.)


Mostly literal renderings (with some occasional paraphrasing):

 

Ancient Roots Translinear      The Hurrians dwelled in front of Seir, but the sons of Esau possessed them and annihilated them from their face, and dwelled instead, as Israel will do to the land of its possession, which Yahweh gives them.

Bible in Basic English             And the Horites in earlier times were living in Seir, but the children of Esau took their place; they sent destruction on them and took their land for themselves, as Israel did to the land of his heritage which the Lord gave them.

The Expanded Bible              The Horites also lived in ·Edom [LSeir; 1:44] before, but the ·descendants [Lsons] of Esau forced them out and destroyed them, taking their place as Israel did in the land the Lord gave them as their own.)

Ferar-Fenton Bible                 And the Khorites dwelt in Sair before them, but the sons of Esau expelled them, and drove them from the place, and occupied it in their stead, as the children of Israel did in the country they seized which the Ever-living gave to them.).

NET Bible®                             Previously the Horites [Horites. Most likely these are the same as the well-known people of ancient Near Eastern texts described as Hurrians. They were geographically widespread and probably non-Semitic. Genesis speaks of them as the indigenous peoples of Edom that Esau expelled (Gen 36:8-19, 31-43) and also as among those who confronted the kings of the east (Gen 14:6).] lived in Seir but the descendants of Esau dispossessed and destroyed them and settled in their place, just as Israel did to the land it came to possess, the land the Lord gave them.) Most modern English versions, beginning with the ASV (1901), regard vv. 10-12 as parenthetical to the narrative.


Jewish/Hebrew Names Bibles:

 

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